SECTION 325 [The Laws that Apply When] a Non-Jew Performed Work on Behalf of a Jew [on Shabbos] (1-22)

סימן שכה נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּעַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבוֹ כ"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 It is permitted to invite a non-Jew to one’s home to share a meal on Shabbos,1 even though this is forbidden on a festival lest one cook additional food for [the non-Jew’s] sake,1 as will be explained in sec. 512[:1].2 On Shabbos, however, one need not be concerned about this.3 [Indeed,] it is even permitted to serve food to a non-Jew alone.4 True, one is not obligated to feed him.5 Nevertheless, since “one should sustain the non-Jewish poor [together with the Jewish poor… as an expression of] the ways of peace,”6 it is considered as if one is obligated [to provide] for [a non-Jew’s] sustenance.

א מֻתָּר לְזַמֵּן נָכְרִיא לְבֵיתוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל עִמּוֹב בְּשַׁבָּת,1 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה לְבַשֵּׁל בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,ג, 1 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקי"ב, ד, 2 אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת אֵין לָחוּשׁ לָזֶה. ה, 3 וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לִתֵּן מְזוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי נָכְרִיו בִּלְבַדּוֹ,4 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מְזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלֶיךָ,ז, 5 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּפַרְנְסִים עֲנִיֵּי נָכְרִים מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם ח, 6 – חָשׁוּב כִּמְזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלֶיךָ: ט

2 It is permitted to place food7 before [a non-Jew] in a courtyard4 even though one knows that [the non-Jew] will take [the food] out [of the courtyard to the public domain or a karmelis],8 provided [the owner] permits [the non-Jew] to eat [the food] in the courtyard if he so desires. Nevertheless, [the Jew] should not actually place [the food] in the non-Jew’s hand, so that [the Jew] will not have performed the akirah from a private domain.9 Instead, the non-Jew should take [the food] from [the Jew’s] hand. In that way, the non-Jew performs the akirah. Needless to say, it is permitted to place [the food] on the ground or on a table and have the non-Jew take it from there.

[Different rules apply,] however, if: a) [the non-Jew] does not have permission [to eat the food] in [the courtyard], b) [he is given] a large amount of food and it is impossible for him to eat it [all] there, and thus it is evident that he will take it out [of the courtyard to another domain],10 or c) similarly, when the non-Jew is standing outside [the private domain] and extends his hand inside, in which instance, it is known and apparent that he will take [the food] outside. In such instances, it is forbidden to place the food before [a non-Jew], because it appears that one is giving him [the food] so that he can take it outside [the Jew’s private domain into a public domain or karmelis]. True, [the non-Jew] is taking [the food] outside for his own sake and not for the Jew’s sake. Nevertheless, since the Jew is giving his own property [i.e. food] to the non-Jew for [the non-Jew] to take out [of the Jew’s private domain], doing so is forbidden for the reason explained in sec. 307[:35].11

ב וּמֻתָּר לִתֵּן לְפָנָיו מְזוֹנוֹת 7 בְּחָצֵר,י, 4 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיּוֹצִיאֵן לַחוּץ.יא, 8 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְאָכְלָן שָׁם אִם יִרְצֶה.יב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יִתֵּן הוּא לְיָדוֹ מַמָּשׁ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה הוּא הָעֲקִירָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,יג, 9 אֶלָּא הַנָּכְרִי יִטּוֹל מִיָּדוֹ, שֶׁאָז הַנָּכְרִי הוּא הָעוֹשֶׂה הָעֲקִירָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר אִם מַנִּיחַ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי שֻׁלְחָן וְהַנָּכְרִי נוֹטֵל מִשָּׁם.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ לְאָכְלָן שָׁם, אוֹ שֶׁהֵם מְזוֹנוֹת מְרֻבִּים שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְאָכְלָן שָׁם וְנִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁיּוֹצִיאֵן לַחוּץ,יד, 10 וְכֵן אִם הַנָּכְרִי עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִפְנִים שֶׁיָּדוּעַ וְנִכָּר הוּא שֶׁיּוֹצִיא – אָסוּר לִתֵּן לְפָנָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּנוֹתֵן לוֹ עַל מְנָת לְהוֹצִיא.טו וְאַף שֶׁמּוֹצִיא לַהֲנָאָתוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה שֶׁהוּא מוֹצִיא נוֹתְנוֹ לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִשֶּׁלּוֹ – אָסוּר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז:טז, 11

3 Even when the [non-Jew] is standing inside [the Jew’s courtyard], license is only granted to place food before him since it is possible for him to eat it in the courtyard. However, [license is] not [granted with regard to] other articles that are customarily taken out [of the courtyard,] since it appears that [the Jew] is giving them to [the non-Jew] to take out [of the courtyard].12

To what does the above apply? To articles belonging to a Jew. It is, however, permitted to give him articles belonging to a non-Jew. Although it appears that [the Jew] is giving them to [the non-Jew] for him to take out, this is of no consequence, since: a) [the non-Jew] is not taking out [the articles] for the sake of the Jew, but for his own sake, and b) the articles do not belong to the Jew. It is even permitted [for the Jew] to explicitly tell [the non-Jew], “Perform your tasks with your objects,” as explained in that source.13

Nevertheless, if the non-Jew is standing outside [the courtyard] and extends his hand inside, it is forbidden to even give him his own articles because of the impression that could be created, i.e., an observer seeing the Jew giving [the articles] to [the non-Jew] will think that the articles belong to the Jew.14 In contrast, when [the Jew] places the articles before [the non-Jew] in the courtyard, there are no observers. An observer who sees [the non-Jew] departing the Jew’s domain with the articles in his hand [might] think that he is taking out his own articles and not the articles belonging to the Jew.

(Nevertheless, it is forbidden [to leave] the articles [in one’s courtyard for the non-Jew to take] if in truth they belong to a Jew, lest the truth become known to observers and they suspect that [the Jew] gave them to [the non-Jew] to take out for [the Jew’s] sake. In contrast, when an article belongs to a non-Jew, there are no grounds for suspicion at all, even if the truth becomes known to the observers.)15

ג וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁעוֹמֵד בִּפְנִים, לֹא הִתִּירוּ לִתֵּן לְפָנָיו אֶלָּא מְזוֹנוֹת, שֶׁיִּתָּכֵן לְאָכְלָם בֶּחָצֵר, אֲבָל לֹא שְׁאָר חֲפָצִיםיז שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיאָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּנוֹתֵן לוֹ עַל מְנָת לְהוֹצִיא.12

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בַּחֲפָצִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל חֲפָצִים שֶׁל נָכְרִי מֻתָּר לִתְּנָם לוֹ,יח שֶׁאַף שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּנוֹתֵן לוֹ עַל מְנָת לְהוֹצִיאיט – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ, וְהַחֵפֶץ אֵינוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל.כ וַאֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר בְּפֵרוּשׁ: "עֲשֵׂה מְלַאכְתְּךָ בַּחֲפָצִים שֶׁלְּךָ" – מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.כא, 13

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הַנָּכְרִי עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִפְנִים – אָסוּר לִתֵּן לְפָנָיו אֲפִלּוּ חֲפָצִים שֶׁלּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן, שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹתֵן לוֹ סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא חֵפֶץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,כב, 14 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁנּוֹתֵן לְפָנָיו בֶּחָצֵר, שֶׁאֵין שָׁם רוֹאִים, וְהָרוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ יוֹצֵא מֵרְשׁוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְחֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ הוּא סָבוּר שֶׁמּוֹצִיא חֵפֶץ שֶׁלּוֹ וְלֹא שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל.כג

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הָאֱמֶת הוּא שֶׁהוּא חֵפֶץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר, שֶׁמָּא יִוָּדַע הָאֱמֶת לְהָרוֹאִים וְיַחְשְׁדוּהוּכד שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ לוֹ כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,כה מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּחֵפֶץ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, אִם יִוָּדַע הָאֳמֶת לָרוֹאִים אֵין כָּאן חֲשָׁד כְּלָלכו):15

4 Even if the article belongs to a non-Jew, but it was offered to the Jew as security, it is governed by the same laws as articles belonging to a Jew.16 [This ruling applies] even if the non-Jew already redeemed [the article] while it was still day [on Friday] (as understood from sec. 252[:3] with regard to a sale).17 [Indeed,] even if [the Jew] designates a specific place in his domain for the non-Jew to deposit the [article left as] security until the following day, when he will come and take it,18 it is forbidden to allow the non-Jew to take [the article] on Shabbos because of the impression that might arise.

