SECTION 318 The Laws Governing One Who Cooks on Shabbos (1-31)

סימן שיח דִּין הַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ל"א סְעִיפִים:

1 A person who intentionally cooks1 or performs any of the other [forbidden] labors2 on Shabbos is penalized3 and is prohibited against ever benefiting from that labor.4 Moreover, he is forbidden from ever5 [using] the pot in which he cooked [the food], because it absorbed a substance that is forbidden to him.6 Others, by contrast, are permitted [to benefit] immediately on Saturday night even from food [cooked on Shabbos]; they need not wait [then for] the time [to elapse] that it would have taken [the food] to cook,7 even if it was cooked for them [on Shabbos. The rationale is that our Sages] only required a person to wait [for this amount of time to pass] in an instance where a non-Jew performs [a forbidden labor] on a Jew’s behalf [on Shabbos]. If [the Jew] is permitted to benefit immediately on Saturday night [from the non-Jew’s Shabbos] activity, there is reason for concern that [the Jew] will instruct [the non-Jew] to perform [the forbidden labor] on Shabbos so that it will be ready for him immediately on Saturday night, since the prohibition against giving instructions to a non-Jew is regarded lightly by people at large.8

Similarly, [our Sages imposed such a stringency] even when a Jew begins the performance [of an activity forbidden on Shabbos] while it is still day [on Friday, so it will continue on Shabbos on its own accord], but he is forbidden [by Rabbinic Law] to begin its performance [at that time], as explained in sec. 253[:12].9 This prohibition is also regarded lightly by people at large and there is room for concern that a person will transgress [and begin the labor on Friday] so that the matter will be ready for him immediately on Saturday night. Therefore, [our Sages] required that [he and the] others wait until the activity could have been performed [after the departure of the Shabbos. This is] a decree [instituted] lest people tell others to begin such an activity for their sake while it is still day [on Friday].10 There is, however, no need for concern that one will tell another Jew to perform a [forbidden] labor on Shabbos so that he will be able to benefit from it immediately on Saturday night.11 [Moreover,] the other Jew will not listen to him [and transgress], because a person will not transgress [for the sake of another person] if he himself will not derive benefit [from the transgression].12

Similarly, if a person [cooked] unwittingly, [the food] is forbidden on Shabbos [not only for himself, but] for others as well. Since [the person] violated a Scriptural prohibition, [our Sages] ruled stringently and penalized him on the [Shabbos]day the same [way they penalized] one who transgressed willfully,13 forbidding [the food] for him and for others [for the duration of the day. This is] a decree [instituted] lest [one] cook willfully and say that he did so unwittingly. In the evening, however, [not only others, but] even he is permitted [to partake of the food] immediately [after the departure of the Shabbos]. He need not wait the time it takes for [the food] to cook, for the reason explained [above].14

א הַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּשַׁבָּת, א, 1 אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה אַחַת מִשְּׁאָר מְלָאכוֹת ב בְּמֵזִיד 2 – אָסוּר לוֹ לְעוֹלָםג לֵהָנוֹת מֵאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה,ד, 4 מִשּׁוּם קְנַס.ה, 3 וְגַם הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ אֲסוּרָה לוֹ לְעוֹלָם,5 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בְּלוּעָה מִדָּבָר הָאָסוּר לוֹ.ו, 6

אֲבָל לַאֲחֵרִים – מֻתָּר אַף הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת ז מִיָּד, ח וְאֵין צְרִיכִים לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,ט, 7 אַף אִם בִּשֵּׁל בִּשְׁבִילָם. י שֶׁלֹּא הִצְרִיכוּ לְהַמְתִּין כֵּן אֶלָּא בְּנָכְרִי הָעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל,יא שֶׁאִם נַתִּיר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַדָּבָר מוּכָן לוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד,יב שֶׁאִסּוּר הָאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי קַל בְּעֵינֵי הַבְּרִיּוֹת.יג, 8 וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל הָעוֹשֶׂה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהִתְחִיל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַתְחִיל,יד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ג,טו, 9 שֶׁאִסּוּר זֶה גַם כֵּן קַל בְּעֵינֵי הַבְּרִיּוֹת,טז וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיַּעֲבוֹר עָלָיו בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיְּהֵא מוּכָן לוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד, וְלָכֵן הִצְרִיכוּ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ גַּם לַאֲחֵרִים,יז גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ לְאַחֵר שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לָהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.10 אֲבָל אֵין לָחוּשׁ כְּלָל שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד.11 וְעוֹד, שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִשְׁמַע לוֹ,יח שֶׁ"אֵין אָדָם חוֹטֵא וְלֹא לוֹ",יט, 12

וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שׁוֹגֵג – אָסוּר בּוֹ בַיּוֹם גַּם לַאֲחֵרִים, כ שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁעָשָׂה אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה – הֶחֱמִירוּ לִקְנוֹס בּוֹ בַיּוֹם כְּמוֹ בְּמֵזִידכא, 13 שֶׁאָסוּר גַּם לַאֲחֵרִים,כב גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְבַשֵּׁל בְּמֵזִיד וְיֹאמַר "שׁוֹגֵג הָיִיתִי",כג אֲבָל לָעֶרֶב מֻתָּר גַּם לוֹ מִיָּד,כד וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:כה, 14

2 If one [cooks] based on the ruling of a sage15 who erred,16 [the person] is considered to have transgressed unwittingly.17 The same ruling applies when one forgets that it is Shabbos or that [cooking] is a [forbidden] labor.18

ב אִם עָשָׂה עַל פִּי הוֹרָאַת חָכָם15 שֶׁטָּעָה16 – נִקְרָא שׁוֹגֵג.17 וְהוּא הַדִּין הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁהִיא מְלָאכָה:כו, 18

3 If a festival falls on Saturday night, [food that was cooked – even inadvertently – on Shabbos] is forbidden until the end of the festival,19 because “Shabbos may not prepare for a festival.” There are authorities who maintain that the concept of [Shabbos] preparing [for a festival] is not relevant in this context, as will be explained in sec. 501[:18].20 [Nevertheless,] weight should be given to the first opinion [and its stringency observed].

ג אִם חָל יוֹם טוֹב בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – אָסוּר עַד מוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב,19 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין שַׁבָּת מְכִינָה לְיוֹם טוֹב.כז וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכח שֶׁאֵין הֲכָנָה שַׁיָּךְ בָּזֶה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"א.כט, 20 וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה: ל

4 If a person intentionally21 cooked food [on Shabbos], and on Saturday night, that food became mixed with other foods, its presence is considered as inconsequential22 [if it is mixed] with a larger amount [of permitted foods].23 It is not placed in the category of a substance that will later become permitted (davar sheyeish lo matirin).24 [One might think that] the mixture [should be placed in this category] because it is entirely permitted for others to eat without resorting to the rationale that there was a larger amount [of permitted foods present. Nevertheless, this supposition is not accepted,] because an object is not considered a davar sheyeish lo matirin unless there is a way that it will become permitted for the person for whom it [originally] became forbidden. In this instance, by contrast, there is no way [the food] will be permitted for [the one who cooked it] except when it is mixed with a larger quantity [of permitted foods. Otherwise, it is permitted] only for others. And for them, it is never forbidden at all from Saturday night onward.

If, however, on Shabbos itself, [food cooked on Shabbos] became mixed [with other food that was not cooked on Shabbos], since [the food cooked on Shabbos] is categorized as a davar sheyeish lo matirin with regard to other people [on Shabbos],25 it is not [considered for them as] nullified when mixed with a larger quantity [of permitted foods. Therefore,] it is categorized as a davar sheyeish lo matirin for the person who cooked it as well, and [therefore] this mixture is forbidden for him forever.

ד אִם בִּשֵּׁל בְּמֵזִיד21 וְנִתְעָרֵב הַתַּבְשִׁיללא בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּתלב בְּתַבְשִׁילִין אֲחֵרִים – בָּטֵל 22 בְּרֹב.23 וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין",24 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַאֲחֵרִים לֶאֱכוֹל הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת הַזֶּה בְּהֶתֵּר גָּמוּר שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת בִּטּוּל בְּרֹב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ צַד הֶתֵּר לְמִי שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר לוֹ, אֲבָל כָּאן אֵין הֶתֵּר בְּלֹא בִּטּוּל בְּרֹב אֶלָּא לַאֲחֵרִים, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱסַר לָהֶם כְּלָל מִמּוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְאֵילָךְ.

אֲבָל אִם נִתְעָרֵב בְּשַׁבָּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבּוֹ בַיּוֹם חָל עָלָיו שֵׁם "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין" לְגַבֵּי אֲחֵרִים25 שֶׁאֵין בָּטֵל לָהֶם בְּרֹב – חָל עָלָיו שֵׁם "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין" גַּם לְגַבֵּי הַמְבַשֵּׁל,לג וְנֶאֱסָר לוֹ הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת הַזֶּה לְעוֹלָם:לד

5 Whena person slaughters [an animal] on Shabbos for the sake of a person who is mortally ill,26 a healthy person may partake [of its meat] while it is raw27 and unsalted,28 only washed,29 as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 67.30 [The meat may not be salted,] because it is forbidden to salt [meat] on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 321[:2].31

[This leniency applies] even when the person becomes [dangerously] ill on Shabbos, and on Friday, the person did not at all have in mind to slaughter [the animal] on Shabbos. Nevertheless, based on the reason explained in sec. 310[:6, the meat] is not considered muktzeh.32

When, however, a person cooks or performs other [forbidden] labors on behalf of a person who is dangerously ill, it is forbidden for a healthy person or [even] a person who is [ill, but] not dangerously ill, [to benefit from the forbidden labors.33 This is] a decree lest [the person performing the forbidden labor] increase the work [he performs] for the sake of [the person who is not dangerously ill.34 This rationale] does not apply with regard to ritual slaughter, because one cannot add [to the act] for the sake of the healthy person. For it is impossible to obtain an olive-sized portion of meat necessary for the person who is ill without slaughtering the entire animal.

