SECTION 321 The Laws Governing Detaching [Produce] on Shabbos; the Laws Governing Grinding; the Laws Governing the Preparation of Food, Leatherworking, and Kneading (1-16)

סימן שכא דִּינֵי תּוֹלֵשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת וְדֵין טוֹחֵן וְדִין תִּקּוּנֵי מַאֲכָל אוֹ מְעַבֵּד וְלָשׁ וּבוֹ ט"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 If [before Shabbos,] one brought in bundles of wild hyssop, hyssop, or thyme to dry so that they would be fit for kindling, one may not make use of them1 on Shabbos.2If one brought in [bundles of the leaves of these plants] for use as animal fodder – or even if he brought them in without any specific intent, in which instance, it can be assumed that his intent was that they be used for animal fodder3 – one may make use of them [on Shabbos].1 One may break off portions from them and eat them with his hands, but not with a utensil as he would during the week. The stalks may be crushed with one’s fingertips,4 [enabling him] to eat the seeds they contain, but one may not crush [the stalks] with his entire hand as he does during the week.1

א חֲבִילֵי פִּיאָה אֵזוֹב וְקוֹרְנִית, הִכְנִיסָן לְיַבְּשָׁן לְעֵצִים – אֵין מִסְתַּפְּקִין מֵהֶן 1 בְּשַׁבָּת.א, 2 הִכְנִיסָן לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה, ב אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הִכְנִיסָן בִּסְתָם – הֲרֵי סְתָמָן גַּם כֵּן לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה,ג, 3 וּמֻתָּר לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מֵהֶן.1 וְקוֹטֵם וְאוֹכֵל בְּיָד, אֲבָל לֹא בִּכְלִי ד כְּדֶרֶךְ חֹל. ה וּמוֹלֵל הַשַּׁרְבִיטִין בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיוו, 4 לֶאֱכוֹל הַזֶּרַע שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן,ז אֲבָל לֹא בְּכָל הַיָּד ח כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל:ט, 1

2 Tanning animal hides is one of the primary categories of forbidden labor,5 because the hides of the tachashim6and the rams would be tanned [to enable them to be used for] the Sanctuary.

One who salts a hide is liable for tanning,7 because salting is one of the necessary [steps] in the tanning process. By contrast, one who salts raw meat [on Shabbos] – even if he salts it extensively so that it will be preserved for a long time and not spoil8 – is exempt.7 [The rationale is that the forbidden labor of] tanning does not apply regarding foods9 according to Scriptural Law.7 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, [the forbidden labor of] tanning does apply to foods. For this reason, it is forbidden to salt raw meat, even for the sake of eating it on Shabbos (if it was not salted [previously] to extract its blood).10 [This prohibition was instituted because] salt has a beneficial effect on raw meat (that was not yet salted), softening it and making it fit to be eaten. It thus resembles tanning.

Needless to say, it is forbidden to salt [raw meat] so that it will be preserved and not spoil, even if a severe loss is involved, and even if it had already been salted to extract its blood. Similarly, it is forbidden to salt other [foods] on Shabbos to preserve them, even if a severe loss is involved.

ב הַמְעַבֵּד אֶת הָעוֹר הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,י, 5 שֶׁכֵּן בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ מְעַבְּדִין עוֹרוֹת תְּחָשִׁיםיא, 6 וְאֵילִים. וְהַמּוֹלֵחַ אֶת הָעוֹר – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְעַבֵּד,יב, 7 שֶׁהַמְּלִיחָה הִיא מִצָּרְכֵי הָעִבּוּד.יג

אֲבָל הַמּוֹלֵחַ בָּשָׂריד חַי, אֲפִלּוּ מוֹלְחוֹ הַרְבֵּהטו כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה וְלֹא יַסְרִיחַ 8 – פָּטוּר,7 שֶׁאֵין עִבּוּד בָּאֳכָלִיןטז, 9 מִן הַתּוֹרָה.7 אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים יֵשׁ עִבּוּד בָּאֳכָלִין.יז וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ בָּשָׂר חַי, אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ חַי בְּשַׁבָּתיח (אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא נִמְלַח לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ מִדָּמוֹיט),10 לְפִי שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מוֹעִיל לְבָשָׂר חַי כ (שֶׁלֹּא נִמְלַח עֲדַיִן) לְרַכְּכוֹכא וּלְתַקְּנוֹ וּלְהַכְשִׁירוֹ לַאֲכִילָה,כב וְדוֹמֶה לְעִבּוּד.כג וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאָסוּר לְמָלְחוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם וְלֹא יַסְרִיחַ,כד אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵדכה מְרֻבֶּה, וַאֲפִלּוּ נִמְלַח וְהֻכְשַׁר כְּבָר מִדָּמוֹ. וְכֵן שְׁאָר דְּבָרִיםכו אָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְקַיְּמוּ, אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה:

3 Similarly, it is forbidden to make a large amount of salt water11 or [to mix] other liquids with a large amount of salt to pour them into foods that are being pickled, e.g., types of vegetables or other foods that are pickled to preserve them. ([This prohibition applies] even if one will also immediately eat some of [the foods being pickled], and thus he is not acting solely for the sake of a weekday. Nevertheless, [this is forbidden],) since he is salting them to preserve them. [This is an act] that resembles tanning, because the salt also preserves [the vegetables for future use]. There are other authorities who maintain that pickling is forbidden because [pickling] is considered as cooking according to Rabbinic Law.

It is even forbidden to make a large amount – i.e., enough to serve as a dip for two meals – of salt water or to mix a large amount of other liquids with salt when one does not intend to use them for pickling, but rather to dip bread into them or to pour them into cooked food. Instead, one may only make enough [salt water] for one meal.12 ([This restriction was enacted] because when one makes a large amount of such liquids, it appears that he is making it for the sake of pickling.)

Moreover, even when [the mixture is being] prepared for but one meal, he may only prepare it immediately before the meal, but not from one meal to another meal, because it is forbidden to apply salt to any substance and leave it for later rather than eat it immediately, as will be explained.13 [This prohibition applies] even if [one] adds oil [into the mixture] between pouring the water and adding the salt. Although the oil prevents the salt from mixing thoroughly with the water and weakens its power,14 preventing [the mixture] from becoming potent salt water, [adding the salt] is, nevertheless, forbidden.