[An exception is made] when the non-Jew is a man of force. In that instance, leniency is granted even when a place was not [temporarily] designated [as his]. Similarly, [leniency is granted] in a situation where [such conduct] is called for in order to foster “the ways of peace.”6 For example, a non-Jew took ill and requested food from a Jew. It is permitted to give [the non-Jew food], or even to send it to him via [another] non-Jew. Similarly, [leniency is granted] for the sake of a mitzvah, e.g., to remove chametz from one’s home on Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 444[:9-10. The rationale is that the prohibition against] appointing a non-Jew as an agent is a shvus.19In the present era, according to some authorities [the Scriptural definition] of a public domain does not exist, instead, [public places are placed in the category of a] karmelis, as will be explained in sec. 345[:11].20 Thus, [the prohibition] is merely a shvus d’shvus,21and [a prohibition that is merely a shvus d’shvus] was released for the sake of a mitzvah, as explained in sec. 307[:12].22 The same [leniency] applies to foster “the ways of peace” and in the instance of a non-Jewish man of force.23 Nevertheless, [even in such situations,] one should be careful not to actually place [such an item] in the non-Jew’s hand, since it is possible to avoid doing so. One must be careful concerning this matter even with regard to articles belonging to a non-Jew.

ד וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא חֵפֶץ שֶׁל נָכְרִי אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מְמֻשְׁכָּן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל – דִּינוֹ כְּחֵפֶץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,כז, 16 אֲפִלּוּ פְּדָאוֹ הַנָּכְרִי (כֵּן מַשְׁמָע בְּסִימָן רנ"בכח גַּבֵּי מְכִירָה) מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.17 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יִחֵד מָקוֹם לְהַנָּכְרִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםכט בְּתוֹךְ רְשׁוּתוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ שָׁם מַשְׁכּוֹנוֹ עַד לְמָחָר שֶׁיָּבֹא וְיִטְּלֶנּוּ מִשָּׁם18 – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ לִטְּלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם מַרְאִית הָעַיִן.ל

אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הוּא אַלָּם, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לְהָקֵללא אֲפִלּוּ לֹא יִחֵד לוֹ מָקוֹם.לב וְכֵן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם,6 כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי שֶׁחָלָה וְשָׁלַח אַחַר מַאֲכַל יִשְׂרָאֵל – מֻתָּר לָתֵת לוֹ אוֹ אֲפִלּו לִשְׁלוֹחַ לוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי.לג וְהוּא הַדִּין לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן לְהוֹצִיא חָמֵץ מִבֵּיתוֹ בַּפֶּסַח,לד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ד,לה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחוּת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי הוּא שְׁבוּת,לו, 19 וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית,לז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שמ"ה,לח, 20 הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת,21 וְהִתִּירוּהוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז.לט, 22 וְהוּא הַדִּין מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלום, וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּנָכְרִי אַלָּם.מ, 23

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן לְיַד הַנָּכְרִי מַמָּשׁ,מא כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר בְּלֹא זֶה.מב וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּחֲפָצִים שֶׁל נָכְרִי צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה:מג

5 On Shabbos, it is permitted to have a non-Jew exchange one article deposited [with a Jew] as security for another if [the original security] is an article of clothing and the non-Jew takes it out [of the Jew’s domain] by wearing it. This is not considered as commercial activity. [Indeed,] it is permitted for a Jew to do the same if the Jew must wear the article on Shabbos.24

It is also permitted for the non-Jew to bring money [to pay off his debt] and take [back] his security, provided [the Jew] does not enter into a detailed accounting with him. [In such an instance,] it is preferable that the non-Jew take the security himself, without the Jew touching it, so that it will not appear as a commercial transaction. If [the non-Jew] brings [the Jew] another security [in exchange for the original article, the Jew] should not touch it as well.

ה מֻתָּר לְהַחֲלִיף מַשְׁכּוֹן לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת אִם הוּא מַלְבּוּשׁ וְיוֹצִיאֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, כִּי אֵין זֶה מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן. וְגַם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר בְּעִנְיָן זֶה, אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל צָרִיךְ לְלָבְשׁוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.מד, 24 וְאִם הַנָּכְרִי מֵבִיא הַמָּעוֹת וְנוֹטֵל הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן – מֻתָּר גַּם כֵּן, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַחְשׁוֹב עִמּוֹ.מה וְטוֹב שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יִקַּח הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן בְּעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא יִגַּע בּוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,מו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּנוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן.מז וְאִם הֵבִיא לוֹ מַשְׁכּוֹן אַחֵר – לֹא יִגַּע גַּם בּוֹ:מח

6 In those places where it is customary to partake of bread baked by a non-Jewish baker,25 there are authorities who permit taking bread from [the non-Jewish baker] on Shabbos, even bread that was baked [on that Shabbos], provided the city has a majority of non-Jewish inhabitants. In such an instance, it can be assumed that the bread was baked for the sake of the non-Jews and not for a Jew.26 If so, there is no reason to prohibit [the bread] because of the law [prohibiting using the products of] forbidden labor performed by a non-Jew for the sake of a Jew. Nor [is there reason to] prohibit it because of the laws of muktzeh, even if during bein hashmashos27[the baked bread was merely] flour or dough, which are muktzeh, as stated in sec. 308[:8].28 We do not say that [the bread] is categorized as muktzeh for the entire Shabbos since it was muktzeh during bein hashmashos. [The rationale is that this principle] applies only with regard to objects that become fit for use in and of themselves after nightfall – for example, a lamp that burned out on its own after nightfall.29 By contrast, any object that is finished by human activity – i.e., its finishing touches were completed on Shabbos and it became fit for use as a result of human activity – is not at all categorized as muktzeh. [This applies] even if [the object] was not fit for use during bein hashmashos, since it is within the person’s capacity to fix [the object] and make it fit for use on that day; hence, during bein hashmashos, [the person] does not divert his attention from benefiting from [the article] on Shabbos. For example, flour that is in the possession of a non-Jew is not at all categorized as muktzeh on Shabbos, because it is within [the non-Jew’s] capacity to bake it and make it fit [to be eaten] that day. [Accordingly,] since [the flour] is ready [to be used] by its owner, the non-Jew, it is considered as ready for everyone.30

There are authorities who maintain that [the above principle] – that any object that was finished by human activity is not categorized as muktzeh – applies only when the task [required] to finish it was begun before Shabbos and was completed on Shabbos. For example, when a non-Jew began fashioning a utensil on the day before a festival and completed it on the festival, it is not governed by the laws of nolad,31since it reached its completed state through a person’s labor, as explained in sec. 252[:12]. (Similarly, when a loaf of bread began to bake – i.e., it was placed in the oven while it was still day [on Friday] – even though [the bread] was not yet ready [to be eaten during] bein hashmashos,32it is not categorized as muktzeh.) However, [different rules apply regarding] a loaf of bread where the work to make it fit [to eat] – i.e., baking it, through which it becomes fit [to eat] – is begun on Shabbos. [In such an instance, the bread] is categorized as muktzeh if it is [mere] flour or dough during bein hashmashos. Nevertheless, if [the bread merely] consists of [kernels of] grain during bein hashmashos and it is ground into flour and baked on Shabbos, it is not categorized as muktzeh33 nor is it considered as nolad on a festival, as will be explained in sec. 517[:3].

With regard to the halachah, one should be stringent34 and follow the latter view unless: a) there is a pressing situation – e.g., [the person] lives alone35 in a village and it is therefore impossible for him to borrow a loaf of bread from a friend, or b) for the sake of a mitzvah – e.g., a feast celebrating a circumcision or for the sake of reciting the blessing HaMotzi.36 In such situations, [one] may rely on the lenient views.

Nevertheless, it is forbidden for [the person] to give the baker money on Friday so that the baker will give him the bread on Shabbos, for then the non-Jew is [expressly] baking for the sake of a Jew. It is forbidden to eat from such a loaf until Saturday night, after the time [it takes] to bake it has passed, as will be explained.37

ו בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לֶאֱכוֹל פַּת שֶׁל פַּלְטֵר נָכְרִימט, 25 – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןנ לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ פַּת שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית הַיּוֹם, אִם הִיא עִיר שֶׁרֻבָּהּ נָכְרִים,נא שֶׁאָז מִן הַסְּתָםנב הִיא נֶאֱפֵית בִּשְׁבִיל הַנָּכְרִים וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,נג, 26 וְאִם כֵּן אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר אוֹתָהּ מִדִּין נָכְרִי הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל.נד וְגַם אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר אוֹתָהּ מִדִּין מֻקְצֶה, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיְתָה קֶמַח אוֹ עִסָּה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,נה, 27 שֶׁהֵן מֻקְצִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"חנו, 28 – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהּ "מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצֵית בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֻקְצֵית לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ", לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים כֵּן אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁנִּתַּקֵּן וְנַעֲשָׂה רָאוּי מֵאֵלָיו מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה,נז כְּגוֹן נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה מֵאֵלָיו מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה,נח, 29 אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁגְּמָרוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם,נט דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּגְמַר תִּקּוּנוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְנַעֲשָׂה רָאוּי עַל יְדֵי אָדָם – אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה כְּלָל, אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בְּעוֹדוֹ אֵינוֹ רָאוּי,ס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְצֶה מִמֶּנּוּ דַּעְתּוֹ כְּלָל בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מִלֵּהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ הוּא לְתַקְּנוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ רָאוּי בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,סא כְּגוֹן הַקֶּמַח שֶׁבְּיַד נָכְרִי – אֵין לוֹ דִּין מֻקְצֶה כְּלָל בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ הוּא לֶאֱפוֹתוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ רָאוּי בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מוּכָן לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּעָלָיו – הֲרֵי זֶה מוּכָן לַכֹּל.סב, 30

