SECTION 319 The Laws Governing Separating on Shabbos (1-29)

סימן שיט דִּין הַבּוֹרֵר בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ"ט סְעִיפִים:

1 Separating is one of the categories of labor [forbidden on Shabbos by Scriptural Law],1 because [when constructing] the Sanctuary, they would remove undesirable matter2 from the herbs [they used to make the dyes]. Therefore, anyone who separates undesirable matter from food is liable,3 even if he uses [only] one hand4 and even if [he does so] in order to eat [the food] immediately thereafter.5

Nevertheless, one who separates food from undesirable matter in order to eat it immediately thereafter is only liable3 when he separates it using a sifter6 or a sieve,3 for these are the means commonly employed to separate [undesirable matter]. If, however, he separates using a funnel7 or a large tray,3 he is exempt according to Scriptural Law. It is, however, forbidden to do according to Rabbinic Law. [This is] a decree [instituted so that one not use] a sifter or a sieve.

It is, [however,] permitted to separate food [from undesirable matter] by hand in order to eat it immediately.8 [The rationale is that] this does not at all resemble the [forbidden] labor [of separating. Instead,] it is the ordinary way of eating, for it is impossible to eat everything – the food and the undesirable matter – [together]. Scriptural Law forbids [separating food from undesirable matter] only when using a utensil designated for that purpose, i.e., a sifter or sieve.9 By contrast, removing undesirable matter is not the way one eats, but rather the way food is prepared10 so that it will be fit to be eaten.Thus, it is a forbidden activity in a complete sense. Therefore, even if there is more food than undesirable matter, and it is more taxing to separate [and remove] the food [from the undesirable matter rather than the undesirable matter from the food], nevertheless, one should not separate the undesirable matter,11 even if he does so in order to eat immediately.12

א הַבּוֹרֵר הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת, א, 1 שֶׁכֵּן בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ בּוֹרְרִים הַפְּסֹלֶת2 מִתּוֹךְ הַסַּמְמָנִים. ב לְפִיכָךְ כָּל הַבּוֹרֵר פְּסֹלֶת מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל, ג אֲפִלּוּ בְּיָדוֹ אַחַת, ד, 4 וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּרה, 5 – חַיָּב.3

אֲבָל הַבּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּרו – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בּוֹרֵר 3 בְּנָפָה 6 אוֹ כְבָרָה,ז, 3 שֶׁזֶּהוּ דֶּרֶךְ בְּרֵרָתוֹ.ח

אֲבָל אִם בֵּרֵר בְּקָנוֹןט, 7 אוֹ תַּמְחוּי3 – פָּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֲבָל אָסוּר י מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם נָפָה וּכְבָרָה.יא

וְאִם בּוֹרֵר הָאֹכֶל בְּיָדוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר – מֻתָּר,יב, 8 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנְּטִילַת הָאֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ מִיָּד אֵין זֶה מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה כְּלָל, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה כָּךְ הוּא,יג שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶאֱכוֹל הַכֹּל הָאֹכֶל עִם הַפְּסֹלֶת, וְלֹא אֲסָרַתּוּ תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בַּכְּלִי הַמְיֻחָד לְכָךְ, דְּהַיְנוּ נָפָה וּכְבָרָה.יד, 9

אֲבָל נְטִילַת הַפְּסֹלֶת אֵין זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה, אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ תִקּוּן הָאֹכֶל10 שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָהטו – הֲרֵי זוֹ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה. וּלְפִיכָךְ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הָאֹכֶל מְרֻבֶּה עַל הַפְּסֹלֶת, וְיֵשׁ טֹרַח יוֹתֵר בִּבְרֵרַת הָאֹכֶל, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יִבְרוֹר הַפְּסֹלֶת11 אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר:טז

2 Similarly, one who separates food from the undesirable matter without intending to eat it immediately, but rather to set it aside and eat it later – even on that same day – is considered as separating for the purpose of storing away13 and [hence] is liable.14 [The rationale is that] it cannot be said that this is the way one eats [and he is therefore separating in a permissible manner,] since he does not [intend to] eat [the food] immediately.

ב וְכֵן הַבּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר, אֶלָּא לְהַנִּיחוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַן, אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם – נַעֲשֶׂה כְּבוֹרֵר לְאוֹצָר,12 וְחַיָּב,יז, 13 לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא שַׁיָּךְ כָּאן לוֹמַר דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה כָּךְ הוּא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל לְאַלְתַּר:יח

3 [“Eating] immediately” is defined as “directly before a meal.” If, however, one will not eat until after some time15 [passes], it is forbidden [to separate, even by removing the food from the undesirable matter]. However, shortly before a meal, it is permitted to separate everything necessary for that meal,16 even though [the meal] will extend over a [rather lengthy] period of time.17 Even if others are dining with him, one is permitted to separate [food] for all of them.18

If [some of the food] one separated [before the meal] remains after the meal, it is of no consequence,19 because his act of separation was permitted, provided he did not act with deception.20

ג וְאֵינוֹ קָרוּי "לְאַלְתַּר" אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לַסְּעֻדָּה מַמָּשׁ.יט, 14 אֲבָל אִם לֹא יֹאכַל עַד לְאַחַר שָׁעָה 15 – אָסוּר. כ אַךְ כָּל שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לַסְּעֻדָּה – מֻתָּר לִבְרוֹר לְצֹרֶךְ כָּל אוֹתָהּ סְעֻדָּה,כא, 16 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתִּמָּשֵׁךְ אֵיזֶה זְמַן.כב, 17 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֲחֵרִים מְסֻבִּין עִמּוֹ – מֻתָּר לִבְרוֹר לְצֹרֶךְ כֻּלָּם.כג, 18 וְאִם נִשְׁתַּיֵּר מִבְּרֵרָתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַסְּעֻדָּה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבֵּרֵר בְּהֶתֵּר,כד, 19 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲרִים:כה, 20

4 The prohibited act of separating involves only separating undesirable matter from food or the opposite.21 If, however, one separates one food from another,22 even if he only wants to eat one [of the foods]23 and takes the other and discards it, his act does not cause [the undesired food] to be deemed as waste matter, since it is still edible. Therefore, it is permitted to separate it from the food that he desires to eat. [Doing so] is not considered as separating undesirable matter from food.

[Even] if [the undesirable food] is only edible under trying circumstances, it is not deemed as undesirable matter in an absolute sense, and a Scriptural prohibition is not involved in its separation. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to [separate it] according to Rabbinic Law, as if it were absolute waste. Therefore, it is forbidden to remove spoiled leaves from the vegetable (called lettuce) even if they are edible under trying circumstances. Instead, one should select the [suitable] vegetable [leaves] from the [spoiled] leaves.24 One must be careful that this separation is not made until after [those attending the Shabbos morning service] depart from the synagogue, so that it is [made] directly before the meal,25 at which time it is permitted to select everything he needs to eat from during that meal.

