Creation of Heaven and Earth, and Adam and Eve

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-3760 1 Creation of the world; birth of Adam and Eve (Chavah)
-3631 130 Seth (son of Adam) was born
-3526 235 Enoch (son of Seth) was born
-3436 325 Keynan (son of Enosh) was born
-3366 395 Mehalalel (son of Keynan) was born
-3301 460 Yered (son of Mehalalel) was born
-3139 622 Chanoch (son of Yered) was born
-3074 687 Metushelach (son of Chanoch) was born
-2887 874 Lemech II (son of Metushelach) was born
-2831 930 Adam died
-2705 1056 Noah (son of Lemech II) was born
-2225 1536 Noah began the construction of the ark
-2205 1556 Yaphet (son of Noah) was born
-2204 1557 Cham (son of Noah) was born
-2203 1558 Shem (son of Noah) was born
-2105 1656 Metushelach died
-2105 1656 The great flood covered the earth
-2103 1658 Arpachshad (son of Shem) was born
-2068 1693 Shelach (son of Arpachshad) born
-2038 1723 Eber (son of Shelach) was born
-2004 1757 Peleg (son of Eber) was born
-1974 1787 Re'u (son of Peleg) was born
-1942 1819 Serug (son of Re'u) was born
-1912 1849 Nachor I (son of Serug) was born
-1883 1878 Terah (son of Nachor I) was born

The Forefathers

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-1813 1948 Abraham (son of Terah) was born
-1803 1958 Sarah (daughter of Haran) was born
-1788 1973 Abraham married Sarah
-1765 1996 Dispersion from Babel after building the tower
-1761 2000 Terah left Ur Kasdim with his family
-1755 2006 Noah died
-1743 2018 The covenant (Brit Bein Habetarim) with Abraham
-1738 2023 Abraham settled in Canaan
-1727 2034 Ishmael (son of Abraham) was born
-1713 2048 Abraham circumcised himself and Ishmael
-1713 2048 Sodom and Gommorah were destroyed
-1713 2048 Isaac (son of Abraham) was born
-1677 2084 The Akeda, where Isaac was brought on the altar by Abraham
-1677 2084 Sarah died
-1653 2108 Jacob and Esau were born
-1638 2123 Abraham died
-1603 2158 Shem (son of Noah) died
-1590 2171 Isaac blessed Jacob instead of Esau
-1576 2185 Jacob went to Haran
-1574 2187 Eber (great-grandson of Shem) died
-1569 2192 Jacob married Leah and Rachel
-1566 2195 Levi (son of Jacob and Leah) was born
-1562 2199 Joseph, son of Jacob and Rachel, was born
-1556 2205 Jacob left Haran
-1553 2208 Benjamin was born
-1545 2216 Joseph was sold
-1533 2228 Isaac died
-1532 2229 Joseph became viceroy of Egypt
-1526 2235 Kehot (son of Levi) was born
-1523 2238 Jacob (and his family) went to Egypt

Living in Egypt

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-1506 2255 Jacob died
-1429 2332 After Levi died, the enslavement in Egypt began
-1393 2368 Moses was born
-1355 2406 Joshua was born
-1314 2447 Moses encountered the burning bush
-1313 2448 The Jewish nation left Egypt

Traveling Through the Leader

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-1313 2448 The Jewish nation crossed the Red Sea
-1313 2448 The revelation at Mount Sinai and the giving of the Torah
-1313 2448 Moses broke the Tablets
-1312 2449 Moshe came down Mount Sinai with the second Tablets
-1312 2449 The Tabernacle was erected
-1312 2449 The spies returned from Canaan with bad news
-1274 2487 Aharon and Miriam died
-1273 2488 Moses died

Judges and Early Prophets

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-1273 2488 The Jews crossed the Jordan into Canaan
-1258 2503 The appointment of the Land of Israel was completed
-1245 2516 Joshua died
-1228 2533 The rule of Judges began with Othniel ben Kenaz
-1188 2573 Ehud ben Gerah became leader
-1107 2654 Shamgar ben Anath died
-1107 2654 Deborah became leader
-1067 2694 Gideon became leader
-1027 2734 Abimelech, son of Gideon, became leader
-1024 2737 Tola, son of Pua, became leader
-1003 2758 Jair, the Gileadite, became leader
-982 2779 Jephtah (HaGil'adi) became leader
-969 2792 Elon (HaZevuloni) became leader
-959 2802 Abdon ben Hillel became leader
-951 2810 Samson became leader
-931 2830 Eli the Kohen became leader
-907 2854 David was born
-890 2871 Samuel became leader