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסג שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁגְּמָרוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁהַתְחָלַת מְלֶאכֶת תִּקּוּנוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ רָאוּי הָיְתָה קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת וְנִגְמְרָה בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי שֶׁהִתְחִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּלִי מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וּגְמָרוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹבסד – אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד,סה, 31 הוֹאִיל וּגְמָרוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"בסו (וְכֵן פַּת שֶׁהִתְחִיל לֶאֱפוֹתָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ בַּתַּנּוּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אַף שֶׁבְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת32 לֹא הָיְתָה רְאוּיָה – עֲדַיִן אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶהסז). אֲבָל פַּת שֶׁהַתְחָלַת מְלֶאכֶת תִּקּוּנָהּ שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כָךְ נַעֲשֵׂית רָאוּי, דְּהַיְנוּ מְלֶאכֶת אֲפִיָּתָהּ, הָיְתָה בְּשַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, אִם הָיְתָה קֶמַח אוֹ עִסָּה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.סח אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה תְּבוּאָה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, וְנִטְחֲנָה וְנֶאֱפֵית בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה,סט, 33 וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד בְּיוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקי"ז.ע

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר34 כַּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.עא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,עב כְּגוֹן שֶׁדָּר בִּכְפָר יְחִידִי,35 שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִשְׁאוֹל פַּת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ,עג אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן סְעֻדַּת בְּרִית מִילָה,עד אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמּוֹצִיאעה, 36 – אֲזַי יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל הַמַּתִּירִים.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אָסוּר לִתֵּן מָעוֹת לְהַפַּלְטֵר מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ הַפַּת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאָז הוּא אוֹפֶה לְצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל,עו וְאָסוּר לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהַפַּתעז עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:עח, 37

7 (All the above applies [regarding] bread. When, by contrast, a non-Jew cooks food for himself that is not forbidden by the prohibition against partaking of food cooked by a non-Jew,38 all authorities agree that it is not categorized as muktzeh. [This applies] even to fruit that is not eaten raw and is not at all ready to be eaten during bein hashmashos. [The rationale is that the principle:] an object set aside [not to be used] during bein hashmashos is set aside for the entire Shabbos, applies only with regard to an object from which a person consciously diverts his attention – “pushing it away with his hands” [as it were], for example, grain that was ground and made into flour – but not to an article from which his attention was diverted against his will, as explained in sec. 310[:6].)39

ז (וְכָל זֶה בְּפַת. אֲבָל נָכְרִי שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל לְעַצְמוֹ, מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּלֵי נָכְרִיםעט, 38 – אֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶהפ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, אֲפִלּוּ הֵן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִים חַיִּין וְלֹא הָיוּ רְאוּיִים כְּלָל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים "מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֻקְצָה לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ", אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁמַּקְצֶה אוֹתוֹ הָאָדָם מִדַּעְתּוֹ וּדְחָאוֹ בְּיָדַיִם,פא כְּגוֹן תְּבוּאָה שֶׁטְּחָנָהּ וַעֲשָׂאָהּ קֶמַח,פב אֲבָל לֹא בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם,פג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"יפד):39

8 All the above applies with regard to baking, (and cooking,) and other forbidden labors that are performed with [produce] that has been harvested, with the exception of squeezing fruit [for its juice.40 In that instance,] the liquids are forbidden for a Jew until the evening, [i.e., Saturday night] even if a non-Jew squeezed [the fruit] for himself, if [these are liquids] that would be forbidden had they flowed out from the produce on their own accord, as explained in sec. 320[:3. The rationale is that] even liquids such as these, [i.e.,] that became available for the Jew because they were squeezed by the non-Jew, are also included in the decree enacted [by the Sages forbidding] liquids that flow on their own accord.41 [The decree also applies to these juices] because they too become accessible to the Jew as a matter of course, like those that flow [from the produce] on their own accord.42

Similar [stringencies apply when] a non-Jew harvests produce [that had been] attached to the ground for himself, even when it would not be categorized as muktzeh. For example, [the Jew] heard the non-Jew say on Friday, “Tomorrow, I will harvest this produce,” and the produce had already completely ripened, in which instance,43 designating [the produce to be picked] is effective [in removing it from the category of muktzeh] even though it is still attached [to the tree], as explained in sec. 318[:6]. Nevertheless, [the produce] is forbidden to a Jew until [Saturday] evening,44 because it is included in the decree [forbidding] fruit that fell [from the tree] on its own accord, as explained in sec. 322.45 [The rationale is that] this produce [harvested by a non-Jew on Shabbos]also comes to a Jew as a matter of course, like fruit that fell [from the tree] on their own accord.

[This restriction does not] only apply to fruit. Instead, any vegetation that is attached to the ground that became detached as a matter of course or [which was reaped] by a non-Jew, even if it is not fit for human consumption, is included in this decree. For example, a non-Jew reaps grass that is attached to the ground. Even in a situation where [the grass] is not muktzeh – e.g., the Jew has animals that can pasture among [the grass], thus [the grass] is prepared for use [by the Jew even if it is not reaped] – it is nevertheless forbidden for a Jew to make use of it in any way,46 just as it is forbidden [for him] to make use of fruit that falls on its own accord. Therefore, [the grass] is also forbidden to be moved since it is not fit to be used for any purpose on that day [i.e., Shabbos]. Hence, it is categorized as muktzeh like fruit that falls, which is categorized as muktzeh for this reason.

Even wood that a non-Jew detaches on a festival for himself or which falls to the ground as a matter of course on a festival is included in [the prohibition resulting from] this decree, as will be explained in sec. 507.47

Similarly, on a festival, it is forbidden for a Jew [to make use of] fish, a non-domesticated animal, or a fowl that a non-Jew catches for himself [that day], as will be explained in sec. 515[:4-8].48

ח וְכָל זֶה בַּאֲפִיָּה (וּבִשּׁוּל) וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן מִשְּׁאָר מְלָאכוֹת הַנַּעֲשׂוֹת בְּתָלוּשׁ,פה חוּץ מִסְּחִיטַת פֵּרוֹת,פו, 40 שֶׁאִם סְחָטָן נָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ לְעַצְמוֹ – אֲסוּרִים הַמַּשְׁקִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַד לָעֶרֶב,פז אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהָיוּ אֲסוּרִים אִם הָיוּ זָבִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"כ,פח לְפִי שֶׁגַּם אֵלּוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין הַבָּאִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל יְדֵי סְחִיטַת נָכְרִי הֵם בִּכְלַל הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל מַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ מֵאֲלֵיהֶן,פט, 41 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגַּם אֵלּוּ בָּאִים לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִמֵּילָא כְּמוֹ הַזָּבִין מֵאֲלֵיהֶן.צ, 42

וְכֵן נָכְרִי שֶׁלִּקֵּט פֵּרוֹת מֵהַמְחֻבָּר לְעַצְמוֹ,צא אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמַע אֶת הַנָּכְרִי אוֹמֵר מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת "לְמָחָר אֶלְקוֹט פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ",צב וְהֵן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּגְמַר בִּשּׁוּלָן, שֶׁהֲכָנָה43 מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶן אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְחֻבָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"חצג – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֲסוּרִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַד לָעֶרֶב,44 לְפִי שֶׁהֵם בִּכְלַל הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל פֵּרוֹת הַנּוֹשְׁרִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶן,צד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ב,צה, 45 שֶׁגַּם פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ בָּאִים לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִמֵּילָא כְּמוֹ הַנּוֹשְׁרִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶם.צו

וְלֹא פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ כָּל מְחֻבָּר שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ מֵאֵלָיו אוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲכַל אָדָם, הוּא בִּכְלַל גְּזֵרָה זוֹ. כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי שֶׁלִּקֵּט עֲשָׂבִים מֵהַמְחֻבָּר,צז אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהֵמוֹת שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לִרְעוֹת שָׁם בַּעֲשָׂבִים אֵלּוּ וַהֲרֵי הֵם מוּכָנִים לוֹצח – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת פֵּרוֹת הַנּוֹשְׁרִים.צט וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ,46 כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֵרוֹת הַנּוֹשְׁרִים.ק וְלָכֵן הֵם אֲסוּרִים גַּם כֵּן בְּטִלְטוּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִים לוֹ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ, וַהֲרֵי הֵם מֻקְצִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרוֹת הַנּוֹשְׁרִים יֵשׁ לָהֶם דִּין מֻקְצֶה מִטַּעַם זֶה.קא