ד אֵין אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר אֶלָּא בְּבוֹרֵר פְּסֹלֶת מֵאֹכֶל אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ.21 אֲבָל אִם בּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל,כו, 22 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ חָפֵץ לֶאֱכוֹל כְּלָל אֶלָּא אֶחָד מֵהֶם,23 וְהַשֵּׁנִי נוֹטְלוֹ וְזוֹרְקוֹ כז – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא פְּסֹלֶת בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה.כח וּלְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לִבְרוֹר אוֹתוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל שֶׁחָפֵץ לֶאֱכוֹל, וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר פְּסֹלֶת מִתּוֹךְ אֹכֶל.

וְאִם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ הַדְּחָק, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא פְּסֹלֶת גָּמוּר, וְאֵין אִסּוּר בִּבְרֵרָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה – מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ בִּפְסֹלֶת גָּמוּר.כט וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְהָסִיר הֶעָלִין הַמְעֻפָּשִׁים מִן הַיָּרָק (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שלאטי"ן), אֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵן רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק, אֶלָּא יִבְרוֹר הַיָּרָק מִן הֶעָלִין,24 דְּהַיְנוּ הָאֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת.ל וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִבְרוֹר עַד לְאַחַר יְצִיאַת בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, שֶׁיְּהֵא סָמוּךְ לַסְּעֻדָּה מַמָּשׁ,לא, 25 וְאָז מֻתָּר לִבְרוֹר כָּל מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּאוֹתָהּ סְעֻדָּהּ:לב

5 When does the statement that it is permitted to separate one food from another apply? When they are both of the same type of food. If, however, two types of food that were mixed together are before a person, and he desires to select and eat one of them immediately26 and leave the other to be eaten at a later time,27 then the one he desires to eat immediately is deemed as “food” and the other as “undesirable matter.” Therefore, he must separate by hand the food he desires to eat immediately from the other food. Thus, he will be separating “food” from “undesirable matter” and not the opposite.28 He is liable [even] if he separates [the two foods] and sets [the “undesirable matter”] aside so that it may be eaten later, even during that very day.

ה בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִבְרוֹר אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל? כְּשֶׁהַכֹּל מִין אֶחָד,לג אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִיםלד מְעֹרָבִים,לה וְרוֹצֶה לִבְרוֹר לֶאֱכוֹל אֶחָד מֵהֶם לְאַלְתַּר26 וּלְהַנִּיחַ הַשֵּׁנִי לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַןלו, 27 – הֲרֵי אוֹתוֹ הַמִּין שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַלְתַּר נִקְרָא אֹכֶל וְהַשֵּׁנִי חָשׁוּב כִּפְסֹלֶת.לז וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִבְרוֹר בְּיָדוֹ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַלְתַּר מִתּוֹךְ הַשֵּׁנִי, דְּהַיְנוּ אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת, וְלֹא לְהֵפֶךְ.לח, 28 וְאִם בּוֹרְרוֹ וּמַנִּיחוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַן, אֲפִלּוּ לְבוֹ בַיּוֹם – חַיָּב:לט

6 Two types of fish29 are considered as two types of food. It is forbidden to separate [them] by hand30 except by taking the type that one wants with [the intent of] eating it immediately, [but] not to [set it aside] from one meal to another.31 Even though the fish of one type are larger and each type is distinct, and thus it is possible that the prohibition against separating does not apply at all, nevertheless, leniency should not be followed, because there is a question whether one incurs an obligation [for a sin-offering by doing so[.32

When, however, [the mixture is comprised] of only one type [of fish],33 even though one separates the larger pieces from the smaller ones, this does not [constitute the forbidden labor] of separation at all; since they are all fit to eat, there is no undesirable matter.34 It is permitted to select [the pieces he wants] in any manner [he desires], even to eat later that day.35 [Moreover,] even if there are two types [of fish] and he selects a portion of both of them together, he is [then] permitted to select the larger [pieces] from the smaller ones, for he is not separating one type from the other.

ו שְׁנֵי מִינֵי דָגִים נִקְרָאִים שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִים,מ, 29 וְאָסוּר לִבְרוֹר בְּיָדוֹ 30 אֶלָּא אוֹתוֹ הַמִּין שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַלְתַּר,מא וְלֹא מִסְּעֻדָּה לִסְעֻדָּה.מב, 31 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמִּין שֶׁל מִין אֶחָד הֵן גְּדוֹלוֹת וְנִכָּרוֹת כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ,מג וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא שַׁיָּךְ כָּאן בְּרֵרָה כְּלָל – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לְהָקֵל, כִּי סְפֵק חִיּוּב חַטָּאת הוּא.מד, 32

אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁהוּא מִין אֶחָד,33 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבּוֹרֵר חֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת מִתּוֹךְ קְטַנּוֹת – אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת בְּרֵרָה כְּלָל, הוֹאִיל וְהַכֹּל רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה וְאֵין כָּאן פְּסֹלֶת.מה, 34 וּמֻתָּר לִבְרוֹר בְּכָל עִנְיָן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַחַר זְמַן בּוֹ בַיּוֹם35. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שְׁנֵי מִינִים, וּבוֹרֵר מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד הַגְּדוֹלוֹת מִתּוֹךְ הַקְּטַנּוֹת – מֻתָּר, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינֶנּוּ בּוֹרֵר מִין אֶחָד מֵחֲבֵרוֹ:מו

7 A person who separates turmos beans36 from their shucks is liable, for their shucks sweeten them when they are cooked together. Without doing so, the beans would be extremely bitter. Therefore, [the beans] are considered undesirable matter and [the shucks] that sweeten them are considered food.37 Thus, [by taking the beans,] one is separating undesirable matter from food and [therefore] is liable. [This applies] even when one separates [the beans] by hand38 in order to eat them immediately.39

ז הַבּוֹרֵר תֻּרְמוֹסִין 36 מִתּוֹךְ פְּסֻלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם – חַיָּב,מז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַפְּסֹלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם מַמְתֶּקֶת אוֹתָם כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁלְקוּ אוֹתָם עִמָּהֶם,מח וּמִבַּלְעֲדֵי כֵן הֵם מָרִים מְאֹד,מט לְפִיכָךְ הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים פְּסֹלֶת, וּפְסֹלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם הַמַּמְתֶּקֶת אוֹתָם חֲשׁוּבָה אֹכֶל,37 וְנִמְצָא כְּבוֹרֵר פְּסֹלֶת מִתּוֹךְ אֹכֶל, וְחַיָּב נ אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹרֵר בְּיָדוֹ 38 כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר:נא, 39

8 Just as the prohibition against separation applies with regard to foods, so too, it applies with regard to other substances that are mixed together with undesirable matter, or two different types of objects that are mixed together,40 e.g., two types of implements that are mixed together. [If a person] desires to select one type [of implement] from the other to make use of it, the [desired] type is considered as “food” and the other is considered as “undesirable matter.” One must select the “food” from the “undesirable matter” and not do the opposite.