[Moreover,] it is forbidden to make even a small amount of a mixture that contains two-thirds salt and one-third water or another liquid,15 even as a dip for a meal [served immediately thereafter], because it appears that one is making brine with which to pickle fish. For this is the way brine is prepared, and it is forbidden to pickle on Shabbos, because [doing so resembles] either tanning or cooking, as explained [above].

ג וְכֵן אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵי מֶלַח מְרֻבִּים,כז, 11 אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִיןכח עִם מֶלַח מְרֻבִּים, לָתֵת לְתוֹךְ הַכְּבָשִׁים,כט דְּהַיְנוּ מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁכּוֹבְשִׁים לְהִתְקַיֵּם ל (אֲפִלּוּ יֹאכַל מֵהֶם גַּם לְאַלְתַּר, שֶׁאֵינוֹ טוֹרֵחַ בִּשְׁבִיל הַחֹל לְבַד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם), כֵּיוָן שֶׁכּוֹבֵשׁ אוֹתָם לְהִתְקַיֵּם – דּוֹמֶה לְעִבּוּד, שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מְקַיְּמָן.לא

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלב שֶׁהַכּוֹבֵשׁ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְבַשֵּׁל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.

וַאֲפִלּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵי מֶלַח אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין עִם מֶלַח, שֶׁלֹּא לָתֵת לְתוֹךְ הַכְּבָשִׁים אֶלָּא לִטְבּוֹל בָּהֶם אֶת פִּתּוֹ, וְלָתֵת לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶם הַרְבֵּה בְּיַחַד,לג דְּהַיְנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּבַת אַחַת לְצֹרֶךְ טִבּוּל שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת,לד אֶלָּא מְעַט לְצֹרֶךְ סְעֻדָּה אַחַת בִּלְבַדלה, 12 (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶם הַרְבֵּה, נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָם לִכְבִישָׁהלו).

וַאֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ סְעֻדָּה אַחַת אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לַסְּעֻדָּה, אֲבָל לֹא מִסְּעֻדָּה לִסְעֻדָּה,לז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ שׁוּם דָּבָר לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַלְתַּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.לח, 13 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נוֹתֵן בָּהֶםֶ שֶׁמֶןלט בֵּין נְתִינַת הַמַּיִם לִנְתִינַת הַמֶּלַח, וְהַשֶּׁמֶן מְעַכֵּב שֶׁאֵין הַמֶּלַח מִתְעָרֵב יָפֶה עִם הַמַּיִם, וּמַתִּישׁ אֶת כֹּחוֹ14 מִהְיוֹת מֵי מֶלַח עַזִּין מ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר.

וְאִם נוֹתֵן שְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי מֶלַח וּשְׁלִישׁ מַיִםמא אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת 15 אֲפִלּוּ מְעַטמב לְצֹרֶךְ טִבּוּל סְעֻדָּה זוֹ,מג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה מֻרְיָסמד לִכְבּוֹשׁ בּוֹ דָּגִים, שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל מֻרְיָס לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ כָּךְ,מה וְאָסוּר לִכְבּוֹשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם עִבּוּד, אוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:

4 [Restrictions apply] whenever salt is effective in changing the nature of a substance16 – whether softening it, firming it, reducing its bitterness,17 or the like. For example, radishes,18 onions, garlic, and other very bitter foods, when left in salt, exude [their pungent] moisture, thereby reducing their bitterness and become firm. Similarly, when beans and lentils are cooked in their shells, salt softens the toughness that results from their shells. Likewise, [restrictions apply to] fresh cucumbers, which salt enhances, and also to all foods that are often pickled. [In all these instances,] it is forbidden to salt more than one piece at a time, [and that is permitted] only when one eats [the food] immediately thereafter. [The rationale is that] when one salts two – and how much more so, more than two – pieces together, it appears as if he is pickling foods.19

It is even forbidden to dip one piece of radish or the like in salt, with the intent of leaving it for an extended time in its salt in order to reduce its bitterness after [the radish] emits liquid, because that resembles tanning. It is, however, permitted to dip several pieces [of radish or the like] individually, one after the other, and place them down in order to immediately eat them one after the other, [i.e.,] without waiting significantly [between the salting and the eating].20 The fact that in such an instance the [vegetables] will lie in the salt for a brief time and emit some liquid is not of consequence, provided [the person] does not leave them for an extended period of time, not even in the midst of one meal, e.g., [to salt them] at the beginning of the meal and [eat them] at its end, so that they emit a large amount of liquid [in the interim. The rationale is that] this resembles tanning and is, [hence,] forbidden, even if [one salts] just one piece.

There are authorities who forbid leaving [such foods to lie] in salt at all, even for the briefest period of time, even one piece by itself. Therefore, [according to these authorities,] it is forbidden to dip two pieces [of such foods] in salt, one after the other individually, and put them down in front of oneself to eat immediately, one after the other. [The rationale is that] while he eats the first [piece], the second [one] will have remained [ever so briefly] in its salt. [According to these authorities,] it is only permitted to dip one piece and eat it immediately. It is customary to follow [this ruling].

This ruling also applies to any food for which salt is beneficial. According to this latter understanding, the reason that [our Sages] forbade salting several pieces [of food] together is not because one appears to be pickling them, but rather that while one is eating the first [piece], the second [piece] will lie in its salt. Since the salt is beneficial for it, doing so resembles tanning.

Accordingly, the common practice of slicing very thin pieces21 of radish, placing them in a bowl, salting them, and then pouring vinegar over them is not prohibited. True, this resembles salting many pieces together, which is forbidden even if one intends to eat them immediately. Nevertheless, since [the pieces] are not left in the salt alone, but instead, vinegar and other substances are immediately poured over them, this does not resemble tanning. Certainly, [leniency is granted] if oil is poured over them, because oil weakens the potency of the salt. Nevertheless, one must be careful to pour the oil or the vinegar immediately after salting [the vegetables].22

When preparing a vegetable (called lettuce), some follow the practice of first salting the vegetable by itself and leaving it to lie in its salt. Afterwards, they filter out the liquid that emerges from it. Then they mix [the lettuce] with oil and vinegar. This is utterly forbidden and resembles tanning more [than the practices described previously], since [the person] waits until the salt thoroughly permeates [the vegetable before adding the liquids].

