SECTION 323 The Laws Pertaining to Borrowing and Acquiring One’s Shabbos Needs and Washing, Repairing, and Immersing Utensils on Shabbos (1-12)

סימן שכג דִּין הַשְׁאָלָה וְקִנְיַן צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת וַהֲדָחַת הַכֵּלִים וְתִקּוּנָן וּטְבִילָתָן בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 On Shabbos, it is permitted to tell another person, “Fill this container with this type of beverage, give me to drink, and I will pay you [for it] after Shabbos.1 [This ruling applies] even if the container is designated for measuring,1 (i.e., a seller customarily uses it to measure [the products] he sells). Such conduct is not included [in the prohibition] against making an acquisition on Shabbos,2 because even a person who gives his friend a drink as a present will also give him the drink in a container designated for measuring at times.3

(It is, however, [forbidden to ask for a beverage] and mention the name of a specific measure.4 [This restriction applies] even if the person does not purchase [the beverage] from [the other person] at all, but rather borrows it from him, saying, “Lend me [such-and-such] a measure of wine.” Even though [in such an instance] there are no grounds to prohibit doing so [as a safeguard against] commercial activity,5 there is nevertheless reason to forbid doing so, because having the lender measure out the precise quantity is a mundane activity. As stated in sec. 306[:18], on Shabbos, it is forbidden to measure any entity, because it is a mundane act and deprecating to the Shabbos. When, however, [the recipient] does not mention the name of a given measure, but instead simply [says], “Fill this container for me,” he does not appear as if he intends to measure [the exact amount he receives],6 merely to fill the particular container that he asked [to be filled]. Thus, it does not constitute mundane activity.)1

When does the above apply? When the purchaser (or the borrower) takes a measure belonging to the seller (or lender) and brings it to his [own] home. Needless to say, [it surely applies] when the purchaser brings a measure from his house and tells [the seller], “Fill this container,” and the seller fills it from another container that is not of the same measure. It is, however, forbidden to measure [the beverage] in a container designated for measuring and then pour it into the purchaser’s (or borrower’s) container, since in such an instance, it is obvious that [the seller or lender] intends to measure [the contents], (and this [is forbidden] since it constitutes mundane activity).7

There are authorities who rule leniently, saying that as long as one is not entirely deliberate and precise in measuring [out the exact amount, but rather] subtracts or adds a small amount, it is permitted [to pour from the measure of the seller into the container of the purchaser. Despite this imprecision, the prohibition against] robbery does not apply,8 because the purchasers know that this [manner of imprecise measuring] is the widespread practice on Shabbos and festivals. Similarly, they are accustomed to place a ring or another object that is not muktzeh in the [container used for] measuring.9

There are authorities who [are more lenient. They] even permit mentioning the amount of money and the name of the measure,10 as long as one does not reckon the sum [total] of money or sum [total] of the measure, i.e., one may not say, “Give me [some X] for such-and-such an amount of money. I already owe you [from before] such-and-such an amount. [Now,] I will owe you [a total of] such-and-such an amount.”11 Similarly, with regard to a measure, [the purchaser should not say,] “Give me this measure…” or “…so many and so many measures. I already owe you such-and-such an amount. [Now,] I will owe you such-and-such an amount.” [The rationale is that] since [the purchaser] mentions the sum of money he owes [the buyer], it is obvious that this is a business transaction. Similarly, if [the seller] is precise with regard to the measure, this is mundane conduct and it resembles a business transaction. (Even a person who borrows [items] from a friend is forbidden to speak in such a manner, because it resembles a business transaction.)

When, by contrast, [the purchaser or borrower] says, “Give me the worth of such and such an amount [of money],” he does not appear to have the intent of carrying out a business transaction at all. Instead, he is informing [the other person] as to how much [of the item] he needs. The sum of money he mentions is merely an indication that he needs an amount that is worth such-and-such an amount of money.