[This ruling applies] even though one [implement] is larger than the other and distinct.41 Also, one must make the separation with the intent of using [the implement] immediately,39 as stated above42 regarding two types of food.

ח כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיֵּשׁ אִסּוּר בְּרֵרָה בָּאֳכָלִין – כָּךְ יֶשְׁנוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִיםנב הַמְעֹרָבִים עִם הַפְּסֹלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם, אוֹ שֶׁהֵם שְׁנֵי מִינִים מְעֹרָבִים.40 כְּגוֹן אִם הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי מִינֵי כֵלִים מְעֹרָבִים, וְרוֹצֶה לִבְרוֹר מִין אֶחָד מֵחֲבֵרוֹ כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ – הֲרֵי מִין זֶה חָשׁוּב כְּאֹכֶל וְהַשֵּׁנִי חָשׁוּב כִּפְסֹלֶת, וְצָרִיךְ לִבְרוֹר הָאֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת וְלֹא לְהֵפֶךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶחָד מֵהֶם גָּדוֹל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְנִכָּר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.נג, 41 וְגַם צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּבְרוֹר כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ לְאַלְתַּר,39 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר 42 בִּשְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִין:נד

9 One may not remove grain [by rubbing the kernels’] husks in the same manner that one does during the week,43 i.e., rubbing the stalks between his palms44 so that the kernels will fall from [the stalks]. Instead, [one] should remove the grain in a slightly unusual manner, [by rubbing the stalks] with his fingertips.45 True, he is extracting the food from the stalks by hand, and extracting by hand is a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of threshing with an implement as stated in sec. 305[:28].46 Nevertheless, [doing so] is permitted since he is extracting in an unusual manner45 [with the intent] to eat [the food] (immediately). [In such an instance, our Sages] did not impose a decree lest one husk the grain in his usual manner, since even one who husks grain in the ordinary manner is extracting [kernels] in an unusual manner, since he does not take the food and actually extract it by hand. Instead, he crushes the stalk and the kernels fall off, while the usual manner [of extracting kernels] is only with a utensil designed for threshing. True, [doing so by hand] is forbidden by Rabbinic Law. Nevertheless, [our Sages] did not impose a prohibitive decree when one deviates [from the norm] when doing so.47

There are authorities who rule stringently [and maintain] that one should not crush stalks of grain or pods of kitniyos48even with his fingertips.49 Therefore, it is forbidden to remove hazelnuts or walnuts from the outer green shell that surrounds their thick, hard shell,50 even with his fingertips. It is desirable to be stringent51 since it is possible to break open [the nuts] and eat them without separating [the shells].

It is, however, permitted to break open the hard shell of [the nuts] and remove the thin peel covering the fruit underneath. [The rationale is that] the prohibition against extracting applies only to the outer peel. Similarly, it is permitted to peel grains and types of kitniyos that were removed from their stalks and pods on Friday. One must, however, be careful to peel only what he requires to eat at the present time and not [peel them] in order to eat them later, as will be explained in sec. 321.52

According (to all opinions), however, it is forbidden to break open the pods on Shabbos and remove the kitniyos from them (by hand. This constitutes [the forbidden labor of] extracting in a complete sense). People at large are accustomed to acting leniently regarding this matter. There are Rabbis who have found justification for their conduct,53 [explaining that] since [the kitniyos] are fresh and even the pods are edible, the person is considered to be separating food from food. [In this instance, the prohibition against] extracting does not apply, as stated in sec. 305[:28].

There is, by contrast, absolutely no license to remove [the kernels of] the kitniyos from their pods on Shabbos if their pods are not edible.54 [License, however, is granted] if [the kernels of] the kitniyos were not attached to their pods at all, but rather were detached from them on Friday and [the kitniyos] were merely lying in the pods.55 In such an instance, it is permitted to remove all [the kernels] that one desires to immediately eat from [their pods]. He may not, however, remove those that he wishes to eat later, because of the prohibition against separating.56

ט אֵין מוֹלְלִין מְלִילוֹת כְּדַרְכָּן בְּחֹל,נה, 43 דְּהַיְנוּ לְשַׁפְשֵׁף שִׁבֳּלִים בְּכַפּוֹת יָדָיו 44 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפֹּל הַזֶּרַע מֵהֶן,נו אֶלָּא מוֹלֵל בְּשִׁנּוּינז מְעַט, בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו.נח, 45 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּפָרֵק הָאֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַשִּׁבֳּלִיםנט בְּיָדַיִם, וְהַמְפָרֵק בְּיָד הוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַדָּשׁ בִּכְלִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ה,ס, 46 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפָרֵק אֶלָּא כִּלְאַחַר יָד45 כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל (לְאַלְתַּר) – מֻתָּר.סא וְלֹא גָזְרוּ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִמְלוֹל כְּדַרְכּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַף הַמּוֹלֵל כְּדַרְכּוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מְפָרֵק כִּלְאַחַר יָד,סב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל הָאֹכֶל וּמְפָרְקוֹ בְּיָדוֹ מַמָּשׁ,סג אֶלָּא שֶׁמּוֹלֵל הַשִּׁבֹּלֶת וְהַדָּגָן נוֹפֵל,סד וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אֶלָּא בִּכְלִי הַמְיֻחָד לְדִישָׁה,סה אֶלָּא שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְעַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי לֹא גָזְרוּ.47

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִיןסו שֶׁלֹּא לִמְלוֹל כְּלָל שִׁבֳּלִים שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה, וְכֵן שַׁרְבִיטִין שֶׁל קִטְנִיּוֹת,48 אֲפִלּוּ בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו.סז, 49 וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְפָרֵק אֱגוֹזִים לוּזִים אוֹ אֱגוֹזִים גְּדוֹלִים מִתּוֹךְ קְלִפָּתָן הָעֶלְיוֹנָה הַיְרֻקָּהסח שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי קְלִפָּה הַקָּשָׁה וְהֶעָבָה,50 אֲפִלּוּ בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו. וְטוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר,סט, 51 מֵאַחַר שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְשַׁבְּרָן ע וּלְאָכְלָן כָּךְ בְּלֹא פֵרוּק.עא

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְשַׁבֵּר וְלִקְלוֹף מֵהֶן קְלִפָּה הַדַּקָּה שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַפְּרִי תַּחַת הַקְּלִפָּה הַקָּשָׁה הַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר מְפָרֵק שַׁיָּךְ אֶלָּא בִּקְלִפָּה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה.עב וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִקְלוֹף תְּבוּאָה וּמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁנִּמְלְלוּ מֵהַשִּׁבֳּלִים וְהַשַּׁרְבִיטִין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,עג רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִקְלוֹף אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַלְתַּר וְלֹא כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַחַר שָׁעָה,עד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"א.52

אֲבָל (לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל) אָסוּר לְפָרֵק הַשַּׁרְבִיטִיןעה בְּשַׁבָּת וּלְהוֹצִיא הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת מִתּוֹכָןעו (בְּיָדַיִם, כִּי זֶהוּ מְפָרֵק גָּמוּר עז).