ד כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מוֹעִיל לוֹ לְשַׁנּוֹת אֶת טִבְעוֹ,מו, 16 לְרַכְּכוֹמז אוֹ לְהַקְשׁוֹתוֹמח אוֹ לְהָפִיג מְרִירוּתוֹמט, 17 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּעִנְיָן זֶה, כְּגוֹן צְנוֹןנ, 18 וּבָצֵל וְשׁוּםנא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםנב מִדְּבָרִים הַחֲרִיפִים,נג שֶׁכְּשֶׁהֵם שׁוֹהִים בְּמֶלַח הֵם מַזִּיעִים וְיוֹצֵא מְרִירוּתָםנד וְנַעֲשִׂים קָשִׁים,נה וְכֵן פּוֹלִין וַעֲדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בִּקְלִפָּתָן,נו שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מְרַכֵּךְ הַקֹּשִׁי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מִצַּד קְלִפָּתָן,נז וְכֵן מִינֵי קִשּׁוּאִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אוגערקע"ס) חַיִּין שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מוֹעִיל לָהֶם,נח וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁרְגִילִים לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ כְּבָשִׁיםנט – אָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ מֵהֶם יוֹתֵר מֵחֲתִיכָה לְבַדָּהּס כְּדֵי לְאָכְלָהּ לְאַלְתַּר,סא שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא מוֹלֵחַ שְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת יַחַד, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן יוֹתֵר – הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כְּכוֹבֵשׁ כְּבָשִׁים.סב, 19

וַאֲפִלּוּ חֲתִיכָה אַחַת שֶׁל צְנוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ – אָסוּר לְטַבְּלָהּ בְּמֶלַח לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ הַרְבֵּה בְּמִלְחָהּסג כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא מְרִירוּתָהּ אַחַר שֶׁתַּזִּיעַ, כִּי זֶהוּ דוֹמֶה לְעִבּוּד.סד

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַטְבִּיל אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה חֲתִיכוֹת כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת לְבַדָּהּ, וּלְהַנִּיחָהּ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי לְאָכְלָם לְאַלְתַּר זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ בְּלִי שִׁהוּי כָּל כָּךְ,סה, 20 וְאַף אִם הֵן מִשְׁתַּהִין שָׁעָה מֻעֶטֶת וּמַזִּיעִין קְצָת – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.סו וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם זְמַן אָרֹךְ, אֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹתָהּ סְעֻדָּה עַצְמָהּ, כְּגוֹן מִתְּחִלַּת הַסְּעֻדָּה עַד סוֹפָהּ,סז כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּזִּיעוּ הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁזֶּהוּ דוֹמֶה לְעִבּוּד, וְאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּחֲתִיכָה אַחַת לְבַדָּהּ.סח

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםסט לְהַשְׁהוֹת כְּלָל בְּמֶלַח אֲפִלּוּ שָׁעָה מֻעֶטֶת, אֲפִלּוּ חֲתִיכָה אַחַת לְבַדָּהּ. וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִטְבּוֹל שְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת אַחַת אַחַת לְבַדָּהּ וּלְהַנִּיחָן לְפָנָיו לְאָכְלָן מִיָּד זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ, כִּי עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה תִּשְׁהֶה הַשְּׁנִיָּה בְּמִלְחָהּ, וְאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר אֶלָּא לִטְבּוֹל חֲתִיכָה וּלְאָכְלָהּ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד. וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין.ע וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מוֹעִיל לוֹ.

וּלְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה אֵין הַטַּעַם בְּמַה שֶּׁאָסְרוּ לִמְלוֹחַ כַּמָּה חֲתִיכוֹת בְּיַחַד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּכוֹבֵשׁ כְּבָשִׁים, אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁעַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה תִּשְׁהֶה הַשְּׁנִיָּה בְּמִלְחָהּ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מוֹעִיל לָהּ – הֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְעִבּוּד.עא

לְפִיכָךְ, מַה שֶּׁנָּהֲגוּ לַחְתּוֹךְ צְנוֹן דַּק דַּקעב, 21 וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ בִּקְעָרָה וּמוֹלְחִין אוֹתוֹ וְשׁוֹפְכִין עָלָיו חֹמֶץ – אֵין אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר,עג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּהוּ דוֹמֶה לְמוֹלֵחַ הַרְבֵּה חֲתִיכוֹת בְּיַחַד שֶׁאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מַשְׁהִין אוֹתָן כְּלָל בְּמֶלַח לְבַדּוֹ אֶלָּא שׁוֹפְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם מִיָּד חֹמֶץ וּמִינִים אֲחֵרִים – אֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְעִבּוּד.עד וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם שׁוֹפְכִים שָׁם שֶׁמֶן,עה שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶן מַתִּישׁ אֶת כֹּחַ הַמֶּלַח.עו וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן אוֹ אֶת הַחֹמֶץ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד אַחַר הַמְּלִיחָה.עז, 22

אֲבָל מַה שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין קְצָת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין יָרָק (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שלאטי"ן) שֶׁמּוֹלְחִין הַיָּרָק תְּחִלָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וּמַשְׁהִין אוֹתוֹ כָּךְ, וּמְסַנְּנִים הַמַּיִם שֶׁיּוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנּוּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְעָרְבִים אוֹתוֹ עִם שֶׁמֶן וְחֹמֶץ – זֶהוּ אִסּוּר גָּמוּר, וְדוֹמֶה יוֹתֵר לְעִבּוּד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל הֵיטֵב הַמֶּלַח:עח

5 When salt is not effective in changing the nature of a substance, but instead, merely flavors it, e.g., an egg or meat, [that substance is permitted to be salted.23 Nevertheless,]24 it is forbidden to salt [such foods] and [then] put them aside for another meal. There is an authority who [rules leniently], stating that if there is an advantage to salting [the food] earlier rather than later, closer to the time it will be eaten – for example, if [the food] is now warm25 and therefore it will more thoroughly absorb the salt – there is no prohibition [in salting it earlier]. (One may rely on their words and rule leniently if it is necessary for him to do so, since it is a matter of Rabbinic Law.)