Kings and the First Holy Temple

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-879 2882 Saul was appointed king
-877 2884 David became king of Judah in Hebron
-869 2892 David became king of Israel in Jerusalem
-837 2924 Solomon became king
-833 2928 The building of the first Beit Hamikdash commenced
-827 2935 The first Beit Hamikdash was completed
-797 2964 Solomon died and his kingdom was divided
-797 2964 Rehabeam (son of Solomon) became king of Judah
-797 2964 Jeroboam ben Nevat became king over Israel
-718 3043 Elijah went up in a chariot of fire
-677 3084 Joash renovated the Beit Hamikdash
-619 3142 Isaiah began his prophecies
-574 3187 The first two of the Ten Tribes were exiled
-566 3195 Another two of the Ten Tribes were exiled
-562 3199 Hezekiah became king of Judah
-556 3205 The last of the Ten Tribes were exiled
-548 3213 Sennacherib invaded the Land of Judah and retreated
-533 3228 Menasseh (son of Hezekiah) became king of Judah
-463 3298 Jeremiah began his prophecies
-458 3303 Josiah renovated the Beit Hamikdash
-442 3319 Jerusalem was conquered and Joiakim (Yehoyakim) was exiled
-440 3321 Joiakim burned the Book of Lamentations composed by Jeremiah
-434 3327 Jerusalem was conquered again and Jehoiachin was exiled
-430 3331 Jeremiah persisted in prophesying calamity
-429 3332 Ezekiel prophesied in exile
-425 3336 The final Babylonian siege of Jerusalem
-423 3338 The walls of Jerusalem were penetrated
-423 3338 The sacrifices ceased in the Beit Hamikdash
-423 3338 The first Beit Hamikdash was destroyed

Exile in Babylon

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-423 3339 Gedalyah ben Achikam was killed
-421 3340 Daniel interpreted Nebuchadnezzar dream
-410 3352 Ezekiel prophesied about the future Beit Hamikdash
-372 3389 Daniel read the writing on the wall
-372 3389 Daniel was thrown into the lion's den
-371 3390 Zerubabel led the return to the Land of Israel
-370 3391 Building of Second Beit Hamikdash commenced, then halted
-366 3395 Achashverosh II made his great banquet
-362 3399 Esther was taken to the palace
-357 3404 Esther took action against Haman's decree
-355 3406 Mordechai proclaimed the celebration of Purim
-353 3408 Building of the second Beit Hamikdash resumed
-349 3412 The second Beit Hamikdash was completed

Building of the Second Holy Temple

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-348 3413 Ezra led the second return to the Land of Israel
-335 3426 Nehemiah returned to rebuild walls of Jerusalem
-313 3448 Ezra died
-313 3448 Simon the Tzaddik met Alexander the Great
-313 3449 The Minyan Shtarot began

Greek Cultural Domination

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-273 3488 Simon the Tzaddik died
-246 3515 72 Elders translated the Torah into Greek (Septuagint)
-140 3621 The revolt of Mattityahu the Chashmona'i

Kingdom of Judea: Dynasty of the Chashmona'im

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-139 3622 Judah the Maccabee ruled
-139 3622 The Second Beit Hamikdash was re-dedicated
-138 3623 Hannukah was declared a festival
-133 3628 Judah the Maccabee was killed in battle
-133 3628 Yonatan (son of Mattityahu) ruled
-127 3634 Shimon (son of Mattityahu) ruled
-119 3642 Yohanan Hyrkanos (son of Shimon) ruled
-93 3668 Judah Aristoblus (son of Yochanan Hyrkanos) ruled
-91 3670 Alexander Yannai (son of Yochanan Hyrkanos) ruled
-73 3688 Queen Shalomtzion (Salome Alexandra, wife of Alexander Yannai) ruled
-65 3696 Aristoblus II (son of Alexander Yannai) ruled/td>
-61 3700 The Romans gained control of Judea
-61 3700 Hyrkanos II (son of Alexander Yannai) ruled
-40 3721 Antigonus (son of Aristoblus II) ruled

Roman Client Kings and Rulers: The Herodian Dynasty

Secular year jewish year Event in History
-36 3725 Herod I ruled, killing all the Chashmona'im
-33 3728 Hillel became the leader of the Torah scholars
-19 3742 Herod I began rebuilding the second Beit Hamikdash
-11 3750 Renovation of the second Beit Hamikdash was completed
1 3761 Archelaus (son of Herod I) ruled
8 3768 Hillel died
10 3770 Archelaus was deposed by the Roman Emperor
21 3781 Agrippa I (grandson of Herod I) ruled
28 3788 The Sanhedrin moved from the second Beit Hamikdash
44 3804 Agrippa II (son of Agrippa I) ruled
50 3810 Rabban Gamliel I (son of Shimon) grandson of Hillel, died
66 3826 Vespasian arrived in Judea to reassert Roman authority
69 3829 The second Beit Hamikdash was destroyed