וַאֲפִלּוּ עֵצִים שֶׁתְּלָשָׁן הַנָּכְרִי לְעַצְמוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנָּשְׁרוּ מֵאֲלֵיהֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב הֵם בִּכְלַל גְּזֵרָה זוֹ,קב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"ז.קג, 47

וְכֵן נָכְרִי שֶׁצָּד דָּגִים אוֹ חַיָּה אוֹ עוֹף לְעַצְמוֹ – אֲסוּרִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיוֹם טוֹב,קד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקט"ו:קה, 48

9 If [a non-Jew] harvests [produce],49 snares [an animal], bakes, cooks, or performs other forbidden labors for the sake of a Jew or for the sake of Jews and non-Jews,50 it is necessary [for the Jew] to wait [on Saturday] night for the time it takes to perform the activity51 [before benefiting from it. This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest [a Jew] instruct a non-Jew to perform [forbidden labor] for him on Shabbos52so that it will be ready for him immediately on Saturday night.53 [Moreover,] even other people for whom the [forbidden] labor was not performed must wait until this time [before benefitting from the forbidden labor that was performed on Shabbos. The rationale is that] our Sages ruled stringently whenever a Scripturally forbidden activity was performed for the sake of a Jew, and [they] did not distinguish between the person for whom the forbidden labor was performed and others.54 If, however, an activity forbidden by Rabbinic Law is performed for the sake of a Jew, [the results of that activity] are immediately permitted to others,55 as will be explained.56

[The details regarding] the amount of time necessary to wait until the activity can be performed are explained in sec. 515[:2].57

ט אִם לִקֵּטקו, 49 אוֹ צָדקז אוֹ אָפָהקח וּבִשֵּׁל אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה אַחַת מִשְּׁאָר מְלָאכוֹתקט בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִיםקי, 50 – צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין לָעֶרֶב בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,קיא, 51 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת52 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא מוּכָן לוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד.קיב, 53 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֲחֵרִים שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית הַמְּלָאכָה בִּשְׁבִילָם צְרִיכִים לְהַמְתִּין כֵּן,קיג שֶׁכָּל שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית מְלֶאכֶת אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל – הֶחֱמִירוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁלֹּא לְחַלֵּק בֵּין מִי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים.קיד, 54 אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשָׂה אִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל – מֻתָּר לַאֲחֵרִים מִיָּד,קטו, 55 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.קטז, 56 וְשִׁעוּר "בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ" – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקט"ו:קיז, 57

10 If there is a doubt about whether [produce harvested on Shabbos] was harvested for the sake of a Jew, or it is known that it was harvested for a Jew, but it is not known whether or not it was harvested on [Shabbos, the produce] is forbidden on [Shabbos] and on Saturday night for the time it takes [to reap it]. Even though the matter concerns a doubt regarding a Rabbinic decree, in this instance, leniency should not be followed,58 since the issue involves a davar sheyeish lo matirin.59 There are authorities who maintain that on [Saturday] night, [the produce] should be permitted immediately.60 [The rationale is that] this prohibition is comparable to a penalty [imposed so that] one will not tell a non-Jew to perform [forbidden activities] on Shabbos.61As such, [the Sages] were not so stringent in a case of doubt, even though the issue is a davar sheyeish lo matirin. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.62

Even according to the second opinion, leniency was only granted in an instance where the non-Jew tells the Jew on Friday that he will give [the Jew] produce on Shabbos, and [afterwards, the Jew] goes to the non-Jew’s home [on Shabbos, where] he gives [the Jew the produce]. In such an instance, there is a doubt about whether [the non-Jew] harvested this produce on Shabbos for the sake of the Jew, having in mind on Friday to harvest this produce for the Jew on Shabbos, or whether [the non-Jew] had in mind to harvest other produce and he harvested this produce for himself or for another non-Jew, then afterwards changed his mind and gave it to the Jew when he came to him, or anything else similar [to the above]. If, by contrast, a non-Jew brings a present to a Jew63 or brings [produce] to sell in a city whose inhabitants are mostly Jewish,64 we do not rule leniently and operate under the premise that [the non-Jew] initially harvested [the produce] for himself and then changed his mind and brought it [to the city to give to the Jew or to sell to Jews]. Instead, it can be assumed that [the non-Jew] harvested [the produce] initially for [the purpose of giving or selling it to a Jew]. Similarly, one should not rule leniently, operating under the premise that [the non-Jew] possibly harvested [the produce] on Friday, for it can be assumed that when a non-Jew brings a present or [produce] to sell, he intends to bring from the best [and freshest produce that he has]. Hence, [it is assumed that] he brings from what he harvested on that [very] day.65 Similar [laws apply regarding animals] trapped on a festival.

י סָפֵק אִם לִקְּטָן בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אוֹ שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁלִּקְּטָן בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם נִלְקְטוּ הַיּוֹם אוֹ לָאו – אֲסוּרוֹת בּוֹ בַיּוֹםקיח וְגַם לָעֶרֶב בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ.קיט וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא סְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אֵין הוֹלְכִין בּוֹ לְהָקֵל,58 הוֹאִיל וְהוּא "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין".קכ, 59 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכא שֶׁלָּעֶרֶב מֻתָּר מִיָּד,60 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּעֵין קְנַסקכב שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לוֹמַר לַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת61 – לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ בִּסְפֵקוֹ,קכג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין. וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קכד, 62

וְאַף לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה – לֹא הֵקֵלּוּ אֶלָּא בִּכְגוֹן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אָמַר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לִתֵּן לוֹ פֵּרוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְהָלַךְ לְבֵית הַנָּכְרִי וְנָתַן לוֹ, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא לִקֵּט פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עַל פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ לְלַקְּטָם לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא הָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ לִלְקוֹט לוֹ פֵּרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וּפֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ לִקְּטָם לְעַצְמוֹ אוֹ לְנָכְרִי אַחֵר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ וּנְתָנָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּשֶׁבָּא אֶצְלוֹ,קכה וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה. אֲבָל נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא דּוֹרוֹן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל,קכו, 63 אוֹ שֶׁהֵבִיא לִמְכּוֹרקכז בְּעִיר שֶׁרֻבָּהּ יִשְׂרָאֵלקכח, 64 – אֵין תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל שֶׁמָּא לִקְּטָן מִתְּחִלָּה לְעַצְמוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לַהֲבִיאָן לְכָאן, אֶלָּא מִן הַסְּתָם לִקְּטָן מִתְּחִלָּה לְשֵׁם כָּךְ.קכט וְכֵן אֵין לִתְלוֹת לְהָקֵל שֶׁמָּא לִקְּטָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לְפִי שֶׁנָּכְרִי הַמֵּבִיא דוֹרוֹן אוֹ לִמְכּוֹר – מִן הַסְּתָם הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהָבִיא מִן הַמְשֻׁבָּח, וּמֵבִיא מֵאוֹתָן שֶׁלִּקֵּט הַיּוֹם.קל, 65 וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן צֵידָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב:קלא

11 [Different rules apply regarding] articles about which there is no concern that they were trapped or harvested on Shabbos,66but rather [there is concern] that they were brought from outside [the town’s] Shabbos limits.67 If the non-Jew brings [the article] for himself or for another non-Jew, it is permitted for a Jew to partake of it even on [Shabbos] itself. If [the non-Jew] brings [the article] for a Jew, that person is forbidden to partake of it on that [Shabbos].68 [Moreover,] on [Saturday] night, [he must wait] for the time it takes to bring [the article. This is] a decree [instituted] lest one tell a non-Jew to bring it for him from beyond the Shabbos limits on Shabbos so that he may eat it on Shabbos or immediately [after Shabbos,] on Saturday night.69 Nevertheless, others [for whom the article was not brought] are permitted [to eat it] even on that Shabbos. [The rationale is that] the prohibition of the Shabbos limits is of Rabbinic origin and [our Sages] did not rule so stringently regarding their prohibition [and did not] forbid someone for whom [the food] was not brought [to partake of it].70

Accordingly, even the person for whom [the food] is brought [and who may not eat it on Shabbos] is [nevertheless] permitted to carry it. [The rationale is that] it is not categorized as muktzeh, since it is permitted for others on that day. He must, however, be careful not to carry [the food] more than four cubits71 from the place where the non-Jew sets it down,72 when he sets it down in a place that is not enclosed as a dwelling, e.g., a field or a town that lacks an eruv.73 Thus, if one person carried [the food] two cubits, the second person should not carry it more than [another] two cubits, as will be explained in sec. 401[:2] with regard to any article that a non-Jew takes out of the Shabbos limits.

