SECTION 320 The Laws Governing Squeezing Out [Liquids] on Shabbos (1-28)

סימן שכ דִּינֵי סְחִיטָה בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ"ח סְעִיפִים:

1 One who squeezes olives to extract their oil or grapes to extract their juice is liable,1 because he is extracting liquid from the fruit. In sec. 305[:28], it was explained that anyone who extracts food or liquid from the place where it is enclosed [performs] a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of threshing.2 [Nevertheless,] according to Scriptural Law, it is permitted to squeeze [any] other fruits to extract their juice,1 because all fruit juices, with the exception of olive and grape products, are not classified as liquids,3 but rather as food. [Hence, squeezing out their juices] is considered to be separating one food from another and the prohibition against extracting does not apply, as explained in that source.

According to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to squeeze [other fruits], even berries and pomegranates. Since some people who have an abundance of berries and pomegranates squeeze them for their juice, and were other people to [also] have an abundance [of these fruits], they too would customarily squeeze them for their juice, whenever one squeezes them for the sake of their juice, his intent causes them to be deemed as liquids according to Rabbinic Law. We do not say that his intent [to use them for their juice] is insignificant in light of the attitude of people at large.4

Similarly, [the species of] pears called barin that are squeezed for their juice in certain places are forbidden to be squeezed on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] it is possible that, were the inhabitants of the world at large to possess an abundance of [such pears] as do those places, they would also squeeze [the pears] for the sake of their juice. The same applies to all similar fruit.

However, [the juices of] other fruits that are not commonly squeezed by people at large for use as a liquid, i.e., to drink in order to quench one’s thirst or for the sake of pleasure – even when they possess an abundance of [these fruits] and even if they are commonly squeezed [for their juices] for medicinal purposes – are not categorized as liquids, even according to Rabbinic Law. [Hence,] it is permitted to squeeze these fruits on Shabbos, because one is considered to be separating food from food. Even if the person squeezing them does so for the sake of their juice, his intent is insignificant in light of the attitude of people at large.

Nevertheless, in a place where it is common to squeeze a fruit for the sake of [its] juice, it is governed by the laws applying to berries and pomegranates, and, in that place, it is forbidden to squeeze [that fruit] for its juice. [The rationale is that] the intent of the one who squeezes [the fruit] is not considered as inconsequential, since all the inhabitants of this locale also [squeeze this fruit] during the week. Nevertheless, in other places, it is permitted to squeeze it [on Shabbos], since [the inhabitants of these other places] do not squeeze [this fruit] for juice, even though they possess an abundance of [this fruit].5

There are, however, other authorities who maintain that it is forbidden to squeeze all [types of] fruits for their juice according to Rabbinic Law. Since the person squeezing them has the intent of drinking their juice to quench his thirst, or for the sake of pleasure, (or even for medicinal purposes,) they are considered as beverages according to Rabbinic Law. We do not say that his intent is insignificant in light of the attitude of people at large. (If, however, his intent was to dip food into [the juice], it is permitted to [squeeze the fruit for this purpose], as will be explained.)6

If, however, [one] squeezes the fruit only to sweeten the fruit itself and not for the sake of the juice, it is permitted to do so – and one may even drink the juice that was squeezed, since he did not squeeze it in order to drink [the juice. This applies to] all fruits, with the exception of berries, pomegranates, and the like7 (i.e., fruits that some people possess in abundance, and squeeze them for liquids like olives and grapes and if other people also possessed an abundance of these fruits, they too would squeeze them for the sake of their juice). [Such fruits] are forbidden to be squeezed even [if the person’s intent is only] to sweeten them. [This is] a decree lest one squeeze [the fruits] for the sake of their juice (as is the usual practice of those who possess an abundance of these fruits).

It is customary to follow this stringency in many places. However, fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. Nevertheless, in a place where the stringent view is followed, one should not deviate [from the local practice].

א הַסּוֹחֵט זֵיתִים לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶם שֶׁמֶן, אוֹ עֲנָבִים לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶן יַיִן – חַיָּב, א, 1 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּפָרֵק ב הַמַּשְׁקֶה מֵהַפְּרִי, ג וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ה ד שֶׁכָּל הַמְפָרֵק אֹכֶל אוֹ מַשְׁקֶה מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְכַּסָּה בּוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת הַדָּשׁ.ה, 2

אֲבָל שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת – מֻתָּר לְסָחֳטָן מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְהוֹצִיא מֵימֵיהֶם,ו, 1 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל מֵי פֵרוֹת אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת מַשְׁקֶה, ז אֶלָּא הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַזֵּיתִים וּמִן הָעֲנָבִים בִּלְבַד,3 אֶלָּא תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל עֲלֵיהֶם, ח וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל, שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק, ט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.

וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לִסְחוֹט אֲפִלּוּ תּוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּקְצָת בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם הַרְבֵּה תּוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים י הֵם סוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה כְּזֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים,יא וְאִלּוּ הָיוּ כֵּן הַרְבֵּה לִשְׁאָר בְּנֵי אָדָם – הָיוּ גַם כֵּן רְגִילִין לְסָחֳטָם לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה.יב לְפִיכָךְ, כָּל מִי שֶׁסּוֹחֲטָן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה – מוֹעֶלֶת מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ לִהְיוֹת שֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה עֲלֵיהֶםיג מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים "בָּטְלָה דַעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם".4

וְכֵן אוֹתָם אֲגָסִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין בערני"ס בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז) שֶׁרְגִילִין לְסָחֳטָן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה בְּמִקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת – אָסוּר לְסָחֳטָן בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ, שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאִם הָיָה לְכָל הָעוֹלָם הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶם כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שָׁם – הָיוּ גַם כֵּן סוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָם לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה.יד וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּפֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ.טו

אֲבָל שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹתטז שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הָעוֹלָם לְסָחֳטָןיז לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה, דְּהַיְנוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵימֵיהֶם מֵחֲמַת צָמָא אוֹ תַּעֲנוּג, אַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶם,יח וַאֲפִלּוּ רְגִילִין לְסָחֳטָן לִרְפוּאָהיט – אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם שֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וּמֻתָּר לְסָחֳטָן בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל. כ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה הַסּוֹחֲטָן מִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה – בָּטְלָה דַעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם.כא

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִסְחוֹט אֵיזֶה פְּרִי לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה – הֲרֵי דִינוֹ שָׁם כְּתוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים,כב וְאָסוּר לְסָחֳטוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה, שֶׁלֹּא בָטְלָה דַּעַת זֶה הַסּוֹחֵט, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל אַנְשֵׁי מְקוֹמוֹ עוֹשִׂין כֵּן בְּחֹל. אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת מֻתָּר לְסָחֳטוֹ,כג הוֹאִיל וְאֵין רְגִילִין לְסָחֳטוֹ לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה אַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם הַרְבֵּה מִמֶּנּוּ.5

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכד שֶׁכָּל הַפֵּרוֹת אָסוּר לְסָחֳטָן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶם, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁזֶּה הַסּוֹחֵט דַּעְתּוֹ עַל מֵימֵיהֶם לִשְׁתּוֹתָם מֵחֲמַת צָמָא אוֹ מֵחֲמַת תַּעֲנוּג (אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לִרְפוּאָהכה) – הֲרֵי הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים מַשְׁקֶה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים "בָּטְלָה דַעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם" (אֲבָל אִם דַּעְתּוֹ כְּדֵי לְטַבֵּל בָּהֶם הַמַּאֲכָל – מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרכו, 6).

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ סוֹחֵט אֶלָּא לְמַתֵּק הַפְּרִי וְלֹא לְצֹרֶךְ הַמַּשְׁקֶה – מֻתָּר בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת.כז וַאֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹתֶה הַמַּשְׁקֶה הַנִּסְחָט – מֻתָּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בִּסְחִיטָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַשְּׁתִיָּה.כח חוּץ מִתּוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן 7 (מֵהַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁמִּקְצָת בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן הַרְבֵּה סוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָם לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה כְּזֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה כֵּן הַרְבֵּה לִשְׁאָר בְּנֵי אָדָם הָיוּ רְגִילִין גַּם כֵּן לְסָחֳטָן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶהכט), שֶׁבָּהֶם אָסְרוּ לִסְחוֹט אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לְמַתְּקָן בִּלְבַד, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט גַּם כֵּן לְצֹרֶךְ הַמַּשְׁקֶה ל (כְּמוֹ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶם).

וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִירלא בִּמְקוֹמוֹת הַרְבֵּה. אֲבָל הָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.לב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר – אֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת:לג

2 All the above applies to squeezing [fruit to produce juice]. There are, however, authorities who permit one to suck the juice from fruits, even from olives and grapes, orally, because this is not the ordinary manner in which one squeezes [liquid from fruit. Hence, this person’s] intent is insignificant in light of the attitude of people at large.8

There are other authorities who differ and maintain that even so, [sucking from fruit] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law just like it is forbidden to nurse from an animal’s [udders] with one’s mouth even though one is extracting [the milk] in an irregular manner, as will be explained in sec. 328[:40].9 [Moreover, with regard to sucking juice from fruit,] there is also reason for concern that [the person] is liable for a sin-offering [for transgressing Shabbos unwittingly], since possibly, this – in contrast to sucking milk from an animal’s [udders] – is not considered as extracting in an irregular manner. Sucking milk [from an animal’s udders] is an absolute deviation from the norm, because the ordinary practice is not to suck milk [from an udder], but to express the milk [into a container]. In contrast, sucking fruit is not that great a deviation, because people commonly do so at times. [According to this view,] it is forbidden even to suck [the juice of] fruits that are forbidden to be squeezed only according to Rabbinic Law,10 just as it is forbidden to suck olives and grapes, because our Sages did not make distinctions with regard to their decrees. Similarly, it is forbidden to suck bread that was dipped in wine or meat that was dipped in soup, even though the prohibition against squeezing them is only Rabbinic in origin, as will be explained.11 Therefore, it is forbidden to suck sugar cane, for it is governed by the same laws that apply to berries, pomegranates, and the like.

The [prevailing] custom is to rule leniently, in accordance with the first view, even with regard to olives and grapes. [However,] may blessings rest upon one who acts stringently, even with regard to [sucking liquids from] bread and meat. Nevertheless, one may be lenient with regard to fruits other than olives and grapes,12 because there is a basis to be lenient with regard to sucking fruit since it can be said that this is the manner in which [a fruit] is eaten. And whenever one [consumes food] in the manner that it is ordinarily eaten, it does not resemble a forbidden labor at all and the Sages did not impose any decrees regarding it, as explained in sec. 319[:1] with regard to separating food from undesirable matter.13

ב וְכָל זֶה לִסְחוֹט, אֲבָל לִמְצוֹץ בְּפִיו הַמַּשְׁקֶה מִן הַפֵּרוֹת – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןלד אֲפִלּוּ מִזֵּיתִים וַעֲנָבִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ סְחִיטָה בְּכָךְ, וּבָטְלָה דַעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם.לה, 8

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלו שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָסְרוּ לִינַק בְּפִיו מִן הַבְּהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּפָרֵק כִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ח.לז, 9 וְגַם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְחִיּוּב חַטָּאת,לח כִּי שֶׁמָּא אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא מְפָרֵק כִּלְאַחַר יָד כְּמוֹ הַיּוֹנֵק מֵהַבְּהֵמָה, לְפִי שֶׁלִּינַק הוּא שִׁנּוּי גָּמוּר, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לִינַק אֶלָּא לַחֲלוֹב,לט אֲבָל מְצִיצַת פֵּרוֹת אֵינָהּ שִׁנּוּי כָּל כָּךְ, כִּי רְגִילִין לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן לִפְעָמִים.מ וַאֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאִסּוּר סְחִיטָתָן הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים 10 – אָסוּר לִמְצוֹץ, כְּמוֹ זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים,מא שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ חֲכָמִים בִּגְזֵרָתָם. וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּנוֹתֵן פַּת בְּיַיִן אוֹ בָּשָׂר בְּמָרָק, שֶׁאָסוּר לִמְצוֹץ אוֹתָם,מב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בִּסְחִיטָתָן אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.מג, 11 וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִמְצוֹץ קְנֵה הַצּוּקֶ"ר, שֶׁדִּינוֹ כְּתוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִיםמד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם.

וְהַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ בְּזֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים, כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.מה וְהַמַּחְמִיר אֲפִלּוּ בְּפַת וּבָשָׂר – תָּבֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה.מו וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת חוּץ מִזֵּיתִים וַעֲנָבִים 12 – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל,מז כִּי יֵשׁ צַד לְהָקֵל בִּמְצִיצַת פֵּרוֹת וְלוֹמַר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָן כָּךְ הוּא,מח וְכָל שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה אֵינוֹ מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה כְּלָל, וְאַף חֲכָמִים לֹא גָזְרוּ בּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"טמט בְּבוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת:13

3 Liquids that flow out from olives and grapes on their own accord14 on Shabbos are forbidden until [Saturday] evening.15 [This is] a decree [instituted] since one might come to squeeze [these fruits]16 in order to drink [the liquids] on [Shabbos] were [the liquid that flows out on its own] to be permitted. Even if the olives and the grapes were designated to be eaten, [it is forbidden to partake of [the liquids that seep out of them] because we are concerned that the person will change his mind17 and squeeze them to drink the juice, since that is the ordinary practice for most olives and grapes.

By contrast, juice that flows [on its own accord] from berries, pomegranates, and the like18 that were designated to be eaten is permitted.17 We are not concerned that perhaps the person will change his mind and use [this fruit to produce] juice. If, however, [the fruit] was designated to be used for juice, the juice [that flows from them on its own accord] is forbidden.19

ג מַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מֵאֲלֵיהֶם מִזֵּיתִים וַעֲנָבִים 14 – אֲסוּרִים נ עַד לָעֶרֶב,נא, 15 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹטנב בְּיָדַיִם16 כְּדֵי לִשְׁתּוֹתָן הַיּוֹם אִם יִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִים.נג וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַזֵּיתִים וְהָעֲנָבִים הֵן עוֹמְדִין לַאֲכִילָהנד – חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִמָּלֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן 17 לְסָחֳטָן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ רֹב הַזֵּיתִים וְהָעֲנָבִים.נה

אֲבָל מַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ מִתּוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִיםנו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן,נז, 18 אִם הֵן עוֹמְדִים לַאֲכִילָה – הַמַּשְׁקִין מֻתָּרִים,17 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִמָּלֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם לְמַשְׁקִין,נח וְאִם הֵן עוֹמְדִין לְמַשְׁקִין – הַמַּשְׁקִין אֲסוּרִים:נט, 19

4 When olives and grapes were crushed20 while it was still day21 [on Friday], the liquids that flow from them on Shabbos are permitted22 based on the rationale explained in sec. 252[:14].23

Even if the fruits were not crushed while it was still day [on Friday], if there is wine in the barrel in which the grapes are found, it is permitted to drink [wine] from this barrel on Shabbos,even though the grapes in the barrel are splitting open on Shabbos and more wine is emerging from them. [The rationale is that] the small amount of wine that emerges from the grapes on Shabbos becomes nullified, because the [volume of] wine already contained in the barrel is [at least] 60 times its volume.24 Although [the wine that emerges from the grapes] is considered a davar sheyeish lo matirin25– for it will be permitted after Shabbos without having to be nullified – nevertheless, since the wine that emerges on Shabbos never became a distinct entity before it mixed [with the other wine]26 and it was never considered wine (see Yoreh Deah, sec. 12327 [regarding] when a substance is considered wine according to halachah), it was never placed in the category of davar sheyeish lo matirin before it became nullified. [Our Sages] established the principle that a davar sheyeish lo matirin never becomes nullified only when the prohibited substance originally existed as an [independent] entity, at which time it becomes classified as a davar sheyeish lo matirin, and it then mixed with other substances.28

Even if one placed whole grapes in this barrel on Shabbos and they split open in the wine on that day, it is [nevertheless] permitted to drink the wine in this barrel based on the above rationale. Nonetheless, initially, it is forbidden to place wholegrapes in wine on Shabbos sothat they split open and their juice flows out, because of the prohibition against squeezing. Even though, [in this instance,] one does not actually squeeze the grapes by hand, [placing whole grapes in wine on Shabbos] is forbidden by Rabbinic decree.

