SECTION 324 The Laws Governing the Preparation of Food for Animals on Shabbos (1-12)

סימן שכד דִּינֵי הֲכָנַת מַאֲכָל לִבְהֵמָה בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 Straw may not sifted with a sieve so that its chaff will fall to the earth, nor may it be put in a high place1 so that the chaff will fall [off on its own accord],2 for this is comparable to separating [waste from desirable matter].3 [One] may, however, take [straw] in a sieve and place it in a feeding-trough. Even though [carrying straw in this manner will] sometimes [cause] the chaff to fall through the holes of the sieve as a matter of course, since this is not intentional and it is not an inevitable consequence [of his actions,4 doing so] is permitted.

א אֵין כּוֹבְרִין אֶת הַתֶּבֶן בַּכְּבָרָה שֶׁיִּפֹּל הַמֹּץ לָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ בְּמָקוֹם גָּבוֹהַּ1 כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּרֵד הַמֹּץ,א, 2 שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּבוֹרֵר.ב, 3 אֲבָל נוֹטְלוֹ בַּכְּבָרָה וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָאֵבוּס,ג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמֹּץ נוֹפֵל לִפְעָמִים מֵאֵלָיו דֶּרֶךְ נִקְבֵי הַכְּבָרָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן לְכָךְ וְלֹא "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ"4 הוּא – מֻתָּר:ד

2 A person should not measure out barley5 for his animal.6 Instead, he should estimate [how much to feed it. The rationale is that] measuring is forbidden [on Shabbos] even when it is not associated with commercial activity, since it is a mundane activity, as explained in sec. 306[:18].

ב לֹא יִמְדּוֹד אָדָם שְׂעוֹרִים5 לָתֵת לִפְנֵי בְהֶמְתּוֹ,ה, 6 אֶלָּא מְשַׁעֵר בְּאֹמֶד דַּעְתּוֹ,ו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמְּדִידָה אֲסוּרָה מִשּׁוּם עוֹבָדִין דְּחֹל אַף שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ו:ז

3 In sec. 321[:16], it was already explained that bran is one of the substances which cannot be kneaded [effectively. Hence,] if one makes dough with bran on Shabbos, there are authorities who maintain that he is exempt according to Scriptural Law. It is, however, forbidden according to Rabbinic Law to make a mixture of bran for an animal or for chickens7 [in the same manner] as one does during the week. Instead, [the person] must make a deviation,8 e.g., to mix it only a little at a time, as explained in that source. Alternatively, [the person] may even make a large amount at one time, but he should not mix it with his hand after he places the water in [the mixture], as he does during the week. Instead, he should pass a mixing spoon or a rod through it horizontally and vertically, doing so even several times until it is thoroughly mixed.8 [The rationale is that] since he does not mix it with his hands, nor stir the mixing spoon or the rod in a circular motion as he would during the week, but rather passes it [back and forth] horizontally and vertically, this is considered a significant deviation. It is also permitted to pour [the water and bran] from one container to another until it becomes thoroughly mixed.8 It is permitted to mix a kor9and even two korim of bran in this manner in one container according to the amount he needs [to feed] his animals on that day. He may then divide [the dough] into many containers, giving [some] to each [of his] animals.

As explained in the above source,10 there are authorities who maintain that one is liable for mixing bran with liquids according to Scriptural Law and that one is liable even for merely adding water without mixing it in,7 because the addition of water [to bran] itself [constitutes making a mixture, and hence,] is considered like kneading it. [According to those authorities,] it is forbidden to add water to bran on Shabbos even if one deviates [from his ordinary practice. Therefore,] instead [of adding water on Shabbos itself, one should] add water to [the bran] on Friday. If he does so, mixing it on Shabbos is not forbidden according to Scriptural Law, only according to Rabbinic Law. [Hence,] he is [then] permitted [to mix the bran and water on Shabbos] by making a deviation in the manners described [above]. It was already explained in that source,10 that one should be stringent [and follow] this view, and that this is the prevailing custom.