If [the food] is brought from outside the Shabbos limits on a ship, it is permitted to be eaten even by the person for whom it was brought if the ship traveled more than ten handbreadths74 [above the seabed]. The rationale is that the concept of] Shabbos limits does not apply more than ten handbreadths [above the ground], as will be explained in sec. 404[:1]. One must merely be careful not to carry [the food] more than four cubits, unless it was already in the ship on Friday and never was within ten handbreadths [of the seabed] from the commencement of Shabbos until it reached the Shabbos limits of the place where it is presently found, as will be explained in that source.75

יא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ חֲשַׁשׁ צֵידָה וּמְחֻבָּרקלב, 66 אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּבָא מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם,קלג, 67 אִם הֱבִיאוֹ הַנָּכְרִי לְעַצְמוֹ אוֹ לְנָכְרִי אַחֵר – מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם.קלד וְאִם הֱבִיאוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה בּוֹ בַיּוֹם לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹקלה, 68 וְלָעֶרֶב בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,קלו גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לַנָּכְרִי לְהָבִיא לוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם בְּשַׁבָּתקלז כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם אוֹ לָעֶרֶב מִיָּד.69 אֲבָל לַאֲחֵרִים מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,קלח לְפִי שֶׁאִסּוּר הַתְּחוּמִין הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְלֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ כָּל כָּךְ בְּשֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לֶאֱסוֹר אַף לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא הוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.קלט, 70

וְלָכֵן אַף מִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ מֻתָּר לוֹ לְטַלְטְלוֹ,קמ כִּי אֵין לוֹ דִּין מֻקְצֶה, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה לַאֲחֵרִים בּוֹ בַיּוֹם.קמא רַק שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלוֹ חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹתקמב, 71 מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ הַנָּכְרִי,קמג, 72 אִם הִנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקָּף לְדִירָה,קמד כְּגוֹן בְּשָׂדֶה אוֹ בְּעִיר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת,קמה, 73 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאִם טִלְטְלוֹ אֶחָד שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹתקמו – לֹא יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ הַשֵּׁנִי יוֹתֵר מִשְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"אקמז בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ נָכְרִי חוּץ לַתְּחוּם.

וְאִם הוּבְאָה בִּסְפִינָה מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם – מֻתָּרקמח בַּאֲכִילָה אַף לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, אִם הָלְכָה הַסְּפִינָה לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים,74 שֶׁאֵין תְּחוּמִין לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"ד.קמט רַק שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלוֹ חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בִּסְפִינָה מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,קנ וְלֹא הָיָה לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם שֶׁל מָקוֹם זֶה שֶׁהוּא בּוֹ עַתָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:קנא, 75

12 Even though [food or other articles] that are brought from outside the Shabbos limits are permitted for someone for whom it is not brought, nonetheless, if two [foods or articles] are brought for two different people, they are forbidden to exchange them with each other. [The rationale is that, by doing so, the person will] be benefiting from the article brought to him from outside the Shabbos limits, because as a result, the other person will give him something in exchange for it.76

יב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבָּא מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם מֻתָּר לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא הוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הֵבִיאוּ שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים לִשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם – אֲסוּרִים לְהַחֲלִיף זֶה עִם זֶה,קנב שֶׁהֲרֵי עַל כָּל פָּנִים נֶהֱנֶה הוּא בְּמַה שֶּׁהוּבָא לוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם,קנג שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵן נוֹתֵן חֲבֵרוֹ לוֹ אֶת חֲלִיפָיו:76

13 In all instances where one is required to wait until the time that it [originally] took [to bring the article] passes [on Saturday night], one need only wait the time it took the person who brought it to travel on Shabbos. For example, if [a non-Jew] brings an article from a distance of three hours on Shabbos by riding on horseback, thus bringing [the article] faster [than it would take him had he brought it on foot], on Saturday night, [the person for whom the article was brought] does not have to wait the amount of time it would take to walk to that place by foot. It is sufficient to wait three hours.77 Nor need [the Jew] consider the possibility that [the non-Jew] did not ride that quickly, but instead, rode [leisurely] for a longer period of time, [having begun riding] on Friday night, because it can be assumed that it is not common practice to ride at night.

When does the above apply? When the person knows from where [the non-Jew] brought [the article and the time it takes to travel from there]. If, however, he does not know this at all, and it is possible that [the non-Jew] brought [the article] from a close place, it is sufficient that he wait the amount of time [it takes] to bring [the article] from just outside the Shabbos limits, in addition to the time it takes to pick [the produce] or trap [the game], if the article is of the type that [originally] grows from the ground or must be trapped, as will be explained in sec. 515[:2].

There are authorities who maintain that whenever it is required to wait the amount of time it takes to bring [an article] from outside the Shabbos limits – and, needless to say, when it is necessary to wait the amount of time it takes to bring an article from a more distant location – Saturday night is not counted. Instead, it is necessary to [begin calculating this measure of time] from the next day, i.e., Sunday [morning. The rationale is that] it is not common to bring [articles] from a distant place, i.e., outside the Shabbos limits, at night. Therefore, there is reason for concern that because of this, one will tell a non-Jew to bring [the article] on Shabbos, so that it will be ready for him to use on Saturday night after he waits the amount of time.

One should give weight to their words regarding Shabbos. Regarding festivals, by contrast, one may rule leniently in accordance with the first opinion. Moreover, even regarding Shabbos, one may rule leniently [if the article is] necessary for guests or for another feast associated with a mitzvah. However, all authorities agree that in instances where one is required to wait the amount [of time] it takes to bring an article from within the Shabbos limits – e.g., a non-Jew harvested produce or caught fish within the [town’s] Shabbos limits – and it is necessary to wait the amount of time it takes to harvest [the produce] or catch [the fish] and bring them from the place where they were harvested and caught, that time can begin being counted from nightfall [Saturday night].

יג כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין אֶלָּא בִּכְדֵי שֶׁשָּׁהָה הַמֵּבִיא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן אִם הֵבִיא לוֹ מִמָּקוֹם רָחוֹק בְּשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת עַל הַיּוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רָכַב עַל סוּס וְלָכֵן מִהֵר הֲבָאָתוֹ – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת כְּדֵי הֲלִיכָה לְשָׁם בְּרֶגֶל, אֶלָּא דַּי שֶׁיַּמְתִּין שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת.קנד, 77 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא לֹא רָכַב כָּל כָּךְ בִּמְרוּצָה אֶלָּא רָכַב הַרְבֵּה בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת, כִּי מִן הַסְּתָם אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִרְכּוֹב בַּלַּיְלָה.קנה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ מֵאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם הֵבִיא, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ כְּלָל, וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהֱבִיאוֹ מִמָּקוֹם קָרוֹב – דַּי שֶׁיַּמְתִּין לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי הֲבָאָה מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם,קנו חוּץ מִמַּה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לִשְׁהוֹת בִּלְקִיטָתוֹקנז אוֹ צֵידָתוֹ אִם הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּמִינוֹ בִּמְחֻבָּר אוֹ מְחֻסַּר צֵידָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקט"ו.קנח

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקנט שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי הֲבָאָה מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם,קס וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי הֲבָאָה מִמָּקוֹם רָחוֹק יוֹתֵר – אֵין לֵיל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת עוֹלֶה מִן הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן, וְצָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין שִׁעוּר זֶה לְמָחָר בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין רְגִילוּת לְהָבִיא בַּלַּיְלָה מִמָּקוֹם רָחוֹקקסא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וְאִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא מִפְּנֵי כָךְ יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהָבִיא לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מוּכָן לוֹ בְּלֵיל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת אַחַר שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה שִׁעוּר זֶה.

וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת. אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן יוֹם טוֹב – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קסב וְאַף לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל לְצֹרֶךְ אוֹרְחִיםקסג אוֹ שְׁאָר סְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה.קסד

אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי הֲבָאָה מִתּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם, כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי שֶׁלִּקֵּט פֵּרוֹת אוֹ צָד דָּגִים בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם, וְצָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי לְקִיטָה אוֹ צֵידָה וַהֲבָאָה מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁלִּקֵּט וְצָד בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם – הֲרֵי הַלַּיְלָה עוֹלֶה לוֹ מִן הַחֶשְׁבּוֹןקסה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:

14 If it is not known whether [or not the article] was brought from outside the Shabbos limits, it is forbidden for the person for whom it was brought until Saturday night, after waiting the time it takes to bring it from outside the Shabbos limits.78 [The rationale is that the article is] a davar sheyeish lo matirin.59 According to the authorities who maintain that a prohibition of this nature is comparable to a penalty [imposed] lest one instruct the non-Jew to perform [the activity] on Shabbos, and that[the Sages] did not rule stringently when there is a doubt concerning such a matter even though it is a davar sheyeish lo matirin, as stated above,79 in this instance as well, [the article] is permitted to be eaten78 even by the person for whom it was brought, and even on [Shabbos] itself. It was already explained79 that fundamentally the halachah follows the first, [more stringent] approach.

