SECTION 316 [When] Trapping [an Animal] Is Forbidden on Shabbos and [When] It Is Permitted (1-25)

סימן שטז צֵידָה הָאֲסוּרָה וְהַמֻּתֶּרֶת בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ"ה סְעִיפִים:

1 Trapping is one of the primary categories of labor [forbidden on Shabbos by Scriptural Law]1 because it was employed for [the construction of] the Sanctuary; [they trapped] the tachashim2 and the chilazon.3 One is not liable for trapping unless the trapped [animal] need not be trapped again afterwards,4 i.e., [the animal] is trapped [by herding it into a place where it can be easily caught, where there would be no need to tell [others], “Bring a trap and we will trap it,”5 i.e., [it was guided into a location where] one need not employ any special measures to capture it there.

Therefore, one is liable if he induces a fowl to fly until it enters a house whose windows are closed or a roofed coop that is closed on all sides, and [then] securely closes its door,4 provided the building or the coop is not so large that he will require special measures to capture it. [The same law applies] whether he chases a non-domesticated animal until it enters a house,4 or a pen even if it lacks a roof,6 or a garden, or a courtyard,4 and [then he] securely closes [the area, provided the place where the animal is located is not so large that he will need special measures to capture it]. Whenever the house or the enclosure is so large that [the person] cannot reach and grab hold of the animal or the fowl in one leap,4 because it will slip away from him and he will be forced to chase after it a second time, the animal is considered as [still] in need of being captured, and the person is exempt7 [for chasing it into this place].

A person who traps a sparrow,8 i.e., a species of fowl that dwells [as comfortably] in a house as in a field and knows how to allude capture [even] in the corner of a home, [darting] to all sides, (for this reason, it is called dror, which relates to the word dirah, “dwelling,” i.e., it dwells anywhere), is not liable4 unless he causes [the sparrow] to fly into a cabinet where it would be captured, i.e., a cabinet that is not too large, where [the sparrow] can be caught without special measures.

A person who traps a lion is not liable unless he causes it to enter the pen in which [the lion] is kept in captivity.9

Although one who traps an animal and [forces it] into a place where it is not yet captured is exempt, he is forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law. When one traps an animal that [has been forced into] a place where it is not yet captured,10 he is liable. [Capturing an animal] in a place where it is already trapped is permitted as an initial option on a festival,11 but not on Shabbos, due to the prohibition against carrying [objects that are muktzeh].12 There are authorities who also forbid [capturing an animal that has already been trapped for another reason. They maintain that] such trapping is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law.

א צֵידָה הִיא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹתא, 1 שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן בַּתְּחָשִׁיםב, 2 וְחִלָּזוֹן.ג, 3 וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין הַנִּצּוֹד מְחֻסָּר עוֹד צֵידָה אַחַר צֵידָה זוֹ,ד, 4 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁצָּד אוֹתוֹ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לְתָפְסוֹ שָׁם בְּקַלה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "הָבֵא מְצוּדָה וּנְצוּדֶנּוּ",ו, 5 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ שָׁם תַּחְבּוּלוֹת לְתָפְסוֹ.ז

לְפִיכָךְ, אִם הִפְרִיחַ אֶת הָעוֹף עַד שֶׁהִכְנִיסוֹ לְבַיִתח שֶׁחַלּוֹנוֹתָיו סְתוּמִין,ט אוֹ לְבֵיבָר מְקֹרֶהי וְסָתוּם מִכָּל צַד, וְנָעַל הַדֶּלֶת בְּפָנָיו,יא, 4 אוֹ שֶׁרָדַף אַחַר חַיָּה עַד שֶׁהִכְנִיסָהּ לְבַיִת,4 אוֹ לְבֵיבָריב אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְקֹרֶה,יג, 6 אוֹ לְגִנָּה אוֹ לְחָצֵר,יד, 4 וְנָעַל בְּפָנֶיהָטו – חַיָּב, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַבַּיִת אוֹ הַבֵּיבָר גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְטז בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ תַּחְבּוּלוֹת לִתְפּוֹס שָׁם הָעוֹף אוֹ הַחַיָּה.יז וְכָל שֶׁהַבַּיִת אוֹ הַבֵּיבָר גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ וְלִתְפּוֹס הַחַיָּה אוֹ הָעוֹף בִּמְרוּצָה אַחַת,יח, 4 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּשְׁמָטִין מִמֶּנּוּ, וְצָרִיךְ לָרוּץ אַחֲרֵיהֶם שֵׁנִיתיט – הֲרֵי הֵן מְחֻסָּרִין צֵידָה עֲדַיִן, וּפָטוּר.כ, 7

וְהַצָּד צִפּוֹר דְּרוֹר,כא, 8 דְּהַיְנוּ מִין צִפּוֹר שֶׁדַּרְכָּה לָדוּר בַּבַּיִת כְּמוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה,כב שֶׁיּוֹדַעַת לְהִשָּׁמֵט בְּזָוִית הַבַּיִת לְכָל צַדכג (וּלְכָךְ נִקְרָא "דְּרוֹר" עַל שֵׁם דִּירָה, שֶׁדָּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹםכד) – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב4 עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִיחֶנָּה לְמִגְדָּל שֶׁהִיא נִצּוֹדָה בּוֹ,כה דְּהַיְנוּ לְמִגְדָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָדוֹל מְאֹד,כו אֶלָּא הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לְתָפְסוֹ שָׁם בְּלִי תַּחְבּוּלוֹת.

וְהַצָּד אֲרִי – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֶנּוּ לַכִּפָּה שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁהוּא נֶאֱסָר בָּהּ.כז, 9

וְכָל הַצָּד לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהַנִּצּוֹד מְחֻסָּר שָׁם צֵידָה עֲדַיִן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר – אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.כח וְהַצָּד מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מְחֻסַּר צֵידָה שָׁם10 – חַיָּב.כט וּמִמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻסָּר צֵידָה – מֻתָּר לָצוּד לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב,ל, 11 אֲבָל לֹא בְּשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל.לא, 12 וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםלב גַּם מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר צֵידָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

2 A person who traps [an animal] that need not be trapped,13 e.g., one who traps a deer14 that is lame, old, or sick from exhaustion, i.e., it is weary and cannot move from its place, is exempt.4 Nevertheless, it is forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law. If, however, one traps a deer that is sleeping, blind, or sick from fever that took hold of its body, he is liable,4 for [such animals] tend to flee when they feel a person’s hand and are considered as needing to be trapped.