וְהָעוֹלָם נָהֲגוּ הֶתֵּר בַּדָּבָר. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת,עח, 53 כֵּיוָן שֶׁעוֹדָן לַחִין וְאַף הַשַּׁרְבִיטִין רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל, וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ה.עט

אֲבָל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁאֵין הַשַּׁרְבִיטִין רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה – אֵין הֶתֵּר כְּלָל לְהוֹצִיא הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת מִתּוֹכָם בְּשַׁבָּת.54 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵין הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת מְחֻבָּרוֹת כְּלָל בַּשַּׁרְבִיטִין, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְּקָה מֵהֶם מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא מֻנַּחַת כָּךְ בְּתוֹכָם55 – אֲזַי מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָהּ מֵהֶם כָּל מַה שֶּׁרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל מִמֶּנָּה לְאַלְתַּר, פ אֲבָל לֹא כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל לְאַחַר שָׁעָה, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר בְּרֵרָה:פא, 56

10 When one has wheat kernels that were removed from their stalks on Friday, but were still mixed with chaff, he should not sift them with a funnel or a large tray.57 [This is] a decree [instituted so that one not use] a sifter or a sieve,58 for [in the latter instance,] he would be liable [according to Scriptural Law]. Nor should he do so even by using his two hands,59 i.e., [by] tossing [kernels] from one hand to the other in order to separate them from their chaff. Instead, he should sift [the kernels] with one hand with all his strength,60 so that he will deviate from his weekday practice (and thus not be motivated to sift with a sifter).

י הָיוּ לוֹ חִטִּים שֶׁנִּמְלְלוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מֵהַשִּׁבֳּלִים, וַעֲדַיִן הֵם מְעֹרָבִים בַּמֹּץ – לֹא יְנַפֶּה בְּקָנוֹן אוֹ תַּמְחוּי,פב, 57 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְנַפֶּה בְּנָפָה וּכְבָרָה 58 שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב.פג וְלֹא אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו,פד, 59 דְּהַיְנוּ לְנַעֲרָן מִיָּד לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ כְּדֵי לְהַפְרִידָן מִן הַמֹּץ.פה אֶלָּא מְנַפֶּה בְּיָדוֹ אַחַת בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ,פו, 60 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּשַׁנֶּה מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל פז (וְלֹא יָבֹא לְנַפּוֹת בְּנָפָהפח):

11 When food and undesirable matter are mixed together, it is forbidden to place them in water so that the undesirable matter will fall to the bottom,61 e.g., when the undesirable matter is earth, or so that [the undesirable matter] will float to the top, e.g., if it is straw.

Similarly, beans should not be soaked in water 62 so that their wastes should float upward. Nor should they be rubbed by hand62 to remove63 the wastes, because this is considered like separating. One may, however, place [the beans] in a sieve, even though the wastes fall through the holes of the sieve and thus become separated as a natural consequence.64

יא אֹכֶל וּפְסֹלֶת הַמְעֹרָבִין – אָסוּר לִתְּנָם בְּמַיִם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפֹּל הַפְּסֹלֶת לְמַטָּה,61 כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַפְּסֹלֶת הוּא עָפָר, אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּצוּף לְמַעְלָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא תֶּבֶן.פט

וְכֵן הַכַּרְשִׁינִים, אֵין שׁוֹרִין אוֹתָם צ בְּמַיִם 62 כְּדֵי לְהָצִיף הַפְּסֹלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם לְמַעְלָה,צא וְלֹא שָׁפִין אוֹתָם בְּיָדצב, 62 לְהָסִירצג , 63 הַפְּסֹלֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּבוֹרֵר.צד אֲבָל נוֹתְנָן בִּכְבָרָה,צה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפְּסֹלֶת נוֹפֵל דֶּרֶךְ נִקְבֵי הַכְּבָרָהצו וְנִמְצָא מִתְבָּרֵר מֵאֵלָיו:צז, 64

12 Separating [wine] dregs, i.e., filtering them with a strainer, is a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of separating food from waste matter65 using a sifter or a sieve, or a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of sifting,66 and one is liable [for doing so]. If, however, one placed [wine] dregs in a filter on Friday, he may pour water over them on Shabbos so that [the dregs] will become clear and [the wine they contain] will flow [from them].67

יב הַמְשַׁמֵּרצח שְׁמָרִים, דְּהַיְנוּ הַמְסַנֵּן בִּמְשַׁמֶּרֶתצט – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרֵר ק אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶתקא, 65 עַל יְדֵי נָפָה וּכְבָרָה,קב אוֹ תּוֹלֶדֶת מְרַקֵּד,קג, 66 וְחַיָּב.

אֲבָל אִם נָתַן בִּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת שְׁמָרִים מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ צְלוּלִין לָזוּב:קד, 67

13 When wine or water are clear, it is permitted to filter them with a strainer 68 so that they will become even clearer,67 or even [to remove] white flecks that are [floating] on top of the wine,69 or because thin slivers70 have fallen into [the wine]. It is not considered as [if he is] separating, since [the wine] is fit to be drunk by most people without [this] filtration.71

It is, however, forbidden to filter water, white wine, or the like with a cloth72 because of the prohibition against whitening, for soaking a garment [of any type in these liquids] constitutes laundering it. This [law] does not apply with regard to [a cloth used as] a strainer because it is made for this purpose. One is not at all concerned with wringing out [the cloth strainer], nor with laundering it at all. Therefore, whitening [the strainer] is not at all a [consideration] to forbid soaking it, even according to the authorities who maintain that soaking a cloth is equivalent to laundering it.

There is no concern, however, that one will wring out [a cloth soaked] in red wine, beer, or other beverages that do not launder it, for the reason mentioned in the source [where this matter is discussed].73 [Therefore,] it is permitted to filter [these beverages] with cloths even if [the beverages] are somewhat cloudy and most people would not drink them without filtering them. Nevertheless, this is not considered as separating in a complete sense since it is possible to drink [the liquids] in this state under difficult circumstances. [Thus,] leniency was granted when one deviates [from his usual pattern], i.e., he filters them with a cloth.74 There are authorities who forbid this, and it is desirable to give weight to their words. If, however, [the beverages] are entirely cloudy and cannot be drunk as they are, or they contain dregs, all authorities agree that it is forbidden to strain them, even [merely] with a cloth.