ג כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"אח שֶׁהַמֻּרְסָן הוּא מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי גִבּוּל, וְאִם גְּבָלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםט שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לִגְבּוֹל מֻרְסָן לִבְהֵמָה אוֹ לַתַּרְנְגוֹלִיםי, 7 כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל,יא אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּייב, 8 כְּגוֹן לְגָבְלוֹ מְעַט מְעַט,יג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,יד אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּבַת אַחַת אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יְמָרֵס בְּיָדוֹטו אַחַר שֶׁנָּתַן הַמַּיִם לְתוֹכוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל,טז אֶלָּא מַעֲבִיר בּוֹ תַּרְוָד אוֹ מַקֵּל שְׁתִי וְעֵרֶביז אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה פְעָמִיםיח עַד שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵב יָפֶה,8 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְמָרֵס בְּיָדוֹ, וְלֹא יְסַבֵּב הַתַּרְוָד אוֹ הַמַּקֵּליט בְּסָבִיב כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל אֶלָּא מַעֲבִירוֹ שְׁתִי וְעֵרֶב – הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁנּוּי גָּמוּר. וּמֻתָּר גַּם כֵּן לְנַעֲרוֹ מִכְּלִי אֶל כְּלִי עַד שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵבכ יָפֶה.כא, 8 וּמֻתָּר לְעָרֵב הַמֻּרְסָן בְּדֶרֶךְ זוֹ בִּכְלִי אֶחָד אֲפִלּוּ כּוֹר9 וַאֲפִלּוּ כּוֹרַיִם,כב כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לִבְהֵמוֹתָיו הַיּוֹם,כג וּמְחַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ בְּכֵלִים הַרְבֵּה וְנוֹתֵן לִפְנֵי כָּל בְּהֵמָה וּבְהֵמָה.כד

וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםכה שֶׁהַמְגַבֵּל הַמֻּרְסָן חַיָּב מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּנְתִינַת מַיִם בִּלְבַד בְּלֹא גִבּוּל חַיָּב,כו, 7 כִּי נְתִינַת הַמַּיִם זֶהוּ גִּבּוּלוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם10 אָסוּר לִתֵּן מַיִם לְמֻרְסָן בְּשַׁבָּתכז אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי, אֶלָּא אִם נָתַן בּוֹ הַמַּיִם מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – אֲזַי אֵין בְּגִבּוּלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְהִתִּירוּהוּ עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי בְּדֶרֶךְ זוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.כח וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר שָׁםכט, 10 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְבָרָא זוֹ,ל וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין:

4 On Shabbos, it is permitted to untie sheaves of straw that were bound together in two or three places, so that an animal can eat from them,2 provided they are not tied with a permanent knot. It is, however, forbidden to rub [the straw] by hand2 as is usually done [to prepare] food for animals, so that it will be [soft and thereby] more pleasant for them to eat it. [The rationale is that] whenever food is fit to be eaten [in its present state] without further improvement, it is forbidden to take the trouble to improve it simply for the sake of [greater] pleasure [for an animal].

When, by contrast, a substance is not yet “food,” i.e., it is not yet edible without improving it in a manner that is not at all associated with a forbidden activity, it is permitted to improve it and make it edible.11 To give an example: branches that were snipped from a tree while it was still day [on Friday]: some people feed them to an animal while they are still fresh. [The branches] are rubbed by hand [before] feeding them [to the animal] because they are not edible unless they are rubbed. [Such branches] may be rubbed on Shabbos.

Similarly, it is permitted to cut firm squash in front of an animal,12 provided it was reaped while it was still day [on Friday], because [the animal] cannot eat it unless it is cut. If, however, it was reaped on Shabbos, even by a non-Jew who reaped for his own purposes,13 it is forbidden to be moved, as will be explained in sec. 325[:8].14

ד קַשִּׁים שֶׁל שִׁבֳּלִים שֶׁאָגְדוּ בִּשְׁנַיִם וּשְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת – מֻתָּר לְהַתִּירָן בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁתֹּאכַל מֵהֶם הַבְּהֵמָהלא, 2 אִם אֵינוֹ קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא.לב אֲבָל אָסוּר לְשַׁפְשֵׁף בָּהֶם בְּיָדַיִםלג, 2 כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂים בְּאָכְלֵי בְהֵמָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ נוֹחִים לְאָכְלָם,לד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה בְּלֹא תִקּוּן – אָסוּר לִטְרוֹחַ בּוֹ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ וּלְתַקְּנוֹ יוֹתֵר לְתַעֲנוּג בְּעָלְמָא.

אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֹכֶל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה בְּלֹא אֵיזֶה תִּקּוּן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סְרַךְ מְלָאכָה – מֻתָּר לְתַקְּנוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אֹכֶל,לה, 11 כְּגוֹןלו עֵצִים שֶׁקְּצָצָן מִן הָאִילָן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְיֵשׁ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתָם לִבְהֵמָה בְּעוֹדָם לַחִים וּמְשַׁפְשְׁפִים בָּהֶם בְּיָדַיִם לְהַאֲכִילָם, שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיִים בְּלֹא שִׁפְשׁוּף – מֻתָּר לְשַׁפְשְׁפָם בְּשַׁבָּת.לז וְכֵן דִּלּוּעִיםלח שֶׁהֵם קָשִׁיםלט – מֻתָּר לְחַתְּכָם לִפְנֵי הַבְּהֵמָה12 שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְאָכְלָם בְּלֹא חֲתִיכָה. וְהוּא שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,מ אֲבָל אִם נִתְלְשׁוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי שֶׁתְּלָשָׁן לְעַצְמוֹ13 – אֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ה:מא, 14

5 The corpse of an animal may be cut up for dogs, even if it died on the [Shabbos]day.15 [The animal’s corpse] is not considered as muktzeh even if it was not at all sick while it was still day [on Friday], and thus one did not have it in mind at all [to feed the corpse] to the dogs while it was still Friday. [The rationale is that] the concept of muktzeh does not apply to an object on which a person’s attention was not focused, unless he specifically thought not to use it [on Shabbos], as explained in sec. 310[:6].

To what does the above apply? To an animal corpse whose meat is tough and cannot be eaten without [first] being cut up. Even if [the dogs] can eat the uncut meat, but it is difficult for them to do so, it is permitted to take the trouble of cutting it for them some more, as explained above.16 (See sec. 321[:9] regarding whether it is permitted to cut raw meat [into] very thin [strips] for fowl.)17

Similarly, one may not cut hay or carobs for either a large or a small domesticated animal,2 because these [foods] can be eaten by them [even] when they are not cut up. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

ה מְחַתְּכִין נְבֵלָה לִפְנֵי הַכְּלָבִים,מב אֲפִלּוּ נִתְנַבְּלָה הַיּוֹם.מג, 15 וְאֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיְתָה חוֹלָה כְּלָל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,מד שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ עָלֶיהָ כְּלָל לַכְּלָבִים מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,מה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מֻקְצֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁהִסִּיחַ אָדָם דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן דְּחָאוֹ בְּיָדַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"י.מו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּנְבֵלָה הַקָּשָׁה,מז שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לְאָכְלָהּ בְּלֹא חֲתִיכָה,מח וַאֲפִלּוּ נֶאֱכֶלֶת לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק בְּלֹא חֲתִיכָהמט – מֻתָּר לִטְרוֹחַ לְחַתְּכָהּ לָהֶם יוֹתֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהנ, 16 (וְעַיֵּן סִימָן שכ"א אִם מֻתָּר לַחְתּוֹךְ בָּשָׂר חַי דַּק דַּק לִפְנֵי הָעוֹפוֹת).נא, 17

וְכֵן אֵין חוֹתְכִים שַׁחַת וְחָרוּבִים לִפְנֵי בְהֵמָה בֵּין גַּסָּה בֵּין דַּקָּה,נב, 2 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם רְאוּיִים לָהֶם בְּלֹא חֲתִיכָה.נג וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:

6 We may not force-feed a camel,18 i.e., to stuff it with so much food that its digestive tract expands like a feeding trough. [This is forbidden] because it is an extra exertion that is not necessary for [the Shabbos] day. Nor may food be thrust down its throat, i.e., inserted to a place from which the camel cannot spew it out, for this too requires extra exertion. One may, however, feed [a camel] by hand, inserting [the food] to a point where [the camel] can spew out [the food] if it so desires.18