יד אִם הוּא סָפֵק אִם הוּבָא מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם – אָסוּר לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי הֲבָאָה מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם,קסו, 78 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין".קסז, 59

וּלְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁבְּאִסּוּר כָּזֶה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּעֵין קְנַס שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ בִּסְפֵקוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקסח, 79 – אַף כָּאן מֻתָּרקסט בַּאֲכִילָה78 אֲפִלּוּ לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם.קע וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵרקעא, 79 שֶׁהָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:קעב

15 All the above80 applies regarding a non-Jew who does not dwell together with the Jew in his town.81 If, however, the non-Jew dwells with [the Jew] in the [same] town, and his produce is available to him in the town, we do not assume that he brought [the produce] from outside the town. On the contrary, we assume that the produce found here was located here [originally]. Even if the non-Jew has two homes, one outside [the town’s] Shabbos limits and one inside its limits, we make the lenient assumption that he brought [the produce] from within [the town’s] Shabbos limits. [The rationale is that] we assume [the non-Jew] did not leave his closer house to go and bring [produce] from his more distant house. If, however, [the non-Jew] owns two homes outside [the town’s] Shabbos limits and [only] one [additional home] within those limits, concern should be shown since the majority of his homes are outside the Shabbos limits.82

טו וְכָל זֶה80 בְּנָכְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁרוּי עִמּוֹ בָּעִיר,קעג, 81 אֲבָל נָכְרִי הַשָּׁרוּי עִמּוֹ בָּעִיר וּפֵרוֹת הַמְּצוּיִים עִמּוֹ בָּעִיר – אֵין מַחֲזִיקִים מִסָּפֵק לוֹמַר שֶׁמָּא הֱבִיאָן מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם, כִּי אַדְּרַבָּה אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים "כָּאן נִמְצְאוּ וְכָאן הָיוּ".קעד

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ לְנָכְרִי שְׁנֵי בָתִּים, אֶחָד חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְאֶחָד בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּםקעה – תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל שֶׁהֵבִיא מִתּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם,קעו כִּי מִן הַסְּתָם אֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ בַּיִת הַקָּרוֹב וְהוֹלֵךְ לְהָבִיא מִבַּיִת הָרָחוֹק.קעז

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָתִּים חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְאֶחָד בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְרֹב הַבָּתִּים שֶׁהֵם חוּץ לַתְּחוּם:קעח, 82

16 A non-Jew who fills a [trough of] water for his animal from a cistern that is ten handbreadths deep and four handbreadths wide that is located in the public domain is taking [the water] from a private domain83 [and transferring it] to the public domain.84 [Nevertheless,] a Jew is permitted to water his animal [with this water],84 since the non-Jew did not have the Jew in mind at all [when drawing the water].

[The above applies] provided the non-Jew is not acquainted with [the Jew]. If, however, [the non-Jew] is acquainted with [the Jew, the Jew] is forbidden [to do so].84 [This is] a decree [instituted] lest the non-Jew draw more water [so that there will] also [be water] for the Jew, should [the Jew] also [desire to] water [his animal] from it.85

Even if [the non-Jew] is not acquainted with [the Jew], if he fills [a trough with] water for the sake of the Jew’s animal, it is forbidden for [that Jew and even for] other [Jews] to use this water84 even for another purpose – for example, to bathe or to wash utensils. [The rationale is that] whenever a Scriptural prohibition is performed by a non-Jew for the sake of a Jew, our Sages did not make a distinction [in their prohibition] between [the person for whom it was performed] and others.86 If, however, [the non-Jew] fills [a trough with] water from a cistern standing in a karmelis,87or he brings water to the public domain from a river, which is a karmelis, it is permitted for a person for whom it was not brought.88 For the prohibition [against transferring from] a karmelis is merely Rabbinic [in origin].

At present, people at large customarily permit instructing a non-Jew to bring beer or other items that are necessary for the Shabbos via a karmelis, even as an initial option. There are authorities who have justified their conduct, explaining that the Shabbos needs of people at large are considered as equivalent to matters associated with a mitzvah for which sake a shvus d’shvus89was permitted, as explained in sec. 307[:12. If one takes such license,] he must be careful not to place a container [directly] in the hand of a non-Jew or take it [directly] from [the non-Jew’s] hand, as stated in sec. 307[:27].90He also [must be careful] not to give the non-Jew money, as will be explained in sec. 517[:6].91

(Nevertheless, one should take such leniencies only regarding beer and other similar Shabbos necessities that are absolutely required, [i.e.,] those which one cannot do without except with a degree of hardship.92 Entities that are not necessary to such an extent, e.g., fruits, additional types of cooked foods, and the like, are not considered as articles associated with a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 261.)93

טז נָכְרִי שֶׁמִּלֵּא מַיִם לִבְהֶמְתּוֹקעט מִבּוֹר שֶׁהוּא עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְרָחָב אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִיםקפ הָעוֹמֵד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קפא וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד83 לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםקפב, 84 – מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַשְׁקוֹת מֵהֶם בְּהֶמְתּוֹ,קפג, 84 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.קפד וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מַכִּירוֹ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא מַכִּירוֹ – אָסוּר,קפה, 84 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה הַנָּכְרִי לִדְלוֹת גַּם בִּשְׁבִילוֹקפו אִם יַשְׁקֶה גַם הוּא מֵהֶם.85

וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מַכִּירוֹ, אִם מִלֵּא לְצֹרֶךְ בֶּהֱמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּרקפז אֲפִלּוּ לַאֲחֵרִיםקפח לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּמַיִם אֵלּוּ84 אֲפִלּוּ תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר,קפט כְּגוֹן רְחִיצָהקצ וַהֲדָחַת כֵּלִים, שֶׁכָּל שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי לְצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל – לֹא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים בֵּין מִי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים.קצא, 86

אֲבָל אִם מִלֵּא מִבּוֹר הָעוֹמֵד בְּכַרְמְלִית,קצב, 87 אוֹ שֶׁהֵבִיא מַיִם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִן הַנָּהָרקצג שֶׁהוּא כַּרְמְלִיתקצד – מֻתָּר לְאַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא הוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,קצה, 88 שֶׁאִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.קצו

וְעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ הָעוֹלָם הֶתֵּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהָבִיא שֵׁכָר אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם צֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית.קצז וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת לוֹמַרקצח שֶׁצָּרְכֵי שַׁבָּת חֲשׁוּבִים הֵם כִּדְבַר מִצְוָה, שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בוֹ שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת,קצט, 89 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז.ר וּצְרִיכִים הֵם לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן הַכְּלִי לְיַד הַנָּכְרִי, וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא לִקַּח מִיָּדוֹ,רא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,רב, 90 וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן מָעוֹת לְנָכְרִי,רג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקי"ז.רד, 91

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְהָקֵל אֶלָּא בְּשֵׁכָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, מֵהַדְּבָרִים הַצְּרִיכִים בְּשַׁבָּת צֹרֶךְ גָּמוּר, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִהְיוֹת בִּלְעָדָם אֶלָּא בְּדֹחַק קְצָת.92 אֲבָל דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כָּל כָּךְ, כְּגוֹן פֵּרוֹת וּמִינֵי תַּבְשִׁילִים יְתֵרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – אֵינָן נִקְרָאִים דְּבַר מִצְוָה,רה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רס"ארו, 93):

17 When [on Shabbos] a non-Jew picks grass that is attached to the ground for the sake of his own animal, a Jew may let his animal eat [what is] left over,94 i.e., [the Jew] may stand in front of his animal so that it can only go in the direction [of the detached grass],94 as explained in sec. 324[:10]95 with regard to any object that is forbidden to be moved. For this grass is also forbidden to be moved, as explained above.96

[The above leniency applies] provided the non-Jew is not acquainted [with the Jew]. If, however, he is acquainted with [the Jew], it is forbidden for the Jew to even stand before [his own animal] so that it eats this [grass] on Shabbos.94[This is] a decree [instituted] lest the non-Jew pick more [grass] for the sake of [the Jew’s animal, in the event that the Jew desires that his animal] eat from it. On Saturday night, however, [the Jew] need not wait the time it takes [to pick the grass before allowing his animal to graze from it. The rationale is that] the non-Jew picked [the grass] for his own needs97 and [the grass] was forbidden [to the Jew] on Shabbos only as a decree lest [the non-Jew, pick] more for [the Jew’s] sake.