The Talmudic Era: The Mishnah

Secular year jewish year Event in History
74 3834 R. Yohanan ben Zakkai died
86 3846 The Sanhedrin moved from place to place, under R. Gamliel II
133 3893 Betar fell, and the Bar Kochba revolt ended in tragedy
134 3894 Judaism was banned, and R. Akiva was imprisoned
189 3949 R. Judah Hanassi completed the Mishnah around this time

The Talmudic Era: The Gemara

Secular year jewish year Event in History
219 3979 Rav left the Land of Israel and settled in Bablyonia
247 4007 Shmuel was the Talmudic authority in Bablyonia
254 4014 R. Yohanan was the leading Talmudic authority
290 4050 R. Huna was the leading Talmudic authority
298 4058 R. Yehudah was the leading Talmudic authority
300 4060 R. Chisda was the leading Talmudic authority
309 4069 Rabbah was the leading Talmudic authority
321 4081 R. Yosef was the leading Talmudic authority
325 4085 Abayey was the leading Talmudic authority
338 4098 Rava was the leading Talmudic authority
359 4119 Hillel II (who established the calendar) became Nassi
392 4152 R. Ashi was the leading Talmudic authority
427 4187 R. Ashi died after the compilation of the Gemara
475 4235

The Rabbanan

Secular year jewish year Event in History
551 4311 Mar Zutra proclaimed Jewish self-rule in Babylonia

The Geonim

Secular year jewish year Event in History
589 4349 The talmudic academy of Pumpedita was reconstituted
609 4369 The talmudic academy of Sura was reconstituted
614 4374 The Persians conquered the Land of Israel
614 4374 The Jews were allowed to return to Jerusalem
629 4389 The Byzantine Empire reconquered the Land of Israel
636 4396 R. Yitzchak was the last gaon of Neharde'a (Firuz-Shabur)
637 4397 The Arabs conquered the Land of Israel
645 4405 One of the "Takkkanot Hage'onim" was enacted at this time
755 4515 R. Achai Gaon left Iraq for the Land of Israel
759 4519 R. Yehuda became gaon of Sura
759 4519 The Halachot Gedolot (BaHag) was written at this time
788 4548 Another of the "Takkanot Hage'onim" was enacted at this time
858 4618 R. Amram (who wrote the Siddur) became gaon of Sura
928 4688 Rabbeinu Saadya was appointed gaon of Sura
955 4715 "Four Captives" were ransomed at around this time
968 4728 R. Sherira became gaon of Pumpedita
997 4757 R. Hai became (the last) gaon of Pumpedita
1038 4798 R. Hai died, and the academies of Babylon declined

The Early Rishonim: The Crusade Massacres

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1040 4800 Rabbeinu Gersom Me’or Hagola died
1088 4848 The Rif arrived in Spain from Morocco
1096 4856 The Crusaders destroyed Jewish communities
1099 4859 Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders
1103 4863 The Rif died
1105 4865 Rashi died, and the era of the Tosaphot began
1135 4895 The Rambam (Maimonides) was born
1144 4904 The first (recorded) blood libel took place
1147 4907 The Crusaders attacked Jewish communities
1147 4907 Rabbeinu Tam was captured by the Crusaders
1148 4908 The Rambam's and the Radak's families left Cordova
1165 4925 The Rambam visited the Land of Israel
1171 4931 Rabbeinu Tam died
1175 4935 The Rashbam died
1184 4944 The young son of the Ri was killed
1187 4948 Jews were allowed to return to Jerusalem
1189 4949 R. Yaakov D'Orleans was killed in London
1190 4950 Jews were massacred in England in the third Crusade
1191 4951 Rabbi David Kimchi, known as the "Radak", wrote his commentary
1194 4954 The Ramban (Nachmanides) was born
1198 4959 The Ra'avad died
1204 4965 The Rambam died
1236 4996 Rampaging mobs massacred Jews in France
1242 5002 A massive burning of the Talmud took place in Paris
1244 5004 Jerusalem was sacked by Egyptians and Turks
1252 5012 The Inquisition began to use torture
1267 5027 The Ramban left Spain and settled in the Land of Israel
1270 5030 The Ramban died
1286 5046 The Maharam MeRothenburg was imprisoned
1290 5050 New works advanced the study of Kabbalah
1290 5050 The era of the Tosaphot concluded at around this time