Similarly, one may not force-feed a calf, i.e., thrusting the food to a place where [the calf] cannot spew it out.18 One may, however, feed [a calf] by hand, inserting [the food] to a point where [the calf] can spew it out. [This is permitted] even though one’s intent is to fatten the animal.19 Similar laws apply regarding ducks and chickens. It is permitted to stick food into their throats to a place where they can spew it out.18 Similar laws apply with regard to domesticated doves.

ו אֵין אוֹבְסִין אֶת הַגָּמָל,נד, 18 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּאֲכִילוֹ בְּיָדוֹ הַרְבֵּה כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁמַּרְחִיבִים בְּנֵי מֵעָיו כְּאֵבוּס,נה שֶׁזֶּהוּ טוֹרֵחַ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹם.נו וְלֹא דוֹרְסִים,נז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁדּוֹרֵס לוֹ מַאֲכָל בִּגְרוֹנוֹנח לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַגָּמָל יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִירוֹ,נט שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַם כֵּן טוֹרֵחַ יוֹתֵר.ס אֲבָל מַלְעִיטִים אוֹתוֹ,סא דְּהַיְנוּ לִתְחוֹב הַמַּאֲכָל לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִירוֹסב כְּשֶׁיִּרְצֶה.18

וְכֵן הָעֲגָלִים – אֵין מְאַמְּרִין אוֹתָם,סג דְּהַיְנוּ לִתְחוֹב לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לְהַחֲזִירוֹ,סד, 18 אֲבָל מַלְעִיטִיןסה לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לְהַחֲזִירוֹ,סו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכַּוָּנָתוֹ כְּדֵי לְפַטְּמָן.סז , 19 וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּאַוָּזִין וְתַרְנְגוֹלִים,סח שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִתְחוֹב הַמַּאֲכָל בְּפִיהֶם לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לְהַחֲזִירוֹ.סט, 18 וְכֵן בְּיוֹנִים בַּיְתִיּוֹת:ע

7 Similarly, license was granted to exert oneself and provide food and water to other domesticated fowl and animals, because [their owner] is responsible for feeding them.18

One may not, by contrast, provide water or food for bees or doves that nest in a dovecote or in a loft. It is even forbidden to cast [food] before [bees or doves],20 because one is not responsible for feeding them since they go out and [feed themselves by] eat[ing] in the fields.

One may, by contrast, provide food for a dog that he is responsible for feeding.18 [This license is] even [extended] to an ownerless dog that one does not keep at home. Nevertheless, there is a certain dimension of a mitzvah involved in providing it with some food,18 because G‑d had compassion on it [as evidenced by the fact that since] it does not receive much food, its food remains in its digestive tract for three days.21

One may not, by contrast, provide food for a pig, because one is not responsible for feeding it, for [our Sages] declared:22 “Cursed be the Jewish person who raises pigs.”

ז וְכֵן שְׁאָר עוֹפוֹת אוֹ חַיּוֹתעא הַגְּדֵלוֹת בַּבַּיִתעב – הִתִּירוּ לִטְרוֹחַ לִתֵּן לָהֶם מְזוֹנוֹת וּמַיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּזוֹנָתָן עָלֶיךָ.עג, 18 אֲבָל אֵין נוֹתְנִין מַיִםעד וְלֹא מְזוֹנוֹתעה לַדְּבוֹרִים וְלֹא לְיוֹנֵי שׁוֹבָךְעו וְיוֹנֵי עֲלִיָּה,עז וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁלִיךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם אָסוּר,עח, 20 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מְזוֹנָתָן עָלֶיךָ,עט שֶׁיּוֹצְאִים וְאוֹכְלִים בַּשָּׂדֶה.פ