Even if [a forbidden labor was performed] by a non-Jew – whether for the sake of a person who is dangerously ill or a person who is ill, but not dangerously ill – it is forbidden for a healthy person [to benefit from the forbidden labor] on Shabbos.35[This is] a decree [instituted] lest [the non-Jew] perform additional [forbidden labor] for [the healthy person’s] sake. On Saturday night, however, the healthy person may [benefit from the forbidden labor] immediately. Since the non-Jew’s actions were permitted to be performed on behalf of the sick person, [the Jew] need not wait the time it takes [for the activity] to be performed.

To what does the above apply? To all other forbidden labors except for baking and cooking. If, however, a non-Jew baked or cooked on Shabbos for the sake of a person who is ill,36 it is forbidden for a healthy person to partake of the food even on Saturday night. [The food is prohibited] because it was cooked by a non-Jew, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 113.37

ה הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּשַׁבָּת לְחוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה26 – מֻתָּר הַבָּרִיא לֶאֱכוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ חַילה, 27 וּבְלֹא מְלִיחָה,לו, 28 אֶלָּא בַּהֲדָחָהלז בִּלְבַד,29 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִימָן ס"ז,לח, 30 לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"א.לט, 31

וַאֲפִלּוּ חָלָה הַחוֹלֶה הַיּוֹם, מ וְאֶתְמוֹל לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ כְּלָל שֶׁיִּשְׁחַט הַיּוֹם – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"י.מא, 32

אֲבָל הַמְבַשֵּׁלמב אוֹ עָשָׂה שְׁאָר מְלָאכָהמג בִּשְׁבִיל הַחוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה – אָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת לַבָּרִיא אוֹ לְחוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה,מד, 33 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּהמה בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹמו בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.34 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁחִיטָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּשְׁבִיל הַבָּרִיא,מז שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְכַזַּיִת בָּשָׂר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַחוֹלֶה בְּלֹא שְׁחִיטַת כָּל הַבְּהֵמָה.מח

וַאֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה, בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה 35 – אָסוּר לַבָּרִיא בְּשַׁבָּת,מט גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ. נ אֲבָל לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מֻתָּר לַבָּרִיא מִיָּד, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,נא כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עָשָׂה בְּהֶתֵּר לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה.נב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּשְׁאָר מְלָאכוֹת, חוּץ מֵאֲפִיָּה וּבִשּׁוּל, שֶׁאִם אָפָה נָכְרִי אוֹ בִּשֵּׁל בְּשַׁבָּת לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה36 – אָסוּר לַבָּרִיא אַף בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּלֵי נָכְרִים,נג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִימָן קי"ג:נד, 37

6 When one picks a fruit38 that is not entirely ripe39 on Shabbos for the sake of a sick person, [the fruit] is forbidden to a healthy person, because it is muktzeh. [This ruling applies] even if the person took sick while it was still day [on Friday] and the person [caring for him already] had in mind [on Friday] to pick this fruit on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] preparing [an article that is muktzeh to be used on Shabbos]40 is not effective at all with regard to an entity that is attached to the ground and continues to grow on Shabbos. If, however, a fruit has completely ripened and will not grow further, preparing [in one’s mind to use it] is effective, [and the fruit is not classified as muktzeh] even if it is attached to the ground [at the commencement of the Shabbos].41

ו הַקּוֹצֵץ פְּרִי 38 שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר בִּשּׁוּלוֹ 39 לְחוֹלֶה בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לַבָּרִיא מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, אֲפִלּוּ חָלָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהָיָה כְּבָר בְּדַעְתּוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לִקְצוֹץ הַפְּרִי בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין הֲכָנָה מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלָל 40 בִּמְחֻבָּר בְּכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, שֶׁהוּא גָּדֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ בְּשַׁבָּת.נה

אֲבָל פְּרִי שֶׁנִּגְמַר בִּשּׁוּלוֹ וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ גָדֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ – מוֹעֶלֶת בּוֹ הֲכָנָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר:נו, 41

7 Cooking is one of the primary categories of labor [forbidden on Shabbos by Scriptural Law],42 because [when constructing] the Sanctuary, they would cook herbs to use as dyes.43 Not only cooking in water, but also frying,44 baking,45 and roasting46 are included in the category of cooking. Similarly, one is liable for cooking if he: a) softens a hard substance in fire, e.g., he melts one of the types of metal,47 b) heats a [piece of] metal until it chars,48 c) melts wax, fat, tar, or sulfur using fire, or d) causes a soft substance to become hard through fire, e.g., he places a clay implement in a fire until it becomes an earthenware implement.49

Just as it is forbidden to cook with fire, so too is it forbidden to cook with the derivatives of fire,50 e.g., to place an egg next to a pot that was heated with fire51 or to break it over a cloth that was heated with fire50 so that it will become slightly roasted.52 If [the egg] roasts to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i,53 he is liable for cooking, as if it roasted over a fire.51

It is even forbidden54 to roast in the derivatives of heat from the sun,55 e.g., [to roast] on a cloth that was heated by the sun.56 [This is] a decree [instituted out of concern for] derivatives of fire, for an observer may think that this cloth was heated with fire. Similarly, it is forbidden to roll [an egg] over sand or the dust of the roads that are heated by the sun. Similarly, it is forbidden to insulate [food] in such [sand or dust] even while it is still day [on Friday.51 This is] a decree lest one insulate [food] in a mixture of ash and hot coals, as explained in sec. 257[:1, 5].

It is, however, permitted to [use the heat of] the sun itself, e.g., to place an egg in the sun so that it will roast or to place water in the sun so that it will be heated, since this is not the ordinary way of cooking. There is no [need to] decree against [using the heat of] the sun lest one use fire, since the sun will not be confused with fire.51

ז הַמְבַשֵּׁל הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,נז, 42 שֶׁכֵּן בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ מְבַשְּׁלִים סַמְמָנִיםנח לִצְבּוֹעַ בָּהּ.נט, 43 וְלֹא בִּשּׁוּל בַּמַּיִם בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא אַף הַטִּגּוּןס, 44 וְהָאֲפִיָּהסא, 45 וְהַצְּלִיָּהסב, 46 הֵן בִּכְלַל בִּשּׁוּל.

וְכֵן כָּל מִי שֶׁרִפָּה גּוּף קָשֶׁה בְּאוּר, כְּגוֹן הַמַּתִּיךְ אֶחָד מִמִּינֵי מַתָּכוֹת,סג, 47 אוֹ הַמְחַמֵּם אֶת הַמַּתֶּכֶת עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה גַּחֶלֶת,סד, 48 וְכֵן הַמְמַסֵּס הַשַּׁעֲוָה אוֹ הַחֵלֶב אוֹ הַזֶּפֶת וְהַגָּפְרִית בְּאוּר, אוֹ שֶׁהִקְשָׁה גּוּף רַךְ בְּאוּר, כְּגוֹן הַמַּנִּיחַ כְּלִי אֲדָמָה בְּאוּר עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ כְּלִי חֶרֶס49 – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל.סה

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לְבַשֵּׁל בְּאוּר – כָּךְ אָסוּר לְבַשֵּׁל בְּתוֹלֶדֶת הָאוּר,סו, 50 כְּגוֹן לִתֵּן בֵּיצָה בְּצַד קְדֵרָה שֶׁהוּחַמָּה בְּאוּר,סז, 51 אוֹ לְשַׁבְּרָהּ עַל הַסּוּדָר שֶׁהוּחַם בְּאוּרסח, 50 כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּצָּלֶה מְעַט.סט, 52 וְאִם נִצְלֵית שָׁם כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוֹסָאִיע, 53 – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁלעא כְּמוֹ בְּצוֹלֶה עַל הָאוּר.עב, 51

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹלֶדֶת חַמָּה,עג, 55 כְּגוֹן בְּסוּדָר שֶׁהוּחַם בַּחַמָּה 56 – אָסוּר,עד, 54 גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלְדוֹת הָאוּר,עה שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה סָבוּר שֶׁהוּחַם הַסּוּדָר בְּאוּר.עו וְכֵן אָסוּר לְגַלְגְּלָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי חוֹל וַאֲבַק דְּרָכִים שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ מִכֹּחַ חַמָּה.עז וְאָסוּר לְהַטְמִינָהּ בָּהֶםעח אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,עט, 51 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַטְמִין בְּרֶמֶץ, פ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ז.פא

אֲבָל בַּחַמָּה עַצְמָהּ,פב כְּגוֹן לִתֵּן בֵּיצָה בַּחַמָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּצָּלֶה, אוֹ לִתֵּן מַיִם בַּחַמָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּחַמּוּפג – מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בִּשּׁוּל בְּכָךְ. וְאֵין לִגְזוֹר עַל חַמָּה מִשּׁוּם אוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחַמָּה אֵינָהּ מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בְּאוּר:פד, 51