[Our Sages’] statement that it is forbidden to mention a sum of money at all applies only to an item that does not have a fixed price12 – for example, someone who purchases meat from a butcher. He is forbidden to tell [the butcher], “Give me a dinar’s worth of meat,” as will be explained in sec. 500[:3-4. The rationale is that, in that instance,] it cannot be said that he is merely informing [the butcher] how much meat he needs, because he does not know how much [meat the butcher] will give him for the dinar. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations. When, by contrast, the price of an article is well known, it is permitted to mention a sum of money.13 Similarly, with regard to a measure, the prohibition against mentioning the name of a measure applies only with regard to a substance whose measure is not known – for example, telling someone, “Give me a measure of nuts” or the like, i.e., substances that are not usually measured.14 In such an instance, [the purchaser] does not know how much the measure contains, and he does not know whether he will need more or less.15 As such, it cannot be said that [the purchaser] is merely telling [the seller] how many he needs. Instead, it is apparent that his intent is to purchase the measured [amount and asks] so that he will know how much to pay [the seller after Shabbos]. Accordingly, it is deemed a mundane activity and resembles a commercial transaction. When, by contrast, the measure of a substance is known, e.g., wine, beer, and the like,16 it is permitted to mention the name of a measure17 (provided [the purchaser] tells [the seller], “Give me so-and-so many of that measure. [The purchaser] may not say to [the seller], “Measure out so many measures for me,” for then, since he says, “Measure out for me,” it is apparent that he intends to purchase a measure [of the product].)

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first view.18 Nevertheless, in these countries, it has become widespread custom to rule leniently regarding mentioning the amount of money concerning a product whose price is known and mentioning the name of a measure concerning a product whose measure is known. Nevertheless, the seller must be careful not to measure [the product] precisely, as stated above. (Even when the purchaser brings a [container that holds a specific] measure from his home and the seller fills it for him, [the seller] should not measure [the product] precisely, since the purchaser is mentioning the name of the measure, as explained above.)19

א מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת "מַלֵּא לִי כְּלִי זֶהא מַשְׁקֶה פְּלוֹנִי וְהַשְׁקֵנִי וַאֲשַׁלֵּם לְךָ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת",1 אֲפִלּוּ הַכְּלִי הוּא מְיֻחָד לְמִדָּהב, 1 (פֵּרוּשׁג שֶׁרָגִיל הַמּוֹכֵר לִמְדּוֹד בּוֹ וְלִמְכּוֹר), וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם קוֹנֶה קִנְיָן בְּשַׁבָּתד, 2 בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַף הַמַּשְׁקֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּדֶרֶךְ מַתָּנָהה דַּרְכּוֹ גַם כֵּן לִפְעָמִים לְהַשְׁקוֹתוֹ בִּכְלִי הַמְיֻחָד לְמִדָּה.ו, 3

(אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם מִדָּה,ז, 4 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלָל אֶלָּא שׁוֹאֵל מִמֶּנּוּ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ "הַשְׁאִילֵנִי מִדָּה יַיִן",ח שֶׁאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר כְּלָל מִשּׁוּם מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּרט, 5 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם עוֹבָדִין דְּחֹל בְּמַה שֶּׁהַמַּשְׁאִיל מוֹדֵד לוֹ הַמִּדָּה שֶׁמְּבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ,י כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ויא שֶׁאָסוּר לִמְדּוֹד שׁוּם דָּבָר בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֵׂה חֹל וְזִלְזוּל לְשַׁבָּת. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם מִדָּה, אֶלָּא "מַלֵּא לִי כְּלִי זֶה" סְתָםיב – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִמְדִידָה,יג, 6 אֶלָּא לְמַלֹּאת הַכְּלִי שֶׁמְּבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ בִּלְבַד, וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עוֹבָדִין דְּחֹליד).1

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנּוֹטֵל הַלּוֹקֵחַ (אוֹ הַשּׁוֹאֵל) מִדָּה שֶׁל מוֹכֵר (אוֹ שֶׁל מַשְׁאִיל) וּמוֹלִיכָהּ לְבֵיתוֹ,טו וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם מֵבִיא הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִדָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ "מַלֵּא לִי כְּלִי זֶה",טז וְהַמּוֹכֵר מְמַלְּאֵהוּ מִכְּלִי אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּמִדָּה זוֹ. אֲבָל לִמְדּוֹד תְּחִלָּה בִּכְלִי הַמְיֻחָד לְמִדָּה וְלִשְׁפּוֹךְ אַחַר כָּךְ בִּכְלִי שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ (אוֹ הַשּׁוֹאֵליז) – אָסוּר,יח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבָּזֶה נִכָּר שֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לִמְדִידָה (וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עוֹבָדִין דְּחֹליט).7

וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּין לוֹמַרכ שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן וּמְצַמְצֵם הַמִּדָּה לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁמְּמַעֵט אוֹ מוֹסִיף מְעַט – מֻתָּר. וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם גָּזֵל,8 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּדוּעַ לַבְּעָלִים שֶׁהַכֹּל רְגִילִין בְּכָךְ בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב. וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ לְהָטִיל טַבַּעַת בַּמִּדָּה אוֹ שְׁאָר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקְצֶה.כא, 9

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןכב אֲפִלּוּ לְהַזְכִּיר שֵׁם דָּמִים וְשֵׁם מִדָּה,כג, 10 רַק שֶׁלֹּא יַזְכִּיר לוֹ סְכוּם דָּמִים אוֹ סְכוּם מִדָּה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ "תֵּן לִיכד בְּעַד כָּךְ וְכָךְ מָעוֹת, וּכְבָר יֵשׁ לְךָ בְּיָדִי בְּעַד כָּךְ וְכָךְ, וְיִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּיָדִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ",כה, 11 וְכֵן בְּמִדָּהכו "תֵּן לִי מִדָּה אוֹ כָּךְ וְכָךְ מִדּוֹת, וּכְבָר יֵשׁ לְךָ בְּיָדִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ, וְיִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּיָדִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ",כז שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּזְכִּיר לוֹ בִּסְכוּם הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁחַיָּב לוֹ – נִכָּר שֶׁהוּא מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר. וְכֵן כְּשֶׁמְּדַקְדֵּק בִּסְכוּם הַמִּדּוֹת – הֲרֵי זֶה דֶּרֶךְ חֹל וְדוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּרכח (וַאֲפִלּוּ הַשּׁוֹאֵל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ אָסוּר לוֹמַר לוֹ כֵּן,כט לְפִי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר). אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר "תֵּן לִי בְּעַד כָּךְ וְכָךְ" – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁמּוֹדִיעַ לוֹ כַּמָּה צָרִיךְ לוֹ. וְהַ"מָּעוֹת כָּךְ וְכָךְ" שֶׁמַּזְכִּיר לוֹ – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְסִימָן בְּעָלְמָא, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ כַּמָּה שֶׁשָּׁוֶה כָּךְ וְכָךְ מָעוֹת.ל

וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַזְכִּיר שֵׁם דָּמִים כְּלָללא אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין מִקָּחוֹ יָדוּעַ,לב, 12 כְּגוֹן הַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּשָׂר מֵהַטַּבָּח, שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹמַר לוֹ "תֵּן לִי בְּדִינָר בָּשָׂר"לג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"ק,לד לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מוֹדִיעַ לוֹ כַּמָּה בָּשָׂר הוּא צָרִיךְ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ כַּמָּה יִתְּנוּ לוֹ בְּעַד דִּינָר,לה וְכֵן בְּכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה. אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁמִּקָּחוֹ יָדוּעַ – מֻתָּר לְהַזְכִּיר שֵׁם דָּמִים.לו, 13

וְכֵן בְּמִדָּה, אֵין אִסּוּר לְהַזְכִּיר שֵׁם מִדָּה אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין מִדָּתוֹ יָדוּעַ,לז כְּגוֹן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ "תֵּן לִי מִדָּה אֱגוֹזִים" וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִים לִמְדּוֹד,14 שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ כַּמָּה מַחֲזֶקֶת הַמִּדָּה, וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם יִהְיֶה צָרִיךְ יוֹתֵר אִם לָאו,15 וְאִם כֵּן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מוֹדִיעַ לוֹ כַּמָּה הוּא צָרִיךְ,לח וְנִכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִקַּח בְּמִדָּה דַוְקָא כְּדֵי לֵידַע כַּמָּה לִפְרוֹעַ לוֹ, וַהֲרֵי זֶה דֶּרֶךְ חֹל וְדוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר. אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁמִּדָּתוֹ יָדוּעַ,לט כְּגוֹן יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםמ, 16 – מֻתָּר לְהַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם מִדָּהמא, 17 (וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ "תֵּן לִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ מִדּוֹת", אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ "מְדוֹד לִימב כָּךְ וְכָךְ מִדּוֹת", שֶׁאָז נִכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִקַּח בְּמִדָּה דַוְקָא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ "מְדוֹד לִי").