Later Rishonim: Persecutions and Expulsions

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1290 5050 All Jews were expelled from England
1293 5053 The Maharam MeRothenburg died in prison
1298 5058 The Rindfleisch massacres began
1298 5058 The author of the 'Mordechai' and Hagahot Maimoniyot were killed
1305 5065 The Rashba placed a limited ban on philosophy
1305 5065 The Rosh and his son, the Tur, arrived in Spain
1306 5066 All Jews were expelled from France
1310 5070 The Rashba died
1320 5080 Jews were massacred by the Pastoureaux Crusaders
1327 5088 The Rosh died
1336 5096 Jews of Germany were massacred by the Armleder bands
1338 5098 The Ralbag wrote his commentary on the Bible
1349 5109 The Black Death massacres swept across Europe
1367 5127 The Ran, Rivash, and other scholars in Spain were imprisoned
1391 5151 Jews of Spain were massacred — many were forced to convert
1391 5151 The Rivash and Rashbatz left Spain
1394 5155 The Final expulsion of Jews from France
1413 5173 R. Yosef Albo was in a forced debate with Christians
1421 5181 Jews in Austria were massacred in the Wiener Gezera
1475 5235 The invention of printing was used for Jewish books
1481 5241 The Inquisition was established in Spain
1488 5248 R. Ovadiah De Bertinoro settled in Jerusalem
1491 5251 Columbus consulted R. Avraham Zacuto for his travels
1492 5252 All Jews were expelled from Spain and Sicily

The Great Scholars of the Shulchan Aruch and Torah Consolidation

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1493 5253 R.Yitzchak Abarbanel arrived in Naples, from Spain
1496 5257 All Jews were expelled from Portugal
1516 5276 The Ein Yaakov was printed
1516 5276 The Turks (Ottoman Empire) conquered Eretz Yisrael
1525 5285 R.Yosef Yoselman saved many Jews during the Peasants' War
1553 5314 A mass burning of Jewish books took place in Rome
1563 5323 The Shulchan Aruch was completed by R.Yosef Karo
1570 5330 The Shulchan Aruch was published with supplements of Rama
1572 5332 The Arizal died in Tzfat
1573 5333 The Maharal came to Prague
1573 5334 The Maharshal died
1575 5335 R.Yosef Karo died in Tzefat
1599 5359 The Maharal returned to Prague again
1614 5374 The Maharsha became rabbi in Lublin
1616 5377 The Tosaphot Yom Tov commentary was concluded
1621 5382 The Shaloh arrived in the Land of Israel
1629 5389 R.Yom Tov Lipman Heller was imprisoned in Prague
1640 5400 R.Yoel Sirkes, the Bach, died
1646 5406 The Shach and Taz (on Shulchan Aruch) were printed
1648 5408 Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki’s forces

Early Acharonim and East European Massacres

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1654 5414 The first Jews settled in New Amsterdam (New York)
1655 5415 Many Jews killed in Russian and Swedish invasions of Poland
1656 5416 Jews were permitted to live in England
1656 5416 Baruch Spinoza was excommunicated
1673 5433 The Magen Avraham (on Shulchan Aruch) was completed
1676 5437 Shabtai Tzvi died as a Muslim
1689 5449 The Beit Shmuel (on the Shulchan Aruch) was printed
1698 5458 The Baal Shem Tov was born
1702 5463 The Pnei Yehoshua's family was killed in an explosion
1712 5472 The Siftei Chachamim was arrested
1724 5484 R.Yaakov Culi (Me'am Lo'ez) arrived in Constantinople
1727 5487 The Mishneh LeMelech died
1734 5494 Jews were massacred by the Haidamack bands