ב הַצָּד דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻסָּר צֵידָה,לג, 13 כְּגוֹן שֶׁצָּד צְבִי14 חִגֵּר אוֹ זָקֵן, אוֹ חוֹלֶהלד מֵחֲמַת עֲיֵפוּת, שֶׁהוּא יָגֵעַ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לָזוּז מִמְּקוֹמוֹלה – פָּטוּר,4 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.לו

אֲבָל הַצָּד צְבִי יָשֵׁן אוֹ סוּמָא,לז אוֹ חוֹלֶה מֵחֲמַת חֹם שֶׁנּוֹלַד לוֹ בְּגוּפוֹלח – חַיָּב,4 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם עֲשׂוּיִים לְהִשָּׁמֵט כְּשֶׁמַּרְגִּישִׁים יַד אָדָם,לט וּמְחֻסְּרֵי צֵידָה הֵן:מ

3 A person who sends out a dog to hunt a game animal is exempt.15 Nevertheless, this is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. Indeed, it is forbidden to hunt with dogs even during the week,16 for this is conduct befitting “a company of scoffers.”17 [One who does so] will not merit to see the rejoicing at the [bout between the] Leviathan [and the wild ox].18

ג הַמְשַׁסֶּה כֶּלֶב אַחַר חַיָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּצוּד אוֹתוֹמא – פָּטוּר,15 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.מב

וְאַף בְּחֹל אָסוּר לָצוּד בִּכְלָבִים,16 מִשּׁוּם "מוֹשַׁב לֵצִים",מג, 17 וְאֵינוֹ זוֹכֶה לִרְאוֹת בְּשִׂמְחַת לִוְיָתָן:מד, 18

4 According to Scriptural Law, the forbidden [labor] of trapping applies only to species that people commonly trap,19 i.e., species of certain undomesticated animals, fowl, and fish that people usually trap. If, however, one traps a species that is not usually trapped, e.g., wasps, flies, mosquitoes, and the like,20 which are not commonly trapped because there is no purpose in doing so – even if he does so with a purpose in mind21 – he is exempt. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law, even if one traps them without purpose, but while acting mindlessly.19

For this reason, one must be careful not to close a chest or cap a container in which flies are found, for they are trapped when he closes or caps it.22 Even though he does not at all intend to trap [the flies], it is an inevitable consequence (p’sik raishah vilo yamus)23 [of his actions]. Instead, the person should place a knife or another article between the cover and the container so that [the flies can] escape, and thus [their being trapped] will not be an inevitable consequence [of his closing the container].24

There are authorities who rule leniently in a situation where, were the container to be opened to take [the flies] from there, they would flee; thus, they are not being trapped at all by [his] closing [the container].25 Their words may be relied upon to the extent that it is not necessary to check and meticulously examine whether or not there are flies [in a container before closing it. Moreover,] even if one sees that there are definitely flies there, he need only shoo the visible flies away; he need not search for additional flies that may still be in the container. [The rationale is that] since it is doubtful whether there are any flies there, trapping them is not considered an inevitable consequence [of the person’s actions, and shooing away the visible flies suffices].

ד אֵין אִסּוּר צֵידָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּמִינוֹ נִצּוֹד,מה, 19 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הָעוֹלָם לָצוּד מִין זֶה שֶׁצָּד הוּא,מו כְּגוֹן מִינֵי חַיּוֹת וְעוֹפוֹתמז וְדָגִים,מח שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הָעוֹלָם לָצוּד מִינִים אֵלּוּ. אֲבָל אִם צָד דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בְּמִינוֹ נִצּוֹד, כְּגוֹן צְרָעִיןמט וּזְבוּבִיםנ וְיַתּוּשִׁיםנא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָאֵלּוּ,נב, 20 שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הָעוֹלָם לָצוּד מִינִים אֵלּוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם צֹרֶךְנג, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא צָד אוֹתָם לְצֹרֶךְנד, 21 – פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםנה אֲפִלּוּ לְצוּדָן שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֶלָּא כְּמִתְעַסֵּק בְּעָלְמָא.נו, 19

וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְגּוֹר תֵּבָהנז אוֹ לִסְתּוֹם כְּלִינח שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ זְבוּבִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם נִצּוֹדִים בִּסְתִימָה וּסְגִירָה זוֹ.22 וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לְצֵידָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת"23 הוּא.נט אֶלָּא יִתֵּן סַכִּין אוֹ שׁוּם דָּבָר בֵּין הַכִּסּוּי לַכְּלִי בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לָצֵאת מִשָּׁם,ס וְלֹא יִהְיֶה "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ".24

וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּיןסא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאִם יִפְתַּח הַכְּלִי לִטְּלֵם מִשָּׁם יִבְרְחוּ, שֶׁנִּמְצָא שֶׁאֵין כָּאן צֵידָה כְּלָל בְּכִסּוּי זֶה.25 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְדַקְדֵּק וּלְעַיֵּן אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם זְבוּבִים. וְאַף אִם רוֹאֶה בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁיֵּשׁ זְבוּבִים, מַפְרִיחַ מַה שֶּׁנִּרְאֶה לְעֵינָיו וְדַיּוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְחַפֵּשׂ שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאֲרוּ עוֹד זְבוּבִים, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַדָּבָר סָפֵק אִם יֶשְׁנָן שָׁם – אֵין כָּאן "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ":סב

5 It is permitted to spread a mat over a beehive [to protect the bees] from the heat of the sun, or in the rain [to protect them] from the rain, provided he does not intend to trap the bees.26 Nevertheless, [he must spread the mat] in a manner so that [the bees] will not necessarily be trapped, e.g., there must remain a hole through which the bees can escape from the beehive that is not covered by the mat. Even if it is but a small hole, [and moreover,] it is on the [hive’s] side and not visible to the bees, these factors are of no consequence. [The rationale is that, in any event,] the person does not intend to trap [the bees], and [trapping them] is not an inevitable consequence [of his actions] since it is possible for [the bees] to escape through this small hole on the side [of the hive]. Thus, it is not absolutely certain that [the bees] will not escape through [the hole].27 If, however, there is no hole that [remains] uncovered by the mat, it is forbidden [to cover the beehive with the mat], because [the bees] will be trapped as an inevitable consequence [of his actions].

True, there are authorities who rule leniently with regard to flies, allowing one [to close a container in which flies are found] if they can escape when one comes to take them.28 Nevertheless, [a distinction can be made between that instance and the present instance]. In the present instance, the bees are [considered] trapped in their beehive without being able to fly out of it. Hence, [covering it] is considered trapping in a complete sense, even though [one] cannot take [the bees] by hand. [The basis for the distinction is that] the beehive is [considered] a place where bees are trapped, because it is natural for them to be in a beehive. This resembles trapping a lion by causing it to enter its pen.29 Even though the person cannot take it from there by hand without [the lion] fleeing, [the person] is liable, because this is the place where [the lion] is kept in captivity.

ה מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס מַחֲצֶלֶת עַל גַּבֵּי כַּוֶּרֶת שֶׁל דְּבוֹרִים, בַּחַמָּה מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה, וּבַגְּשָׁמִים מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לָצוּד הַדְּבוֹרִים.סג, 26 וְגַם שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻכְרָח שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִצּוֹדִים בָּזֶה,סד כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בְּכַוֶּרֶת חוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכֻסֶּה בְּמַחֲצֶלֶת וְאֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לָצֵאת דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא חוֹר קָטָן וּמִן הַצַּד שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה לַדְּבוֹרִים – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לָצוּד, וְאֵין כָּאן "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ",סה כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ דֶּרֶךְ הַחוֹר קָטָן זֶה שֶׁמִּן הַצַּד, וְאֵין הַדָּבָר מֻכְרָח שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ בוֹ.27 אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם חוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכֻסֶּה בְּמַחֲצֶלֶת – אָסוּר, דִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא.

וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ מְקִלִּין בִּזְבוּבִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאִם יִפְתַּח הַכְּלִי לִטְּלֵם מִשָּׁם יִבְרְחוּ,סו, 28 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן נִקְרָא צֵידָה גְמוּרָה מַה שֶּׁהַדְּבוֹרִים נִצּוֹדִים בְּכַוֶּרֶת שֶׁלֹּא יוּכְלוּ לָצֵאת מִמֶּנָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא יוּכַל לִטְּלֵם מִשָּׁם בְּיָדָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַכַּוֶּרֶת הִיא מְקוֹם צֵידָתָן, שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לִהְיוֹת בְּכַוֶּרֶת, וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְצָד אֲרִי וְהִכְנִיסוֹ בַּכִּפָּה שֶׁלּוֹ,סז, 29 שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְּלוֹ מִשָּׁם בְּיָדָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִבְרַח – חַיָּב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּהוּ מְקוֹם צֵידָתוֹ:סח

6 When a person sets a snare [for an animal on Shabbos]30 and an animal enters [the snare] while [he is setting it up], he is liable.31 If, however, the animal enters [the snare] afterwards, [the person] is exempt, because when he set the snare, he did not know whether or not it would trap [an animal].32 Nevertheless, this is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. It is therefore forbidden on Shabbos to set a snare to trap mice.