8 One who cooks in the hot springs of Tiberias57 is exempt,58 because they are comparable to the derivatives of the sun.59 [Doing so] is, however, forbidden by Rabbinic decree, even if the food to be cooked is suspended over [the hot spring] and it cooks above it. It is, however, permitted to leave [the dish] suspended there while it is still day [on Friday]. It is, however, forbidden to insulate it entirely [in the hot spring] even while it is still day [on Friday], because of the prohibition against insulating, as will be explained in sec. 326[:3].60

ח הַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא57 – פָּטוּר,פה, 58 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּתוֹלֶדֶת חַמָּה.פו, 59 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַתַּבְשִׁיל עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבָּיו וּמִתְבַּשֵּׁל מִלְמַעְלָה.פז אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִידָם שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,פח אֲבָל לְהַטְמִינוֹ כֻּלּוֹ בְּתוֹכָם – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר הַטְמָנָה,פט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ו:צ, 60

9 [According to Scriptural Law, the forbidden labor of] cooking [also] applies to [reheating] moist food that was fully cooked and then cooled off. Even if [the food] has not entirely cooled, [but has] only [cooled to the point where] it is no longer so hot that a hand would recoil from touching it – [in Talmudic terminology, yad soledes bo]61 – and one reheats it on Shabbos until it reaches the temperature that a hand would recoil from touching it, he is liable for cooking.62 If, however, [the food] is so hot that a hand would recoil from touching it, and [one] boils it further, it is not considered cooking.63 Even as an initial and preferred option, [one] may [place the hot, moist food] close to a fire so that it boils, [provided] there is no concern that he will stoke [the fire], as will be explained.64 (Whether it is permitted to place [such food] on top of a range or an oven is explained in sec. 253[:14-17]).

There are authorities who maintain that even if the food cools off entirely, [the forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply to food that is already [fully] cooked, and it is permitted to [place the food] close to a fire so that it boils, [provided] there is no concern that he will stoke [the fire].

It is customary to rule leniently [and allow the food to be reheated] as long as [the food] has not cooled entirely,65 but rather is sufficiently warm that it is fit to be eaten. If, however, [the food] has completely cooled off, it is customary to follow the first opinion,66 even after the fact,67 as explained in sec. 253[:25]. It is even forbidden to place [food] on an oven [that heats] a home [in] the winter before a non-Jew kindles it, so that [the food] will warm when [the non-Jew] kindles [the oven], as explained in that source.68 Similar concepts apply with regard to all activities that are [categorized as] cooking, as will be explained.

ט כָּל דָּבָר לַח יֵשׁ בּוֹ בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל. דְּהַיְנוּ, תַּבְשִׁיל לַח שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּבָר כָּל צָרְכּוֹ וְנִצְטַנֵּן,צא וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,61 וְחִמְּמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹצב – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל.62

אֲבָל אִם הוּא חַם כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ וּמַרְתִּיחוֹ יוֹתֵרצג – אֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל.63 וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּהצד לְהַרְתִּיחוֹ סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְחִתּוּי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרצה, 64 (וְאִם מֻתָּר לִתְּנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי כִירָה אוֹ תַּנּוּר – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"גצו).

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצז שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי – אֵין בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל. וּמֻתָּר לְהַרְתִּיחוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְחִתּוּי.

וְנָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל אִם לֹא נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי,צח, 65 אֶלָּא רָאוּי עֲדַיִן לֶאֱכוֹל מֵחֲמַת חֲמִימוּתוֹ.צט אֲבָל אִם נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי – נוֹהֲגִין כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה66 אֲפִלּוּ לְעִנְיַן דִּיעֲבַד,67 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ג. ק וַאֲפִלּוּ לִתְּנוֹ עַל תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּסִּיקוֹ הַנָּכְרִי, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְחַמֵּם כְּשֶׁיַּסִּיקֶנּוּ – אָסוּר,קא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.קב, 68 וְכֵן בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל:קג

10 All the above applies with regard to food that is fully cooked. If, however, [the food] is not fully cooked, even if it is already cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i,53 one is [liable for] cooking, even if [the food] is boiling hot.69 [This also applies] if the food will cook on its own accord, but the person performs an act that makes it cook faster, e.g., he stirs [the food] with a spoon.70

י וְכָל זֶה בְּתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּבָר כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוֹסָאִי 53 – יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל, אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדוֹ רוֹתֵחַ.קד, 69 וַאֲפִלּוּ יִתְבַּשֵּׁל מֵאֵלָיו, אֶלָּא שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר שֶׁמְּקָרֵב בִּשּׁוּלוֹ,קה כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּגִיסוֹ בְּכַף:קו, 70

11 [The forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply to [reheating] dry food that does not have any liquid on it at all,71 provided [the food] has already been fully cooked. [This leniency applies] even if [the cooked food] has cooled off entirely. It is even permitted to soak [the food]72 in a k’li rishon73 that is boiling,74 so that it will become soft and moist.75

Dry food76 that was not cooked at all before Shabbos may not be soaked on Shabbos [in water]62 so hot that it will cause a hand to recoil, even if it does not soften there at all. If one soaks [dry food] in a k’li rishon, he is liable [for the forbidden labor of cooking].

Soaking [dry food] in a k’li sheni77 is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law, because it appears like [the person] is cooking. [Dry food] is not comparable to spices, which are permitted to be placed in a k’li sheni, as will be explained.78 [The rationale is that] spices are added to flavor the cooked food. Hence, [adding them] does not appear the same as cooking. Similarly, all substances that are added to flavor a cooked food, e.g., garlic or onion, are considered as spices and may be added [to food] in a k’li sheni,even if [the food is so hot that] a hand would recoil [when touching] it.79 There is an authority who raises a question concerning an onion, for perhaps it also cooks in a k’li sheni as long as a hand would recoil [when touching] it. It is, however, customary to rule leniently. There are authorities who permit soaking any dry substance that has not been cooked in a k’li sheni from which a hand would recoil. One should, however, rule stringently in this matter, following the first opinion.

It is, however, permitted to pour from a k’li sheni [hot] liquid from which a hand would recoil on any dry substance that was not cooked, with the exception of a species of fish called kulyas haaspanin80and meat or fish,72 which was salted a year previously [to preserve it].81 These foods only need a minimal amount of cooking. Pouring hot water, as described above, completes their cooking and [therefore,] one [who does so] is liable for cooking. It is, however, permitted to soak and wash [such meat or fish] in cold water.

Similarly, one is liable [for cooking] when soaking or washing in hot water any firm food that was not cooked and is not fit to be eaten until it is soaked or washed in this manner. Even if [one] poured [hot water] from a k’li sheni over [this food] and thus made it fit to be eaten, he is liable for cooking.

Similarly, a person is liable if he soaks or washes in hot water any raw and heavily salted food that is not fit to be eaten unless it is soaked or washed in hot water. It is, however, permitted to soak and wash [such food] in cold water, even if it becomes fit [to be eaten] in this manner, for on Shabbos, it is permitted to transform any inedible substance into an [edible] food, as will be explained in sec. 324[:4].82

יא תַּבְשִׁיל יָבֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ רֹטֶב כְּלָל71 – אֵין בּוֹ בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל,קז אִם נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּבָר כָּל צָרְכּוֹ,קח וַאֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי.קט וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לִשְׁרוֹתוֹקי, 72 בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן73 רוֹתֵחַקיא, 74 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִמּוֹחַ שָׁםקיב וְיִהְיֶה דָּבָר לַח.קיג, 75

וְאִם הוּא דָּבָר יָבֵשׁ76 שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל מִלִּפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת – אֵין שׁוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת 62 בְּחַמִּיןקיד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,קטו אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ נִמּוֹחַ שָׁם כְּלָל.קטז וְאִם שָׁרָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן – חַיָּב.קיז

וּבִכְלִי שֵׁנִי 77 אָסוּר לִשְׁרוֹתוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל.קיח וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִתְבָלִין שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִתְּנָם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קיט, 78 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתְּבָלִין עֲשׂוּיִין לְמַתֵּק הַקְּדֵרָה, וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל.קכ וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר הֶעָשׂוּי לִתֵּן טַעַם בִּקְדֵרָה, כְּגוֹן שׁוּם וּבָצָל – הֲרֵי הֵם כִּתְבָלִין,קכא וּמֻתָּר לִתְּנָם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.קכב, 79 וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמִּסְתַּפֵּק בְּבָצָל, שֶׁמָּא הוּא מִתְבַּשֵּׁל גַּם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.קכג וְנָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל. וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקכד בְּכָל דָּבָר יָבֵשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל לִשְׁרוֹתוֹ בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בָּזֶה כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קכה

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַעֲרוֹת מִכְּלִי שֵׁנִי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ עַל כָּל דָּבָר יָבֵשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל,קכו חוּץ מִמִּין דָּג שֶׁנִּקְרָא "קֻלְיָס הָאִסְפָּנִין",קכז, 80 וּמָלִיחַ הַיָּשָׁן,קכח דְּהַיְנוּ בָּשָׂרקכט אוֹ דָּג 72 מָלוּחַ שֶׁל שָׁנָה שֶׁעָבְרָה,קל, 81 שֶׁאֵלּוּ אֵינָם צְרִיכִים בִּשּׁוּל אֶלָּא מְעַט,קלא וְעֵרוּי זֶה הִיא גְּמַר מְלֶאכֶת בִּשּׁוּלָן,קלב וְחַיָּב עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל.קלג אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׁרוֹתָן וְלַהֲדִיחָן בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִים.קלד

וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר קָשֶׁה שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל, שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּהקלה אוֹ הֲדָחָה בְּחַמִּין, אִם שָׁרָה אוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי, אוֹ הֱדִיחוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֵרוּי מִכְּלִי שֵׁנִי, וְנַעֲשָׂה רָאוּי – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל.קלו

וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל, שֶׁהוּא מָלוּחַ הַרְבֵּה, וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה אוֹ הֲדָחָה בְּחַמִּין, אִם שָׁרָה אוֹ הֵדִיחַ בְּחַמִּין – חַיָּב.קלז אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׁרוֹתוֹ וְלַהֲדִיחוֹ בְּצוֹנְנִין,קלח וַאֲפִלּוּ נַעֲשֶׂה רָאוּי עַל יְדֵי כָךְ, שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֹכֶל מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אֹכֶל בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ד:קלט, 82

12 There is an authority who maintains that although [the forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply to [reheating] dry food that has already been [fully] cooked [and cooled off,83 heating food that] has [previously] been baked or roasted [is considered as cooking]. Thus, if one placed [food that] was baked or roasted – even if it was still boiling hot – into a k’li rishon from which a hand would recoil, he is liable. Based on this [opinion], according to Rabbinic Law, one should also be stringent with regard to a k’li sheni, as explained above.84 Therefore, one should be careful not to place baked bread even in a bowl that is a k’li sheni as long as a hand would recoil [when touching] it.85

There is an authority who casts doubts and raises concerns about whether one is liable for a sin-offering [if baked food is placed in] a bowl that is a k’li sheni that a hand would recoil [from when touching] it. [The rationale is that] there are soft foods that will cook in a k’li sheni from which a hand would recoil. We are not knowledgeable regarding [which foods are meant], and it is possible that bread is also considered “soft” in this context and will cook in a k’li sheni from which a hand would recoil.

This question applies equally with regard to other foods, and stringency should be shown with regard to all [foods] except spices, for our Sages specifically allowed them to be placed in a k’li sheni.86 Similar [laws] apply with regard to water and oil, as will be explained,87 and also with regard to other liquids.

One should [similarly] be stringent even with regard to roasted meat, because the concept of cooking applies to [food] that has been roasted. There is, however, no need for stringency with regard to cooked [meat], even [when placed] in a k’li rishon, because all authorities agree that [the forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply to food that is dry after it is already [fully] cooked.

There are, however, other authorities who allow placing baked and roasted foods88 [that are dry], even when they are cold, in a k’li rishon that is boiling,89 because [they maintain that] the concept of cooking does not apply [to food that has been] baked or roasted. As an initial preference, it is customary to follow the first opinion and be scrupulous not to place bread90 even in a k’li sheni as long as a hand would recoil [when touching] it. After the fact, however, even [bread placed] in a k’li rishon is permitted, as the second opinion [maintains].91

יב יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר,קמ שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל בְּדָבָר יָבֵשׁ,83 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר אֲפִיָּה אוֹ צְלִיָּה, שֶׁהָאָפוּי אוֹ הַצָּלוּי, אִם נְתָנוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדוֹ רוֹתֵחַ, בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹקמא – חַיָּב.קמב

וּלְפִי זֶה גַּם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קמג, 84 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קמד וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן פַּת אֲפוּיָה אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְעָרָה שֶׁהִיא כְּלִי שֵׁנִי, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.85

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמִּסְתַּפֵּקקמה וְחוֹשֵׁשׁ מֵחִיּוּב חַטָּאת גַּם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ דְּבָרִים רַכִּים שֶׁמִּתְבַּשְּׁלִים גַּם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי, וְאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין בָּהֶן, וְשֶׁמָּא גַּם הַלֶּחֶםקמו נִקְרָא רַךְ לְעִנְיָן זֶה וּמִתְבַּשֵּׁל גַּם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ. וְכֵן יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק סָפֵק זֶה גַּם בִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּכֻלָּן,קמז לְבַד מִבִּתְבָלִין, שֶׁהִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים בְּפֵרוּשׁ לִתְּנָם בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי,קמח, 86 וְכֵן מַיִם וְשֶׁמֶן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.קמט, 87 וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּבָשָׂר צָלוּי יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר,קנ כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר צְלִיָּה. אֲבָל בִּמְבֻשָּׁל אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר כְּלָל, אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁלְּדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל בְּדָבָר יָבֵשׁ.קנא

אֲבָל יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקנב בְּאָפוּי וְצָלוּי,88 אֲפִלּוּ צוֹנְנִים, לִתְּנָם אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן רוֹתֵחַ,89 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בִּשּׁוּל אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר אֲפִיָּה וּצְלִיָּה.קנג

וְנָהֲגוּ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן פַּת 90 אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.קנד אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן כַּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה:91

13 According to the first opinion that maintains that the concept of cooking applies to [a food that was] baked or roasted, [the reverse is also true]: Baking and roasting apply to [a food that was] cooked. [Hence,] it is forbidden to place cooked food that does not have any liquid near a fire in a place where it will become so hot that a hand would recoil [when touching] it. Nevertheless, according to all opinions, the concepts of baking and roasting do not apply to [foods that were already] baked or roasted. Thus, it is permitted to place food that is baked or roasted92 near a fire in the manner that will be explained,93 even if [the food] has already cooled off entirely.

יג וּלְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר אֲפִיָּה וּצְלִיָּה – יֵשׁ גַּם כֵּן אֲפִיָּה וּצְלִיָּה אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל,קנה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַמְבֻשָּׁל אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹקנו בְּלֹא רֹטֶבקנז סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.קנח

אֲבָל לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין אֲפִיָּה וּצְלִיָּה אַחַר אֲפִיָּה וּצְלִיָּה,קנט וְדָבָר הָאָפוּי אוֹ צָלוּי מֻתָּר לִתְּנוֹ סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ92 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קס, 93 אֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנֵּן כְּבָר לְגַמְרֵי:קסא

14 On Shabbos, a cooking utensil that contains food that is so hot that a hand would recoil [when touching] it may be placed on top of a pot that is insulated in clothes so that its heat will be preserved and it will not cool off.94 [This ruling applies] even if the food is not entirely cooked, and thus [one will be liable for] cooking if he performs an act that causes the food to cook faster.95 Nevertheless, in this situation, it is impossible for the food to cook fully or even for it to cook more [than it already has]. It is only that its [previous] heat will be preserved. [Hence,] it is permitted to seal the pot’s opening with dough to preserve its heat,94 provided that one has dough that was kneaded on the preceding day.96 It is, however, forbidden to [completely] insulate [the upper] pot under clothes, as explained in sec. 253[:14].97

יד כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דָּבָר חַםקסב שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹקסג – מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עַל גַּבֵּי קְדֵרָה הַטְּמוּנָה בַּבְּגָדִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמוֹר חֻמּוֹ וְלֹא יִצְטַנֵּן.קסד, 94 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר שֶׁמְּמַהֵר לִגְמוֹר בִּשּׁוּלוֹ,קסה, 95 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ כְּלָל לָבֹא לִידֵי בִּשּׁוּל גָּמוּר, וְלֹא אֲפִלּוּ לִידֵי הוֹסָפַת בִּשּׁוּל, אֶלָּא לְהַעֲמִיד חֻמּוֹ בִּלְבַד.קסו וּמֻתָּר לָטוּחַ פִּיו בְּבָצֵק כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִיד חֻמּוֹ,קסז, 94 אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בָּצֵק שֶׁנִּלּוֹשׁ מֵאֶתְמוֹל.קסח, 96 אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַטְמִינוֹ תַּחַת הַבְּגָדִים,קסט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ג:קע, 97

15 A cooking utensil that contains [food] that is not hot enough that a hand would recoil [when touching] it may not be placed on an earthenware pot that is so hot that the cooking utensil on top will become heated from its warmth to the extent that a hand would recoil [when touching] it.98 The same law applies with regard to placing [a cooking utensil with food that is not hot enough that a hand would recoil] on a metal cooking utensil that is this hot.99

When does the above apply? When [the food in] the upper [cooking utensil] is not entirely cooked, and thus [the forbidden labor of cooking] applies to it even though it is still hot.100 [More lenient rules apply,] however, if [the food] is entirely cooked, but has cooled off slightly and is not hot enough that a hand would recoil [when touching] it. Since [the food] is [still] slightly warm to the extent that it is fit to be eaten because of its warmth, it is customary to rule leniently, for [the forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply to [food that has already been cooked], as explained.101 [Hence,] it is permitted to place [such food] on an earthenware pot or a metal cooking utensil to warm it extensively.