ד זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים שֶׁנִּתְרַסְּקוּ20 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם21 – מַשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּרִין,ס, 22 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ב.סא, 23

וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְרַסְּקוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ יַיִן בְּגִיגִית שֶׁהָעֲנָבִים בְּתוֹכָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעֲנָבִים מִתְבַּקְּעִים בְּשַׁבָּת בַּגִּיגִית וְיוֹצֵא מֵהֶן עוֹד יַיִן – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת מִגִּיגִית זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁכָּל מְעַט יַיִן הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהָעֲנָבִים בְּשַׁבָּת מִתְבַּטֵּלסב בְּשִׁשִּׁיםסג בְּיַיִן שֶׁהָיָה כְּבָר בַּגִּיגִית.24 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין",25 שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר בְּלֹא בִטּוּל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁיַּיִן זֶה הַיּוֹצֵא בְּשַׁבָּת לֹא הָיָה נִכָּר מֵעוֹלָם קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵבסד, 26 וְלֹא הָיָה עָלָיו שֵׁם יַיִן מֵעוֹלָםסה (וְעַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִימָן קכ"גסו, 27 אֵימָתַי חָל עָלָיו שֵׁם יַיִן) – לֹא חָל עָלָיו שֵׁם "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין" עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל.סז וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁ"דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין" אֵינוֹ בָטֵל,סח אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהָאִסּוּר בְּעֵין מִתְּחִלָּה,סט וְחָל עָלָיו שֵׁם "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין", וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְעָרֵב.ע, 28

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נָתְנוּ עֲנָבִים שְׁלֵמִים בְּגִיגִית זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְנִתְבַּקְּעוּ בְּיַיִן בּוֹ בַיּוֹם – מֻתָּרעא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן מֵהַגִּיגִית מִטַּעַם זֶה.

אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לִתֵּן עֲנָבִים שְׁלֵמִים בְּיַיִן בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבַּקְּעוּ וְיָזוּב יֵינָם, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר סְחִיטָה. וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ סוֹחֵט בְּיָדָיו מַמָּשׁ – מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:עב

5 When water was poured over grape seeds and peels to make temed29 [before Shabbos], it is permitted to draw [the liquid] from them on Shabbos and drink it.30 [Moreover,] even if one did not mix [the grape seeds and peels] with water and the wine flowed out on its own accord, it is permitted to drink it, because [the grapes] were already crushed while it was still day [on Friday].31

ה חַרְצַנִּים וְזָגִים שֶׁנָּתַן עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּמָד 29 – מֻתָּר לִמְשׁוֹךְ מֵהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת וְלִשְׁתּוֹת.30ַ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָתַן מַיִם וְהַיַּיִן מִתְמַצֶּה וְזָב מֵאֵלָיו – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ,עג כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְרַסֵּק מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:עד, 31

6 It is permitted to squeeze [the juice from] a cluster of grapes into a pot that contains cooked food32 in order to improve [the flavor of] the food (see sec. 505:2).33 [The rationale is that] any liquid that enters food is considered as “food” and is not classified as a “liquid” at all. Thus, it is as if one is separating food34 from food.35 If, however, there is no food [in the pot], it is forbidden to squeeze [the juice from grapes] into [the pot]. True, he will later mix food with this juice, and he is squeezing it [the juice] into [the pot] to improve and sweeten the flavor of the food that he will later place there which will be eaten together with the juice. Hence, [the juice could be viewed as] a liquid that enters food and thus, consideredas food.36 Nevertheless, since there is no food in [the pot] at the time the juice is squeezed into it, it is not at all evident that [the person’s sole intention in adding the juice] is to improve the food. [Hence, squeezing juice from the cluster of grapes into an empty pot] is forbidden according to Rabbinic decree.37

ו מֻתָּר לִסְחוֹט אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁל עֲנָבִים לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָהעה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ תַּבְשִׁילעו, 32 כְּדֵי לְתַקֵּן (עַיֵּן סִימָן תק"העז, 33) הָאֹכֶל,עח שֶׁכָּל מַשְׁקֶה הַבָּא לָאֹכֶל כְּאֹכֶל הוּא חָשׁוּב,עט וְאֵין עָלָיו שֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה כְּלָל,פ וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל34 מֵאֹכֶל.פא, 35

אֲבָל אִם אֵין בָּהּ אֹכֶל – אָסוּר לִסְחוֹט לְתוֹכָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָתִיד לְעָרֵב בָּהּ אֹכֶל,פב וּבִשְׁבִיל כָּךְ הוּא סוֹחֵט לְתוֹכָהּ יַיִן זֶה כָּדֵי לְתַקֵּן וּלְמַתֵּק אֶת הָאֹכֶל שֶׁיִּתֵּן בָּהּ אַחַר כָּךְפג שֶׁיֹּאכְלֶנּוּ עִם יַיִן זֶה, וַהֲרֵי זֶה מַשְׁקֶה הַבָּא לָאֹכֶל וּכְאֹכֶל הוּא חָשׁוּב,36 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת סְחִיטַת הַיַּיִן אֵין בָּהּ אֹכֶל עֲדַיִן, וְאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר כְּלָלפד שֶׁהוּא בָּא לְתַקֵּן אֹכֶל – אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:פה, 37

7 The same laws apply to berries, pomegranates, and similar fruits.38 With regard to other fruits,39 even according to the authorities who maintain that it is forbidden to squeeze them for their juice, nevertheless, it is permitted to squeeze them in order to dip foods into their juice. [This ruling applies] even when there is [as of yet] no food in the container into which one is squeezing them. [The rationale is that even] while he is squeezing [the fruits], everyone knows that he is squeezing them to flavor the food and not [to drink] as a beverage, since it is not at all common to squeeze [these fruits to drink their] juice.

ז וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּתוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם,פו, 38 אֲבָל שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת,39 אַף לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִיםפז לְסָחֳטָן לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֵינוֹ סוֹחֲטָן אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְטַבֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל בְּמֵימֵיהֶם – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר,פח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם אֹכֶל בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי שֶׁסּוֹחֲטָן לְתוֹכוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת סְחִיטָתָן יוֹדְעִים הַכֹּל שֶׁסּוֹחֲטָן לְמַתֵּק הָאֹכֶל וְלֹא לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה,פט שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לְסָחֳטָן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה:

8 To what do the above-mentioned [leniencies regarding squeezing fruit] apply? To fruits that are fit to be eaten. By contrast, all authorities agree40 that it is forbidden to squeeze fruits that are not fit to be eaten even if [one squeezes their juice directly] into food. [The rationale is that] when one squeezes [juice from] a fruit that is not fit to be eaten, he is not separating food from food, but rather food from undesirable matter.41 Doing so is thus [prohibited] because of [the forbidden labor of] extracting, as evident from sec. 305[:28],42 and also because of [the forbidden labor of] separating food from undesirable matter. [This prohibition applies] even when one wishes to partake of the juice immediately.43 [The rationale is that] license to separate food from undesirable matter by hand so that one may eat it immediately was granted only because this is the way one eats – taking [and separating] the food by hand from the undesirable matter and [immediately] eating it. Thus, it does not resemble [a forbidden] labor. By contrast, squeezing [juice from food] and eating [it in a mixture] is not the ordinary manner of eating, but rather the way [preparatory] labor [is performed].44

ח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּפֵרוֹת הָרְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה, אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה – אָסוּר לְסָחֳטָן צ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלצא, 40 אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ הָאֳכָלִים,צב שֶׁכְּשֶׁסּוֹחֵט פְּרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה – אֵינוֹ מַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל, אֶלָּא אֹכֶל מִפְּסֹלֶת41, וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק,צג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ה,צד, 42 וְגַם מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת,צה אֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר,צו, 43 שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לִבְרוֹר אֹכֶל מִפְּסֹלֶת בְּיָדוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה כָּךְ הוּא לִטּוֹל הָאֹכֶל בְּיָדוֹ מִן הַפְּסֹלֶת וְלֶאֱכוֹל, וְאֵינוֹ מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה, אֲבָל לִסְחוֹט וְלֶאֱכוֹל – אֵינוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ מְלָאכָה:צז, 44

9 Similarly, it is forbidden to squeeze unripe grapes, i.e., grapes that have not reached the size of a white bean, even when [their juice] is squeezed directly into food. [The rationale is that] since [these grapes] are not fit to be eaten, they are considered as undesirable matter in relation to the juice squeezed from them. At present, the measure corresponding to “the size of a white bean” is not known. Hence, it is forbidden to squeeze grapes into food until they are [considered] fit to be eaten by most people.