ו הַפּוֹרֵשׂ מְצוּדָה30 וּבִשְׁעַת פְּרִישָׂתוֹ נִכְנְסָה חַיָּה לְתוֹכָהּ – חַיָּב.סט, 31 אֲבָל אִם נִכְנְסָה אַחַר כָּךְ לְתוֹכָהּ – פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת פְּרִישָׂתוֹ אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ אִם יָצוּד אִם לָאו,32 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.ע וּלְפִיכָךְ, אָסוּר לְהַעֲמִיד בְּשַׁבָּת הַמְּצוּדָה לָצוּד בָּהּ עַכְבָּרִים:עא

7 When a deer enters a house on its own accord and a person closes the door in front of it – even if he does not lock it, but merely closes it in a manner that secures the deer as a result, and it cannot flee – [the person] is liable,33 because that is how a deer becomes trapped.34

If two people close [the door] together, they are exempt. [This is a general principle:] Whenever a [forbidden] labor can be performed [in its entirety] by one person, but it is performed by two, they are [both] exempt.33 [The rationale is that the activity] is not being performed in the ordinary manner that it is performed during the week, because it is entirely uncommon for two people to perform a task that one [person] can perform.35 If one person cannot close the door alone and two people close it, they are both liable.33 If one person can close it himself and another cannot close it himself and they both close it together, the one who can [close it himself] is liable and the one who cannot [close it himself] is exempt. [The rationale is that the one who cannot close the door himself] is merely assisting the one who can close [the door himself], and offering assistance is not a [halachically] substantial act.36 This principle applies with regard to all the labors [forbidden] on Shabbos.

ז צְבִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבַיִתעב מֵאֵלָיו,עג וְנָעַל אֶחָד הַדֶּלֶת בְּפָנָיו,עד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נְעָלָהּ בְּמִנְעָל אֶלָּא שֶׁגִּפְּפָהּ בִּלְבַד, וְהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהַצְּבִי שָׁמוּר בְּכָךְ שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לִבְרוֹחַעה – חַיָּב,עו, 33 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּהוּ צֵידָתוֹ.עז, 34

נָעֲלוּ שְׁנַיִם – פְּטוּרִים,עח שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁיָּכוֹל אֶחָד לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ וַעֲשָׂאוּהָ שְׁנַיִם – פְּטוּרִים,עט, 33 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית כְּדַרְכָּהּ בְּחֹל, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּשְׁנַיִם מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּאֶחָד.פ, 35 וְאִם אֵין אֶחָד יָכוֹל לִנְעוֹל בִּלְבַדּוֹ, וְנָעֲלוּ שְׁנַיִם – חַיָּבִים.פא, 33 וְאִם אֶחָד יָכוֹל לִנְעוֹל בִּלְבַדּוֹ וְאֶחָד אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל, וְנָעֲלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם – הַיָּכוֹל חַיָּב, וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מְסַיֵּעַ לְהַיָּכוֹל,פב וּמְסַיֵּעַ אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ.36 וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל מְלָאכוֹת שַׁבָּת:פג

8 [Leniency is, however, granted] when the entrance was already closed with a door after the deer entered the house, either because the door closed on its own or another person passed by and closed it. [In these situations,] one may secure it with a lock. [The rationale is that] the deer has already been captured since it is already secured and cannot flee. Thus when one locks the door, even though he increases the extent to which [the deer] is being guarded, it is no different than protecting it from thieves. [His act] is not considered as trapping.37

ח אִם הָיָה הַפֶּתַח מְגֻפָּף כְּבָר בְּדֶלֶת אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנַס הַצְּבִי לַבַּיִת,פד בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְגַּפְּפָה הַדֶּלֶת מֵאֵלֶיהָ, בֵּין שֶׁעָבַר אַחֵר וְגִפְּפָהּ – מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בְּמַנְעוּל. שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַצְּבִי הוּא כְּבָר שָׁמוּר שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לִבְרוֹחַ, הֲרֵי כְּבָר נִצּוֹד וְעוֹמֵד הוּא, וּכְשֶׁנּוֹעֲלוֹ בְּמַנְעוּל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹסִיף שְׁמִירָה עַל שְׁמִירָתופהֹ – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמְרוֹ מִן הַגַּנָּבִים,פו וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם צֵידָה:37

9 When a deer enters a house and a person sits down in the entrance and fills it, i.e., he does not leave enough open space between his body and the doorpost for the deer to flee, he is liable.33 It is permitted for another person to sit next to him in the empty space between him and the doorpost, even though [by doing so] he increases the extent to which [the deer] is being guarded beyond what the first [one] did.

[Moreover,] even if the first person stands up and departs – and thus his input in guarding the deer ceases [– the second person is not required to stand up. Although] the deer is [presently] being guarded only because of the second person sitting [in the doorway], since the empty space between his body and the doorpost – i.e.,the place where the first person sat – is not large enough for the deer to flee, the second [person] is not required to stand.33 [The second person] is permitted to sit there until nightfall38 and [then] take the deer.39 Since [the second person] was originally permitted to sit down, for the deer was [already] trapped because of the first person’s sitting, he is not required to depart after the first person stands up. He is not performing any [forbidden] act by [continuing to] sit;40 he is merely guarding the deer that was trapped by the first person. Indeed, even as an initial preference, he is permitted to sit down next to the first person with the intent that he will continue sitting there after the first person stands up and departs.

ט צְבִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַבַּיִת וְיָשַׁב אֶחָד עַל הַפֶּתַח וּמִלְּאָ(ו)הוּ,פז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר בֵּינוֹ לִמְזוּזַת הַפֶּתַח מָקוֹם פָּנוּי כָּל כָּךְ בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל הַצְּבִי לִבְרוֹחַ דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם – הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב.33

וּמֻתָּר לְאָדָם אַחֵר לֵישֵׁב בְּצִדּוֹ שֶׁל זֶה בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם פָּנוּי שֶׁבֵּינוֹ לְהַמְּזוּזָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹסִיף שְׁמִירָה עַל שְׁמִירָתוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן.פח וַאֲפִלּוּ עָמַד הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהָלַךְ לוֹפט וְנִסְתַּלֵּק שְׁמִירָתוֹ, וְאֵין הַצְּבִי נִשְׁמָר אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת יְשִׁיבַת הַשֵּׁנִי,צ שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם פָּנוּי שֶׁבֵּינוֹ לְהַמְּזוּזָה, דְּהַיְנוּ מָקוֹם יְשִׁיבַת הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֵין בּוֹ כְּדֵי בְּרִיחַת הַצְּבִיצא – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הַשֵּׁנִי צָרִיךְ לָקוּם,צב, 33 וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לֵישֵׁב עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ38 וְלִטּוֹל הַצְּבִי,צג, 39 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּשַׁב בְּהֶתֵּר יָשַׁב, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַצְּבִי הָיָה נִצּוֹד וְעוֹמֵד כְּבָר עַל יְדֵי יְשִׁיבַת הָרִאשׁוֹןצד – אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לְהִסְתַּלֵּק לְאַחַר שֶׁעָמַד הָרִאשׁוֹן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם עַכְשָׁו בִּישִׁיבָה זוֹ,40 שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא שׁוֹמֵר לַצְּבִי הַנִּצּוֹד כְּבָר עַל יְדֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה יָכוֹל לֵישֵׁב בְּצַד הָרִאשׁוֹן עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר יוֹשֵׁב שָׁם לְאַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד הָרִאשׁוֹן וְיֵלֵךְ לוֹ:

10 Similarly, when a person has a deer tied inside his house41 and another person comes and closes the door [to the house] to increase the extent that [the deer] is being guarded, even though the deer is later released [from its bonds],42 [the second person] is not required to open the door [to set the deer free. The rationale is that] at the time he closed it, he was permitted to do so, and, at present, he is not performing any [forbidden] act at all.