יז לִקֵּט נָכְרִי עֲשָׂבִים מֵהַמְחֻבָּר לְצֹרֶךְ בְּהֶמְתּוֹ – מַאֲכִיל אַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ,רז, 94 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁעוֹמֵד בְּפָנֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא תוּכַל לִנְטוֹת אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם,רח, 94 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"דרט, 95 בְּכָל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל, וְאַף עֲשָׂבִים אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל,רי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.ריא, 96

וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מַכִּירוֹ, אֲבָל אִם מַכִּירוֹ – אָסוּר לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לַעֲמוֹד בְּפָנֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁתֹּאכַל מֵהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת,ריב, 94 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה הַנָּכְרִי לִלְקוֹט בִּשְׁבִיל בְּהֶמְתּוֹריג אִם יַאֲכִילֶנָּה מֵהֶם. אֲבָל לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי לִקֵּט לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ,97 וְאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ:ריד

18 Similar laws apply regarding all situations where there is concern that [the non-Jew] will increase [performing a forbidden activity] for the sake of [a Jew] if he is acquainted with him; for example, a non-Jew who roasts or cooks [food] for himself 98 that is not forbidden because of the prohibition against food cooked by non-Jews,38 or any similar situation where an increase [in the forbidden activity] must be made [to enable] two people to benefit, rather than one.

By contrast, in a situation where there is no concern that [the non-Jew] will increase [the forbidden activity] for the sake of [a Jew] – e.g., he kindles a lamp for himself or erects a ramp to descend from a ship – even if he is acquainted with [the Jew], it is permitted [for the Jew to benefit from it.94 The rationale:] one lamp and one ramp is sufficient for everyone.99

יח וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ אִם הוּא מַכִּירוֹ,רטו כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי שֶׁצָּלָהרטז אוֹ בִּשֵּׁלריז לְעַצְמוֹריח, 98 דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּלֵי נָכְרִים,38 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּדָבָר זֶה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַרְבּוֹת בּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שְׁנַיִם יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁבִיל אֶחָד.

אֲבָל בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִדְלִיק נֵר לְעַצְמוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה כֶּבֶשׁ לֵירֵד בּוֹ מֵהַסְּפִינָה,ריט שֶׁבְּנֵר אֶחָד וְכֶבֶשׁ אֶחָד יַסְפִּיק לַכֹּל99 – אֲפִלּוּ מַכִּירוֹ מֻתָּר:רכ, 94

19 Even if [the non-Jew] is not acquainted with [the Jew], if he explicitly says that he is acting for the sake of the Jew, [the Jew is forbidden to benefit from his act. Moreover,] even if [the non-Jew] does not make such statements, but his actions clearly indicate that he is acting for the sake of the Jew – e.g., the non-Jew kindles a lamp in a Jew’s home and then departs without benefiting from [the lamp] at all – it is forbidden for [the Jew] to make use of its light.100

יט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַכִּירוֹ, אִם אוֹמֵר בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר כֵּן, אִם מַעֲשָׂיו מוֹכִיחִים שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִדְלִיק נֵר בַּבַּיִת שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בּוֹ וְהָלַךְ לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי וְלֹא נֶהֱנָה מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ:רכא, 100

20 If a non-Jew picks grass (for his own animal) and (also) feeds an animal belonging to a Jew, [the Jew] need not admonish him. Even though it can be assumed that [the non-Jew] also picked [the grass] for the sake of the Jew,101 there is no prohibition at all in this picking.102 [The rationale is that] every non-Jew who acts [on behalf of a Jew] on his own initiative surely has his own self-interest in mind; he knows that he will not suffer a loss, as explained in sec. 252[:10.103 The above applies] provided the grass does not belong to the Jew, but rather belongs to the non-Jew or is ownerless, for the reason explained in that source.104

(There is also no prohibition against [the non-Jew] feeding the Jew’s animal with grass that he picked for his own sake. True, it is forbidden for [the Jew] to benefit from the activity the non-Jew performs for his sake, even though the non-Jew has his own benefit in mind, as stated in that source. Nevertheless, since in this instance the Jew’s physical person does not derive benefit from [the non-Jew’s activity], the Sages did not institute a decree [forbidding this] unless the Jew stands in front of his animal, [causing] it to eat. [They] did not, however, [institute a restriction] when the non-Jew feeds it [on his own initiative], since he has his own benefit in mind.)

When does the above apply? When the non-Jew does this by happenstance (i.e., it is not indisputably known that he also picked [the grass] for the sake of the Jew. It could be possible that he picked it for his own sake and then decided to give some to the Jew’s animal.) If, however, [the non-Jew] is accustomed to doing so, the Jew must admonish him. (Since the non-Jew certainly picks [the grass] for [the Jew’s] sake, the Sages instituted a decree even on [the grass the non-Jew] uses to feed the Jew’s animal.)

כ אִם לִקֵּט נָכְרִי עֲשָׂבִיםרכב (לִבְהֶמְתּוֹרכג) וְהֶאֱכִיל (גַּם) לְבֶהֱמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם לִקֵּט גַּם לְצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵלרכד, 101 – אֵין אִסּוּר בְּלִקּוּט זֶה כְּלָל,102 כִּי כָּל נָכְרִי הָעוֹשֶׂה דָבָר מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּוַדַּאי מִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹרכה שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד,רכו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ב.רכז, 103 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ עֲשָׂבִים שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, אֶלָּא שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי אוֹ שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.רכח, 104

(וְגַם אֵין אִסּוּר בְּמַה שֶּׁמַּאֲכִיל לְבֶהֱמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעֲשָׂבִים שֶׁלִּקֵּט בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, שֶׁאַף שֶׁאָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֵהָנוֹת מִמַּה שֶּׁעָשָׂה הַנָּכְרִי בִּשְׁבִילוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן אֵין גּוּפוֹ מַמָּשׁ נֶהֱנֶה מִזֶּהרכט – לֹא גָזְרוּ חֲכָמִים אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא עַצְמוֹ עוֹמֵד בְּפָנֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁתֹּאכַל,רל אֲבָל לֹא עַל מַה שֶּׁהַנָּכְרִי מַאֲכִילָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן בָּזֶה לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ).

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ מִקְרֶה (שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁלִּקֵּט גַּם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּי שֶׁמָּא לִקְּטָן לְעַצְמוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לִתֵּן לְבֶהֱמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל). אֲבָל אִם רָגִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן – צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹרלא (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הוּא לִקְּטָן בִּשְׁבִילוֹרלב – גָּזְרוּ חֲכָמִים אַף עַל מַה שֶׁמַּאֲכִיל הַנָּכְרִי מֵהֶם לְבֶהֱמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל):

21 When (in a town primarily inhabited by non-Jews,) a non-Jew makes a coffin or digs a grave on Shabbos to bury his dead or to sell,105 it is permitted for it to be used for the burial of a Jewish [corpse]106 immediately on Saturday night.107 If [the non-Jew] made [the coffin or dug the grave] for the sake of a Jew, it is necessary to wait [on Saturday night] the time it takes to make it,108 whether to use it to bury the Jewish [corpse] for which it was made or whether to bury another Jew.

When does the above apply? When the coffin or the grave are located in a secluded location and it is not known to everyone that it was made on Shabbos for a given Jew. When, by contrast, a grave is located in a public place or a coffin is made on Shabbos near a grave located in a public place, and thus everyone knows that this grave or this coffin was made for a given Jew, it is forbidden to ever use [this grave or coffin] for the burial of that Jew, even if one waits the time it takes to make it.106 This is a penalty, because the Shabbos was publicly desecrated by the non-Jew for [the sake of the deceased Jew]. It is, however, permitted to bury another Jew in [the coffin or grave] after waiting the time it takes to make it. Similar laws apply when the Shabbos is publicly desecrated by a non-Jew for a living Jew. As a penalty, [the products of the non-Jew’s labor] are forbidden to [that Jew] for all time, even though he did not instruct the non-Jew [to perform that task for him].

There are authorities who maintain that [the Rabbis] did not [institute] the penalty of forbidding [burying the] deceased [in that grave] for all time as a penalty, but [rather] because it is shameful for a corpse to be buried in a grave that is publicly known [to have been dug] for the sake [of the deceased] in desecration of the Shabbos. According to this approach, [when a forbidden labor is performed for] a living [Jew], even he is permitted [to benefit from it] after waiting the time it takes to perform [the labor on Saturday night, despite the fact that the people at large know of the performance of the forbidden labor]. In a time of need, one may rely on their opinion and rule leniently, [since the prohibition] is of Rabbinic origin.