There is an authority who permits squeezing [the juice of] unripe grapes into food. (Needless to say, [according to this authority, it is permitted] to squeeze other fruits that are not fit to be eaten, even [squeezing them] for the sake of their juice following the approach of the authorities who permit [squeezing] other fruits.)45 One should be stringent and follow the first view.46

ט וְכֵן אָסוּר לִסְחוֹט הַבֹּסֶר,צח דְּהַיְנוּ עֲנָבִים שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעוּ לְכַפּוֹל הַלָּבָן,צט אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ הָאֳכָלִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה,ק וְכִפְסֹלֶת הוּא לְגַבֵּי יַיִן הַנִּסְחָט מִמֶּנּוּ.קא וּלְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדַע לָנוּ שִׁעוּר פּוֹל הַלָּבָןקב – אָסוּר לִסְחוֹט עֲנָבִים לְתוֹךְ אֳכָלִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָהקג לְרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם.קד

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּיר לִסְחוֹט הַבֹּסֶר לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכֶלקה (וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ לְסָחֳטָן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקִין מֻתָּר לְהַמַּתִּירִיןקו בִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת).45

וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:קז, 46

10 The laws pertaining to apples are the same as those pertaining to other fruits. [Indeed,] even lemons47 are not governed by the same laws as berries and pomegranates. Instead, they are like other fruits,48 which may be squeezed for their juice, even for the sake of drinking it, according to the authorities who permit [this for other fruits].49 Moreover, even according to the authorities who forbid [squeezing lemons solely for their juice],50 at the very least, it is permitted to squeeze them for the sake of food, i.e., to dip food into their juice and the like.51

Even though in places where there is an abundance of [lemons], they are squeezed for the sake of their juice, this does not cause them to be categorized like berries and pomegranates, even in those places. [The rationale for the distinction is that lemons] are not squeezed to use their juice as a beverage, but rather to use with foods. It is even permitted [to squeeze lemons in places where] it is common practice to squeeze [their juice] into water for the purpose of drinking, because the juice is not drunk by itself.52

Nevertheless, according to the authorities who forbid squeezing other fruits for the sake of drinking their juice,53 it is forbidden on Shabbos to squeeze [the juice of] lemons or other fruit into water or other beverages to drink them, for [our Sages] granted license only when liquid is introduced into food, but not when it is introduced into another liquid.54

י תַּפּוּחִים דִּינָם כִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת.קח וַאֲפִלּוּ לִימוֹנִים47 אֵין דִּינָם כְּתוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת,קט, 48 שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְסָחֳטָן לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶן אֲפִלּוּ לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִים.קי, 49 וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִיםקיא, 50 מֻתָּר עַל כָּל פָּנִים לְסָחֳטָן לְצֹרֶךְ אֹכֶל,51 דְּהַיְנוּ לְטַבֵּל הַמַּאֲכָל בְּמֵימֵיהֶןקיב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.קיג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּאוֹתָן מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶם הֵם סוֹחֲטִים אוֹתָן לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶן – אֵין דִּינָם כְּתוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִים בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ אֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹתָן מְקוֹמוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן סוֹחֲטִין מֵימֵיהֶן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֹכֶל.קיד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נוֹהֲגִין לְסָחֳטָן לְתוֹךְ מַיִם לִשְׁתּוֹת – מֻתָּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִשְׁתּוֹתָן לְבַדָּן.קטו, 52

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִים לִסְחוֹט שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶן לְשֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה53 – אָסוּר לִסְחוֹט בְּשַׁבָּת לִימוֹנִים אוֹ שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת לְתוֹךְ מַיִם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין לִשְׁתּוֹתָן, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא מַשְׁקֶה הַבָּא לָאֹכֶל הוּא כְּאֹכֶל, וְלֹא הַבָּא לַמַּשְׁקֶה:קטז, 54

11 All the above applies with regard to fresh lemons. However, all authorities agree that [lemons] that are preserved in salt, vinegar, or brine55 – and similarly, other fruits or vegetables that are preserved or stewed56 – are forbidden to be squeezed for the sake of their juice. [They may be squeezed only] for the sake of [the fruits themselves], i.e., to prepare them to be eaten. [The rationale is that when they are squeezed for that purpose], the [forbidden labor of] extracting does not apply, since [the person] has absolutely no need for the object being extracted, i.e., the juice.57

If one squeezes [preserved fruits or vegetables] for the sake of the liquid [that will be produced], he is not liable according to Scriptural Law,58 even though the liquid [in which they were preserved] was categorized as a liquid in the complete sense before it became absorbed in them, e.g., [the fruits or vegetables] were preserved or stewed in water, wine, vinegar, or other liquids of this nature. [The rationale is that] since at present, [these liquids] are being squeezed from food, they are categorized as food.59 Thus one is separating food from food, [which is permitted according to Scriptural Law]. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to squeeze [the stewed fruits or vegetables] for the sake of their liquid according to Rabbinic Law, since the liquid was categorized as a liquid in a complete sense beforehand. By contrast, the juice produced by squeezing fresh fruit was never categorized as a liquid before [it was squeezed]. Therefore, it is permitted to squeeze [the fresh fruit] according to the authorities who grant such license.50

יא וְכָל זֶה בְּלִימוֹנִים חֲדָשִׁים, אֲבָל הַכְּבוּשִׁים בְּמֶלַחקיז וְחֹמֶץקיח אוֹ בְּמֵי מֶלַח,55 וְכֵן שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת וִירָקוֹת הַכְּבוּשִׁיםקיט וְכֵן הַשְּׁלָקוֹתקכ, 56 – אָסוּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל לְסָחֳטָן לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶן, אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן לְתַקְּנָם לַאֲכִילָה עַל יְדֵי כָךְ,קכא שֶׁאָז אֵין בּוֹ מְפָרֵק, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לְדָבָר הַמִּתְפָּרֵק, דְּהַיְנוּ מֵימֵיהֶן.קכב, 57

וְאִם סְחָטָן לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶן – פָּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קכג, 58 שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּימֵיהֶן הָיוּ מַשְׁקִין גְּמוּרִים קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּבְלְעוּ בָהֶן,קכד כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּכְבְּשׁוּ אוֹ נִשְׁלְקוּ בְּמַיִם אוֹ יַיִן וְחֹמֶץקכה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן מִשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הֵן נִסְחָטִין מֵאֳכָלִין – תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל עֲלֵיהֶן,קכו, 59 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לְסָחֳטָן לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶם,קכז הוֹאִיל וְהָיוּ מַשְׁקִין גְּמוּרִים קֹדֶם לָכֵן.קכח מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּפֵרוֹת חַיִּין, שֶׁמֵּימֵי סְחִיטָתָן לֹא הָיָה עֲלֵיהֶם שֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה מֵעוֹלָם,קכט לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְסָחֳטָן לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין:קל, 49

12 It is permitted to squeeze preserved and stewed fruits and vegetables for the sake of their liquids [if one squeezes the liquid] into a pot that has food in it in order to improve [the] flavor [of the food in the pot]. If, however, [the pot] does not yet have food in it, it is forbidden to squeeze [the liquid] into it even though [the person] will eventually mix food into it, for the reason explained above.60

יב מֻתָּר לִסְחוֹט כְּבָשִׁים וּשְׁלָקוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶן לְתוֹךְ קְדֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ אֹכֶלקלא כְּדֵי לְתַקְּנוֹ.קלב אֲבָל אִם עֲדַיִן אֵין בָּהּ אֹכֶל – אָסוּר לִסְחוֹט לְתוֹכָהּקלג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָתִיד לְעָרֵב בָּהּ אֹכֶל, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קלד, 60

13 It is permitted to squeeze [such liquids] into fish oil,61 because [fish oil] is considered to be food.62 It is, however, forbidden to squeeze them into [other] liquids.