Similarly, if a person closes up his house to protect it43 without knowing that a deer had entered it, and afterwards, he realizes [that a deer had entered], he is permitted to intentionally leave the entrance closed until nightfall38 in order to capture the deer. [The rationale is:] Closing the door was permissible, inasmuch as [the person] was totally unaware [of the deer’s presence], and [later,] when he became aware, he did nothing [untoward] at all. If, however, he knows that a deer is in the house, he is forbidden to close [the door] even if he does not intend to trap the deer at all, but merely [wants] to protect his house, for [trapping the deer] is an inevitable consequence [of his actions].

י וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ צְבִי קָשׁוּר בְּבֵיתוֹ,41 וּבָא אֶחָד וְנָעַל גַּם הַדֶּלֶת בְּפָנָיו כְּדֵי לְהוֹסִיף שְׁמִירָה עַל שְׁמִירָתוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתַּר הַצְּבִי42 – אֵין מְחַיְּבִים אוֹתוֹ לִפְתּוֹחַ הַדֶּלֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּעַל בְּהֶתֵּר נָעַל, וְעַכְשָׁו אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם.צה

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנָּעַל בֵּיתוֹ לְשָׁמְרוֹ43 וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ כְּלָל שֶׁנִּכְנַס צְבִי לַבַּיִת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹדַע לוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַעֲמִיד הַפֶּתַח נָעוּל עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ 38 בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן כְּדֵי לִטּוֹל הַצְּבִי, לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁנָּעַל בְּהֶתֵּר נָעַל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ כְּלוּם, וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁנּוֹדַע לוֹ אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם.צו

אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁצְּבִי בַּבַּיִת – אָסוּר לְנָעֳלוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לָצוּד הַצְּבִי אֶלָּא לִשְׁמוֹר בֵּיתוֹ, דִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת" הוּא:צז

11 Similarly,44 when a person sits down in the entrance [to his home] without knowing that there is a deer inside, and afterwards he becomes aware [of its presence], he is permitted to remain seated there until nightfall,45 since he is not presently performing any [forbidden] act.

By the same token, if a fowl enters under a person’s clothing and is thus trapped on its own accord, there is no need to open an aperture for it [to escape].39 Instead, he [may] sit and guard it until nightfall.46

יא וְכֵן44 מִי שֶׁיָּשַׁב עַל הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁצְּבִי בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹדַע לוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵישֵׁב שָׁם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ,45 שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם.צח וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לוֹ צִפּוֹר תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי כְסוּתוֹ,צט וְהִיא נִצּוֹדָה שָׁם מֵאֵלֶיהָק – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִפְתּוֹחַ לָהּ חַלּוֹן,קא , 39 אֶלָּא יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמְּרָהּ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ:קב, 46

12 It is permitted to open [the door of] a home for a deer [that is trapped inside] so that it can flee and depart. Similarly, when a deer enters a trap, it is permitted to release it from the trap as long as one does not move the deer.47

יב מֻתָּר לִפְתּוֹחַ הַבַּיִת בִּפְנֵי הַצְּבִי כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּבְרַח וְיֵצֵא.קג וְכֵן צְבִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לִמְצוּדָה – מֻתָּר לְפָרְקוֹ מִמְּצוּדָתוֹ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ:קד, 47

13 Slaughtering is one of the primary categories of labor [forbidden on Shabbos by Scriptural Law]48 because it was employed in the [construction of the] Sanctuary: [they slaughtered] rams49 and tachashim.50 Not only is one who slaughters [a living being] liable, but so too are all who kill (lit., “take the soul of”) any species of undomesticated animal, domesticated animal, fowl, fish, or crawling animal,51 whether he [causes its death by] slaughtering it, stabbing it, or beating it.

One who strangles52 a living being to death performs a derivative of slaughtering. Therefore, if one takes a fish out of a basin of water and leaves it out until it dies, he is liable for “strangling.”53 Moreover, one is liable even if he does not leave the fish out of water until it actually dies, [only] until an area the size of a sela54 between its fins dries out.55 Even if he returns [the fish] to the water afterwards, [he is liable] because from that time onward, [the fish] can no longer live [for any prolonged period of time]. Furthermore, [to be liable,] that area need not be completely dry; [one becomes liable] as soon as it dries to the extent that when one touches [that area] with his finger, a viscous secretion becomes attached to and drawn out by his finger.53 Therefore, one must be careful not to tell a non-Jew to remove a fish from a barrel of water [on Shabbos]56 even though he is afraid that it will die [inside] there.57

All of the above applies with regard to removing a fish from a place where it was already captured and ready [to be taken, i.e.,] there is no need to catch it, e.g., [it is already in] a basin or a barrel [of water] (see sec. 497[:1]).58 If, however, he takes [the fish] from a place where it must [first] be caught, e.g., a river or a pool, he is liable for trapping even if he immediately transfers it to a container of water.59 Even if he does not grasp the fish with his hands at all, but scoops it out of the water with a basin filled with water, he is liable for trapping. [The rationale is that] once [the fish] is in the basin, it no longer needs to be trapped at all.60

יג שְׁחִיטָה הִיא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,קה, 48 שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן בְּאֵילִים49 וּתְחָשִׁים.קו, 50 וְלֹא שְׁחִיטָה בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא כָּל הַנּוֹטֵל נְשָׁמָה לְאֶחָד מִכָּל מִינֵי חַיָּה בְּהֵמָה וְעוֹף וְדָג וְשֶׁרֶץ,51 בֵּין בִּשְׁחִיטָה, בֵּין בִּנְחִירָה, בֵּין בְּהַכָּאָה – חַיָּב.קז

הַחוֹנֵק אֶת הַחַי עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת שׁוֹחֵט.קח, 52 לְפִיכָךְ, אִם נָטַל דָּג מִן סֵפֶל שֶׁל מַיִם וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַד שֶׁמֵּת – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם חוֹנֵק.קט, 53 וְלֹא עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּבֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּסֶלַעקי, 54 בֵּין סְנַפִּירָיוקיא – חַיָּב,55 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחֱזִירוֹ לַמַּיִם אַחַר כָּךְ,קיב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשּׁוּב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִחְיוֹת.קיג וְלֹא עַד שֶׁיָּבֵשׁ מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁנּוֹגְעִין שָׁם בְּאֶצְבַּע זָב רִיר מִשָּׁם וְנִמְשָׁךְ מִן הָאֶצְבַּע.קיד, 53

וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהוֹצִיא דָג מִן הֶחָבִית שֶׁל מַיִם,56 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּרֵא שֶׁיָּמוּת שָׁם.קטו, 57