יג יַיִן אוֹ מַיִם שֶׁהֵם צְלוּלִים – מֻתָּר לְסַנְּנָן בִּמְשַׁמֶּרֶתקה, 68 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ צְלוּלִין יוֹתֵר,קו, 67 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִפְּנֵי הַקְּמָחִיןקז שֶׁעַל פִּי הַיַּיִן,69 אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ בּוֹ קִסְּמִין דַּקִּין,קח, 70 וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּבוֹרֵר, הוֹאִיל וְרָאוּי לִשְׁתִיָּה לְרֹוב בְּנֵי אָדָם בְּלֹא בְּרֵרָה זוֹ.קט, 71

אֲבָל בְּסוּדָרִין אָסוּר לְסַנֵּן אֶת הַמַּיִםקי אוֹ יַיִן לָבָןקיא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם,72 מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר לִבּוּן, שֶׁשְּׁרִיַּת הַבֶּגֶד זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ.קיב מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן מְשַׁמֶּרֶת, שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה לְכָךְ,קיג וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְסָחֳטָהּ,קיד וְגַם אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְלִבּוּנָהּקטו כְּלָל, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לִבּוּנָהּ חָשׁוּב כְּלוּם לֶאֱסוֹר שְׁרִיָּתָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁשְּׁרִיַּת הַבֶּגֶד זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ.

אֲבָל יַיִן אָדֹםקטז אוֹ שֵׁכָרקיז אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִיןקיח שֶׁאֵין מְלַבְּנִין, שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין בָּהֶם לִסְחִיטָה מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםקיט, 73 – מֻתָּר לְסַנְּנָן בְּסוּדָרִין, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם עֲכוּרִים קְצָת, שֶׁרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם אֵין שׁוֹתִין אוֹתָם בְּלֹא סִנּוּן,קכ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁתּוֹתָם כָּךְ עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק – אֵין זוֹ בְּרֵרָה גְמוּרָה, וְהִתִּירוּהוּ עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּסוּדָרִין.קכא, 74 וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםקכב בָּזֶה,קכג וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם.קכד אֲבָל אִם הֵם עֲכוּרִים לְגַמְרֵי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁתּוֹתָם כָּךְ,קכה אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שְׁמָרִיםקכו – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּסוּדָר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:

14 As long as wine from one’s winepress is in the process of fermentation,75 one may take a barrel [of wine] with its dregs [and filter it]; even running it through a strainer.76 [The rationale is that] as long as [the wine] is in the process of fermentation, the wine has not been thoroughly separated from its dregs. [Rather,] all of the wine, [together with its sediment,] is viewed as one substance and it is not considered that one is separating food from undesirable matter.77 Moreover, the wine is fit to drink without being filtered and it is common to drink it in this manner during the wine-pressing season. [At that time,] all the wines are cloudy78 and most people drink them when they are in this state, without filtering them.

Similarly, it is common to use vinegar even if it is [still] somewhat thick. [Hence,] it is permitted to filter it. If, however, it is very thick and thus not at all fit to be used without being filtered, it is forbidden to filter it even [merely] with a cloth. Similarly, a beverage that is made from almonds that were crushed before Shabbos is permitted to be filtered, since it also can be drunk without filtration.

יד וְיַיִן מִגִּתּוֹ,קכז כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא תּוֹסֵסקכח, 75 – טוֹרֵף חָבִית בִּשְׁמָרֶיהָ וְנוֹתֵן אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַמְשַׁמֶּרֶת,קכט, 76 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא תּוֹסֵס עֲדַיִן לֹא נִפְרְשׁוּ הַיַּיִן מִן הַשְּׁמָרִים יָפֶה יָפֶה וְכָל הַיַּיִן כְּגוּף אֶחָד הוּא,קל וְאֵין כָּאן בּוֹרֵרקלא אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ פְּסֹלֶת.קלב, 77 וְגַם הוּא רָאוּי לִשְׁתִיָּה בְּלֹא סִנּוּן, וְדַרְכּוֹ בְּכָךְ בִּשְׁעַת הַגִּתּוֹת שֶׁכָּל הַיֵּינוֹת עֲכוּרִיםקלג, 78 וְרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם שׁוֹתִין אוֹתוֹ כָּךְקלד בְּלֹא סִנּוּן.

וְכֵן חֹמֶץ שֶׁגַּם כֵּן דַּרְכּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אַף כְּשֶׁהוּא עָב קְצָת – מֻתָּר לְסַנְּנוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הוּא עָב הַרְבֵּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי כְּלָל בְּלֹא סִנּוּן – אָסוּר לְסַנְּנוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּסוּדָר.קלה

וְכֵן מַשְׁקֵה שְׁקֵדִים כְּתוּשִׁים מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לְסַנְּנוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לִשְׁתּוֹתָן בְּלֹא סִנּוּן:קלו

15 A person who filters a liquid that is somewhat cloudy with a cloth should be careful not to make a cavity in the cloth to receive the liquid.79 Instead, he should pour the liquid over [the cloth] and [the cloth] will sink on its own. [This is necessary] in order to deviate from his ordinary weekday practice.80

טו כְּשֶׁמְּסַנְּנִין בְּסוּדָר מַשְׁקֶה עָכוּר קְצָתקלז – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה גוּמָא בַּסּוּדָרקלח לְקַבֵּל הַמַּשְׁקֶה,קלט, 79 אֶלָּא יִשְׁפֹּךְ עָלָיו וְהוּא יִשְׁקַע מֵעַצְמוֹ,קמ כְּדֵי לְשַׁנּוֹת מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל:קמא, 80

16 Any liquid that is permitted to be filtered with a cloth is permitted to be filtered with an Egyptian basket,81 provided he does not lift the basket a handbreadth above the bottom of the lower container,82 so that he will deviate from his usual weekday practice.83 When, by contrast, an implement is fashioned like a sifter and it is used as a filter, it is governed by the same laws as a strainer since it is designated for this purpose: In it, one may only filter a clear liquid that does not contain dregs, as explained.84

טז כָּל מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְסַנְּנוֹ בְּסוּדָר – מֻתָּר לְסַנְּנוֹ בִּכְפִיפָה מִצְרִית,קמב, 81 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַגְבִּיהַּ הַכְּפִיפָה מִשּׁוּלֵי כְּלִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן טֶפַח,קמג, 82 כְּדֵי לְשַׁנּוֹת מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל.קמד, 83 אֲבָל אוֹתוֹ כְּלִי הֶעָשׂוּי כְּנָפָה וּמְסַנְּנִין בּוֹ, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ – דִּינוֹ כִּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת,קמה שֶׁאֵין מְסַנְּנִין בָּהּ אֶלָּא מַשְׁקֶה צָלוּל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שְׁמָרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:קמו, 84