ה כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין הַמֶּלַח מוֹעִיל לוֹ לְשַׁנּוֹת טִבְעוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן בּוֹ טַעַם בִּלְבַד,עט כְּגוֹן בֵּיצָהפ וּבָשָׂרפא – [מֻתָּר לְמָלְחָן,23 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹםפב]24 אָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ כְּדֵי לְהַנִּיחַ לִסְעֻדָּה אַחֶרֶת.פג

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרפד שֶׁאִם יֵשׁ אֵיזֶה צַד שֶׁטּוֹב לוֹ שֶׁיַּמְלִיחֶנּוּ עַכְשָׁו מִמַּה שֶּׁיַּמְלִיחֶנּוּ אַחַר כָּךְ סָמוּךְ לַאֲכִילָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הוּא חַם קְצָתפה, 25 וִיקַבֵּל הַמֶּלַח בְּטוֹב יוֹתֵר – אֵין אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר (וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אִם צָרִיךְ לְכָךְ):

6 It is permissible to pour water on vegetables that are no longer attached to the ground so that they will not wilt.26 Since these vegetables are fit to be eaten on that day, it is permitted to pour water on them, just as it is permitted to move them. If, however, [the vegetables] are not fit to be eaten that day and, hence, they are forbidden to be moved,27 it is forbidden to pour water over them.

Therefore, if the third day [after an animal’s slaughter falls on Shabbos], it is forbidden to wash its meat that was not yet salted, so that it not become forbidden to be cooked.28 [The rationale is that the meat] is forbidden to be moved if it is tough and not fit to be eaten raw, as stated in sec. 308[:68]. Even if [the meat] is soft and is fit to be eaten raw, leniency is inappropriate. [The rationale is that] since [the person] does not desire to eat [the meat] on that day, washing it violates the prohibition against troubling oneself on Shabbos for the sake of the [coming] weekdays.29 This situation is not comparable to [pouring water over] vegetables, for they are fit to be eaten on that day by any person. Thus, it is not evident that one is taking the trouble [to pour water on the vegetables] on Shabbos for a weekday, because there is a possibility they will be eaten on Shabbos.30Raw meat, by contrast, is fit to be eaten only by a person with a strong constitution.31 Moreover, it is not at all common to eat meat raw, but rather, [it is common] to cook it. Thus, it is apparent that one is troubling himself on Shabbos [to prepare] for a weekday.32

One may not even employ the leniency [of having the meat soaked] by a non-Jew. True, permission was granted to have all activities that are forbidden as a shvus33performed by a non-Jew [on Shabbos]in an instance where a substantial loss is involved, as stated in sec. 307[:12].34Nevertheless, in this instance, a severe loss is not involved if the person will not wash the meat, because [although he may no longer cook it,] it still may be eaten after being roasted.35

ו מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁקוֹת יְרָקוֹת תְּלוּשִׁים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכְמְשׁוּ,26 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיְּרָקוֹת הַלָּלוּ רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה בְּיוֹמָן – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁקוֹתָן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם.פו אֲבָל אִם אֵינָן רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה הַיּוֹם, שֶׁאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל27 – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁקוֹתָן.פז

וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְהָדִיחַ בָּשָׂר שֶׁלֹּא נִמְלַח שֶׁחָל יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵאָסֵר לְבִשּׁוּל,28 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּלפח אִם הוּא בָּשָׂר קָשֶׁה שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָכֹס אוֹתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ח.פט

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא רַךְ שֶׁרָאוּי לָכֹס – אֵין לְהָקֵל, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ הַיּוֹם – יֵשׁ אִסּוּר בַּהֲדָחָתוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁטּוֹרֵחַ מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל.צ, 29 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִירָקוֹת, שֶׁרְאוּיִים הַיּוֹם לַאֲכִילַת כָּל אָדָם, וְאֵינוֹ נִכָּר כְּלָל שֶׁטּוֹרֵחַ מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל, כִּי שֶׁמָּא יֹאכְלֵם הַיּוֹם,30 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בָּשָׂר חַי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָכֹס אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ יָפֶה,31 וְגַם אֵין דַּרְכּוֹ כְּלָל לְכוֹסְסוֹ חַי אֶלָּא לְבַשְּׁלוֹ, וְנִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁטּוֹרֵחַ מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל.צא, 32

וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֵין לְהָקֵל, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת,33 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"זצב, 34 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן אֵין הֶפְסֵד כָּל כָּךְ אִם לֹא יְדִיחֶנּוּ, שֶׁיּוּכַל לְאָכְלוֹ צָלִי:צג, 35

7 When a person needs to crush peppercorns or the like to mix them with food on Shabbos, it is permitted to crush them by making a major deviation from the manner [in which he crushes them] during the week,36 e.g., using the handle of a knife, and the like. [One] may even crush a large amount [of spices] together [in such a manner].37 [One] may not, however, crush [the spices] with a pestle, even if it is made of wood or the like, and not of stone, which he generally uses during the week.38

There are authorities who maintain that one must also crush [the spices] in a plate or the like,39 but not in a mortar, even though he uses the handle of a knife or the like.

One should not place peppercorns in a garment and crush them with a knife, because this imparts a fragrance to the garment, even though he does not intend to do so, as will be explained in sec. 511[:7].40

There are authorities who permit crushing [peppercorns] in a mortar [using the handle of a knife, as explained]. ([Nevertheless,] it is desirable to be stringent where possible.)

It is, however, forbidden to cut [peppercorns] with a knife, even to partake of them immediately. These laws apply to all spices, for they are only eaten when mixed [with other foods].41

ז הַצָּרִיךְ לָדוּךְ פִּלְפְּלִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם לִתֵּן לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל בְּשַׁבָּתצד – מֻתָּר לִכְתּוֹשׁ אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׁנּוּיצה גָּדוֹלצו מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל,36 כְּגוֹן בְּיָד שֶׁל סַכִּיןצז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ,צח אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּיַחַד.צט, 37 אֲבָל לֹא בְּמָדוֹךְ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ שֶׁל אֶבֶן כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל, אֶלָּא שֶׁל עֵץק וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ.38

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ גַּם כֵּן שֶׁיָּדוּךְ גַּם כֵּן בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ,39 אֲבָל לֹא בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכּוֹתֵשׁ בְּיָד שֶׁל סַכִּין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ.