אֲבָל נוֹתְנִין מְזוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי כֶּלֶב, שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלֶיךָ.פא, 18 וַאֲפִלּוּ כֶּלֶב שֶׁל הֶפְקֵרפב שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְגַדְּלוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹפג – מִכָּל מָקוֹם קְצָת מִצְוָה יֵשׁ לִתֵּן לוֹפד מְעַט מְזוֹנוֹת,פה, 18 שֶׁהֲרֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָס עָלָיו עַל שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָיו מֻעָטִים וּמַשְׁהֶה אֲכִילָתוֹ בְּמֵעָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים.פו, 21

אֲבָל אֵין נוֹתְנִין מְזוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי חֲזִיר,פז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מְזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלֶיךָ,פח שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמְרוּפט, 22 "אָרוּר הָאִישׁ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמְּגַדֵּל חֲזִירִים":צ

8 There are those who have the custom of putting out wheat kernels before fowl on Shabbos Shirah.23 This is an improper [custom], because one is not responsible for feeding them.24

ח יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים לָתֵת חִטִּים לִפְנֵי הָעוֹפוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת שִׁירָה,23 וְאֵינוֹ נָכוֹן, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין מְזוֹנוֹתֵיהֶם עָלֶיךָ:צא, 24

9 It is permitted to feed a silkworm because one is responsible for feeding it, for it does not have any food to eat other than what people give it.

ט מֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִיל תּוֹלַעַת הַמֶּשִׁי, לְפִי שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלֶיךָ, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל כִּי אִם מַה שֶּׁיַּאֲכִילוֹ הָאָדָם:צב

10 Even though a person is responsible for having his animal rest on Shabbos,25it is permitted to let it [pasture and] eat from food that is still connected to the earth. [This is derived from the exposition of the verse,]26 “so that your ox will rest.” [The verse is understood as teaching that one should allow an animal to perform acts, which like] the above, bring it pleasure.27

One is even permitted to physically lead [his animal] to grass which is [still] attached to the ground.28 We do not suspect that he will uproot [some grass] by hand to feed [the animal], for doing so is considered a severe prohibition by people at large.29

However, one may not physically lead [his animal] to substances that are forbidden to be moved by Rabbinic Law, because such prohibitions are viewed lightly by people at large [for example, grass that was detached by a non-Jew on Shabbos.30Hence,] we suspect that the person might pick the substance up by hand to feed it [to the animal. Nevertheless,] it was only prohibited to actually lead [the animal] to [the forbidden substance]. It is, however, permitted to stand in [the animal’s] way so that the only way it can turn is toward [that substance, and then] it will eat [the substance] on its own initiative. Since [the person] does not stand next to the [torn] grass, there is no cause for concern [that the person will pick some up].

י אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָדָם מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ,צג, 25 מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחָהּ שֶׁתֹּאכַל מֵהַמְחֻבָּר בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר:צד, 26 "לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וגו'", וְזוֹ הִיא נְיָחָה שֶׁלָּהּ.צה, 27 וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַעֲמִידָהּ בְּיָדָיו עַל גַּבֵּי עֲשָׂבִים מְחֻבָּרִים,צו, 28 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִתְלוֹשׁ מֵהֶם בְּיָדָיו לְהַאֲכִילָהּ,צז לְפִי שֶׁהוּא אִסּוּר חָמוּר בְּעֵינֵי הַבְּרִיּוֹת.צח, 29

אֲבָל לֹא יַעֲמִידֶנָּה עַל גַּבֵּי דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,צט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ קַל בְּעֵינֵי הַבְּרִיּוֹת,30 וְחוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִטּוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּיָדָיו לְהַאֲכִילָהּ.ק

וְלֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לְהַעֲמִידָהּ עַל גַּבָּהּ מַמָּשׁ, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַעֲמוֹד בְּפָנֶיהָ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא תוּכַל לְהַטּוֹת אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם וְתֹאכַל מֵעַצְמָהּ,קא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד סָמוּךְ לַעֲשָׂבִים – אֵין לָחוּשׁ:קב

11 A person may take food [that had been placed] before a donkey and place it before an ox31 because it is fit [for the ox to eat]. Since the donkey does not salivate into [the food, the food] that had been placed before it does not become disgusting. It is [therefore] fit (to be cut [into pieces]) and placed before the ox.