17 One should not tightly affix straws and slivers over the opening of a container into which wine is poured from a barrel,76 because this resembles a strainer. True, it is not actually a strainer, because dregs do pass through it. Nevertheless, since there are slivers of wood and filth that do not pass through it, it resembles a strainer. If, however, it is clear wine that does not contain filth, merely thin slivers, it is permitted to strain [the wine] even with an actual strainer, as explained above.84

יז כְּלִי שֶׁמְּרִיקִין לְתוֹכוֹ יַיִן מֵהֶחָבִית – לֹא יְהַדֵּק בְּפִיו קַשִּׁין וְקִסְּמִין בְּחֹזֶק,קמז, 76 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לִמְשַׁמֶּרֶת.קמח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּרֶת מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי עוֹבְרִים בָּהּ שְׁמָרִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ קִסְּמִין וְטִנֹּפֶת שֶׁאֵין עוֹבְרִים בָּהּ – הֲרֵי זוֹ דוֹמָה לִמְשַׁמֶּרֶת.קמט

אֲבָל אִם הוּא יַיִן צָלוּלקנ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ טִנֹּפֶת אֶלָּא קִסְּמִין דַּקִּין – מֻתָּר לְסַנְּנוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת גְּמוּרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קנא, 84

18 It is permitted to gently pour [wine] from one container to another so that the wastes and dregs remain at the bottom of the [first] container.85 He must, however, be careful to stop pouring when [the wine] ceases to flow and the small drops that seep through the wastes at the end begin to descend. [These remaining drops] must be left [in the container] with the dregs. If he does not do so, these drops will indicate that he is separating. Nevertheless, when he begins pouring and no wastes are apparent [in the liquid], he is not separating.

It is therefore permitted to collect the cream that floats on top of milk.86 When one [sees he is] getting close to the milk, he should leave some cream together with the milk. [This applies] provided he needs to eat this cream on this [Shabbos] day. If, however, he does not need [the cream, it is forbidden to collect it,] because it is forbidden to expend effort on Shabbos for the sake of a weekday.87 It is permitted to have a non-Jew [separate the cream] if [the Jew] is concerned that [the cream] will become ruined or spoil. [The rationale is that] the prohibition against working and preparing for a weekday on Shabbos is a shvus88ordained by the Rabbis, and permission may be granted to instruct a non-Jew [to perform any activity forbidden as] a shvus by Rabbinic decree when a loss is involved, as explained in sec. 307[:12].89

If a person desires to eat [the cream] immediately, he does not have to leave any together with the milk. Similarly, when one pours liquid from one container to another, he does not have to stop when the [last] drops begin to seep out, because one is permitted to separate food from waste matter when he desires to eat it or drink it immediately,90 as long as he does so by hand and not with an implement, as explained.91 In this instance, even though he is pouring from container to container, the primary aspect of the separation is performed by hand.92 One is not considered to have separated with an implement unless he filters with a cloth, a basket, or the like.

יח מֻתָּר לַעֲרוֹת בְּנַחַת מִכְּלִי לַחֲבֵרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁהַפְּסֹלֶת וְהַשְּׁמָרִים יִשָּׁאֲרוּ בְּשׁוּלֵי הַכְּלִי.קנב, 85 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁכְּשֶׁיַּפְסִיק הַקִּלּוּחַ וּמַתְחִילִין לֵירֵד נִיצוֹצוֹת קְטַנּוֹת הַנִּשּׁוֹפוֹת בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת – אֲזַי יַפְסִיק וְיַנִּיחֵם עִם הַשְּׁמָרִים, שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן – הֲרֵי נִיצוֹצוֹת אֵלּוּ מוֹכִיחִים שֶׁהוּא בּוֹרֵר.קנג אֲבָל בִּתְחִלַּת הָעֵרוּי כְּשֶׁאֵין הַפְּסֹלֶת נִכָּר – לָאו בּוֹרֵר הוּא.קנד

וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לִקְלוֹט שֻׁמָּן הַצָּף עַל פִּי הֶחָלָב שֶׁקּוֹרִין (שמעטנע) מִלְמַעְלָה,86 וּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ סָמוּךְ לֶחָלָב – יַנִּיחַ קְצָת מִמֶּנָּה עִם הֶחָלָב.קנה

וְהוּא שֶׁשֻּׁמָּן זֶה צָרִיךְ לְאָכְלוֹ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,קנו אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לָהּ – אָסוּר לִטְרוֹחַ מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל.קנז, 87 וְאִם חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁיַּפְסִיד אוֹ יִתְקַלְקֵל – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,קנח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִסּוּר הַטֹּרַח וְהַהֲכָנָה מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל הוּא שְׁבוּת88 מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קנט וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי בְּכָל שְׁבוּת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז.קס, 89

וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ לְאַלְתַּר – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ מִמֶּנָּה כְּלוּם עִם הַחֵלֶב. וְכֵן הַמְעָרֶה מַשְׁקֶה מִכְּלִי לַחֲבֵרוֹ – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק כְּשֶׁיּוֹרְדִין הַנִּיצוֹצוֹת. שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לִבְרוֹר אֹכֶל אוֹ מַשְׁקֶה מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ לְאַלְתַּר,קסא, 90 כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ בּוֹרֵר עַל יְדֵי כְּלִי אֶלָּא בְּיָדוֹ,קסב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קסג, 91 וְכָאן אַף שֶׁמְּעָרֶה מִכְּלִי לִכְלִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עִקַּר הַבְּרֵרָה נַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי יָדָיו,92 וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב בּוֹרֵר בִּכְלִיקסד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּסַנְּנֵן בְּסוּדָר אוֹ כְּפִיפָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן:קסה

19 When, by contrast, fat floats on the surface of cooked food, it is forbidden to pour it off in its entirety even [with the intent] to eat the cooked food immediately. [The rationale is that] these are two types of foods and [when one eats one type of food and not the other], the type of food that one eats immediately is considered as “food,” while the other type is considered as “undesirable matter.” When one pours off the fat that he does not want to eat [at this time], he is separating waste matter from food.93

יט אֲבָל שֻׁמָּן הַצָּף עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּבְשִׁיל – אָסוּר לַעֲרוֹתוֹ כֻּלּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל הַתַּבְשִׁיל לְאַלְתַּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִין, וְאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין שֶׁאוֹכֵל לְאַלְתַּר נִקְרָא אֹכֶל וְהַשֵּׁנִי נִקְרָא פְּסֹלֶת, וּכְשֶׁמְּעָרֶה הַשֻּׁמָּן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה בּוֹרֵר פְּסֹלֶת מִתּוֹךְ אֹכֶל:קסו, 93

20 It is permitted to lift a barrel on top of another object so that wine will flow from it effectively. Although even the wine that is amidst the dregs will also flow out [when he pours] in this manner, this is not considered as separating, as long as [the wine] does not descend as drips from the dregs, as explained above.94 Similarly, one is permitted to pour water over wine dregs in a barrel so that they will acquire the flavor of wine. This is not considered as separating [and is permitted], provided he will drink it on that day.95