If it is a dry food that was entirely cooked, [the forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply to it even if it has cooled off.102 It is permitted to heat [dry, cooked food] on top of [such utensils] even to the extent that a hand would recoil from it.103

טו אֲבָל אֵין מַנִּיחִין כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַם כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, עַל גַּבֵּי קְדֵרָה שֶׁהִיא חַמָּה כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁהָעֶלְיוֹן יָכוֹל לְהִתְחַמֵּם מֵחֻמָּהּ עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,קעא, 98 וְהוּא הַדִּין עַל גַּבֵּי מֵחַםקעב שֶׁהוּא חַם כָּל כָּךְ.99

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהָעֶלְיוֹן לֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל עֲדַיִן כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל אַף כְּשֶׁהוּא חַם.קעג, 100 אֲבָל אִם נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּבָר כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן מְעַט, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַם כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חַם קְצָת עַד שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לֶאֱכוֹל מֵחֲמַת חֲמִימוּתוֹ – כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵרקעד שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהָקֵל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל,101 וּמֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קְדֵרָה אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי מֵחַם לְחַמְּמוֹ הַרְבֵּה.קעה

וְאִם הוּא דָּבָר יָבֵשׁ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי – אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל,קעו, 102 וּמֻתָּר לְחַמְּמוֹ עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ:קעז, 103

16 For the reason explained in sec. 253[:26],104 it is even permitted to place all [foods] to which [the forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply on a pot that is insulated and placed over a fire, e.g., it is on a range from which the coals were neither removed nor covered, according to the guidelines explained in sec. 253[:8].105 Similarly, [such foods may be put down] on a metal cooking utensil that is placed over a fire. [This leniency applies to] a cooked dish that is dry, even if it has cooled entirely, and a moist cooked dish that has not cooled entirely.

טז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַקְּדֵרָה טְמוּנָה עַל גַּבֵּי הָאֵשׁ, כְּגוֹן עַל גַּבֵּי כִירָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה, עַל פִּי הַדְּרָכִים שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּסִימָן רנ"ג,קעח, 104 וְכֵן מֵחַם שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הָאֵשׁ – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עֲלֵיהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל,קעט כְּגוֹן תַּבְשִׁיל יָבֵשׁ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא צוֹנֵן לְגַמְרֵי,קפ אוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל לַח שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ג:קפא, 105

17 Even after one removes it from the fire, as long as it remains hot enough that a hand would recoil [when touching] it, a k’li rishon cooks [substances placed inside it].106 Therefore, it is forbidden to add spices to [a k’li rishon that is hot enough that a hand would recoil when touching it].106 [Indeed,] as a precaution and safeguard for this matter, it is desirable to refrain from adding spices to a k’li rishon even if a hand will not recoil [when touching] it. It is, however, permitted to add salt to [a k’li rishon],107 since it has been removed from the fire. [The rationale is that] salt requires extensive cooking like beef;107 it only cooks [when it is directly] over the fire.108

Beef itself, however, is forbidden to be placed in a k’li rishon [even if it has been removed from the fire]. True, the beef itself will not cook. Nevertheless, the moisture on it will cook. Only when [the meat] is entirely dry, with no moisture on it at all, [may it be placed in a k’li rishon].109

There are [other] authorities who maintain that salt requires only minimal cooking, and it is forbidden to put [salt] into a k’li sheni as long as a hand would recoil [when touching] it.110 May blessings be granted to one who acts stringently [in this matter].

If one transgresses and places salt in a k’li rishon even while it is on a fire, although he violated a prohibition, the food is permitted [to be eaten] because the salt’s presence is nullified in relation to the [quantity of] food as a whole.111 There are authorities who differ and maintain that [the food] is forbidden until Saturday night.112

יז כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁהֶעֱבִירוּהוּ מֵעַל הָאוּר, מְבַשֵּׁלקפב כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.קפג, 106 לְפִיכָךְ, אָסוּר לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ תְּבָלִין.קפד, 106 וְטוֹב לִמְנוֹעַ מִלָּתֵת תְּבָלִין בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת הַרְחָקָהקפה וּסְיָג לַדָּבָר.

אֲבָל מֶלַח מֻתָּר לִתֵּן בְּתוֹכוֹ,קפו, 107 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶעֱבִירוֹ מֵעַל הָאֵשׁ,קפז שֶׁהַמֶּלַח צָרִיךְ בִּשּׁוּל רַב כְּמוֹ בְּשַׂר שׁוֹר,קפח, 107 וְאֵינוֹ מִתְבַּשֵּׁל אֶלָּא עַל הָאֵשׁ.קפט, 108

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּשַׂר שׁוֹר אָסוּר לִתֵּן בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן,קצ שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּשֵּׁל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַלַּחְלוּחִית שֶׁעָלָיו מִתְבַּשֵּׁל,קצא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁהוּא יָבֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו לַחְלוּחִית כְּלָל.קצב, 109

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקצג שֶׁהַמֶּלַח אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ בִּשּׁוּל אֶלָּא מְעַט, וְאָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ אַף בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.110 וְהַמַּחְמִיר תָּבֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה.קצד

וְאִם עָבַר וְנָתַן מֶלַח אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עַל הָאֵשׁ שֶׁעָשָׂה אִסּוּר – הַמַּאֲכָל מֻתָּר, לְפִי שֶׁהַמֶּלַח בָּטֵל נֶגֶד הַמַּאֲכָל.קצה, 111 וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים, וְאוֹסְרִים עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:קצו, 112

18 All the above applies to uncooked salt. In contrast, our salt, which is prepared by cooking it in water,113 is permitted to be placed in a k’li rishon114 according to all opinions, because [the forbidden labor of] cooking does not apply to a dry substance that has already been [fully] cooked, even if it will dissolve through being cooked this second time, as explained above.115 Nevertheless, may blessings be granted to one who acts stringently with this [type of salt], [acting in the same manner] as with other types of salt.116

יח וְכָל זֶה בְּמֶלַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל, אֲבָל מֶלַח שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁמְּתַקְּנִים אוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל בַּמַּיִםקצז, 113 – מֻתָּר לִתְּנוֹ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן 114 לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,קצח שֶׁאֵין בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל בְּדָבָר יָבֵשׁ,קצט אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נִמּוֹחַ עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל זֶה הַשֵּׁנִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.ר, 115

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמַּחְמִיר בּוֹ כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מֶלַח – תָּבֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה:רא, 116

19 It is forbidden to place spices in a bowl and pour [liquid] over them from a k’li rishon117 from which a hand would recoil, because [hot liquid] poured from a k’li rishon cooks their outer surface.118 Thus, if one pours [such hot liquid over the spices, their] outer portion becomes forbidden, because it was cooked on Shabbos.

If, by contrast, one first pours [the liquid] from a k’li rishon into the bowl, it is permitted to place spices into the bowl afterwards.119 [The rationale is that the bowl is a k’li sheni, and] the heat of a k’li sheni is not powerful enough to cook.120 [True,] there are authorities who rule stringently concerning permitted and forbidden foods,121 maintaining that a k’li sheni has the power to cause [food to be] absorbed [into the walls of a cooking utensil] or to be emitted [from its walls] as long as it is [so hot that] a hand would recoil [when touching] it. Nevertheless, even [they agree that a k’li sheni] does not have the power to cook despite being [hot enough that] a hand would recoil [when touching] it.122 [A k’li sheni] is not comparable to a k’li rishon, that can cook as long as it is [so hot that] a hand would recoil [when touching] it. [The reason for the distinction is that] since a k’li rishon stands (near the fire or) over the fire,123 its walls are hot and they preserve its heat for a significantly longer time. Therefore, [the Sages] established a measure for [a k’li rishon]124 – [forbidding it] as long as it is [so hot that] a hand would recoil [when touching] it. In contrast, [the contents of] a k’li sheni, whose walls are not [so] hot, will progressively cool.125

יט אָסוּר לִתֵּן תְּבָלִין בִּקְעָרָה וְלַעֲרוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן117 שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,רב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן מְבַשֵּׁל כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה.רג, 118 וְאִם עֵרָה – אֲזַי הַקְּלִיפָה אֲסוּרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה בְּשַׁבָּת.רד

אֲבָל אִם עֵרָה תְּחִלָּה מֵהַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן אַחַר כָּךְ הַתְּבָלִין לַקְּעָרָה,רה, 119 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֹם כְּלִי שֵׁנִי אֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לְבַשֵּׁל.רו, 120

וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַמַּחְמִירִיםרז בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי לְעִנְיַן אִסּוּר וְהֶתֵּר,121 שֶׁסּוֹבְרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כֹּחַ לְהַבְלִיעַ וּלְהַפְלִיט כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לְבַשֵּׁל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.רח, 122 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁמְּבַשֵּׁל כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁעוֹמֵד (אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ רט) עַל הָאוּר 123 – דָּפְנוֹתָיו חַמִּין וּמַחֲזִיק חֻמּוֹ הַרְבֵּה, וּלְכָךְ נָתְנוּ בוֹ שִׁעוּר 124 כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵין דָּפְנוֹתָיו חַמִּין וְהוֹלֵךְ וּמִתְקָרֵר:רי, 125

20 It is forbidden to pour cold water into a bathhouse tub126 filled with hot water, even though it is a k’li sheni.127[The rationale is that] since the hot water [in the tub] is intended for bathing, it can be assumed that it is very hot and the cold water that mixes with it will be cooked.128

It is, however, permitted to place water from this tub into another tub filled with cold water.129 [Indeed,] it is even permitted to pour water from a k’li rishon into cold water. For the statement that water poured from a k’li rishon can cook applies only when hot water is poured over spices and the like, in which instance the hot water does not actually intermingle with them. Instead, [the hot water] buffets [the spices] with its flow and cooks [them].130 However, when water [is poured into other] water, the actual substance of the waters mixes together. Thus, the flow of [hot] water [poured into the cold water] does not have the power to cook the [cold] water into which it is poured.131 Rather, [the cold] water is dominant and it cools off the [hot] water [poured into it].132

It is, however, forbidden to place a piece of meat that is hot [enough that] a hand would recoil [when touching] it into a cold sauce.