יג מֻתָּר לְסָחֳטָן לְתוֹךְ הַמֻּרְיָס,61 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב אֹכֶל,קלה, 62 אֲבָל לְתוֹךְ הַמַּשְׁקִין אָסוּר לְסָחֳטָן:קלו

14 The laws that apply with regard to squeezing pickled or stewed fruits or vegetables for the sake of their liquids63 apply equally to squeezing a fish for the sake of its brine.64

יד הַסּוֹחֵט דָּג לְצֹרֶךְ צִירוֹ 64 – דִּינוֹ כְּסוֹחֵט כְּבָשִׁים וּשְׁלָקוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶן:קלז, 63

15 It is permitted to squeeze a cooked apple or another cooked fruit to extract its contents, for one is squeezing out the entire contents of the fruit; he is not squeezing [the fruit] to extract its juice.

טו תַּפּוּחַ אוֹ שְׁאָר פְּרִי מְבֻשָּׁל – מֻתָּר לְסָחֳטוֹ לְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא סוֹחֵט כָּל הָאֹכֶל מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ מֵימָיו:קלח

16 It is forbidden to crush snow, hail, and the like by hand,65 i.e., to break these substances into small pieces so that their water will flow, because this resembles a forbidden labor. It is as if one is “creating” this water.66 Nevertheless, in the summer, one may place [these substances] in a cup of wine or water to cool them. [The fact that] they will melt as a matter of courses is of no concern.67 Similarly, one may place [these substances] in the sun or opposite a fire where they will melt as a matter of course, [provided he sets them down] in a place where [the water that results from their melting] will not become so hot that a hand will recoil from touching it.68

There are authorities who maintain that license was only granted to place [these substances] in a cup [containing other liquids], for then the melted liquid does not become a distinct entity, but instead, is mixed with the wine or water in the cup. If, however, the liquid that results from their melting becomes a distinct entity, it is forbidden to use that liquid, even after the fact, for the reason explained in sec. 318[:25].69

It was already explained in that [section, 318:27] that, fundamentally, the halachah follows the first view,70 except that, as an initial preference, it is customary to be stringent.

טז הַשֶּׁלֶג וְהַבָּרָד וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – אָסוּר לְרַסֵּק אוֹתָםקלט בְּיָדַיִם,קמ, 65 דְּהַיְנוּ לְשַׁבְּרָם לַחֲתִיכוֹת דַּקּוֹתקמא כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּזוּבוּ מֵימֵיהֶן,קמב מִשּׁוּם שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לִמְלָאכָה, שֶׁבּוֹרֵא מַיִם הַלָּלוּ.קמג, 66 אֲבָל נוֹתֵן הוּא לְתוֹךְ כּוֹס שֶׁל יַיִן אוֹ מַיִם בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה כְּדֵי לְצַנְּנוֹ, וְהֵם נִמּוֹחִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶם, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ.קמד, 67

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחָם בַּחַמָּה אוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה,קמה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין יְכוֹלִים לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,קמו, 68 וְהֵם נִפְשָׁרִים שָׁם מֵאֲלֵיהֶם.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקמז שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא לִתֵּן לְתוֹךְ הַכּוֹס, שֶׁהַנִּמּוֹחַ אֵינוֹ בְּעֵין לְבַדּוֹ אֶלָּא מְעֹרָב בְּיַיִן אוֹ בְּמַיִם שֶׁבַּכּוֹס,קמח אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַנִּמּוֹח הוּא בְּעֵין לְבַדּוֹ – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד,קמט מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ח.קנ, 69

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר שָׁםקנא שֶׁהָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,70 אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר:

17 [Our Sages] forbade crushing [pieces of ice] only when one intends for water to trickle out from them. One may, by contrast, break off a piece [of ice] from [a larger piece] even if a small amount of water runs out as a result. [The rationale is that] this is a small amount and is of no importance. Moreover, the person does not intend [to produce water] and [having a bit of water run out] is not an inevitable consequence [of breaking a small piece of ice from a larger one];71 also, [the water that runs out of the ice] goes to waste.72 ([Breaking off a smaller piece of ice from a larger one] is not at all comparable to [the forbidden act of] squeezing fruits that are set aside to be used for juice, because the liquid [produced from the fruit] is not wasted. Hence, there is no reason at all to establish a decree [concerning breaking off a piece of ice] to [safeguard the prohibition against squeezing fruit].)

יז לֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְרַסֵּק בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיָּזוּבוּ מֵימָיו, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׁבּוֹר חֲתִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם יָזוּבוּ קְצָת מַיִם עַל יְדֵי זֶה, שֶׁדָּבָר מֻעָט הוּא וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלוּם.קנב וְעוֹד, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ,קנג וְאֵינוֹ "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ".קנד, 71 וְעוֹד, שֶׁהֵם הוֹלְכִים לְאִבּוּדקנה, 72 (וְאֵינָן דּוֹמִין כְּלָל לִסְחִיטַת פֵּרוֹת הָעוֹמְדִים לְמַשְׁקִים, שֶׁאֵין הַמַּשְׁקֶה הַנִּסְחָט הוֹלֵךְ לְאִבּוּד, וְלָכֵן אֵין לִגְזוֹר כְּלָל עַל זֶה מִפְּנֵי זֶהקנו):

18 On Shabbos,] it is permitted to break ice [that is covering water at the top of a container] in order to take the [melted] water that is below [the ice], because he does not “create” water by breaking this ice.73 Nor is there any prohibition involved in breaking the ice, for there is no prohibition at all to break or separate an object that is not connected to the earth and is not an implement, as stated in sec. 314[:12, 16].74 In contrast, it is forbidden to break ice in a river or a well, since that ice is connected to the earth.75

יח מֻתָּר לְשַׁבֵּר הַקֶּרַח לִטּוֹל מַיִם מִתַּחְתָּיו,קנז שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ בּוֹרֵא מַיִם בָּזֶה,קנח, 73 וּמִשּׁוּם שְׁבִירַת הַקֶּרַח אֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל,קנט שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר תָּלוּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּלִי – אֵין בִּשְׁבִירָתוֹ וּפְסִיקָתוֹ שׁוּם אִסּוּר כְּלָל,קס כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ד.קסא, 74

אֲבָל בְּנָהָר אוֹ בְּאֵר,קסב כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַקֶּרַח מְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַעקסג, 75 – אָסוּר לְשַׁבְּרוֹ:

19 A person should be careful not to rub his hands with salt, because the salt will dissolve on his hands.76 It is, however, permitted to pour water over salt77 and wash one’s hands with it even though the salt will dissolve in it as a matter of course, provided he does not rub [the salt] with his hands. In the winter, one must [be careful] not to wash his hands at all with water that contains snow or hail, because they dissolve more easily than salt. If one washes [with such water,] he must be careful not to press [the snow or hail] with his hands so that he will not crush them with his hands.78

There are authorities who maintain that as long as the substance that dissolves never becomes a distinct entity,79 but rather is [immediately] mixed with another substance,80 one may even crush it or liquefy it with one’s hands. Therefore, it is permitted to wash one’s hands and rub them together with water that contains snow, hail, or salt, even though he is crushing [that substance] and liquefying it with his hands, since [the resulting liquid] mixes together with the water on his hands.