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.מג, 18 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג כַּסְבָרָא זוֹמד לְהָקֵל בְּהַזְכָּרַת שֵׁם דָּמִים בְּדָבָר שֶׁמִּקָּחוֹ יָדוּעַ, וּבְהַזְכָּרַת שֵׁם מִדָּה בְּדָבָר שֶׁמִּדָּתוֹ יָדוּעַ. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמּוֹכֵר צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְכַוֵּן הַמִּדָּה לְגַמְרֵי,מה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַלּוֹקֵחַ הֵבִיא מִדָּה מִתּוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְהַמּוֹכֵר מְמַלְּאָהּ לוֹ – לֹא יְכַוֵּן לְגַמְרֵי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַלּוֹקֵחַ מַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם מִדָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה):19

2 It is permitted to tell another person, “Fill this container for me, and tomorrow we will measure it.”20 ([The rationale is that] since at the time [of the product’s transfer,] the measure was not known, this is not considered like conducting a transaction as one would during the week.)

ב מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ "מַלֵּא לִי כְּלִי זֶה, וּלְמָחָר נִמְדּוֹד אוֹתוֹ"מו, 20 (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין מִדָּתוֹ יָדוּעַ – אֵין זֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר שֶׁבְּחֹל):

3 It is permitted to tell another person, “Give me a specific number of eggs,” or “…nuts.”21 Similarly, one may tell a storekeeper, “Give me 20 eggs,” or “…50 nuts.”21 We do not say that this resembles a commercial transaction [and that the purchaser] is mentioning the number in order to know how much he will be obligated to pay [the seller. The rationale is that] it is common even for a person in his own home to count the number [of any particular product that] he takes,21 so that he will only take what he actually needs.

It is, however, forbidden to mention a total sum when speaking to [the seller], i.e., to say, “I [already] owe you for 50 nuts. Give me another 50 and I will owe you for 100.”21 [The rationale is that] it is not common for a person to make such a precise reckoning in his own home, and this resembles a commercial transaction. ([Such statements] are forbidden even when one explicitly says “lend me” [instead of “give me”].)

ג מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ "תֵּן לִי בֵּיצִים וֶאֱגוֹזִים בְּמִנְיָן",מז, 21 וְכֵן לוֹמַר לְחֶנְוָנִי "תֵּן לִי עֶשְׂרִים בֵּיצִים אוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים אֱגוֹזִים".מח, 21 וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁזֶּה דוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר, שֶׁמַּזְכִּיר לוֹ מִנְיָן כְּדֵי לֵידַע כַּמָּה יִתְחַיֵּב לִפְרוֹעַ לוֹ,מט לְפִי שֶׁאַף בַּעַל הַבַּיִת בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ דַּרְכּוֹ לִהְיוֹת מוֹנֶהנ כַּמָּה הוּא נוֹטֵל,21 שֶׁלֹּא יִטּוֹל אֶלָּא כְּפִי הַצֹּרֶךְ.נא

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַזְכִּיר לוֹ סְכוּם מִנְיָן, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ "הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לְךָ בְּיָדִי חֲמִשִּׁים אֱגוֹזִים, תֵּן לִי עוֹד חֲמִשִּׁים וְיִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּיָדִי מֵאָה",נב, 21 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לִהְיוֹת מְצַמְצֵם כָּךְ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ,נג וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּרנד (וְאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ אוֹמֵר בְּפֵרוּשׁ "הַשְׁאִילֵנִי"נה):