[The rationale is that] since [the meat] does not actually mix with the sauce, it will cook [an amount of sauce equivalent] to a peel around [the meat] before the sauce will become dominant and cool it off.

כ אַמְבַּטִּי שֶׁל מֶרְחָץ126 שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה מַיִם חַמִּין,ריא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא כְּלִי שֵׁנִיריב, 127 – אָסוּר לַעֲרוֹת לְתוֹכָהּ מַיִם צוֹנְנִים, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַחַמִּין שֶׁבָּהּ הֵן לִרְחִיצָה – מִן הַסְּתָם הֵן חַמִּין מְאֹד, וְנִתְבַּשְּׁלִים הַצּוֹנְנִים שֶׁמִּתְעָרְבִין בָּהֶן.ריג, 128

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מֵהַחַמִּין שֶׁבָּזוֹ הָאַמְבַּטִּי לְתוֹךְ אַמְבַּטִּי אַחֶרֶת שֶׁל צוֹנֵן.ריד, 129 וַאֲפִלּוּ מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן מֻתָּר לַעֲרוֹת לְתוֹךְ מַיִם צוֹנְנִים,רטו שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ שֶׁעֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן מְבַשֵּׁל, אֶלָּא בִּמְעָרֶה חַמִּין עַל גַּבֵּי תְבָלִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן, שֶׁאֵין הַחַמִּין מִתְעָרְבִין מַמָּשׁ בְּתוֹכָן, אֶלָּא מַכִּין עֲלֵיהֶם בְּקִלּוּחָן וּמְבַשְּׁלִין,130 אֲבָל מַיִם בְּמַיִם שֶׁמִּתְעָרְבִים מַמָּשׁ – אֵין כֹּחַ בְּקִלּוּחַ לְבַשֵּׁל מַיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים131, אֶלָּא הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים גּוֹבְרִים וּמְצַנְּניִם אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים.רטז, 132

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתֵּן חֲתִיכַת בָּשָׂר חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ לְתוֹךְ רֹטֶב צוֹנֵן, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְעָרֵב מַמָּשׁ בָּרֹטֶב – הֲרֵי הוּא מְבַשֵּׁל כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה סְבִיבוֹריז טֶרֶם שֶׁיִּתְגַּבֵּר עָלָיו הָרֹטֶב וִיצַנְּנוֹ:

21 After one pours out hot water from a metal cooking utensil, it is forbidden to pour a small amount of cold water into [the metal utensil],133 because [the water] may become hot enough that a hand would recoil [when touching] it.134 It is, however, permitted to pour a large amount of cold water into [a metal container that was previously filled with hot water] to remove [the water’s] chill.135

[This license is granted] even though one [reinforces] the shape [of the cooking utensil] and strengthens it136 by pouring the cold water into it, and thus he is improving a utensil. This is a standard technique [employed by] coppersmiths and ironsmiths – they place hot iron and copper [utensils] into cold water so that they will harden and become strong.137 This [immersion] concludes the task of the smiths, because the fire [used to shape the metal] permeates the metal to the extent that it is close to breaking, and [subsequently, placing it in] water strengthens it. Nevertheless, it is permitted [to pour cool water into a hot metal utensil], because [the person adding the water] does not intend to improve the utensil, [but] merely [intends] to remove the chill of the water. [The improvement of the utensil] is not an inevitable consequence138 [of his actions] (p’sik raishah vilo yamus),139 since when an implement is formed, it is heated to a very high temperature. In this instance, however, it is possible that [the implement] never reached [a high enough temperature] to mold it, because the water [that it previously contained] prevented it from reaching that degree of heat.140

כא מֵחַם שֶׁפִּנָּה מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם חַמִּין – אָסוּר לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם צוֹנְנִיןריח מֻעָטִיןריט, 133 שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.134 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם צוֹנְנִים מְרֻבִּים כְּדֵי לְהַפְשִׁירָן.רכ, 135

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי נְתִינַת הַצּוֹנֵן לְתוֹכוֹ הוּא מְצָרְפוֹרכא וּמַחֲזִיקוֹ,רכב, 136 וְנִמְצָא מְתַקֵּן כְּלִי,רכג שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ צוֹרְפֵי נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים בַּרְזֶל וּנְחֹשֶׁת חַמִּים לְתוֹךְ מַיִם צוֹנְנִים בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּתְקַשּׁוּ וְיִתְחַזְּקוּ,137 וְזוֹ הִיא גְּמַר מְלֶאכֶת הַצּוֹרְפִים, שֶׁהָאוּר מְפַעְפֵּעַ הַמַּתֶּכֶת וְקָרוֹב לְהִשָּׁבֵר וְהַמַּיִם מַחֲזִיקִין אוֹתוֹ,רכד מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּןרכה לְתִקּוּן הַכְּלִי אֶלָּא לְהַפְשִׁיר הַמַּיִם – מֻתָּר,138 שֶׁאֵין כָּאן "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת",רכו, 139 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁמְּצָרְפִין הַכְּלִי מְחַמְּמִין אוֹתוֹ תְּחִלָּה בְּיוֹתֵר, אֲבָל כָּאן אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יַגִּיעַ לְצֵרוּף, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם מוֹנְעִים אוֹתוֹ מִלְּהִתְחַמֵּם כָּל כָּךְ:רכז, 140

22 It is permitted to pour even a small amount of cold water into hot water from which a hand would recoil that is in a k’li sheni,141 but not into hot water that is in a k’li rishon. If, however, there is so much cold water that it will be impossible for [the cold water] to become so hot that a hand would recoil [when touching] it, and [mixing it with the hot water] will merely remove [the cold water’s] chill, it is even permitted142 [to pour the cold water] into a k’li rishon,143 provided [the k’li rishon] is not on a fire.

כב מֻתָּר לַעֲרוֹת מַיִם צוֹנְנִיםרכח אֲפִלּוּ מֻעָטִיםרכט לְתוֹךְ מַיִם חַמִּין שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ שֶׁבִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי,141 אֲבָל לֹא לְתוֹךְ חַמִּין שֶׁבִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן.רל וְאִם הַצּוֹנְנִים מְרֻבִּים כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּתְחַמְּמוּ עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, רַק שֶׁיָּפִיגוּ צִנָּתָן – מֻתָּר142 אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,רלא, 143 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה עַל הָאֵשׁ:רלב

23 It is permitted to place a pitcher of cold water or another cold liquid into a k’li sheni containing hot water.144 (Moreover, it is permitted to submerge [the pitcher of cold liquid] into [the hot] water entirely, for it is permitted to insulate cold [food or liquid] in a substance that does not increase heat, as explained in sec. 257[:9],145 and hot water is considered a substance that does not increase heat, as explained in sec. 258.)146

It is, however, forbidden to place [a pitcher of cold liquid] into a k’li rishon, even if merely to remove its chill. [This is] a decree [instituted lest] he forget and leave it there until [the cold liquid becomes heated to the extent that] a hand would recoil [when touching] it.147 It is even forbidden to place [the pitcher of cold liquid] in a tub into which water from the hot springs of Tiberias57 was made to flow, because [such a tub] is considered like a k’li rishon according to Rabbinic Law.148 Instead, one should remove some water from the tub using a k’li sheni and [then] place [the pitcher with the cold water] into [this k’li sheni].149

כג מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִיד קִיתוֹן שֶׁל מַיִם אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין צוֹנְנִים בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֵׁנִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַיִם חַמִּיןרלג, 144 (וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַטְמִינוֹ כֻּלּוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַטְמִין אֶת הַצּוֹנֵן בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ז,רלד, 145 וְהַחַמִּין הֵן נִקְרָאִים דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"חרלה).146

אֲבָל בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן אָסוּר לְהַעֲמִידוֹרלו אֲפִלּוּ לְהָפִיג צִנָּתוֹ בִּלְבַד, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִשְׁתַּהֶה שָׁם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.רלז, 147 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאַמְבַּטִּי שֶׁהֻמְשְׁכוּ לְתוֹכָהּ חַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא57 מִן הַמַּעְיָן – אָסוּר לְהַעֲמִידוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹןרלח מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,רלט, 148 אֶלָּא יִטּוֹל מֵהָאַמְבַּטִּי בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי וְיַעֲמִידֶנּוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ:רמ, 149

24 It is permitted to place a pitcher of water or another liquid opposite a fire to remove its chill,150 provided [the pitcher] is placed far enough away from the fire that it cannot become so hot that a hand would recoil [when touching] it, even if [the pitcher] were to remain there for a long time. It is, however, forbidden to place [such liquids] close enough to a fire that they can become so hot that a hand would recoil from them.151 It is even forbidden to place [such liquids close to a fire] briefly, [just long enough] to remove their chill. [This is] a decree [instituted lest] he forget and leave [the liquids] there until [they become heated to the extent that] a hand would recoil [when touching] them.