וְאֵין לָשׂוּם הַפִּלְפְּלִין תּוֹךְ בֶּגֶד וְיִכְתּוֹשׁ בְּסַכִּין עָלָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוֹלִיד רֵיחַ בַּבֶּגֶד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ,קב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקי"א.קג, 40

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקד לִכְתּוֹשׁ בַּמַּכְתֵּשׁ (וְטוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁרקה).

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְחַתְּכָם בְּסַכִּין,קו אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד.קז וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל הַתְּבָלִין שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְאָכְלָם אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי תַּעֲרֹבֶת:קח, 41

8 In contrast, any substance that is fit to be eaten in its present state, and is not a product of the earth, and which is [almost] never ground – e.g., cooked or roasted meat, cheese, or the like – is permitted to be diced into very small pieces (even when one does not intend to eat them immediately thereafter), because [the forbidden labor of] grinding does not apply to foods.42

Even very hard cheese is permitted [to be sliced. The rationale is that] it can be chewed, [albeit,] only with difficulty,43 and it is in the category of food. A person (even one who cannot chew this cheese) may slice it either with a knife, a hatchet,or a serrated44 knife.45 Although these utensils are primarily used for tasks that are forbidden [on Shabbos], they may be moved to be used for a permitted purpose, as stated in sec. 308[:12].

It is, however, forbidden to grate [the cheese]46 exceedingly thinly in a metal grater even for it to be eaten immediately. Since the implement is designated for that purpose, this is considered a weekday activity, like grinding spices with a pestle and a mortar. The same laws apply to other implements designated for this purpose.

ח אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא וְאֵינוֹ גִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע,קט שֶׁאֵין בְּמִינוֹ טְחִינָהקי כְּלָל, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר מְבֻשָּׁל אוֹ צָלִיקיא אוֹ גְבִינָהקיב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – מֻתָּר לַחְתּוֹךְ דַּק דַּקקיג (אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּדקיד), מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין טְחִינָה בָּאֳכָלִין.קטו, 42

וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא גְבִינָה קָשָׁה מְאֹד – מֻתָּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְלָעֳסָהּ בְּקֹשִׁיקטז, 43 וְשֵׁם אֹכֶל עָלֶיהָ. וּמֻתָּר לְחַתְּכָהּ (אֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִלְעוֹסקיז) בֵּין בְּסַכִּין בֵּין בְּקַרְדֹּם אוֹ מְגֵרָה,קיח, 44,45 שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵם כֵּלִים שֶׁמְּלַאכְתָּם לְאִסּוּר – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ח.קיט

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְגָרְרָהּ46 דַּק דַּק בְּמוֹרַג חָרוּץ בַּעַל פִּיפִיּוֹתקכ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין רי"ב אייזי"ןקכא בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַזקכב), אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד,קכג דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַכְּלִי מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ – הֲרֵי זֶה דֶּרֶךְ חֹל, כְּמוֹ שְׁחִיקַת תְּבָלִין בְּמָדוֹךְ וּבְמַכְתֶּשֶׁת,קכד וְהוּא הַדִּין בִּכְלִי אַחֵר הַמְיֻחָד לְכָךְ:קכה

9 [A different law applies] to raw meat. Since it is only fit to be eaten by a person with a strong constitution31 – [and this is] not the ordinary manner of eating [meat] – it is not considered as food in this context and [the prohibition against] grinding applies to it. Therefore, it is forbidden to cut [such meat] into exceedingly small pieces [and give the pieces to] fowl.47 Even though [such meat] is fit [to be eaten] by dogs, that does not suffice for it to be deemed as food, since it is not designated [to be fed] to dogs. Instead, because of its importance, [it is set aside for] humans or for fowl. And for them, it is not fit [to be eaten] unless it is cut in this manner.

ט אֲבָל בָּשָׂר חַי, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ יָפֶה31 לָכֹס אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא כְדַרְכּוֹ – אֵין שֵׁם אֹכֶל עָלָיו לְעִנְיָן זֶה, וְשַׁיָּךְ בּוֹ טְחִינָה.קכו וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְחַתְּכוֹ דַּק דַּק לִפְנֵי הָעוֹפוֹת.קכז, 47 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לַכְּלָבִים – אֵין שֵׁם אֹכֶל עָלָיו בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לַכְּלָבִים אֶלָּא לְאָדָם אוֹ לְעוֹפוֹת, מֵחֲמַת חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ,קכח וְלָהֶם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי בְּלֹא חֲתִיכָה זוֹ:

10 All the above applies to foods that are not products of the earth. By contrast, [the prohibition against] grinding applies to all products of the earth even though they are deemed food in every sense. Since there are foods of this type that are ground, e.g., grain and kitniyos,48 [the prohibition against grinding is relevant to all products of the earth]. Therefore, it is forbidden to cut a vegetable into very small pieces [even] in order to eat it.49 Similarly, it is forbidden to cut dried figs and carobs for elderly people.50 If one cuts [products of the earth] into very small pieces, he is liable for grinding.51

It is, however, permitted to crumble bread into very small pieces52 for chickens. This is not considered grinding, since the grain from which the bread is made was already ground, and there is no prohibition against grinding a substance that has already been ground.

All the above applies when one cuts [the produce], but does not eat it immediately thereafter, only after some time [passes]. It is, however, permitted to cut produce into very small pieces to eat immediately [himself], for others to eat immediately, or for chickens to eat immediately. [The rationale is that the Sages did not] prohibit a person eating his food in large pieces or in small pieces. As such, this is considered his “way of eating” – to eat food that is cut up, even into small pieces. And the concept of prohibited labor does not apply to any activity that is part of the ordinary way that one eats, as stated in sec. 319[:1] with regard to [the forbidden activity] of separating53 food from waste products in order to partake of it immediately. The concept of forbidden labor does not apply because this is the ordinary manner in which one eats, and it is permitted to make such separations even as an initial preference.

There are authorities who raise questions regarding the license [granted above]. It is proper to give weight to their words and be careful to cut the vegetable (called lettuce) in slightly larger pieces, for then, all authorities agree that doing so [does not violate the prohibition] against grinding. In our country, however, it has become customary to cut radishes – and similarly, onions – very finely. There are authorities [whose rulings] can serve as a basis for such conduct. Nevertheless, at the very least, people should be careful not to begin [cutting the vegetables] until after [the congregation] departs from the synagogue, for the cutting must be directly before the meal, as explained in sec. 319[:4] with regard to separating.