Similarly, it is even permitted to crush pieces of snow and hail by hand so that they dissolve and flow into a cup of wine or water. [The rationale is that] the reason for the prohibition against crushing [these substances] by hand is that it is a decree instituted lest one squeeze fruit that is set aside [to be squeezed] for its juice, because snow and hail are also set aside to be used for the water [produced from them.81 In this instance,] since [the water produced from these substances] becomes mixed with something else [immediately],82 a [prohibitive] decree was not instituted, for this instance is not comparable to fruit that is set aside to be squeezed for its juice, in which case, the juice that is squeezed exists as a distinct entity.

It is proper to be stringent and follow the first opinion.

יט צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁפְשֵׁף יָדָיו בְּמֶלַח,קסד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמֶּלַח נִמּוֹחַקסה עַל יָדָיו.קסו, 76 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁלִיךְ מַיִם בְּמֶלַחקסז, 77 וְלִטּוֹל יָדָיו מֵהֶם,קסח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמֶּלַח נִמְחֶה שָׁם מֵאֵלָיו,קסט וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְשַׁפְשְׁפֶנּוּ בְּיָדָיו.

וּבַחֹרֶף צָרִיךְקע שֶׁלֹּא לִטּוֹל יָדָיו כְּלָל בְּמַיִם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁלֶג אוֹ בָּרָד,קעא שֶׁהֵמָּה קַלִּים לְהִתְרַסֵּק מֵהַמֶּלַח. וְאִם יִטּוֹל – יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִדְחָקֵם בֵּין יָדָיו,קעב שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מְרַסֵּק בְּיָדַיִם.78

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקעג שֶׁכָּל שֶׁהַנִּמּוֹחַ אֵינוֹ בְּעֵין לְבַדּוֹ79 אֶלָּא מִתְעָרֵב בְּדָבָר אַחֵר,קעד, 80 אֲפִלּוּ מְרַסְּקוֹ וּמְמַחֵהוּ בְּיָדַיִם – מֻתָּר. וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לִטּוֹל יָדָיו וּלְשַׁפְשְׁפָם בְּמַיִם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁלֶג וּבָרָד אוֹ מֶלַח,קעה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּרַסְּקֵם וּמְמַחֶה אוֹתָם בְּיָדָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם מִתְעָרְבִים בְּמַיִם שֶׁעַל יָדָיו.קעו

וְכֵן מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְרַסֵּק בְּיָדַיִם חֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁלֶג וּבָרָד שֶׁיְּהֵא נִמְחֶה וְזָב לְתוֹךְ כּוֹס שֶׁל יַיִן אוֹ מַיִם,קעז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטַּעַם אִסּוּר הָרִסּוּק בְּיָדַיִם הוּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט פֵּרוֹת הָעוֹמְדִים לְמַשְׁקִין,קעח לְפִי שֶׁהַשֶּׁלֶג וְהַבָּרָד לְמֵימֵיהֶן הֵן עוֹמְדִים,קעט, 81 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מִתְעָרֵב בְּדָבָר אַחֵר82 – לֹא גָזְרוּ,קפ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִסְחִיטַת פֵּרוֹתקפא הָעוֹמְדִים לְמַשְׁקִין, שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה הַנִּסְחָט הוּא בְּעֵין לְבַדּוֹ.

וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:קפב

20 Accordingly, there was an authority who was careful with regard to urinating on snow, because the urine causes the snow to melt. Thus, [doing so] is comparable to melting [the snow] with a direct action, which, according to the first opinion [mentioned in the previous subsection], is forbidden even when the dissolved entity does not remain distinct (and also ends up being wasted).83 It is, however, permitted to tread on snow with one’s feet because it is possible that it will not liquefy and dissolve as a result. Even if it does liquefy and dissolve, it was not intentional. Since this [liquefaction] is not an inevitable consequence,71 it is permitted.

There is an authority who maintains that even when one’s shoes are wet, and hence, snow will definitely dissolve under them, it is permitted [to walk on snow]. Similarly, it is permitted to urinate on snow. [The reason for these leniencies is that] it is impossible to be careful regarding such matters in the winter, when the entire ground is covered with snow. Therefore, our Sages did not impose [prohibitive] decrees in such instances.

(It is desirable to be stringent when it is easy to be careful [regarding the above].)

כ וּלְפִיכָךְ, יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁהָיָה נִזְהָרקפג לְהָטִיל מַיִם בַּשֶּׁלֶג, כִּי עַל יְדֵי הַשֶּׁתֶן נִמּוֹחַ הַשֶּׁלֶג,קפד וַהֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְמַחֵהוּ בְּיָדַיִם,קפה שֶׁאָסוּר לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהקפו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַנִּמּוֹחַ בְּעֵין לְבַדּוֹ (וְגַם הוּא הוֹלֵךְ לְאִבּוּדקפז).83

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִדְרוֹס שֶׁלֶג בְּרַגְלָיו,קפח כִּי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִמְחֶה וְנָמֵס עַל יְדֵי כָךְ, וְלָכֵן אַף אִם הוּא נִמְחֶה וְנָמֵס – דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא, וּמֻתָּר כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ".קפט, 71

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרקצ שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הַמִּנְעָלִים לַחִים וּבְוַדַּאי נִמַּס הַשֶּׁלֶג שָׁם – מֻתָּר. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהָטִיל מֵי רַגְלַיִם בַּשֶּׁלֶג,קצא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִזָּהֵר בּוֹ בִּימוֹת הַחֹרֶף כִּי כָּל הָאָרֶץ מְלֵאָה שֶׁלֶג, וְלָכֵן לֹא גָזְרוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים כְּלָל.קצב

(וְטוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִזָּהֵר בְּקַל):קצג

21 It is forbidden to spread a kerchief as a covering over the opening of a barrel of water,84 lest it become soiled by the water and one squeeze [the water out],85 thus becoming liable for laundering.86 One may, however, spread a cloth made specifically for that purpose over [a barrel of water. There is no concern] that he will worry [about the cloth and] squeeze it out if it becomes soiled, since [the cloth] is designated for this purpose.

[Moreover,] it is permitted to spread a kerchief over a barrel of red wine, oil, beer, or other similar beverages. One may even soak [a kerchief] in these beverages intentionally,87 e.g., use [the kerchief] as a filter, since only water, white wine, and the like launders cloth.88

Nevertheless, it is forbidden to squeeze even a cloth that was soaked in liquids that do not launder because of the prohibition against extracting, which is one of the derivatives [of the forbidden labor] of threshing, just as squeezing fruit is forbidden because of [the prohibition against] extracting. Nevertheless, one is not liable for squeezing unless he needs the liquids that are squeezed from the cloth. If, by contrast, he does not need the liquids that are squeezed out and he is squeezing the cloth only to clean it, this does not resemble threshing at all, for when threshing, one needs the grain that he extracts from the stalks. Therefore, squeezing [such cloths] is not forbidden according to Scriptural Law, but [is] only [forbidden] by Rabbinic decree.

Accordingly, [our Sages] did not institute a prohibitive decree against [merely] soaking a cloth in liquids that do not launder, lest one squeeze it and become liable for extracting. [The rationale is that] the person is only liable if he needs the liquids that are being squeezed out. This – that one should squeeze a cloth for the sake of the liquids being extracted – is not a concern at all, because such liquids are not significant and it is not customary to [squeeze a wet cloth for the liquid that will be extracted from it].