וְכָל זֶה בְּנוֹטֵל הַדָּג מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה נִצּוֹד וְעוֹמֵד שָׁם,קטז וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻסָּר צֵידָה כְּלָל,קיז כְּגוֹן סֵפֶלקיח וְחָבִית (עַיֵּן סִימָן תצ"זקיט, 58). אֲבָל אִם נְטָלוֹ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה מְחֻסָּר צֵידָה שָׁם,קכ כְּגוֹן נָהָר אוֹ בְּרֵכָה, אֲפִלּוּ הֶחֱזִירוֹ מִיָּד לַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם צֵידָה.59 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא תְפָסוֹ בְּיָדוֹ כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁלָה אוֹתוֹ מֵהַנָּהָר בְּתוֹךְ סֵפֶל שֶׁל מַיִם – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם צֵידָה,קכא שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַסֵּפֶל אֵינוֹ מְחֻסָּר צֵידָה כְּלָל:60

14 One incurs liability for “taking the soul” of a living being, not only when he “takes its entire soul,” [i.e., he kills it,] but even when he takes merely “part” of its soul. For example, one who draws blood from one of the limbs of a living being is liable for “taking the soul” of that particular portion [of the body]61 because “the blood is the soul.”62

יד נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ, לֹא עַד שֶׁיִּטּוֹל כָּל נִשְׁמַת הַחַי, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ נָטַל מִקְצָת נְשָׁמָה – חַיָּב.קכב כְּגוֹן הַמּוֹצִיא דָם מֵאֶחָד מֵאֵבְרֵי הַחַי – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם,קכג, 61 "כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנֶּפֶשׁ":קכד, 62

15 Moreover, one is liable even if he does not actually draw blood, but [merely] wounds a living being in one of its limbs, causing blood to collect under the skin, even though it does not emerge.63 The rationale is that it is an irreversible wound, since the blood will not return to its original place once it collects beneath the skin; it is only that the skin presently prevents it from flowing through the surface.63 He is [therefore] liable for “taking the soul” from that [particular] place.

When does the above apply? When one wounds a person,64 a domesticated animal, a non-domesticated animal, a fowl, or one of the eight crawling animals63 mentioned in the Torah (in Parshas Shemini),65 i.e., the choled,66the mouse, etc. All these [living beings] have skin that prevents blood from flowing through the surface. When, by contrast, one wounds all other creeping animals or swarming animals, he is not liable unless he causes external bleeding.67 If, however, blood merely collects and does not flow out, this is a reversible wound, for if the blood had left its [original] place, it would flow out from the surface, for these species do not have a skin that prevents [the blood from emerging].

טו וְלֹא עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא דָם מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ הַחוֹבֵל בְּאֶחָד מֵאֵבְרֵי הַחַי עַד שֶׁנִּצְרַר הַדָּם תַּחַת הָעוֹר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא לַחוּץ – חַיָּב,קכה, 63 לְפִי שֶׁהִיא חַבּוּרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ חוֹזֶרֶת,קכו שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּצְרַר הַדָּם תַּחַת הָעוֹר – שׁוּב לֹא יוּכַל לַחֲזוֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹ,קכז אֶלָּא שֶׁהָעוֹר מְעַכְּבוֹ עַתָּה מִלָּצֵאת לַחוּץ,63 וְחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם נְטִילַת הַדָּם שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם.קכח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּחוֹבֵל בָּאָדָם,קכט, 64 אוֹ בַּבְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה, אוֹ בָּעוֹפוֹת,קל אוֹ בִּשְׁמֹנָה שְׁרָצִים63 הָאֲמוּרִים בַּתּוֹרָהקלא (בְּפָרָשַׁת שְׁמִינִיקלב)65 שֶׁהֵם "הַחֹלֶד66 וְהָעַכְבָּר וגו'",קלג שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹר הַמְעַכֵּב עַל הַדָּם מִלָּצֵאת. אֲבָל הַחוֹבֵל בִּשְׁאָר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא מֵהֶן דָּם.קלד, 67 אֲבָל אִם נִצְרַר הַדָּם וְלֹא יָצָא – הֲרֵי זֶה חַבּוּרָה הַחוֹזֶרֶת,קלה שֶׁאִלְמָלֵא נֶעֱקַר הַדָּם מִמְּקוֹמוֹ הָיָה יוֹצֵא לַחוּץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עוֹר הַמְעַכְּבוֹ:קלו

16 It was already explained in sec. 278[:1-2] that there are authorities who maintain that one is not liable according to Scriptural Law unless he performs a melachah hatzorichah legufah, a [forbidden] labor performed because one requires the object itself with which the labor was performed.68 According to [this view], one is not liable for “taking a soul,” [i.e., killing,] unless he needs the body of the living being whose soul is being taken, or [he needs] its hide, or he needs the soul that is being taken itself, i.e., the blood that emerges from it, [e.g.,] to give to his dog, or he wounds another person who is his enemy and he desires the blood that flows out from him so that he sees the revenge [he is exacting from] his enemies. (See Choshen Mishpat, sec. 424.)69 When, however, one kills a snake so that it will not harm him, it is a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah, a [forbidden] labor performed for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the labor was performed. For [the person] does not require the body of the snake or its blood; he is killing [the snake] only to save himself from the harm [it may do] to him.

Similarly, one who traps [an animal] is only liable when he needs the actual [animal] that is being trapped. Nevertheless, when a person traps different types of non-domesticated animals, fowl, and fish without a specific intent, he is liable, because it can be assumed that he is trapping them for their bodies or for their hides.70 Similarly, when a person traps one of the eight species of crawling animals mentioned in the Torah without a specific intent, he is liable, because it can be assumed that he is trapping them for their hides and not to avoid being harmed by them, since it is not their habit to harm [humans]. In contrast, a person who traps one of the other species of crawling animals or swarming animals is not liable unless he trapped them for a purpose, e.g., for curative reasons or the like.71 If, however, he trapped them without a specific intent, he is exempt. It can be assumed that he is trapping them to avoid being harmed by them, because it is their habit to harm [humans.]72 They are not being trapped for their hides, since they do not have hides, nor for their bodies, because they are not fit to be eaten. Nor can it be assumed that they will be used for curative purposes, unless one has that specific intent. If so, [trapping them] is a forbidden labor performed for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed, since he has no need of [the living being] that was trapped and that [entity is] the object of the forbidden labor being performed.

טז כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"חקלז שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא בִּמְלָאכָה הַצְּרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְגוּף הַדָּבָר שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בּוֹ.68 לְפִיכָךְ, הַנּוֹטֵל נְשָׁמָה – אֵינוֹ חַיָּבקלח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן צָרִיךְ לְגוּף הַחַי שֶׁהַנְּשָׁמָה נִטְּלָה מִמֶּנּוּ, אוֹ לְעוֹרוֹ,קלט אוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַנְּשָׁמָה שֶׁנִּטְּלָה מִמֶּנּוּ, דְּהַיְנוּ לַדָּם הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ, לִתְּנוֹ לִפְנֵי כַלְבּוֹ,קמ אוֹ שֶׁחוֹבֵל בָּאָדָם שֶׁהוּא אוֹיְבוֹ, וְחָפֵץ הוּא בְּדָם הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁיִּרְאֶה נְקָמָה בְּאוֹיְבָיוקמא (עַיֵּן חֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן תכ"דקמב).69 אֲבָל הַהוֹרֵג נָחָשׁ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקֶנּוּ – הֲרֵי זוֹ מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לֹא לְגוּף הַנָּחָשׁ וְלֹא לְדָמוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ הוֹרְגוֹ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהִנָּצֵל מֵהֶזֵּקוֹ.קמג

וְכֵן הַצָּד אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹ צֹרֶךְ בְּגוּף דָּבָר הַנִּצּוֹד עַצְמוֹ.קמד וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַצָּד מִינֵי חַיָּה עוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים בִּסְתָם – חַיָּב, שֶׁסְּתָם צֵידָתָן הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן אוֹ עוֹרָן.70 וְכֵן שְׁמֹנָה שְׁרָצִים הָאֲמוּרִים בַּתּוֹרָה, הַצָּד אֶחָד מֵהֶן בִּסְתָם – חַיָּב, שֶׁסְּתָם צֵידָתָן הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ עוֹרָן,קמה וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל לְהִנָּצֵל מֵהֶזֵּקָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין דַּרְכָּן לְהַזִּיק.