4 When one brings jugs of wine to a feast from one place to another via an alley that is encompassed by an eruv, heshould not bring them in a basket or in a container,21 placing four or five jugs in [the basket] at a time, because this – carrying burdens – appears as a mundane activity and as a degradation of the Shabbos when he does so in an alley where many people are found.22 (Also, people will suspect that he is carrying burdens for the sake of the [coming] weekdays.) Instead, he should bring [the jugs] one by one or two by two in his hand, or on his shoulder, or the like, thus deviating from his weekday practice. Even if the deviation does not lighten his load, it must be made, as will be explained in sec. 510[:16-17] with regard to [carrying in a public area on] festivals. The same law applies to [carrying on] Shabbos via an alley that is encompassed by an eruv, for they are equivalent in this regard.

If, however, it is impossible for [the person] to make a deviation, e.g., he invited many guests and he must hasten to bring [the items and place them] before [the guests], it is permitted [to bring a larger load].23

ד הַמֵּבִיא כַּדֵּי יַיִן לִסְעֻדָּה מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹםנו דֶּרֶךְ מָבוֹי הַמְעֹרָבנז – לֹא יְבִיאֵם בְּסַל וּבְקֻפָּהנח, 21 לָתֵת לְתוֹכָן אַרְבָּעָה אוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה כַּדִּיםנט, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חֹל לָשֵׂאת מַשָּׂאוֹת,ס וְזִלְזוּל לְשַׁבָּת הוּא כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה כֵּן בְּמָבוֹי שֶׁרַבִּים מְצוּיִים בּוֹסא, 22 (וְגַם יַחְשְׁדוּהוּ שֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא מַשָּׂאוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ הַחֹלסב). אֶלָּא יְבִיאֵם אֶחָד אֶחָד אוֹ שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם בְּיָדוֹ אוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹסג וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, לְשַׁנּוֹת מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין בְּשִׁנּוּי קַלּוּת בְּמַשָּׂא – צָרִיךְ לְשַׁנּוֹת,סד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"יסה לְעִנְיַן יוֹם טוֹב, וְהוּא הַדִּין לְשַׁבָּת בְּמָבוֹי הַמְעֹרָב, שֶׁשָּׁוִין הֵם בָּזֶה.סו

וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְשַׁנּוֹת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁזִּמֵּן אוֹרְחִים הַרְבֵּה וְצָרִיךְ לְמַהֵר לַהֲבִיאָם לִפְנֵיהֶם – מֻתָּר:סז, 23

5 If, by contrast, one brings jugs of wine from one corner to another, or from house to house in the same courtyard, [i.e., a place] where many people are not found, it is preferable to bring many [jugs] in a basket or a container at once rather than to bring each [one] individually, since [bringing them individually or in pairs requires the person] to walk more.24

ה אֲבָל הַמֵּבִיא כַּדֵּי יַיִן מִזָּוִית לְזָוִיתסח אוֹ מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת בְּאוֹתָהּ חָצֵרסט שֶׁאֵין רַבִּים מְצוּיִים שָׁם – יוֹתֵר טוֹב לַהֲבִיאָם בְּסַל וּבְקֻפָּה בְּבַת אַחַת מִלְּהָבִיא כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּרְבֶּה בְּהִלּוּךְ:ע, 24

6 Dishes may be washed when necessary for [Shabbos], e.g., if one has another meal left in the day [at which he could use the dishes] to eat with them, he is permitted to wash these dishes25 even immediately after the preceding meal.26 After the third [and final Shabbos] meal, by contrast, [one] is forbidden to wash dishes used for eating, because he is troubling himself on Shabbos for the [coming] weekdays.27 By contrast, one is permitted to wash utensils used for drinking during the entire day because there is no fixed time for drinking.28 If, however, one is certain that he will no longer need [these utensils], it is forbidden [to wash them].