Acharonim and Early Chassidim

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1741 5501 The Or HaChayim arrived in the Land of Israel
1747 5507 R. Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (Ramchal) died in Acco (Acre)
1750 5510 R. Jonathan Eybeschutz became Rabbi in Hamburg
1754 5515 R. Yechezkel Landau, known as the "Noda BiYehuda", became Rabbi in Prague
1757 5518 The Frankists instigated mass burnings of the Talmud
1759 5519 Frankists supported blood libel charges in public 'debate'
1760 5520 The Baal Shem Dov died
1764 5524 The Council of Four Lands, known as the "Vaad Arba Aratzot", was discontinued
1768 5528 Despite resistance, the Haidamacks massacre thousands
1772 5532 The Maggid of Mezeritsch died
1782 5542 R. N. Adler and Chatam Sofer visited the Noda BiYehuda
1786 5546 R. Elimelech of Lizensk died
1791 5551 The Pale of Settlement was established in Russia
1793 5553 Jews suffered in reign of terror of French Revolution
1797 5558 The Vilna Gaon died
1798 5559 The Ba'al HaTanya was released from first imprisonment
1799 5559 Napoleon led an army expedition through the Land of Israel
1806 5566 The Chida (R. Chaim Yosef David Azulai) died
1806 5566 The Chatam Sofer became rabbi in Pressburg
1809 5570 R. Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev died
1810 5571 R. Nachman of Breslov died
1814 5574 R. Akiva Eger became rabbi in Posen
1814 5575 Kozhnitzer Maggid and Yehudi of Peshischa, both died
1815 5575 Chozeh of Lublin and R. Mendel of Rymanov both died
1819 5579 Anti Jewish riots spread throughout Germany
1827 5587 Russia began conscripting Jewish children to the army
1840 5600 R.Yisrael of Ruzhin was released from imprisonment

Later Acharonim and the Changing Society

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1843 5603 The Tzemach Tzedek of Lubavitch was repeatedly arrested in Russia
1846 5606 Sir Moshe Montefiore visited Russia to help local Jews
1848 5609 R. Yisrael Salanter left Vilna
1851 5611 R. Shimshon Raphael Hirsch became rabbi in Frankfort am Main
1859 5619 R. Menachem Mendel of Kotzk died
1864 5624 The Malbim was imprisoned, and then expelled from Rumania
1866 5626 Chidushei HaRim, Tiferet Shlomo, and Tzemach Tzedek, died
1873 5633 The Chafetz Chaim was published
1874 5634 The Minchat Chinuch died
1878 5638 Petah Tikvah agricultural settlement was established
1881 5641 Many Jews began leaving Russia after a wave of pogroms
1886 5646 R. Shlomo Ganzfried (author of Kitzur Shulchan Aruch) died
1892 5652 R. Chaim (Brisker) became Rabbi in Brisk
1905 5665 The Sfat Emet died
1905 5665 Many Jews were killed in (official) Russian pogroms
1911 5671 Chazon Ish was published
1914 5674 Over 500,000 Jewish soldiers fought in World War I
1918 5678 Over 60,000 Jews were killed during the Russian Revolution
1923 5684 The Daf HaYomi study cycle commenced
1927 5687 The Sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe was released from Soviet prison
1938 5699 Jews were attacked in the Kristallnacht pogroms in Germany

The Holocaust

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1939 5699 Germany started World War II, and mass killing of Jews
1941 5701 Nazi Germany unexpectedly invaded Russia
1941 5701 200,000 Jews were killed at Babi Yar and Ponary
1942 5702 400,000 Jews of Warsaw were sent to death camps
1943 5703 Nazi Germany experienced massive losses in the battle of Stalingrad
1943 5703 The remaining Jews in Warsaw staged a massive uprising
1943 5703 Jewish uprisings at Treblinka, Sobibor, and Bialystock
1943 5703 The Danish people quietly rescued 93% of their Jews to safety
1944 5704 300,000 Hungarian Jews were killed in 3 months
1944 5705 Uprising in Auschwitz death camp just before freedom
1945 5705 Nazi Germany was conquered, and World War II ended
1945 5705 6,000,000 Jews were killed by the Nazis during the war

The Modern State of Israel

Secular year jewish year Event in History
1947 5707 Publication of the Talmud Encyclopedia was commenced
1947 5708 The United Nations divided Israel
1947 5708 Arabs attacked Israel to gain territory
1948 5708 The State of Israel was established
1948 5708 Israel was invaded by many Arab countries
1949 5709 The “War of Independence” in Israel ended
1950 5710 All Jews left the ancient Jewish community of Iraq
1950 5710 Almost all Jews of Yemen emigrated to Israel
1951 5711 The Lubavitcher Rebbe accepts the mantle of leadership
1956 5717 Jewish forces invaded Egypt and conquered the Sinai Desert
1967 5727 The Lubavitcher Rebbe established the Tefillin Campaign
1967 5727 Jerusalem re-united under Jewish rule in the Six Day War
1973 5734 2,500 Jewish soldiers were killed in the Yom Kippur War
1974 5734 The Lubavitcher Rebbe established the Shabbat Candle Campaign
1982 5742 Massive enemy arsenals were discovered in Lebanon
1987 5746 The first international conference of Chabad Lubavitch emissaries
1993 5753 A secret agreement signed in Oslo
1994 5754 The Lubavitcher Rebbe passed away
2008 5767 Deadly terrorist attack at the Chabad House in Mumbai, India, kills six