אֲבָל הַצָּד אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן צָדָן לְצֹרֶךְ,קמו כְּגוֹן לִרְפוּאָהקמז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ.71 אֲבָל אִם צָדָן בִּסְתָם – פָּטוּר,קמח שֶׁסְּתָם צֵידָתָן אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל לְהִנָּצֵל מֵהֶזֵּקָן, שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהַזִּיק,קמט, 72 וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל צֹרֶךְ עוֹרָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לָהֶם עוֹר,קנ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל צֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה,קנא וּסְתָמוֹ אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לִרְפוּאָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ בְּפֵרוּשׁ,קנב וְאִם כֵּן הֲרֵי זֶה מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ,קנג כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ צֹרֶךְ בְּדָבָר הַנִּצּוֹד עַצְמוֹ שֶׁגּוּף הַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בּוֹ:

17 [Indeed,] a person is even permitted as an initial preference to trap any type of creeping animal that is wont to cause harm, e.g., snakes,73 scorpions,74 or the like. [This applies] even in places where their bite is not life-threatening. [Moreover, they may be trapped] even if, at present, they are not pursuing [the person] at all and he is concerned only about the future – that they might pursue and bite him or another person, or possibly that he will not protect himself from them and they will bite him, or possibly that they will harm others who do not know to protect themselves from [these animals. In all these instances,] since he is trapping [these animals] only to save himself [or others] from the harm they could cause, [trapping them] is considered a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah.75 [True,] although one who performs a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah is exempt [according to Scriptural Law], according to Rabbinic Law, [performing such an act] is forbidden.76 Nevertheless, in this instance, our Sages gave complete license [to perform such an act] because of the possibility of physical harm.77

There are authorities who maintain that one who performs a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah is liable.78 [Now, according to these authorities,] the Shabbos may not be desecrated through the performance of [an activity that is defined] as a Scripturally forbidden labor in a complete sense when it [merely] involves [a threat of] physical harm; [doing so is permitted] only when there is life-threatening danger.79 Nevertheless, in this instance, [even these authorities advocate leniency,] since one is not trapping [the animals] in the ordinary manner,80 but rather merely doing something that prevents them from causing harm, [e.g.,] covering them with a container,81 surrounding them [with barriers so that they are confined], or binding them, so that they will not cause harm. Hence, license was given to do this even for creeping animals that are not deadly, but merely cause harm.

יז וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לָצוּד כָּל מִינֵי רְמָשִׂים שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהַזִּיק,קנד כְּגוֹן נְחָשִׁיםקנה, 73 וְעַקְרַבִּיםקנו, 74 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן מְמִיתִין בִּנְשִׁיכָתָן.קנז

וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין רָצִין עַתָּה אַחֲרָיו כְּלָל,קנח אֶלָּא שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ עַל הֶעָתִיד שֶׁמָּא יָרוּצוּ אַחֲרָיוקנט אוֹ אַחַר אָדָם אַחֵר וִינַשְּׁכוּהוּ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִשְׁמוֹר עַצְמוֹ מֵהֶם וִינַשְּׁכוּהוּ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַזִּיקוּ לַאֲחֵרִים שֶׁלֹּא יֵדְעוּ לְהִשָּׁמֵר מֵהֶם, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָדָן אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל לְהִנָּצֵל מֵהֶזֵּקָן – הֲרֵי זֶה מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ.קס, 75 וְאַף שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ פָּטוּר אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקסא, 76 – כָּאן הִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים לְגַמְרֵי מִפְּנֵי חֲשַׁשׁ הֶזֵּק הַגּוּף.קסב, 77

וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםקסג שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ,78 וְאֵין מְחַלְּלִין שַׁבָּת בִּמְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל הֶזֵּק הַגּוּף, אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל סַכָּנַת נְפָשׁוֹת,קסד, 79 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כָּאן כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָדָן כְּדַרְכּוֹ,80 אֶלָּא מִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶם שֶׁלֹּא יוּכְלוּ לְהַזִּיק,קסה שֶׁכּוֹפֶה עֲלֵיהֶן כְּלִיקסו, 81 אוֹ מַקִּיף עֲלֵיהֶן אוֹ קוֹשְׁרָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקוּ,קסז לְפִיכָךְ הִתִּירוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְמָשִׂים שֶׁאֵינָן מְמִיתִין כְּלָל אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּזִּיקִין בִּלְבַד:קסח

18 All the above applies to creeping animals that are wont to actually cause harm, e.g., snakes and scorpions. Even in places where their bite does not cause mortal danger, their bite does, nevertheless, cause harm to the body. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations. By contrast, it is forbidden82 to trap [living beings] that do not cause harm to the body, merely discomfort, e.g., wasps, flies, mosquitoes, fleas, and the like.83 It is therefore forbidden to take hold of a flea that is on one’s clothes; [this applies] even if it is on the inside [of his garment], next to his skin. [Indeed,] even if it is on one’s skin, he is forbidden to take hold of it as long as it is not biting him. If, however, it bites him, he is permitted to take hold of it while it is biting him and cast it away. For when he takes hold of it while it is biting him, he does not intend to trap it. He is only dealing with it so that it does not bite him. Our Sages did not impose a decree in this instance, even though all that is involved is discomfort, since this is a species that is not commonly trapped.84 Similarly, in an instance where there is discomfort, [our Sages] did not impose a decree against moving a flea even though it is muktzeh.85 Similarly, if one is being stung by a wasp or the like, he may take it with his hand and cast it away, if it is impossible to make it fly away [in another fashion].

There are authorities who permit snaring a flea even when [it is not on his body, but] it is on the inner side of one’s garments, since it can cause discomfort there. It is even permitted to snare it from the outside of one’s undershirt, since the undershirt is close to one’s flesh and it is possible for the flea to move from there to the flesh and bite him. If, however, a flea is on a person’s body in a place where there is no concern that it will bite him, [e.g.,] it is on the outside of his upper garment, it is forbidden to take hold of [the flea]. One may, however, shake [the flea] off him and make it fall.

With regard to actual practice, if it is easy for one to cause [the flea] to fall off his body without taking hold of it, he should do so – even if [the flea] is on the inner side of his undergarments. If, however, [the person] is wearing leggings and it is difficult for him to cause the flea to fall if he does not first take hold of it by hand, he is not remiss for relying on the more lenient authorities, [since the matter is one of] Rabbinic Law.