ו מְדִיחִים כֵּלִים לְצֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר לוֹ עֲדַיִן סְעֻדָּה לֶאֱכוֹל בָּהֶם – מֻתָּר לַהֲדִיחָםעא, 25 אֲפִלּוּ מִיָּד אַחַר סְעֻדָּה שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ.עב, 26 אֲבָל לְאַחַר סְעֻדָּה שְׁלִישִׁית אָסוּר לְהָדִיחַ כְּלֵי אֲכִילָה,עג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטּוֹרֵחַ וּמֵכִין מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל.עד, 27

אֲבָל כְּלֵי שְׁתִיָּה מֻתָּר לְהָדִיחַ כָּל הַיּוֹם,עה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין קֶבַע לִשְׁתִיָּה.עו, 28 אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לָהֶם עוֹד – אָסוּר:עז

7 One may wash ten cups so that, if he requires one of them, [it will be possible to] drink [from it].29

ז מְדִיחִין עֲשָׂרָה כוֹסוֹת, שֶׁאִם יִצְטָרֵךְ – בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם שׁוֹתֶה:עח, 29

8 It is permitted to immerse a new k’li (utensil)30 on Shabbos even though it was possible to immerse it on Friday.31 [The person] is not considered to be improving the k’li,32 because according to Scriptural Law, it is permitted to be used without immersion; its immersion is [required] only by Rabbinic Law.33

There are authorities who maintain that, even so, one is considered to be improving a k’li [by immersing it], and doing so is forbidden even if it was impossible to immerse [the k’li] on Friday. (On a festival, by contrast, it is permitted to immerse such a k’li when one was not able to immerse it on the day preceding the festival, as will be explained in sec. 509[:15].)34

Needless to say, the authorities who maintain that the immersion of keilim is [mandated by] Scriptural Law, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 120,35 would consider [the immersion] as an important improvement according to all opinions. This is forbidden by the Sages because it resembles the actual fashioning of a k’li, which is a primary category of [forbidden] labor,36 as explained in sec. 302[:5].37

A G‑d-fearing person should conduct himself according to [the stringencies required by] all these authorities [and not immerse vessels on Shabbos. Rather,] he should give the k’li to a non-Jew as a present and then borrow it from him. In such an instance, it does not need to be immersed at all.38 [There is no restriction against gifting it to the non-Jew on Shabbos,] because one is permitted to give a present on Shabbos when doing so is necessary for Shabbos, as stated in sec. 306[:15].39 Nevertheless, after Shabbos, the k’li should be immersed without a blessing, as explained in Yoreh Deah, [sec. 120].40

If it is a k’li that is fit to be filled with water, [the person] should fill it with water from the mikveh. Submerging it thusly] is considered as a valid immersion.41 [The person] does not appear to be improving a k’li since it is not obvious that he intends to immerse it. An observer could say that he needs to draw water. [After all,] not everyone knows that [the k’li] has not yet been immersed. [In such an instance,] a blessing should not be recited over this immersion, so that it will not be apparent that [the person] intends to immerse [the k’li].

If the person cannot follow these guidelines, he should not immerse [the k’li,] because fundamentally, the halachah follows those authorities who maintain that the immersion of keilim is a Scriptural requirement, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, loc. cit.

Nevertheless, if one transgressed and immersed keilim on Shabbos, he is not penalized and prohibited from using them on that day. The law regarding one who performs forbidden labor on Shabbos, even Rabbinically [forbidden labor] – that he is forbidden to benefit from his act until the evening, as stated in sec. 318[:141 – is not applied in this instance], since there are authorities who permit doing so, even as an initial option.42

ח מֻתָּר לְהַטְבִּיל כְּלִי חָדָשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת,עט, 30 אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְהַטְבִּילוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,פ, 31 וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כִּמְתַקֵּן כְּלִי,32 הוֹאִיל וּמִן הַתּוֹרָה מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּלֹא טְבִילָה,פא וְאֵין חִיּוּב טְבִילָתוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.פב, 33

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן חָשׁוּב כִּמְתַקֵּןפג וְאָסוּר,פד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְהַטְבִּילוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתפה (אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב מֻתָּר לְהַטְבִּילוֹ כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַטְבִּיל מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"טפו).34