י וְכָל זֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ גִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע,קכט אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִגִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא אֹכֶל גָּמוּר – יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם טוֹחֵן,קל הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בְּמִינוֹ טְחִינָה, דְּהַיְנוּ בִּתְבוּאָה וְקִטְנִית.קלא, 48 וּלְפִיכָךְ, אָסוּר לַחְתּוֹךְ הַיָּרָק דַּק דַּקקלב כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ,קלג, 49 וְכֵן גְּרוֹגְרוֹת וְחָרוּבִים לִפְנֵי זְקֵנִים.קלד, 50 וְאִם חָתַךְ דַּק דַּק – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם טוֹחֵן.קלה, 51

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְפָרֵר הַלֶּחֶם דַּק דַּק52 לִפְנֵי הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים, וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם טוֹחֵן, הוֹאִיל וּכְבָר נִטְחֲנָה הַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה נַעֲשָׂה הַלֶּחֶם, וְאֵין טְחִינָה אַחַר טְחִינָה.קלו

וְכָל זֶה בְּחוֹתֵךְ וּמַנִּיחַ, וְאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל לְאַלְתַּר אֶלָּא לְאַחַר שָׁעָה, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַחְתּוֹךְ דַּק דַּק כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר,קלז אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל אֲחֵרִים שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּ לְאַלְתַּר,קלח אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל תַּרְנְגוֹלִים שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּ לְאַלְתַּר,קלט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ עַל הָאָדָם לֶאֱכוֹל מַאֲכָלוֹ בַּחֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת אוֹ קְטַנּוֹת,קמ אִם כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתוֹ כָּךְ הוּא לֶאֱכוֹל גַּם בַּחֲתִיכוֹת קְטַנּוֹת,קמא וְכָל שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה,קמב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"טקמג לְעִנְיַן בּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַלְתַּר,53 שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה הוֹאִיל וְדֶרֶךְ אֲכִילָה כָּךְ הוּא, וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה.

וְיֵשׁ מְפַקְפְּקִים עַל הֶתֵּר זֶה.קמד וְנָכוֹן לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לִזָּהֵר לַחְתּוֹךְ אֶת הַיָּרָק (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שלאטי"ן) לַחֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת קְצָת, שֶׁאָז אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם טוֹחֵן לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.קמה

אֲבָל בִּמְדִינָתֵנוּ נָהֲגוּ לַחְתּוֹךְ הַצְּנוֹן דַּק דַּק מְאֹד,קמו וְכֵן בְּצָלִים, וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם עַל מִי שֶׁיִּסְמְכוּ. וְעַל כָּל פָּנִים צְרִיכִים לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַתְחִילוּ עַד אַחַר יְצִיאָה מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא סָמוּךְ לִסְעֻדָּה מַמָּשׁ,קמז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"טקמח לְעִנְיַן בּוֹרֵר:

11 All the above54 applies to cutting vegetables finely with a knife. It is, however, forbidden to crush [vegetables] with a pestle, even a wooden one,55 and even with the intent to eat them immediately, and even if [the object being crushed] is food in every sense. For example, it is forbidden to crush cut dried figs and carobs for elderly people,50 and similarly, garlic, cress, and other foods that are [commonly] crushed, even in order to partake of them immediately. It is, however, permitted to purée [vegetables] in a manner that involves a major deviation [from one’s ordinary practice], e.g., [to crush them using] a stirring spoon, the handle of a knife, or the like, as explained above56 regarding [crushing] peppercorns.57

יא וְכָל זֶה54 לַחְתּוֹךְ דַּק דַּק בְּסַכִּין, אֲבָל לָדוּךְ בְּמָדוֹךְ, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל עֵץ – אָסוּר55 אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאֹכֶל גָּמוּר כְּמוֹ גְּרוֹגְרוֹת וְחָרוּבִים לִפְנֵי זְקֵנִים,קמט, 50 וְכֵן שׁוּם וְשַׁחֲלַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מֵאֳכָלִים הַנִּדּוֹכִין – אָסוּר לָדוּךְ אוֹתָם אֲפִלּוּ לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד.קנ אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְרַסְּקָן בְּשִׁנּוּי גָּדוֹל, כְּגוֹן בְּעֵץ הַפָּרוּר אוֹ בְּיָד שֶׁל סַכִּיןקנא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר56 בְּפִלְפְּלִין:קנב, 57

12 Salt may not be crushed with a pestle, [not] even a wooden one. Instead, one must make a major deviation [from his ordinary practice], e.g., to crush [the salt using] the handle of a knife or with a stirring spoon. It is, however, forbidden to cut [salt] very finely with a knife. ([The rationale is that] since [salt] is only fit to be eaten when mixed with other foods, it is governed by the same laws as those applying to spices58 and not those applying to meat and cheese, even though, like [the latter, salt] is not produce grown from the earth.)

When does the above apply? To salt that was initially coarse. If, however, the salt was initially fine, but it solidified into flakes due to cooking, it is permitted to cut it into very fine pieces with a knife, just as it is permitted to do so with bread.59 [The rationale is that] the prohibition against grinding does not apply regarding a substance that has already been ground, as explained above.60

יב אֵין כּוֹתְתִין מֶלַח בְּמָדוֹךְ, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל עֵץ,קנג אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ שִׁנּוּי גָּדוֹל,קנד כְּגוֹן לְרַסְּקוֹ בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל סַכִּין אוֹ בְּעֵץ פָּרוּר.קנה

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְחַתְּכוֹ בְּסַכִּין דַּק דַּקקנו (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי תַּעֲרֹבֶת – דִּינוֹ כִּתְבָלִין58 וְלֹא כְּבָשָׂר וּגְבִינָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא גַם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מִגִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע כְּמוֹתָם).