יח וְכָל זֶה בִּרְמָשִׂים שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהַזִּיק מַמָּשׁ, כְּגוֹן נְחָשִׁים וְעַקְרַבִּים, אַף בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן מְמִיתִין בִּנְשִׁיכָתָן, עַל כָּל פָּנִים הֵן מַזִּיקִין הַגּוּף בִּנְשִׁיכָתָן, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן. אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזִּיק הַגּוּף אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּצַעֲרוֹ בִּלְבַד, כְּגוֹן צִרְעָה וּזְבוּב וְיַתּוּשִׁין וּפַרְעוֹשִׁין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן – אָסוּר82 לְצוּדָן.קסט, 83

וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִתְפּוֹשׂ פַּרְעוֹשׁ שֶׁעַל בְּגָדָיו,קע אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מִבִּפְנִים סָמוּךְ לַבָּשָׂר. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ וְאֵינוֹ עוֹקְצוֹ עֲדַיִן –אָסוּר לְתָפְסוֹ.קעא אֲבָל אִם הוּא עוֹקְצוֹ כְּבָר – מֻתָּר לִטְּלוֹ בִּשְׁעַת עֲקִיצָתוֹ וּלְהַשְׁלִיכוֹ,קעב שֶׁכְּשֶׁנּוֹטְלוֹ בִּשְׁעַת עֲקִיצָתוֹ אֵינוֹ כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לְצֵידָה, אֶלָּא כְּמִתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעַקְצֶנּוּ,קעג וְלֹא גָזְרוּ בָּזֶה אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם צַעַר בִּלְבַד,קעד כֵּיוָןקעה שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בְּמִינוֹ נִצּוֹד.קעו, 84 וְגַם לֹא גָזְרוּ בִּמְקוֹם צַעַר עַל אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל הַפַּרְעוֹשׁ,קעז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה.קעח, 85 וְכֵן אִם עוֹקַצְתּוֹ צִרְעָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ – מֻתָּר לִטְּלָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וּלְהַשְׁלִיכָהּ, אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַפְרִיחָהּ.

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקעט לָצוּד הַפַּרְעוֹשׁ אֲפִלּוּ מֵעַל בְּגָדָיו מִבִּפְנִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לְצַעֲרוֹ שָׁם. וַאֲפִלּוּ מֵעַל חֲלוּקוֹ מִבַּחוּץ מֻתָּר לְצוּדוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחָלוּק הוּא סָמוּךְ לַבָּשָׂר, וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיָּבֹא הַפַּרְעוֹשׁ מִשָּׁם לַבָּשָׂר וְיַעַקְצֶנּוּ.קפ אֲבָל אִם הַפַּרְעוֹשׁ הוּא עַל הָאָדָם בְּאוֹתוֹ עִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיַּעַקְצֶנּוּ, שֶׁהוּא עַל בֶּגֶד הָעֶלְיוֹן מִבַּחוּץ – אָסוּר לְתָפְסוֹ שָׁם,קפא אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַפִּילוֹ מֵעָלָיו עַל יְדֵי נִעוּר.

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּקַלּוּת לְהַפִּילוֹ מֵעָלָיו בְּלִי נְטִילָה בְּיָד – יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא עַל חֲלוּקוֹ מִבִּפְנִים. אֲבָל אִם הוּא לָבוּשׁ בְּבָתֵּי שׁוֹקַיִם וְקָשֶׁה לוֹ לְהַפִּיל הַפַּרְעוֹשׁ אִם לֹא יִטְּלֶנּוּ בְּיָד תְּחִלָּה, הַסּוֹמֵךְ עַל הַמְּקִלִּין בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – לֹא הִפְסִיד:קפב

19 All the above applies with regard to trapping the flea. All authorities agree, however, that it is forbidden to kill [the flea],86 even if it is on one’s flesh and is biting him. [The rationale is that] our Sages only permitted trapping [a flea] due to mere discomfort, [for the prohibition is only Rabbinic in origin,] since creatures of this type are not trapped. Hence, such trapping is not considered a [forbidden] labor at all.87 Killing it, by contrast, involves the performance of a forbidden labor in a full sense. [True,] he does not require the object with which the labor was performed, and therefore, there are authorities who maintain that one is exempt [for performing such an act].88 It is, nevertheless, forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. This was not permitted because of mere discomfort,89 since the fundamental prohibition – i.e., in an instance where one requires the object with which the labor was performed – is of Scriptural origin.90

It is even forbidden merely to crush [the flea slightly] with one’s fingers to weaken it so that it will not return to him. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest he kill it. Instead, he should take it by hand and cast it away.

יט וְכָל זֶה לְעִנְיַן צֵידַת הַפַּרְעוֹשׁ, אֲבָל לְהָרְגוֹ אָסוּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,קפג, 86 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ וְעוֹקְצוֹ,קפד שֶׁמִּשּׁוּם צַעַר בְּעָלְמָא לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא צֵידָתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בְּמִינוֹ נִצּוֹד, וְלָכֵן אֵין צֵידָה זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה מְלָאכָה כְּלָל,87 אֲבָל הֲרִיגָתוֹ הִיא מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה,קפה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְגוּפוֹ,קפו וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁפָּטוּר עָלֶיהָ,קפז, 88 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קפח וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהָ מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בְּעָלְמָא,קפט, 89 הוֹאִיל וְעִקָּרָהּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קצ דְּהַיְנוּ אִם צָרִיךְ לְגוּפָהּ.90 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְמוֹלְלוֹ בְּאֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו לְהַתִּישׁ כֹּחוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזוֹר אֵלָיו – אָסוּר, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַהַרְגֶנּוּ, אֶלָּא יִטְּלֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ וְיִזְרְקֶנּוּ:קצא

20 One is liable for killing only when he kills a living being from a species that reproduces from male-female relationships.91 In contrast, one who kills swarming animals that come into being from feces, from fruit that has rotted, and the like, e.g., maggots that are in meat or beans,92 is exempt. [The rationale is that] in the Sanctuary, [the forbidden labor of] “taking the soul” involved killing rams, tachashim, and chilazon,93which [all] reproduce from male-female relationships.

Nevertheless, [the forbidden labor of] “taking the soul” applies to fleas, even though they come into being from the earth, not from male-female relationships. [The rationale is that] any entity that comes into being from the earth has the vital energy as if it came into being from male-female relationships, because originally, the creation of all living beings came from the earth, as it is written:94 “And G‑d said, ‘Let the earth bring forth [living beings….]’”

What is meant by a flea? A black [insect] that jumps. A white one that crawls, by contrast, is called a louse. It is permitted to kill [a louse] on Shabbos, because it comes into being from sweat.

When does the above apply? When one finds a louse on his flesh or one incidentally sees it on his clothes.95 If, however, one is checking his clothes for lice, he should crush them [slightly] with his hands and cast them off96 (even into water).97 It is, however, forbidden to kill them with one’s hands. [The rationale is that] since he is checking his clothes for lice, there is concern that he will also find fleas and kill them as well.98

When does the above apply? When one checks his clothes for lice. If, however, he checks his head, he may kill the lice with his hands,99 because fleas are not found on a person’s head.