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםפז שֶׁטְּבִילַת כֵּלִים הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִימָן ק"כ,פח, 35 שֶׁזֶּהוּ תִּקּוּן חָשׁוּבפט לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, וַאֲסָרוּהוּ חֲכָמִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לִמְתַקֵּן כְּלִיצ מַמָּשׁ שֶׁהוּא אַב מְלָאכָה,36 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ב.צא, 37

וִירֵא שָׁמַיִם יֵצֵא אֶת כֻּלָּם,צב וְיִתֵּן הַכְּלִי לְנָכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָה וְיַחֲזוֹר וְיִשְׁאָלֶנּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, וְאָז אֵין צָרִיךְ טְבִילָה כְּלָל,צג, 38 שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִתֵּן מַתָּנָה בְּשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהִיא לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת,צד, 39 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ו.צה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּילוֹ בְּלֹא בְרָכָה,צו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה שָׁם.צז, 40

וְאִם הוּא כְּלִי שֶׁרָאוּי לְמַלֹּאת בּוֹ מַיִםצח – יְמַלְּאֶנּוּ מַיִם מִן הַמִּקְוֶה, וְעָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה.צט, 36 וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּמְתַקֵּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהַטְבִּילוֹ, שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה אוֹמֵר "לִשְׁאוֹב מַיִם הַלָּלוּ הָיָה צָרִיךְ", שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַכֹּל יוֹדְעִים שֶׁלֹּא הִטְבִּילוֹ עֲדַיִן.ק וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל טְבִילָה זוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם טְבִילָה.קא

וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּתַקָּנוֹת אֵלּוּ – לֹא יַטְבִּיל,קב שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁטְּבִילַת כֵּלִים הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה שָׁם.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וְהִטְבִּיל כֵּלִים בְּשַׁבָּתקג – אֵין קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, כְּדִין הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶםקד שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה עַד לָעֶרֶב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ח,קה, 41 כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה:קו, 42

9 All authorities agree that it is permitted to wash out a cup of wine from which a non-Jew drank43 so that [the cup] can be used later that day.44 This is not considered as making a k’li fit to be used. [The rationale is that] since the actual cup is permitted, and it is only the wine that causes it to forbidden, removing the wine [by washing out the cup] is not considered as making [the cup] fit for use. [The person] is merely removing an offensive entity45 from it. It is permitted to move this cup even though it contains breadcrumbs which the non-Jew soaked in the wine, from which it is forbidden to derive benefit and thus are not fit to be used for anything [and are therefore muktzeh]. Nevertheless, [the breadcrumbs] are considered entirely insignificant in relation to the cup and do not at all cause it to be prohibited from being carried.

ט כּוֹס שֶׁשָּׁתָה בוֹ נָכְרִי יַיִן43 – מֻתָּר לַהֲדִיחוֹקז לְצֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹם,קח, 44 וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כִּמְתַקֵּן כְּלִיקט לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,קי שֶׁהֲרֵי גּוּף הַכְּלִי הֶתֵּר הוּא, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַיַּיִן אוֹסְרוֹ, וּכְשֶׁמְּסִירוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵינוֹ מְתַקְּנוֹ, אֶלָּא כְּמֵסִיר מִמֶּנּוּ גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי.קיא, 45

וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל כּוֹס זֶה, אַף אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ פֵּרוּרֵי פַת שֶׁשָּׁרָה בוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּיַיִן שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה וְאֵינָן רְאוּיִים לִכְלוּם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֵן בְּטֵלִים לְגַבֵּי הַכּוֹס לְגַמְרֵי, וְאֵין אוֹסְרִים טִלְטוּלוֹ כְּלָל:קיב

10 [Even] when a forbidden substance [became mixed with permitted substances], and during the week, it would be permitted to nullify its presence in the manner described in Yoreh Deah, sec. 99,46 it may not be nullified [in this manner] on Shabbos, because there is no greater example of making an object fit to be used than this.47 It is, however, permitted [on Shabbos] to estimate whether there is 60 times [as much permitted substance as the amount of a forbidden substance in a mixture],48 even if it became mixed in on Friday.49 Similarly, it is permitted to deliver any and all rulings permitting [the use of a food or a k’li].50 One is not considered to be making an object fit for use,51 for the object is intrinsically fit to be used; it is only that the inquirer does not know [its status] until the halachic authority comes and delivers the ruling to him.