This same law applies to fruit and other substances that may be eaten in a raw state. Even though they do not require cooking, one who cooks them is liable.152 Therefore, it is forbidden to leave [fruits] in a place where they could cook were they to be left there for an extended time, i.e., a place where they could be heated until a hand would recoil from them.153

Nevertheless, it is permitted to place any entity to which the prohibition against cooking does not apply opposite a fire where it will boil. [This leniency includes] a [dish of] moist food that is completely cooked and is still so hot that a hand would recoil [when touching] it, or according to the custom mentioned above154 whose leniency is popularly accepted, even [a dish] that is not that hot, but has not yet cooled entirely, or even baked or roasted food that has cooled entirely, for [the forbidden labors of] baking and roasting do not apply to [foods that] have already been baked or roasted, even if they have cooled off entirely, as explained above.155

Nevertheless, license was only granted to place food opposite a fire. It is, however, forbidden to actually place it over a fire or [even] very close to it. Instead, one must distance it somewhat from the fire, for there is reason for concern that the person will forget that it is Shabbos and stoke the coals. When, however, he is forced [by Rabbinical decree] to distance [the food] from [the fire] somewhat, [that serves as] a distinguishing factor and a reminder; and as a result, he will not come to stoke the coals.156

כד מֻתָּר לִתֵּן קִיתוֹן שֶׁל מַיִםרמא אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִיןרמב כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה לְהָפִיג צִנָּתָן,150 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּתְּנֵם רָחוֹק מֵהָאֵשׁ, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְהִתְחַמֵּם בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, אַף אִם יִשְׁהֶה שָׁם זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה.רמג אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתְּנָם סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.רמד, 151 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַנִּיחָן שָׁם שָׁעָה מֻעֶטֶת שֶׁתָּפִיג צִנָּתָן בִּלְבַד – אָסוּר,רמה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכָּחֵם וְיִשְׁהוּ שָׁם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.רמו

וְהוּא הַדִּין פֵּרוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַנֶּאֱכָלִין כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן חַיִּין,רמז שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים בִּשּׁוּל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ – חַיָּב.רמח, 152 לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל אִם יִשְׁהוּ שָׁם זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לְהִתְחַמֵּם עַד שֶּׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.רמט, 153

אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַרְתִּיחוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה,רנ כְּגוֹן תַּבְשִׁיל לַח שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ וְעוֹדֶנּוּ חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי,רנא לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהרנב, 154 שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל בָּזֶה, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר הָאָפוּי אוֹ צָלוּי, וְאֵין אֲפִיָּה וּצְלִיָּה אַחַר אֲפִיָּה וּצְלִיָּה אֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רנג, 155

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה,רנד אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ עַל הָאֵשׁ מַמָּשׁ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּסָמוּךְ לָהּ מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק קְצָת, כִּי יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְיָבֹא לַחְתּוֹת בְּגֶחָלִים. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאָנוּ מַצְרִיכִים אוֹתוֹ לְהַרְחִיק קְצָת – יֵשׁ לוֹ בָּזֶה הֶכֵּר וְזִכָּרוֹן וְלֹא יָבֹא לַחְתּוֹת בְּגֶחָלִים:רנה, 156

25 When does the above statement – that it is permitted to heat food that was baked – apply? When [when the baked food] does not contain any fat. It is, however, forbidden to heat a loaf of bread that is folded over and contains a piece of hardened fat (that is called inpanada),157 even if it is far from the fire, in a place where a hand will not recoil [when touching] it.158 [It is forbidden] even to place [the inpanada] in the sun,159 because the hardened fat it contains will melt again.160 This is comparable to crushing a chunk of hail so that its water will run, [an act] forbidden by our Sages161 because it brings about a new entity on Shabbos and thus resembles a forbidden labor,162 for one is “creating” this water, as will be explained in sec. 320[:16].163 The same applies to melting fat.164

Even after the fact, what melts on Shabbos is forbidden, just like liquids that flow on Shabbos from fruit that is set aside, in which instance, the liquids [that run off] are forbidden lest one squeeze the fruit, since the fruit was set aside for this purpose, as will be explained [in sec. 320:3].165 Similarly, since this fat is normally fluid and clear, when it is in a hardened state, it is comparable to fruits that are set aside for their liquids.166 [Therefore, any fat] that flows from it on Shabbos is forbidden until nightfall.

כה בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְחַמֵּם הָאָפוּי? כְּשֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שֻׁמָּן, אֲבָל פַּת כְּפוּלָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכָהּ חֲתִיכוֹת שֻׁמָּן שֶׁנִּקְרַשׁ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אינפאנד"ה)157 – אָסוּר לְהָחֵם אוֹתָהּרנו אֲפִילוּ רָחוֹק מִן הָאֵשׁרנז מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,רנח, 158 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַנִּיחָהּ בַּחַמָּה,רנט, 159 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַשֻּׁמָּן שֶׁבָּהּ שֶׁנִּקְרַשׁ חוֹזֵר וְנִמּוֹחַ,רס, 160 וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לִמְרַסֵּק חֲתִיכַת בָּרָד בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיָּזוּבוּ מֵימָיו,רסא שֶׁאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִיםרסב, 161 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוֹלִיד בְּשַׁבָּת,רסג וְדוֹמֶה לִמְלָאכָהרסד, 162 שֶׁבּוֹרֵא מַיִם הַלָּלוּ,רסה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"כ.רסו, 163 וְהוּא הַדִּין לְשֻׁמָּן הַנִּמּוֹחַ.164

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד אָסוּר מַה שֶּׁנִּמּוֹחַ בְּשַׁבָּת,רסז כְּמוֹ מַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִפֵּרוֹת הָעוֹמְדִים לְמַשְׁקִין, שֶׁאֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט הַפֵּרוֹת,רסח כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם עוֹמְדִים לְכָךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.רסט, 165 וְאַף שֻׁמָּן זֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לִהְיוֹת זָב וְצָלוּל, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא קָרוּשׁ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּפֵרוֹת הָעוֹמְדִים לְמַשְׁקִין,ער, 166 וְהַזָּב מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר עַד לָעֶרֶב:רעא

26 When does the above apply? When so much of the fat melts that it flows out, [i.e., beyond the bread,] and it can be discerned as a separate, distinct entity that is not mixed with anything else. [Different laws apply,] however, when one leaves [the bread] so distant [from the fire] that a large amount of fat will not melt and thus it will not flow outside [the bread]. Instead, only a small amount of the fat will melt. [Since this small amount of fat] will be absorbed in the bread and will not appear as a distinct entity, it is permitted [to place the bread that distance from the fire], even as an initial option, just as it is permitted to put a piece of hail167 in a cup of wine, even though the hail will melt there. [The rationale is that the liquid from the hail] becomes mixed and nullified in the wine in the cup and is not discernible [as a distinct entity], as will be explained [in sec. 320:16].

[Moreover,] it is permitted [to place the inpanada this distance from the fire] even if a small amount of the fat flows out [of the bread] and is discernible [as a distinct entity]; it is of no consequence since it is but a minimal amount. For this reason, on Shabbos, it is permitted to heat a piece of fatty meat168 even though some [of its fat] will flow outward, since it is [only] a minimal amount.169 It is, however, forbidden to heat a pot whose fat has solidified, even in a place that is not hot enough that a hand would recoil [when touching] it. [This stringency applies] even if there is much sauce in the pot and the fat melts into the sauce, [since] the fat nevertheless rises above [the sauce] and is discernible [as a distinct entity].

כו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנִּמּוֹחַ שֻׁמָּן הַרְבֵּה כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיָּזוּב לַחוּץ,ערב וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְּעֵין לְבַדּוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְעֹרָב בְּשׁוּם דָּבָר אֶלָּא הוּא נִכָּר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.רעג אֲבָל אִם מַנִּיחָהּ בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם כָּל כָּךְ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הַרְבֵּה שֻׁמָּן נִמּוֹחַ עַד שֶׁיָּזוּב לַחוּץ, אֶלָּא מְעַט מִמֶּנּוּ נִמּוֹחַ וְנִבְלָע בַּפַּת עַצְמוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ בְּעֵין לְבַד – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה.עדר כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִתֵּן חֲתִיכַת בָּרָד167 לְתוֹךְ כּוֹס שֶׁל יַיִן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבָּרָד נִמְחֶה לְשָׁם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְעָרֵב וּמִתְבַּטֵּל בַּיַּיִן שֶׁבַּכּוֹס וְאֵינוֹ בְעֵין,ערה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.רעו

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מִקְצָתוֹ זָב לַחוּץ מְעַט וְיֶשְׁנוֹ בְּעֵין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדָּבָר מֻעָט הוּא – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלוּם, וּמֻתָּר. וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְהָחֵם בְּשַׁבְּת חֲתִיכַת בָּשָׂר שָׁמֵן,168 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָתוֹ זָב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדָּבָר מֻעָט הוּא.רעז, 169 אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהָחֵם קְדֵרָה שֶׁקָּרַשׁ שַׁמְנוּנִיתָהּ,רעח אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ רֹטֶב הַרְבֵּה וְנִמּוֹחַ הַשֻּׁמָּן בְּתוֹךְ הָרֹטֶב, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַשֻּׁמָּן הוּא צָף לְמַעְלָה וְיֶשְׁנוֹ בְּעֵין:רעט

27 There are, however, other authorities who differ with the above and maintain that there is no prohibition at all in causing [congealed] fat to melt by placing it in a warm place. With regard to hail, [these authorities maintain that our Sages] only forbade crushing it by hand,170 but they did not institute any safeguards with regard to instances where it melts on its own accord. Therefore, it is permitted to warm this bread that is filled with fat even in a place where a hand would recoil [when touching] it. [The rationale is that] the prohibition against cooking applies neither to the bread, because there is no [prohibition against] baking food that was already baked,171 nor to the hardened fat that melted, because there is no [prohibition against] cooking dry food that was already cooked, even though it will melt [again] when cooked this second time, as explained above.172

In contrast, a pot whose fat has hardened should not be warmed except in a place where the cooked food will not become warmed to the extent that a hand would recoil [when touching] it, because [the prohibition against] cooking applies to the sauce that has cooled, as explained above.173

With regard to the [actual] halachah, as an initial preference, it is customary to rule stringently, following the first opinion.174 After the fact,175 however, one may rule leniently according to the latter opinion. [Moreover,] in a situation of need, one may rely on the latter opinion even as an initial option, since fundamentally [the halachah follows that view].