One may not, by contrast, take [food that had been placed] before an ox and place it before a donkey, because [the food] becomes disgusting from the saliva of the ox,32 and it is no longer fit for the donkey except in a pressing situation. Almost certainly, [the donkey] will not eat [the food], thus [the person] will have troubled himself on Shabbos for no purpose.33

There are authorities who are also stringent regarding other animals, and do not [permit one] to take [food that was placed before an animal of] one species and place it before [an animal] of another species. [Nevertheless,] one need not rebuke those who take license regarding this matter.

יא נוֹטְלִין מַאֲכָל מִלִּפְנֵי חֲמוֹר וְנוֹתְנִין לִפְנֵי שׁוֹר,קג, 31 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי הוּא לוֹ,קד שֶׁהַחֲמוֹר אֵינוֹ מֵטִיל רִירִיןקה וְאֵין מַה שֶּׁלְּפָנָיו נִמְאָס,קו וְרָאוּי הוּא (לְחַתְּכוֹ) לְתִתּ[וֹ] לִפְנֵי הַשּׁוֹר.קז אֲבָל אֵין נוֹטְלִין מִלִּפְנֵי שׁוֹר לִתֵּן לִפְנֵי חֲמוֹר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּמְאָס בְּרִירֵי הַשּׁוֹרקח, 32 וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי עוֹד לַחֲמוֹרקט אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק,קי וְקָרוֹב לְוַדַּאי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ,קיא וְנִמְצָא טוֹרֵחַ בְּחִנָּם בְּשַׁבָּת.קיב, 33

וְיֵשׁ מַחֲמִירִיםקיג גַּם כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי בְהֵמָה, שֶׁלֹּא יִטּוֹל מִלִּפְנֵי אַחַת וְלִתֵּן לִפְנֵי אַחֶרֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִינָהּ. וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיַד הַנּוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר:קיד

12 When an ox is being fattened and the feeding trough before it is [usually] raked so that the straw and barley to be placed in it do not become mixed with sandy matter and cause [the ox] to be disgusted by its food, it is forbidden to rake [such a feeding trough] on Shabbos.31 [This applies] even to a feeding trough that is a [movable] container.34[This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard lest one do so] with a feeding trough that is built into the ground. It is forbidden [to rake a feeding trough] built into the ground lest, when he rake it, he see hollows in the ground and he intentionally level those hollows35 so that the barley will not fall there.

It is also forbidden to remove the straw from before [an ox] when there is a large amount of it31so that [the ox will not] crush [the straw] together with its feces. [The rationale is that] there is [already some] straw that has become disgusting because [the ox] trod upon it, and it is no longer fit [to be eaten. Hence, the clean straw] is forbidden to be carried.36

יב שׁוֹר שֶׁמְּפַטְּמִין אוֹתוֹ, וְגוֹרְפִים הָאֵבוּס שֶׁלְּפָנָיו לָתֵת לְתוֹכוֹ הַתֶּבֶן וְהַשְּׂעוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם עַפְרוּרִית וְיָקוּץ בְּמַאֲכָלוֹקטו – אָסוּר לְגָרְפוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,קטז, 31 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא אֵבוּס שֶׁל כְּלִי,קיז, 34 גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם אֵבוּס שֶׁבַּקַּרְקַע.קיח וְשֶׁבַּקַּרְקַע יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא כְּשֶׁיִּגְרְפוֹ וְיִרְאֶה בוֹ גּוּמוֹת – יַשְׁוֶה אוֹתָן הַגּוּמוֹתקיט בְּמִתְכַּוֵּןקכ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְּלוּ הַשְּׂעוֹרִים לְתוֹכָן.קכא, 35

וְאָסוּר גַּם כֵּן לְסַלֵּקקכב הַתֶּבֶן מִלְּפָנָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא רַב,31 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִדְרְסֶנּוּ בִּרְעִי,קכג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תֶּבֶן שֶׁנִּמְאָס בְּמִדְרַס רַגְלָיו וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לוֹ עוֹד,קכד וְהוּא אָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל:קכה, 36