כ מֻתָּר לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הֶחָבִית עַל אֵיזֶה דָבָר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַלֵּחַ מִמֶּנָּה הַיַּיִן הֵיטֵב.קסז וְאַף שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה יוֹרֵד יַיִן גַּם מִתּוֹךְ הַשְּׁמָרִים – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּבוֹרֵר כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֵין הַנִּיצוֹצוֹת מַתְחִילִין לֵירֵד מֵהַשְּׁמָרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קסח, 94 וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מַיִם עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁמָרִים שֶׁבֶּחָבִית שֶׁיִּקְלְטוּ טַעַם הַיַּיִן, וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר,קסט וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה מֵהֶם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם:קע, 95

21 Mustard [seeds] may not be filtered from their bran,96 even though the bran is also edible and is not considered as waste matter at all, and [therefore, filtering it] is not forbidden as separating according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, [doing so] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law, because it appears that one is separating food from undesirable matter since he is filtering [the mixture] in order to eat the mustard and discard the bran.97

If, however, one put the mustard in a filter on Friday, it is permitted to place a [raw] egg in [in the filter98 on Shabbos] to improve the appearance of the mustard that is being filtered in it99 – even though the egg yolk descends with the mustard and the viscous egg white remains above with the undesirable matter. [Nevertheless,] he does not appear to be separating food from undesirable matter because both the egg yolk and the egg white are food. [The person] is not filtering the yolk from the white because he desires to eat the yolk and not the white, but rather because the yolk improves the appearance of the mustard, while the egg white will not. Even though he will discard the egg white with the undesirable matter and eat the yolk with the mustard, it does not appear that he is separating food from undesirable matter since he is not filtering it for the sake of eating [the yoke], but in order to improve the appearance [of the mustard] and, in truth, [the egg whites and yolk] are both the same type of food.

כא אֵין מְסַנְּנִין אֶת הַחַרְדָּלקעא מֵהַסֻּבִּין שֶׁלּוֹ,קעב, 96 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם הֵם רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה וְאֵין הַסֻּבִּין פְּסֹלֶת כְּלָל וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר מִן הַתּוֹרָהקעג – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּבוֹרֵרקעד אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת,קעה הוֹאִיל וּמְסַנֵּן כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל הַחַרְדָּל וּלְהַשְׁלִיךְ הַסֻּבִּין.קעו, 97

אֲבָל אִם נָתַן הַחַרְדָּל בַּמְסַנֶּנֶת מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן בָּהּ בֵּיצָהקעז, 98 לְתַקֵּן מַרְאֵה הַחַרְדָּל הַמִּסְתַּנֵּן בְּתוֹכָהּ.קעח, 99 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֶלְמוֹן יוֹרֵד לְמַטָּה עִם הַחַרְדָּל, וְהַחֶלְבּוֹן שֶׁהוּא קָשׁוּר נִשְׁאָר לְמַעְלָה עִם הַפְּסֹלֶתקעט – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹרֵרקפ אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת,קפא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַחֶלְמוֹן וְהַחֶלְבּוֹן שְׁנֵיהֶם אֳכָלִין הֵם,קפב וְאֵינוֹ מְסַנֵּן הַחֶלְמוֹן מִן הַחֶלְבּוֹן מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ לֶאֱכוֹל אֶת הַחֶלְמוֹן וְלֹא אֶת הַחֶלְבּוֹן,קפג אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהַחֶלְמוֹן מוֹעִיל לְתַקֵּן מַרְאֵה הַחַרְדָּל וְלֹא הַחֶלְבּוֹן.קפד וְאַף שֶׁמַּשְׁלִיךְ הַחֶלְבּוֹן עִם הַפְּסֹלֶת וְאוֹכֵל הַחֶלְמוֹן עִם הַחַרְדָּל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַסִּנּוּן אֵינוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הָאֲכִילָה אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל תִּקּוּן הַמַּרְאֶה – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִפְּסֹלֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבֶּאֱמֶת שְׁנֵיהֶם מִין אֹכֶל אֶחָד הֵם:קפה

22 [Actually,] even if the filtering is [performed] for the sake of eating, it would not be forbidden except in such an instance. For the egg white, even though it is considered as food, is nevertheless not fit to be eaten in its [raw] state. Moreover, it is common to cast it away [together] with the waste matter. Therefore, it appears as undesirable matter in relation to the egg yolk, which is eaten in a raw state together with the mustard. [Hence,] it is forbidden [to separate a raw egg white from the raw yolk for the sake of eating the yolk] according to Rabbinic Law.100

In other instances, by contrast, there is no prohibition at all – even according to Rabbinic Law – when one separates one food from another when both are the same type of food. Even when one separates small pieces from slightly larger pieces, [and] even when he casts the smaller pieces to the ground, this does not cause them to be deemed as undesirable matter, since [the small pieces] are fit to be eaten and it is common to eat them.101

כב וְאַף אִם הָיָה הַסִּנּוּן בִּשְׁבִיל הָאֲכִילָה – לֹא הָיָה אָסוּר אֶלָּא כָּאן, שֶׁהַחֶלְבּוֹן אַף שֶׁשֵּׁם אֹכֶל עָלָיו, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְאָכְלוֹ כָּךְ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא, וְגַם רְגִילִין לְהַשְׁלִיכוֹ עִם הַפְּסֹלֶת, לָכֵן הוּא נִרְאֶה כִּפְסֹלֶתקפו לְגַבֵּי הַחֶלְמוֹן הַנֶּאֱכָל כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא עִם הַחַרְדָּל, וְאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.קפז, 100 אֲבָל בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר – אֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל, אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, בִּבְרֵרַת מִין אֹכֶל אֶחָד,קפח דְּהַיְנוּ אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹרֵר חֲתִיכוֹת קְטַנּוֹת מִתּוֹךְ חֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת קְצָת,קפט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּשְׁלִיךְ הַקְּטַנּוֹת אַרְצָה – אֵינָן נִרְאִין כִּפְסֹלֶת בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, הוֹאִיל וְהֵן רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה וּרְגִילוּת הוּא לְאָכְלָן:קצ, 101

23 Water that contains worms that are forbidden [to be eaten] – as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 84102 – is forbidden to be filtered, even [merely] with a cloth. [The rationale is that] it is impossible to drink [the water] without filtering it lest one swallow [a forbidden worm]. It is, however, permitted to drink the water via a cloth.103 [The rationale is that] the prohibition against separating and sifting applies only when one is improving [the food or drink] before one eats or drinks it, making it fit to be eaten or drunk. [In such an instance,] one is performing a labor [which is forbidden]. When, by contrast, one prevents undesirable matter from entering his mouth while drinking, this does not resemble the performance of a labor, and is permitted.104