Similarly, one may follow the leniency of placing a loaf of bread filled with fat on [top of] an oven [that heats] a home [in] the winter before it is kindled, [so that] when [the oven] is kindled by a non-Jew,176 [the bread] is also warmed on top of it. [The rationale is that even though] the prohibition against cooking applies [to this food, in this instance,] no Scriptural prohibition is involved, only a Rabbinic one, since [the person] is placing [the bread on the oven] before the non-Jew kindles the fire in the oven, as explained in sec. 253[:27]. If so, leniency may be granted to place [such bread] on the oven before it is kindled, [since] some authorities permit [this bread to be warmed] without reservations. Nevertheless, such leniency should not be followed in the presence of an unlearned person.177 [Moreover, even placing the food on the oven] should be done by a non-Jew.178

כז אֲבָל יֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיםרפ עַל כָּל זֶה, וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל בְּמַה שֶּׁנִּמּוֹחַ הַשֻּׁמָּן עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמַּנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם חַם. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ גַּבֵּי חֲתִיכַת בָּרָד אֶלָּא לְרַסֵּק בְּיָדַיִם,רפא, 170 אֲבָל בְּנִמּוֹחַ מֵאֵלָיו לֹא גָזְרוּ. וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְהָחֵם פַּת זוֹ הַמְמֻלֵּאת בְּשֻׁמָּן אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,רפב שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל, לֹא בַּפַּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אֲפִיָּה אַחַר אֲפִיָּה,171 וְלֹא בַּשֻּׁמָּן הַקָּרוּשׁ שֶׁנִּמּוֹחַ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּל בְּדָבָר יָבֵשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמּוֹחַ בְּבִשּׁוּל זֶה הַשֵּׁנִי,רפג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רפד, 172 אֲבָל קְדֵרָה שֶׁקָּרַשׁ שַׁמְנוּנִיתָהּ – אֵין לְהָחֵם אוֹתָהּרפה אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל לְהִתְחַמֵּם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבָּרֹטֶב שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רפו, 173

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיררפז לְכַתְּחִלָּה כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,174 אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד 175 יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כַּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.רפח וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ בִּמְקוֹם הַצֹּרֶךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה,רפט כִּי כֵן עִקָּר.רצ

וְכֵן יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל לִתֵּן פַּת הַמְמֻלֵּאת בְּשֻׁמָּן עַל תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק, וּכְשֶׁיַּסִּיקֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי 176 גַּם הִיא תִּתְחַמֵּם עָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לְעִנְיַן אִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּל בְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל – אֵין בָּזֶה אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנּוֹתֵן שָׁם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הָאוּר בַּתַּנּוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ג,רצא אִם כֵּן כָּאן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין לְגַמְרֵי – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל עַל כָּל פָּנִים קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְהָקֵל בִּפְנֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ,177 וְיֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי:רצב, 178

28 All authorities agree that one is permitted to place melted fat that hardened on different types of flour or kitniyos that are boiling hot,179 provided he does not crush [the fat] by hand, but rather places the fat on them or inside them, [allowing it] to melt on its own accord. [This is permitted, because the fat] that melts is not discernible [as a distinct entity], but is absorbed [by] the food.180

There is, however, an unresolved doubt whether it is permitted to place hardened fat on hot roasted [meat] so that it will melt on its own accord. Since the fat will not be absorbed [by the meat], but [will] rather float on top of it, there is room to compare [the meat] to a pot whose fat has hardened, concerning which it is customary to be stringent as an initial preference.181

כח וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן שֻׁמָּן מְהֻתָּךְ שֶׁנִּקְרַשׁ עַל גַּבֵּי מִינֵי קְמָחִים וְקִטְנִיּוֹת179 רוֹתְחִים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְרַסְּקֶנּוּ בְּיָדַיִם, אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן אוֹ בְּתוֹכָן וְהוּא נִמּוֹחַ מֵאֵלָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַה שֶּׁנִמּוֹחַ אֵינוֹ בְּעֵין אֶלָּא נִכְנָס בְּתוֹכָן.רצג, 180

אֲבָל עַל גַּבֵּי צָלִי חַם – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עָלָיו שֻׁמָּן קָרוּשׁ שֶׁיְּהֵא נִמּוֹחַ מֵאֵלָיו, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הַנִּמּוֹחַ נִכְנָס בְּתוֹכוֹ אֶלָּא צָף עַל גַּבָּיו – יֵשׁ לְדַמּוֹתוֹ לִקְדֵרָה שֶׁקָּרַשׁ שַׁמְנוּנִיתָהּרצד שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה:רצה, 181

29 It is forbidden to place cold [food or liquid] on a [hot] metal cooking utensil182 – even to [merely] remove its chill – as long as the metal cooking utensil is so hot that the cold [food or liquid] will reach a stage where they will cook if left on it for a long time, i.e., [the food or liquid] will become so hot that a hand would recoil [when touching] it. [The rationale is that] the laws [governing placing food] on a metal cooking utensil are the same as those [governing placing food] opposite a fire.183 If, however, [the cooking utensil] is not that hot, it is permitted [to place the food on the cooking utensil].

כט אָסוּר לִתֵּן צוֹנֵן עַל הַמֵּחַםרצו, 182 אֲפִלּוּ לְהַפְשִׁיר, כָּל שֶׁהַמֵּחַם חַם כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה הַצּוֹנֵן מֻנָּח עָלָיו הַרְבֵּה הָיָה בָא לִידֵי בִשּׁוּל,רצז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,רחצ שֶׁדִּין מַנִּיחַ עַל גַּבֵּי מֵחַם כְּדִין מַנִּיחַ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה.רצט, 183 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ חַם כָּל כָּךְ – מֻתָּר:ש

30 When a stewpot or a pot are removed from a fire while they are boiling, [but the food they] contain is not entirely cooked, one should not remove the food with a ladle,184 for he will be stirring [the pot by doing so], and that [act is included in the forbidden labor of] cooking,185 as explained above.186 It is, however, permitted to stir [the pot] after it is removed from the fire if [the food] is entirely cooked.187 By contrast, wool that is in a cauldron is forbidden to be stirred even after it has been imbued with the dye (for [one is performing the forbidden labor of] dyeing);188 for this is the practice of dyers – to continually stir the cauldron so that [the fabric] will not char.

There are authorities who also rule stringently with regard to a pot [of food] in all contexts. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.189 One who desires to be stringent should be stringent with regard to actually stirring the pot, but there is no need at all for stringency with regard to removing [food] with a ladle if [the food] is entirely cooked and [the pot] is not on the fire.

ל הָאִלְפָּס וְהַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁהֶעֱבִירָן מְרֻתָּחִין מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר,שא אִם אֵינָן מְבֻשָּׁלִין כָּל צָרְכָּןשב – לֹא יוֹצִיא מֵהֶם בְּכַף,184 שֶׁנִּמְצָא מֵגִיס, וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל,שג, 185 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.דש, 186

אֲבָל אִם נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ כָּל צָרְכָּן – מֻתָּר לְהָגִיס בָּהֶןשה לְאַחַר שֶׁהֶעֱבִירָן מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר.שו, 187

אֲבָל צֶמֶר שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּלַט הָעַיִן – אָסוּר לְהָגִיס בּוֹשז (מִשּׁוּם צוֹבֵעַשח),188 שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הַצַּבָּעִין לְהָגִיס בּוֹ תָּמִיד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵחָרֵךְ.שט

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִין גַּם בִּקְדֵרָה בְּכָל עִנְיָן.שי וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.שיא, 189 וְהָרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲמִיר – יַחְמִיר בַּהֲגָסָה מַמָּשׁ. אֲבָל לְהוֹצִיא בְּכַף – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר כְּלָל בְּנִתְבַּשְּׁלָה כָּל צָרְכָּהּ וְאֵינָהּ עַל הָאֵשׁ:שיב

31 It is forbidden to baste roasted meat190 with [uncooked] oil and garlic while [the meat] is still so hot that a hand would recoil [when touching] it. [This stringency applies] even if the meat was roasted while it was still day on Friday, for the garlic and the oil will nevertheless cook [on Shabbos. The prohibition against] cooking does not apply, however, to congealed fat.191 Nevertheless, there is uncertainty regarding warming [the fat] for another reason, as explained above.192

לא אָסוּר לָטוּחַ שֶׁמֶן וְשׁוּם עַל גַּבֵּי הַצָּלִישיג, 190 בְּעוֹדוֹ חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,שיד אֲפִלּוּ נִצְלָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, דְּמִכָּל מָקוֹם יִתְבַּשֵּׁל הַשּׁוּם וְהַשֶּׁמֶן.שטו אֲבָל שֻׁמָּן שֶׁנִּקְרַשׁ – אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל,שטז, 191 אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בּוֹ מִצַּד אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:שיז, 192