Even according to the first opinion, the Sages ruled stringently only when the non-Jew acts on his own initiative. If, however, before Shabbos, [the non-Jew] agrees to perform this task and the Jew establishes a fixed fee for it without saying when it must be performed, should [the non-Jew] perform [the task] on Shabbos on his own initiative, according to law, there is no prohibition [against using the fruits of his labor] after waiting the time it takes to perform [the forbidden labor on Saturday night], even when [the non-Jew] performed [the forbidden labor] in public.109

Even if the non-Jew was a day-worker hired [by the Jew], but the Jew did not tell him on which day [to work], and he performed the task on Shabbos on his own initiative [the fruits of his labor] are permitted even [to use] for a corpse, according to the letter of the law. Nevertheless, all authorities agree that it is proper to be stringent even [when the task is performed for] a living person,110 and no Jewish person should ever benefit from [the forbidden labor, since] the Shabbos was publicly desecrated by a non-Jew as a result of a Jew’s instructions. [This applies even] if the non-Jew worked as a contractor, in which instance, there is no prohibition [against benefiting from it] according to the letter of the law,111 as will be explained in sec. 664.112 [The only] exception is when [the Jew] admonishes the non-Jew, but the non-Jew does not pay attention [to the admonishment and continues working] for his own personal benefit, as explained in sec. 244[:7].113

כא נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת אָרוֹן אוֹ קֶבֶר לִקְבּוֹר בּוֹ מֵתוֹרלג אוֹ לִמְכּוֹררלד (בְּעִיר שֶׁרֻבָּהּ נָכְרִיםרלה)105 – מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִקָּבֵר106 בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד.רלו, 107 וְאִם עֲשָׂאוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל – צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,רלז, 108 בֵּין לִקְבּוֹר בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, בֵּין לִקְבּוֹר בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר.רלח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַקֶּבֶר אוֹ הָאָרוֹן עוֹמְדִים בְּמָקוֹם הַמֻּצְנָע, שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר מְפֻרְסָם לַכֹּל שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל פְּלוֹנִי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל קֶבֶר הָעוֹמֵד בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא,רלט וְכֵן אָרוֹן הַנַּעֲשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת אֵצֶל קֶבֶר הָעוֹמֵד בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא,רמ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהַכֹּל יוֹדְעִים שֶׁקֶּבֶר זֶה אוֹ אָרוֹן זֶה נַעֲשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת לִפְלוֹנִי יִשְׂרָאֵלרמא – אָסוּר לִקְבּוֹר בּוֹ אוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹלָמִית,רמב וְאַף לְאַחַר בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,106 מִשּׁוּם קְנַסרמג עַל שֶׁנִּתְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִירמד בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִקְבּוֹר בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵררמה לְאַחַר בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ.רמו וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם נִתְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל חַי – אָסוּר לוֹ עוֹלָמִית,רמז מִשּׁוּם קְנַס, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא צִוָּה אֶת הַנָּכְרִי עַל כָּכָה.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרמח שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ עוֹלָמִית גַּבֵּי מֵת מִשּׁוּם קְנַס אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁגְּנַאי הוּא לְמֵת שֶׁיִּקָּבֵר בְּקֶבֶר מְפֻרְסָם שֶׁנִּתְחַלֵּל בּוֹ שַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ. וּלְפִי זֶה גַּבֵּי חַי – מֻתָּר אַף לוֹ לְאַחַר בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ. וּלְעֵת הַצֹּרֶךְ יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דַּעְתָּם לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.

וְאַף לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ חֲכָמִים אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעָשָׂה הַנָּכְרִי הַדָּבָר מֵעַצְמוֹ,רמט אֲבָל אִם קִבֵּל עָלָיו קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת זֶה וְקָצַץ לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שָׂכָר,רנ וְלֹא קָבַע לוֹ זְמַן אֵימָתַי יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ, וְעָשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ – אֵין אִסּוּר מִן הַדִּין לְאַחַר הַמְתָּנָה בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,רנא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא.109 וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַנָּכְרִי שְׂכִיר יוֹם, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא קָבַע לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵיזֶה יוֹם, וְעָשָׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.

וַאֲפִלּוּ גַּבֵּי מֵת מֻתָּר בְּעִנְיָן זֶה מִן הַדִּין, אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּכוֹן לְהַחֲמִיררנב אַף גַּבֵּי חַירנג לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,110 שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ עוֹלָמִית שׁוּם אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל,רנד כָּל שֶׁנִּתְחַלֵּל בּוֹ שַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא עַל יְדֵי אֲמִירַת יִשְׂרָאֵל,רנה אֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂהוּ הַנָּכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת,רנו שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,111 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תרס"ד,רנז, 112 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מִחָה בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי וְלֹא הִשְׁגִּיחַ בּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הֲנָאַת עַצְמוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רמ"ד:רנח, 113

22 [The following law applies when,] on Shabbos, a non-Jew brings flutes through the public domain for the mourning [ceremony] of a Jew.114 Since a Scriptural prohibition115 is [violated by bringing the flutes], they should not be used for a mourning [ceremony] – not for that Jew nor for any other Jew – until one waits on Saturday night the time it took the non-Jew to bring [the flutes] on Shabbos.

[The above applies regardless of] whether [the non-Jew] brings [the flutes] from a place that is outside the Shabbos limitsor from a place within the Shabbos limits. If [the Jew] does not know from where [the non-Jew] is bringing [the flutes], it is sufficient to wait the amount of time necessary to bring them from [immediately] outside the Shabbos limits.116

When does the above apply? When [the non-Jew] brings [the flutes] in a discreet manner. If, however, he brings [the flutes] openly, in a manner so that everyone knows that they were brought through the public domain for the sake of a given Jew, it is forbidden to ever use them for a mourning service for that Jew.

All the above applies [in an area that is] a public domain in a complete sense. [Different laws apply,] however, if [the non-Jew] brings [the flutes] via a karmelis.117 If [the non-Jew] brings [the flutes] from within the Shabbos limits, it is not necessary to wait at all even [to use them] for the sake of the person for whom they were brought. For [our Sages] ruled stringently when [a non-Jew] brings [items] for a person via a karmelis only to the extent that [that Jew] should not benefit from them on Shabbos itself. [They did not require that the person] wait on Saturday night for the time it takes to perform [the forbidden labor], unless [the non-Jew] brought [the flutes] from outside the Shabbos limits. In such an instance, [the non-Jew’s] bringing [them] on Shabbos is significant. If, by contrast, [the non-Jew] brought [the flutes] from within the Shabbos limits, his bringing it on Shabbos is not of such significance (because the Jew could walk to [the place where the flutes were] by himself on Shabbos and bring them immediately on Saturday night. There is no concern that, in view of the short amount of time it would take for [a Jew] to walk back from [the place where the flutes were] on Saturday night, he will tell a non-Jew to go there [and bring the flutes] on Shabbos.)

If there is a doubt whether [the non-Jew] brought [the flutes] from within the Shabbos limits or from outside the Shabbos limits, they are forbidden for the person for whom they were brought.118 It is permitted for other [Jews], however, [to use the flutes. This applies] even if [the flutes] were definitely [brought from] outside the Shabbos limits.119 If [the flutes] were brought from outside the Shabbos limits via a karmelis, and afterwards they were brought via the public domain, on Saturday night it is only necessary to wait the amount of time needed to bring [the flutes] from the beginning of the public domain. After [that amount of time passes], it is permitted for [the flutes] to be used by others. [Similarly, the flutes are permitted] even for the person for whom they were brought, as long as they were brought from within the Shabbos limits.

כב נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא בְּשַׁבָּתרנט דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםרס חֲלִילִין לְהַסְפִּיד בָּהֶם יִשְׂרָאֵל,114 כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָהֶם אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,115 לֹא יַסְפִּידוּ בָּהֶם לֹא אוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר,רסא עַד שֶׁיַּמְתִּינוּ בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לַהֲבִיאָם בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁהֱבִיאָם הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת,רסב בֵּין שֶׁאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם הוּא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם בֵּין שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם.רסג וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ מֵהֵיכָן הֱבִיאָם – דַּי שֶׁיַּמְתִּינוּ בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לַהֲבִיאָם מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם.רסד, 116

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהֱבִיאָם בְּצִנְעָא, אֲבָל אִם הֱבִיאָם בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהַכֹּל יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהוּבְאוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל פְּלוֹנִי יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר לְהַסְפִּיד בָּהֶם אוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹלָמִית.רסה

וְכָל זֶה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה, אֲבָל אִם הֱבִיאָם דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית,רסו, 117 אִם הֱבִיאָם מִתּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּםרסז – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ לְמִי שֶׁהוּבְאוּ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱמִירוּרסח לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ, אֲבָל לֹא לְהַמְתִּין בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֱבִיאָם מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם שֶׁאָז מוֹעֶלֶת הֲבָאָתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם אֵין הֲבָאָתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת מוֹעֶלֶת כָּל כָּךְרסט (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם בְּעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְלַהֲבִיאָם בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד, וּמִשּׁוּם שִׁעוּר מֻעָט שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹהֶה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בַּחֲזִירָתוֹ מִשָּׁם לְכָאן – אֵין לָחוּשׁ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת).

וְאִם הוּא סָפֵק אִם הֱבִיאָם מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם אוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם – אָסוּרער לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,118 אֲבָל לַאֲחֵרִים מֻתָּר, אֲפִלּוּ בְּוַדַּאי חוּץ לַתְּחוּם.רעא, 119

וְאִם הֱבִיאָם מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֶעֱבִירָם דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין אֶלָּא בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לַהֲבִיאָם מִתְּחִלַּת רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,ערב וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֻתָּר לַאֲחֵרִים,רעג אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ אִם הוּבְאוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם:עדר