[The activity] should not be forbidden because [one is] soaking a cloth and that is considered as laundering it. Nor [should it be forbidden] because of a decree lest one squeeze out [the water. The rationale105 is that] only a small portion [of the cloth] becomes soaked in the water – [only] enough to place one’s mouth over it – and such concerns do not apply when only a small [portion of the cloth becomes soaked], as explained in sec. 302[:21].106 That source cites authorities who maintain that it is forbidden [to soak] even a small portion of a cloth because soaking [even a small portion] is considered as laundering. [Those authorities] also forbid [using a cloth as a filter] in this instance. It was already explained in that source that a meticulous person107 should be stringent with regard to his own conduct when possible.108

כג מַיִם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תּוֹלָעִים הָאֲסוּרִים עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִימָן פ"דקצא, 102 – אָסוּר לְסַנְּנָןקצב אֲפִלּוּ בְּסוּדָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר כְּלָל לִשְׁתּוֹתָן בְּלֹא סִנּוּן, שֶׁמָּא יִבְלַע אֶחָד מֵהֶם.קצג

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתָן עַל יְדֵי מַפָּה,103 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בּוֹרֵר וּמְשַׁמֵּר אֶלָּא בִּמְתַקֵּן הָעִנְיָן קֹדֶם אֲכִילָה אוֹ שְׁתִיָּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה אוֹ לִשְׁתִיָּה, שֶׁזֶּהוּ דֶּרֶךְ מְלָאכָה, אֲבָל אִם בִּשְׁעַת שְׁתִיָּה מְעַכֵּב אֶת הַפְּסֹלֶת שֶׁלֹּא יִכְנוֹס לְתוֹךְ פִּיו – אֵין זֶה מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה, וּמֻתָּר.קצד, 104

וְאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר מִשּׁוּם שְׁרִיַּת בֶּגֶד זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ,קצה וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט,קצו כֵּיוָן 105 שֶׁדָּבָר מֻעָט הוּא הַנִּשְׁרֶה בְּמַיִם כְּדֵי לַהֲנָחַתקצז פִּיו, וּבְדָבָר מֻעָט אֵין לָחוּשׁ,קצח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ב.קצט, 106

וּלְהָאוֹסְרִין שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר מֻעָט מִשּׁוּם שְׁרִיַּת בֶּגֶד זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ – אַף כָּאן אָסוּר. וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר שָׁם שֶׁכָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ 107 יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר:ר, 108

24 If flies fell into a cup, one should not remove only the flies from the cup. [The rationale is that] in that instance, it is as if one is separating undesirable matter from food, which is forbidden even if he intends to eat the food immediately.109 Instead, one should pour out some of the liquid with [the flies].110 Thus, it does not at all appear as if one is separating, as explained above.111

כד אִם נָפְלוּ זְבוּבִים לְכוֹס – לֹא יוֹצִיא הַזְּבוּבִים לְבַדָּן מִן הַכּוֹס, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּבוֹרֵר פְּסֹלֶת מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל, שֶׁאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד.109 אֶלָּא יִקַּח גַּם מִן הַמַּשְׁקֶה קְצָת עִמָּהֶם,רא, 110 שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹרֵר כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:רב, 111

25 One who causes milk to curdle – i.e., he takes milk and inserts [a piece of] an [animal’s] stomach [in it] causing it to curdle – is liable112 for separating, for he separates the curds from the milk.113 Similarly, if he places curds in a reed container and [thus] the whey will drip from it, he is performing a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of separating food from undesirable matter by means of a strainer or a sieve and is liable.114

True, both the curds and milk are two types of the same food and there is no waste matter at all. Nevertheless, this is considered as separating since they are moist entities which can be thoroughly mixed together. His separation of them is comparable to separating food from undesirable matter.

כה הַמְחַבֵּץ,רג דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ חָלָב וְנוֹתֵן בּוֹ קֵבָה כְּדֵי לְחַבְּצוֹרד – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר,רה, 112 שֶׁהֲרֵי הִפְרִישׁ הַקּוֹם מִן הֶחָלָב.רו, 113 וְכֵן אִם נָתַן הַקּוֹם בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי גְּמִי וּמֵי הֶחָלָב נוֹטְפִים מִתּוֹכוֹרז – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶתרח עַל יְדֵי נָפָה וּכְבָרָה, וְחַיָּב.114 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקּוֹם וְהֶחָלָב שְׁנֵיהֶם מִין אֹכֶל אֶחָדרט וְאֵין כָּאן פְּסֹלֶת כְּלָל, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן, הוֹאִיל וְהֵם דְּבָרִים לַחִיםרי שֶׁהֵם מִתְעָרְבִים יָפֶהריא וְהוּא מַפְרִידָן – יֵשׁ בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר כְּמוֹ בְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מִפְּסֹלֶת:

26 If he curdled the milk until it formed cheese, he is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] building.115 For anyone who assembles different elements, [joining them] one to another and causing them to be attached until they become one mass, is performing a derivative [of the forbidden labor of] building.116

כו וְאִם גִּבְּנוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גְבִינָה – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה.ריב, 115 שֶׁכָּל הַמְקַבֵּץ חֵלֶק אֶל חֵלֶק וְדִבֵּק הַכֹּל עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה גּוּף אֶחָד – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה:ריג, 116

27 One may place sesame seeds and nuts in honey as long as one does not shape them into a mass by hand.117

כז נוֹתְנִין שֻׁמְשְׁמִין וֶאֱגוֹזִים לִדְבַשׁ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְחַבְּצֵם בְּיָדָיו:ריד, 117

28 It is forbidden to place yeast in a liquid so that it will ferment, even though [the liquid] is fit to drink on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] doing so will also [cause] the liquid’s own dregs to descend to the bottom of the container. Thus, this is a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of separating like causing milk to curdle.

כח אָסוּר לִתֵּן שְׁמָרִים בְּמַשְׁקֶה כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִידוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאוּי לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵן יוֹרְדִין גַּם שִׁמְרֵי הַמַּשְׁקֶה עַצְמוֹ לְשׁוּלֵי הַכְּלִי, וַהֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרֵר, כְּמוֹ הַמְחַבֵּץ:רטו

29 When one spits into the wind and the wind scatters the spittle, he is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] winnowing.118 According to the authorities who maintain that one is exempt for a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah, a forbidden labor which a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed,119 one is exempt in this instance as well. Nevertheless, even if one does not intend [to scatter the spittle], it is forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law, for it is inevitable120 that this will be the result.121

כט הָרוֹקֵק בָּרוּחַ וְהָרוּחַ מְפַזֵּר הָרֹק – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֶה.רטז, 118 וּלְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ119 פָּטוּר עָלֶיהָ – אַף כָּאן פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת":ריז, 120,121