כא אָסוּר לִפְרוֹס סוּדָרקצד עַל פִּי חָבִית שֶׁל מַיִםקצה לְכַסּוֹתָהּ,84 שֶׁמָּא יִתְלַכְלֵךְ בְּמַיִםקצו וְיָבֹא לְסָחֳטוֹקצז, 85 וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מְלַבֵּן.קצח, 86 אֲבָל בֶּגֶד הֶעָשׂוּי לִפְרוֹס עָלֶיהָ – מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ עָלָיו לְסָחֳטוֹקצט אִם מִתְלַכְלֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ. ר

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס סוּדָר עַל פִּי חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִןרא אָדֹםרב אוֹ שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן אוֹ שֵׁכָר וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם.רג וַאֲפִלּוּ לִשְׁרוֹתוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּמַשְׁקִין הַלָּלוּ בְּיָדַיִם, כְּגוֹן לְסַנְּנוֹ עָלָיו – מֻתָּר,רד, 87 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מְלַבֵּן אֶלָּא מַיִםרה וְיַיִן לָבָןרו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם.88

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בֶּגֶד שֶׁנִּשְׁרֶה, אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵין מְלַבְּנִין – אָסוּר לְסָחֳטוֹ, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר מְפָרֵקרז שֶׁהוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַדָּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁסְּחִיטַת פֵּרוֹת אֲסוּרָה מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק,רח אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַל סְחִיטָה זוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן צָרִיךְ לְמַשְׁקִין הַנִּסְחָטִין מֵהַבֶּגֶד.רט

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְמַשְׁקִין הַנִּסְחָטִין, וְאֵינוֹ סוֹחֵט אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְנַקּוֹת הַבֶּגֶד – אֵין זֶה דוֹמֶה לְדִישָׁה כְּלָל,רי שֶׁהַדָּשׁ הוּא צָרִיךְ לִתְבוּאָה שֶׁמְּפָרֵק מֵהַשִּׁבֳּלִים, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין בִּסְחִיטָה זוֹ אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.ריא

וְלָכֵן לֹא גָזְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁרוֹת בֶּגֶד בְּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵין מְלַבְּנִים, מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט וְיִתְחַיֵּיב מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן צָרִיךְ לְמַשְׁקִין הַנִּסְחָטִין, וְזֶה אֵין לָחוּשׁ כְּלָל שֶׁיִּסְחוֹט הַבֶּגֶד לְצֹרֶךְ הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁיִּסָּחֲטוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִים כְּלוּם, וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן:ריב

22 It is forbidden to press muchin89 tightly into the opening of a flask [as a stopper] lest one squeeze out [liquids],90 for tightly pressing the muchin [into the opening] will cause the liquid absorbed in the muchin to be squeezed into the flask.91 Even though one does not intend [to squeeze out the liquids], it is inevitable71 [that he will do so] when he presses [the muchin] tightly. Therefore, it is forbidden to press [such a substance] in at all [i.e. even lightly] lest he press it tightly.92

כב אָסוּר לַהֲדוֹק מוֹכִין 89 בְּפִי פַּךְ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַשְׁקִין, שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה,ריג, 90 שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַהִדּוּק יִסָּחֲטוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין הַבְּלוּעִין בַּמּוֹכִיןריד לְתוֹךְ הַפַּךְ.רטו, 91 וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת"71 הוּארטז כְּשֶׁיְּהַדֵּק הֵיטֵב, וְלָכֵן אָסְרוּ לְהַדֵּק כְּלָל שֶׁמָּא יְהַדֵּק הֵיטֵב:ריז, 92

23 [The following laws apply with regard to] a sponge: If it has a leather handle with which one can hold it, one may wipe with it. If not, he may not clean with it, because when he holds it, he will squeeze it with his fingers. Even though he does not intend to do so, it is inevitable71 that he will [squeeze out the liquid absorbed in it].

There is an authority who maintains that even if [a sponge] has a handle, it is impossible to use it for cleaning without squeezing [out some of the liquid absorbed inside the sponge]. Nevertheless, it is permitted [to clean with it. The rationale is that] when one squeezes [a sponge or the like] via a handle, it is not deemed as squeezing. Instead, it is comparable to pouring water from a pitcher, which is not considered as extracting.93 In contrast, when [the sponge] does not have a handle, [cleaning with it] is forbidden [because the sponge is being] squeezed out where his hand is holding it.

כג סְפוֹג, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה שֶׁל עוֹר שֶׁיֹּאחֲזֶנּוּ בּוֹריח – מְקַנְּחִין בּוֹ, וְאִם לָאו – אֵין מְקַנְּחִין בּוֹ,ריט שֶׁכְּשֶׁאוֹחֲזוֹ בְּיָדוֹ הוּא נִסְחָט בֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו.רכ וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ – "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת"71 הוּא.רכא וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵררכב שֶׁאַף כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקַנֵּחַ בִּסְפוֹג בְּלֹא סְחִיטָה, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַסְּחִיטָה בָּאָה עַל יְדֵי בֵּית אֲחִיזָה – אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת סְחִיטָה, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמֵרִיק מַיִם מִצְּלוֹחִית,93 שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק.רכג אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה, שֶׁהוּא נִסְחָט בִּמְקוֹם אֲחִיזַת יָדוֹ –אָסוּר:רכד

24 On Shabbos, it is forbidden to stop up a hole in the side of a barrel through which wine is decanted by inserting a bung with a piece of cloth or flax bast wrapped around it.94 [This applies] even if the barrel [contains] red wine or other beverages that do not launder, because when the bung is inserted, the liquids that are absorbed in the [cloth or the] bast will inevitably be squeezed out.95 Even though the liquids that are being squeezed out will go to waste,96 nevertheless, this is forbidden by Rabbinic decree, as stated above.97

There are other authorities who maintain that as long as the liquids will go to waste, even a Rabbinic prohibition is not involved unless one has the intent of squeezing out [the liquids].98 When, by contrast, [one] does not intend to [squeeze out liquids], even though it is an inevitable consequence,99 it is permitted since the squeezing is of no avail to him at all, since he does not derive any benefit from it. [Our Sages] only forbade placing tightly fitting muchin in the opening of a flask even though one does not intend to squeeze out the liquids, because the liquids [squeezed out of the muchin] flow into the flask and thus, he benefits from this squeezing. In contrast, liquids that are squeezed out from the flax around the bung go to waste if a container is not placed under them. Thus, the person does not benefit [from this liquid] at all.

Primarily, the halachah follows the first opinion, [as reflected in the ruling] prohibiting cleaning with a sponge that does not have a handle,100 even though one does not intend to squeeze out the liquids and the liquids that are squeezed out of the sponge go to waste.

Nevertheless, people at large have adopted the custom of showing leniency concerning this matter and use [a bung wrapped with a] flax bast to plug [a hole in a barrel] on Shabbos. There are authorities who offered justification for their conduct, [explaining that] since the bung is long [and projects] beyond the flax, and the person’s hand does not touch the flax, it is permitted [to plug the hole with it] even though liquids will be squeezed from the flax. It resembles a sponge with a handle, which is permitted [to be used] according to the [lenient] authority [cited above] even though liquids are squeezed out from it, because it is like pouring water from a flask. According to this explanation, it is permitted [to use flax bast] even though there is a container under the bung to collect the liquids that are squeezed out.

Since there are many authorities who dispute this opinion, it is proper not to place a container beneath the bung, and thus the liquid that is squeezed out will go to waste. This relies on the second opinion explained [previously]. Even though fundamentally, the halachah does not follow this view, [it can be relied upon in this instance] because there are authorities who permit squeezing without reservation as long as the liquid goes to waste. In addition, to rely on this lenient opinion, the bung should be long and extend beyond the bast.

(There is no concern about the prohibition against laundering regarding the flax bast or a piece of cloth around the bung, even if the contents are white wine that launders,101 because they are designated for this purpose. [Hence,] one is not concerned with their being laundered at all, as explained in sec. 319[:13]102 with regard to a filter.)

כד בַּרְזָא שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין בַּנֶּקֶברכה שֶׁבְּדֹפֶן הֶחָבִיתרכו שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִין בּוֹ הַיַּיִן, וְכוֹרְכִין סְבִיב הַבַּרְזָא חֲתִיכַת בֶּגֶדרכז אוֹ נְעֹרֶת שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּןרכח וּפוֹקְקִים בָּהּ הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁבֶּחָבִית – אָסוּר לִפְקוֹק בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת,רכט, 94 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן אָדֹם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵין מְלַבְּנִים,רל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַפְּקִיקָה נִסְחָטִין מַשְׁקִין הַבְּלוּעִין בִּנְעֹרֶת,רלא וּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת" הוּא.רלב, 95 וְאַף שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִין הַנִּסְחָטִין הוֹלְכִין לְאִבּוּד,96 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,רלג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רלד, 97

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרלה שֶׁכָּל שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִין הוֹלְכִין לְאִבּוּד – אֵין אִסּוּר אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִסְחוֹט,98 אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן לְכָךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" 99 – מֻתָּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הַסְּחִיטָה נוֹחָה לוֹ כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ שׁוּם הֲנָאָה מִמֶּנָּה. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לְהָדֵק מוֹכִין בְּפִי הַפַּךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לִסְחוֹט,רלו אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקִין הַנִּסְחָטִין מֵהַמּוֹכִין לְתוֹךְ הַפַּךְ שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לוֹ הֲנָאָה מִסְּחִיטָה זוֹ,רלז אֲבָל מַשְׁקִין הַנִּסְחָטִין מֵהַנְּעֹרֶת שֶׁסְּבִיב הַבַּרְזָא הֵן הוֹלְכִין לְאִבּוּד אִם אֵין כְּלִי תַּחְתֵּיהֶם, וְאֵין לוֹ בָּהֶם הֲנָאָה שֶׁל כְּלוּם.