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמֶלַח הַגַּס בִּתְחִלָּתוֹ, אֲבָל מֶלַח שֶׁהָיָה דַק מִתְּחִלָּה וְנִתְבַּשֵּׁל וְנַעֲשָׂה פְּתִיתִין – מֻתָּר לְחַתְּכוֹ בְּסַכִּין דַּק דַּק, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר בְּפַת,קנז, 59 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵין טוֹחֵן אַחַר טוֹחֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:קנח, 60

13 When one does not desire to eat [a food] (or feed it to a child) immediately, he is forbidden to chew it with his teeth because of [the prohibition against] grinding.61

יג דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָפֵץ לְאָכְלוֹ (וְלֹא לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְתִינוֹקקנט) לְאַלְתַּר – אָסוּר לְלָעֳסוֹ בְּשִׁנָּיו, מִשּׁוּם טְחִינָה:קס, 61

14 When honeycombs were broken off from a beehive while it was still day [on Friday], it is forbidden [on Shabbos] to crush them to extract their honey62 because one is separating food – the honey which is fit to be eaten – from waste matter – the wax which is not fit for him. [The forbidden labors of] extracting and separating food from waste are therefore relevant. [This applies] even though one crushes [the honeycomb] in order to partake of [the honey] immediately, as stated in sec. 320[:8].63

Even if the honey oozes out on its own accord, it is forbidden until nightfall [Saturday night. This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest one crush [the honeycomb] by hand in order to partake of [the honey] on Shabbos. When, by contrast, the honeycomb was crushed while it was still day [on Friday], the honey that oozes out from it on Shabbos is permitted,62 in keeping with the law governing [the liquids that emerge from] olives and grapes that were crushed while it was still day [on Friday], as stated in that source64 and in sec. 252[:14].

It is, however, permitted to eat the honey that is stuck to the outer surface of the honeycomb, even if it was not crushed while it was still day [on Friday].

יד חַלּוֹת דְּבַשׁ שֶׁנִּתְרַסְּקוּ מֵהַכַּוֶּרֶת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אָסוּר לְרַסְּקָן לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶן הַדְּבַשׁ,קסא, 62 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מִפְּסֹלֶת, דְּהַיְנוּ הַדְּבַשׁ הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה מֵהַשַּׁעֲוָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לוֹ,קסב וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק,קסג וְגַם מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִפְּסֹלֶת,קסד וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּרַסֵּק כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"כ.קסה, 63

וַאֲפִלּוּ יָצָא הַדְּבַשׁ מֵעַצְמוֹ – אָסוּר עַד לָעֶרֶב, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְרַסֵּק בְּיָדַיִם כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ הַיּוֹם.קסו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְרַסְּקוּ הַחַלּוֹת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר הַדְּבַשׁ הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת,62 כְּדִין זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים שֶׁנִּתְרַסְּקוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קסז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםקסח, 64 וּבְסִימָן רנ"ב.קסט

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לֶאֱכוֹל הַדְּבַשׁ הַדָּבוּק עַל גַּבֵּי חַלּוֹת סָבִיב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְרַסְּקוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:קע

15 According to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to extract honey from a beehive on Shabbos.65[The rationale is that doing so] resembles picking [fruit].

When does the above apply? When the honeycombs are attached to the beehive and it appears that one is uprooting an entity from the place where it grows. If, however, the honeycombs were detached from the beehive while it was still day [on Friday] and [were merely] lying inside [the beehive], it is permitted to remove [the honeycombs]66 and eat the honey that is stuck to their outer surface. Even if [the honeycombs] are still attached to the beehive, but they were crushed inside of it while it was still day [on Friday] and the honey had flowed out into the beehive, it is permitted to remove [the honey] and eat it.67

טו אָסוּר לִרְדּוֹת דְּבַשׁ מֵהַכַּוֶּרֶת בְּשַׁבָּת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קעא, 65 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְתוֹלֵשׁ.קעב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַחַלּוֹת הֵן דְּבוּקוֹת בַּכַּוֶּרֶת, שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּעוֹקֵר דָּבָר מִגִּדּוּלוֹ. אֲבָל אִם נִתְלְשׁוּ מֵהַכַּוֶּרֶת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וּמֻנָּחִים כָּךְ בְּתוֹכָהּ – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָןקעג, 66 וְלֶאֱכוֹל הַדְּבַשׁ הַדָּבוּק עַל גַּבָּן סָבִיב.קעד וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן דְּבוּקִים בַּכַּוֶּרֶת, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַסְּקוּ בְּתוֹכָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםקעה וְהַדְּבַשׁ צָף בַּכַּוֶּרֶתקעו – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וּלְאָכְלוֹ:קעז, 67

16 Kneading (dough) is one of the primary categories of labor [forbidden on Shabbos by Scriptural Law].68 One is not liable for merely adding flour to water. Instead, [to be liable,] one must [mix the two and] knead [the dough in the same manner]69 as he ordinarily does during the week.

One is liable for kneading only when one kneads substances that can be effectively kneaded – for example: flour, or earth for mud to be used as mortar. By contrast, ashes, coarse sand, bran, roasted flour, and the like, cannot be effectively kneaded. One who kneads them is exempt [according to Scriptural Law]. Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to knead a large amount of roasted flour, lest one come to knead flour that is not roasted and incur liability [according to Scriptural Law]. It is, however, permitted to knead small amounts of roasted flour,70 for this is a deviation from the weekday practice. (Even if the dough being kneaded is thick and firm, and thus the person appears to be kneading, it is permitted since he is doing so in an irregular manner.)

However, [leniency is granted regarding] grain that did not reach a third [of its full growth]71 that was roasted and then ground coarsely to a [consistency that] is like sand. This is called shesisa. It is permitted to knead it together with vinegar and the like, even if a large amount is kneaded at one time,72 provided a loose mixture is produced.73 It is, however, forbidden [to produce] a thick mixture, because it appears [that he is] kneading. ([An exception is made] when one kneads small amounts at a time, as explained [above] with regard to roasted grain.)

[Moreover,] even with regard to a loose [mixture], one must make [at least] a minor deviation if he makes a large amount at one time. What is implied? One should first put in the shesisa and then [pour in] the vinegar if he is in a place74 where the ordinary weekday practice is to put in the vinegar first. And in a place where the ordinary weekday practice is to put in the shesisa first, on Shabbos one should put in the vinegar first.75

There are authorities who differ with all the above and maintain that there is no difference between substances that are commonly kneaded and those that are not commonly kneaded. In all instances, one is liable when he merely adds water or one of the other liquids, or fruit juice, even though he did not knead the mixture at all, because adding water itself constitutes kneading.