י אִסּוּר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְבַטְּלוֹ בְּהֶתֵּר עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִימָן צ"טקיג, 46 – אָסוּר לְבַטְּלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,קיד שֶׁאֵין לְךָ תִּקּוּן גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה.קטו, 47 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְשַׁעֵר שִׁשִּׁים,48 אֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרֵב מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,קטז, 49 וְכֵן לְהוֹרוֹת כָּל הוֹרָאָה לְהֶתֵּר.קיז, 50 וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כִּמְתַקֵּן,קיח, 51 שֶׁהֲרֵי דָּבָר זֶה הָיָה מְתֻקָּן מֵאֵלָיו, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָדוּעַ לְהַשּׁוֹאֵל עַד שֶׁבָּא הַמּוֹרֶה וְהוֹרָה לוֹ:

11 [On Shabbos,]it is permitted to rub utensils with any substance52 that is permitted to be moved, [i.e., is not muktzeh,] in order to polish them so that they can be used that day,53 with the exception of polishing silver utensils with greitikun, i.e., wine dregs that dried and became brittle, because they scrape the silver and smooth its surface, since the silver is comparatively softer than [the dried wine dregs]. Smoothing a surface is one of the primary categories of forbidden labor.54 True, the person does not intend to scrape [the surface of the silver], only to polish it. Nevertheless, it is an inevitable consequence55 [of his actions, and hence, forbidden].56

One may, however, even polish silver utensils with sand and neter57 that were set aside to be moved while it was still day [on Friday].58 Even though [these substances] sometimes will scrape and smooth [the surface of] silver [utensils], nevertheless, since the person does not intend to do so, only to polish [the utensils], and it is not inevitable [that the surface of the utensils will be smoothed], he is permitted to do so.

יא מֻתָּר לְשַׁפְשֵׁף הַכֵּלִיםקיט בְּכָל דָּבָר52 הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּלקכ כְּדֵי לְצַחְצְחָםקכא לְצֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹם,קכב, 53 חוּץ מִכְּלֵי כֶסֶף בְּגַרְתְּקוֹן,קכג שֶׁהוּא שִׁמְרֵי יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ וְנִתְקַשּׁוּ,קכד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְגָרֵר אֶת הַכֶּסֶף וּמְמַחֲקוֹ, שֶׁהַכֶּסֶף הוּא רַךְקכה נֶגְדּוֹ,קכו וְהַמְמַחֵק הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת.קכז, 54 וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְגָרְרוֹ אֶלָּא לְצַחְצְחוֹ בִּלְבַד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת"55 הוּא.קכח, 56

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְשַׁפְשֵׁף אֲפִלּוּ כְּלֵי כֶסֶף בְּנֶתֶר57 וְחוֹלקכט שֶׁהוּכְנוּ לְטַלְטֵל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קל, 58 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם הֵם גּוֹרְרִים אֶת הַכֶּסֶף וּמְמַחֲקִין אוֹתוֹ לִפְעָמִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן אֶלָּא לְצַחְצְחָן בִּלְבַד, וְלָאו "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא – מֻתָּר:קלא

12 Utensils may not be rubbed with salt, because the salt dissolves when it is rubbed forcefully. Hence, [doing so] is forbidden for the rationale explained in sec. 320[:19].59 Nevertheless, it is permitted to wash [utensils] with water mixed with salt, just as it is permitted to wash one’s hands with such water because of the rationale explained in that source.60

יב אֵין חוֹפְפִין כֵּלִים בְּמֶלַח, לְפִי שֶׁהַמֶּלַח נִמְחֶה כְּשֶׁחוֹפֵף בְּחָזְקָה,קלב וְאָסוּר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"כ.קלג, 59 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַהֲדִיחָן בְּמַיִם מְעֹרָבִים עִם מֶלַח,קלד כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִטּוֹל יָדָיו מֵהֶם, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:קלה, 60