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי סְפוֹג שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה אֵין מְקַנְּחִין בּוֹ,רלח, 100 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לִסְחוֹט וְהַמַּשְׁקֶה הַנִּסְחָט מֵהַסְּפוֹג הוֹלֵךְ לְאִבּוּד.רלט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הָעוֹלָם נָהֲגוּ הֶתֵּר בַּדָּבָר לִפְקוֹק בִּנְעֹרֶת בְּשַׁבָּת.רמ

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת,רמא דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַבַּרְזָא אֲרֻכָּה חוּץ לַנְּעֹרֶת וְאֵין יָד מַגַּעַת לַנְּעֹרֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּסְחָטִין מַשְׁקִים מִן הַנְּעֹרֶת – מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ סְפוֹג שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה, לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵררמב שֶׁאַף שֶׁנִּסְחָט מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקֶה מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמֵרִיק מַיִם מִצְּלוֹחִית. וּלְפִי זֶה אַף אִם יֵשׁ כְּלִי תַּחַת הַבַּרְזָא לְקַבֵּל מַשְׁקֶה הַנִּסְחָט – מֻתָּר.רמג

וּלְפִי שֶׁרַבּוּ הַחוֹלְקִים עַל דְּבָרָיו, לָכֵן יֵשׁ לְהַנְהִיגָם שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה כְּלִי תַּחַת הַבַּרְזָארמד כְּדֵי שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה הַנִּסְחָט יֵלֵךְ לְאִבּוּד, וְיִסְמְכוּ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,רמה אַף שֶׁאֵינָהּ עִקָּר, מִפְּנֵירמו שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין לְגַמְרֵירמז אֲפִלּוּ לִסְחוֹט בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן כָּל שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה הוֹלֵךְ לְאִבּוּד. וְגַם הַבַּרְזָא תְּהֵא אֲרֻכָּה חוּץ לַנְּעֹרֶת, כְּדֵי לְצָרֵף גַּם כֵּן קוּלָא זוֹ.רמח

(וּמִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר לִבּוּן אֵין לָחוּשׁ בִּנְעֹרֶת וּבַחֲתִיכַת בֶּגֶד שֶׁסְּבִיב הַבַּרְזָא, אַף אִם הוּא יַיִן לָבָן שֶׁהוּא מְלַבֵּןרמט,101 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן עֲשׂוּיִין לְכָךְ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְלִבּוּן כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"טרנ, 102 לְעִנְיַן מְשַׁמֶּרֶת):

25 A drain may be plugged with cloths or with any article that may be carried, so that its water will not inundate food and utensils. [The rationale is that] since one is not concerned that a small amount of water will leak out, he will not press the cloths in tightly. Thus, it will not be inevitable71 that he will squeeze out [liquid from the cloth].

כה פּוֹקְקִין אֶת הַבִּיב בְּסוּדָרִין וּבְכָל דָּבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָצוּפוּ הַמַּיִם עַל הָאֳכָלִין וְעַל הַכֵּלִים,רנא לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ אִם יֵצְאוּ מַיִם מֻעָטִים, לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ דוֹחֵק הַרְבֵּה,רנב וְלֹא יָבֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה בִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ":רנג, 71

26 It is permitted to place saffron in a cooked dish. There is no concern regarding [the forbidden labor of] dyeing [the food with the saffron],103 because [the prohibition against] dyeing does not apply with regard to foods.

כו מֻתָּר לִתֵּן כַּרְכֹּם בַּתַּבְשִׁיל, וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ מִשּׁוּם צוֹבֵעַ,רנד, 103 שֶׁאֵין צְבִיעָה בָּאֳכָלִים:רנה

27 A person who partakes of berries or other fruits that impart color must be careful not to touch his clothes or a cloth while his hands are [freshly] stained with the fruits’ color, because of the prohibition against dyeing.104 Even though by doing so, he is impairing [his clothes or the tablecloth], and one is exempt whenever he impairs [an object with which a forbidden labor is performed],105 nevertheless, [coloring fabric in this manner] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. There are authorities who rule leniently, [explaining that] he is merely soiling these objects and is not considered to be dyeing them at all. [Still,] one should be stringent. How much more so does this apply with regard to a red garment, in which instance, he is not impairing it at all [by wiping red fruit juice on it].

There is no concern, however, if one colors bread with liquid from fruit,106 because [the prohibition against] dyeing does not apply with regard to foods. Similarly, it is of no concern if one’s face or hands become stained from such liquids, because [the prohibition against] dyeing only applies with regard to objects that are commonly dyed. Women were prohibited from applying rouge to their cheeks107 [on Shabbos]solely because this is a common practice for women, as stated in sec. 303.108 Similarly, applying kohl109 to the eyes, which is forbidden for both men and women because one is dyeing, [is only prohibited] because this is their common practice.110

כז הָאוֹכֵל תּוּתִים אוֹ שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת הַצְּבוּעִים – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בְּיָדָיו צְבוּעוֹת בִּבְגָדָיו אוֹ בְּמַפָּה, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר צְבִיעָה.רנו, 104 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקַלְקֵל הוּא וְכָל הַמְקַלְקְלִין פְּטוּרִיםרנז – מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.רנח, 105 וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּין,רנט מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ לִכְלוּךְ, וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם צוֹבֵעַ כְּלָל. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר,רס וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בְּבֶגֶד אָדֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַלְקֵל כְּלָל.רסא

אֲבָל אִם צוֹבֵעַ פִּתּוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֵה הַפֵּרוֹת – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,106 שֶׁאֵין צְבִיעָה בָּאֳכָלִין.רסב

וְכֵן מַה שֶּׁצּוֹבֵעַ בָּהֶם פָּנָיו וְיָדָיו – אֵין לָחוּשׁ כְּלָל, שֶׁאֵין צְבִיעָה אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְצָבְעוֹ.רסג וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לְאִשָּׁה לְהַעֲבִיר סְרָק עַל פָּנֶיהָ107 מִשּׁוּם צוֹבֵעַ,רסד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ג,רסה, 108 אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה דַּרְכָּהּ בְּכָךְ.רסו וְכֵן לִכְחוֹל 109 אֶת הָעֵינַיִם, שֶׁאָסְרוּ בֵּין לְאִישׁרסז בֵּין לְאִשָּׁה מִשּׁוּם צוֹבֵעַ,רסח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּרְכָּם בְּכָךְ:110

28 The Scriptural prohibition [against dyeing] applies only when one dyes with a color that will endure. If, however, the color does not endure at all, e.g., a person who applies red clay or vermilion to iron or copper and thus colors [the iron or copper], is exempt, for he can remove the color immediately111 – he is not dyeing at all. Nevertheless, doing so is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.

כח אִין אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא הַצּוֹבֵעַ בְּצֶבַע הַמִּתְקַיֵּם. אֲבָל צֶבַע שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם כְּלָל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר שָׁשַׁר אוֹ סְרָק עַל גַּבֵּי בַּרְזֶל וּנְחֹשֶׁת וּצְבָעוֹ – פָּטוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַתָּה מַעֲבִירוֹ לִשְׁעָתוֹ,111 וְאֵינוֹ צוֹבֵע כְּלוּם.רסט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:ער