[According to these authorities,] the only exception is when the mixture is loose, in which instance, there is no concept of kneading at all. Such an act is prohibited only by Rabbinic Law. When [such a mixture] is necessary for Shabbos, license was granted to do so by deviating [from one’s ordinary practice], as will be explained. [This applies] both with regard to substances that are ordinarily kneaded and substances that are not ordinarily kneaded. Therefore, it is forbidden to pour liquid into both roasted grain and shesisa on Shabbos even when one deviates from his ordinary weekday practice, unless it is a loose mixture. In that instance, it is permitted to [pour the liquid in] when deviating from one’s weekday practice, e.g., to put in the shesisa and then the vinegar, in a place where this constitutes a deviation,76 or to do the opposite where doing the opposite constitutes a deviation.

When he [makes the mixture] with a deviation, it is permitted to mix even a large amount at one time, since it is a loose mixture. If, however, it is a thick mixture, [making such a mixture] is forbidden in all instances because of the prohibition against kneading, unless one poured in the liquid while it was still day.77 In such an instance, it is permitted to make a mixture on Shabbos, ([mixing] small amounts at a time78); [this license] includes both roasted grain and shesisa.79

According to the first view, when mustard was mixed on Friday, liquids may be mixed with it on Shabbos, using either one’s hands80 or a spoon, and honey may be added to it, provided one does not stir [the mixture] forcefully, but rather mixes it a small amount at a time.81

(Portions of the text are missing.)82

טז הַלָּשׁ הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת.קעח, 68 וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בִּנְתִינַת הַמַּיִם לְתוֹךְ הַקֶּמַח בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיְּגַבֵּלקעט, 69 כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל.קפ

וְאֵין הַמְגַבֵּל חַיָּב אֶלָּא בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי גִבּוּל,קפא כְּגוֹן קֶמַחקפב אוֹ עָפָרקפג לְטִיט שֶׁל בִּנְיָן.קפד אֲבָל אֵפֶרקפה וְחֹל הַגַּסקפו וּמֻרְסָןקפז וְקֶמַח קָלִיקפח וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםקפט – לָאו בְּנֵי גִבּוּל הֵן, וְהַמְגַבְּלָן פָּטוּר.קצ

אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְגַבֵּל קֶמַח קָלִי הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְגַבֵּל קֶמַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָלִיקצא וְיִתְחַיֵּב.קצב אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְגַבֵּל אֶת הַקָּלִי מְעַט מְעַט,קצג, 70 שֶׁזֶּהוּ שִׁנּוּי מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹלקצד (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַגִּבּוּל הוּא עָב וְקָשֶׁה וְנִרְאֶה כְּלָשׁ – מֻתָּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּגַבֵּל בְּשִׁנּוּיקצה).

אֲבָל תְּבוּאָה שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ71 שֶׁקָּלוּ אוֹתָהּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָחֲנוּ אוֹתָהּ גַּסָּה וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּחוֹל, וְהִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת שְׁתִיתָא – מֻתָּר לְגַבֵּל מִמֶּנָּה בְּחֹמֶץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּבַת אַחַת.קצו, 72 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַגִּבּוּל רַךְ,73 אֲבָל קָשֶׁה – אָסוּר,קצז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּלָשׁקצח (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מְגַבֵּל מְעַט מְעַט, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּקָלִיקצט). וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּרַךְ, צָרִיךְ לְשַׁנּוֹתר מְעַט אִם עוֹשֶׂה הַרְבֵּה בְּבַת אַחַת. כֵּיצַד? נוֹתֵן אֶת הַשְּׁתִיתָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן אֶת הַחֹמֶץ,רא אִם הוּא מָקוֹם74 שֶׁרְגִילִין בּוֹ בְּחֹל לִתֵּן הַחֹמֶץ תְּחִלָּה,רב וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁרְגִילִין בְּחֹל לִתֵּן הַשְּׁתִיתָא תְּחִלָּה – יִתְּנוּ בְּשַׁבָּת הַחֹמֶץ תְּחִלָּה.רג, 75

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל כָּל זֶה, וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי גִבּוּל לִדְבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי גִבּוּל,רד וּבְכֻלָּן חַיָּב בִּנְתִינַת מַיִם לְבַדרה אוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִיןרו וּמֵי פֵרוֹת,רז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא גִבֵּל כְּלָל, כִּי נְתִינַת הַמַּיִם זֶהוּ גִבּוּלוֹ.

אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַגִּבּוּל הוּא רַךְ,רח שֶׁאָז אֵין כָּאן לִישָׁהרט כְּלָל, וְאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְהִתִּירוּהוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּירי שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר, בֵּין בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי גִבּוּל, בֵּין בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי גִבּוּל. וּלְפִיכָךְ, בֵּין קָלִי בֵּין שְׁתִיתָא – אָסוּר לִתֵּן בָּהֶם הַמַּשְׁקֶה בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּשִׁנּוּי מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל,ריא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא גִּבּוּל רַךְ,ריב שֶׁאז מֻתָּר לִתֵּן בְּשִׁנּוּי, דְּהַיְנוּ לִתֵּן הַשְּׁתִיתָא תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַחֹמֶץריג בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁזֶּהוּ שִׁנּוּי,76 אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַהֵפֶךְ הוּא שִׁנּוּי.ריד וּכְשֶׁנּוֹתֵן בְּשִׁנּוּי מֻתָּר לְגַבֵּל אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּבַת אַחַת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא גִּבּוּל רַךְ.רטו

אֲבָל גִּבּוּל עָב – אָסוּר בְּכָל עִנְיָןרטז מִשּׁוּם לָשׁ,ריז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָתַן הַמַּשְׁקֶה כְּבָר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,ריח, 77 אֲזַי מֻתָּר לְגַבֵּל בְּשַׁבָּת (מְעַט מְעַטריט, 78), בֵּין בְּקָלִי בֵּין בִּשְׁתִיתָא.רכ, 79

וּלְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, חַרְדָּל שֶׁלָּשׁוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – יָכוֹל לְעָרְבוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה לְמָחָר, בֵּין בְּיָדרכא, 80 בֵּין בְּכַף,רכב וְלִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ דְּבַשׁ. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִטְרוֹף בְּכֹחַ, אֶלָּא מְעָרְבוֹרכג מְעַט מְעַט:רכד, 81

(חָסֵררכה).82