כ אֵין חַיָּבִין מִשּׁוּם נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה אֶלָּא עַל מִינֵי בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים שֶׁהֵם פָּרִים וְרָבִיםקצב וְנֶהֱוִין מִזָּכָר וּנְקֵבָה.קצג, 91 אֲבָל רְמָשִׂים הַנֶּהֱוִין מִן הַגְּלָלִים וּמִן הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁהִבְאִישׁוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן, כְּגוֹן תּוֹלָעִים שֶׁל בָּשָׂר וְכַתּוֹלָעִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַקִּטְנִית,92 הַהוֹרְגָן – פָּטוּר,קצד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבַּמִּשְׁכָּן לֹא הָיְתָה נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה אֶלָּא בְּאֵילִיםקצה וּתְחָשִׁים וְחִלָּזוֹןקצו, 93 שֶׁהֵם פָּרִים וְרָבִים וְנֶהֱוִין מִזָּכָר וּנְקֵבָה.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַפַּרְעוֹשׁ יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה,קצז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֲוִיָּתוֹ מִן הֶעָפָרקצח וְאֵינוֹ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה,קצט לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הַמִּתְהַוֶּה מִן הֶעָפָר – חַיּוּת יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּאִלּוּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה מִזָּכָר וּנְקֵבָה,ר כִּי תְּחִלַּת בְּרִיַּת בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים הָיְתָה מִן הֶעָפָר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּברא, 94 "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו'".רב וְאֵיזֶהוּ פַּרְעוֹשׁ? זוֹ הִיא שְׁחוֹרָה הַקּוֹפֶצֶת. אֲבָל לְבָנָה הָרוֹחֶשֶׁת – הִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת "כִּנָּה", וּמֻתָּר לְהָרְגָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מִן הַזֵּעָה.רג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמוֹצֵא כִּנָּה עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁמְּצָאָהּ עַל בְּגָדָיו דֶּרֶךְ מִקְרֶה.רד, 95 אֲבָל הַמְפַלֶּה בְּגָדָיו מִכִּנִּים – מוֹלְלָן בְּאֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו וְזוֹרְקָן96 (אֲפִלּוּ לְמַיִםרה),97 אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהָרְגָןרו בְּיָדָיו, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּפַלֶּה בְּגָדָיו – חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִמְצָא גַם כֵּן פַּרְעוֹשִׁים וְיַהַרְגֵם גַּם כֵּן.רז, 98

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּמְפַלֶּה בְּגָדָיו. אֲבָל בִּמְפַלֶּה רֹאשׁוֹ – מֻתָּר לַהֲרוֹג הַכִּנִּים בְּיָדָיו,רח, 99 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין פַּרְעוֹשִׁים מְצוּיִין בָּרֹאשׁ:רט

21 A person should not remove lice from the hides of foxes or the like, because he will [inevitably] remove their hair from their hides. This is forbidden as [a derivative of the forbidden labor of] shearing.100 Even though the person does not do so intentionally, it is an inevitable result of his actions.101

כא לֹא יִקַּח אָדָם הַכִּנִּים מֵעוֹרוֹת שׁוּעָלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהוּא מְנַתֵּק שֵׂעָר מִן הָעוֹר,רי וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם גּוֹזֵז.ריא, 100 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת"101 הוּא:ריב

22 On Shabbos, it is permitted to kill any wild animals and creeping animals that bite and whose bite is definitely mortally dangerous,102 for example, poisonous snakes, a rabid dog, and other harmful creatures whose bites are definitely mortally dangerous. [This applies] even if they are not pursuing him at all, because killing them [avoids] a threat to life, for they may kill a[nother] Jewish person, and even the [mere] possibility of saving a life supersedes the Shabbos prohibitions, even [the performance of an activity defined as] a Scripturally [forbidden] labor in the complete sense.103 Even the authorities who maintain that, according to Scriptural Law, one is liable for [the performance of] a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah104 [agree that one may kill these harmful creatures].102

[Different laws apply with regard to] other harmful animals, even those whose bite definitely does not present a mortal danger, e.g., snakes and scorpions in places where their bites never kill, but merely cause harm, and other similar [animals]. There are authorities who maintain that according to the view that [the performance of] a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah is forbidden only according to Rabbinic Law, if such animals are pursuing a person, he is permitted to kill them. [The rationale is that] a decree [against the performance of a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah] was not instituted in a situation where physical harm is [possible.]105 The situation does not resemble a flea that is biting one’s flesh that is forbidden to be killed, because the flea does not harm one’s body; it only causes discomfort.

If these animals are not currently pursuing him, but he is concerned [that they may cause him harm] in the future, he is forbidden to kill them in a manner that indicates that he is purposely killing them. He may, however, tread on them as a matter of course as he walks,102 even if he intends to kill them, but just makes it appear that he is walking as a matter of course and does not intend to kill them at all. [This leniency is granted] since a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah104 is only forbidden according to Rabbinic Law. Hence, no decree was instituted in a situation involving the possibility of physical harm – or even if there is only mere concern for [future] harm.

In such an instance, however, when killing them, the person must deviate from the norm to whatever degree possible, i.e., make it appear that he is not intending to kill them. [Moreover,] even when there is [only] a possibility that their bite will be deadly, i.e., sometimes [their bite] is deadly and sometimes it is not, as long as the wild or creeping animals are not pursuing him, one must deviate from the norm when killing them. In contrast, it is forbidden to tread on crawling animals that do not cause harm at all, e.g., ants and the like, even when one does not intend to kill them, but it will be an inevitable result of his actions. [Therefore,] one must be attentive when walking in places where such creatures are common.

According to the authorities who maintain that one is liable even for a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah, license was granted to kill wild and creeping animals whose bite could possibly cause death only when they are pursuing him, and to tread on them as a matter of course when they are not pursuing him. In contrast, it is forbidden to tread on a creature whose bite is never deadly, even if it is pursuing him. For one may not desecrate the Shabbos, performing [an activity that constitutes] a Scripturally forbidden labor in the complete sense, [merely] because of bodily harm.105

Fundamentally, [the halachah] follows the first view.106 [Thus, it is permitted to kill even those animals that merely cause bodily harm.] Nevertheless, a meticulous person107should be stringent with himself when possible [since] a Scriptural prohibition is involved, i.e., if [such animals] are not pursuing him, he should not tread on them if he can protect himself from them and warn others to protect themselves from [the animals].

כב כָּל חַיָּה וְרֶמֶשׂ שֶׁהֵן נוֹשְׁכִין וּמְמִיתִין וַדַּאי,ריג כְּגוֹן נְחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִיםריד וְכֶלֶב שׁוֹטֶה וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מֵהַמַּזִּיקִין שֶׁכְּשֶׁנּוֹשְׁכִין הֵן מְמִיתִין בְּוַדַּאירטו – מֻתָּר לְהָרְגָם בְּשַׁבָּת102 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן רָצִין אַחֲרָיו כְּלָל,רטז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ בַּהֲרִיגָתָן,ריז כִּי שֶׁמָּא יָמִיתוּ שׁוּם אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. וְכָל סְפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,ריח, 103 אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםריט שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ104 חַיָּבִים עָלֶיהָ מִן הַתּוֹרָה.רכ, 102

וּשְׁאָר מַזִּיקִין,רכא אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָן שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי אֵין מְמִיתִין בִּנְשִׁיכָתָןרכב אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּזִּיקִין אֶת הַגּוּף בִּלְבַד, כְּגוֹן נְחָשִׁים וְעַקְרַבִּים בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין מְמִיתִיןרכג לְעוֹלָם בִּנְשִׁיכָתָן אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּזִּיקִין בִּלְבַד, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרכד שֶׁאִם הֵם רָצִים אַחֲרָיו מֻתָּר לְהָרְגָם, לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, לְפִי שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם הֶזֵּק הַגּוּף לֹא גָזְרוּ.רכה, 105 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְפַרְעוֹשׁ הָעוֹקֵץ בְּשָׂרוֹ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהָרְגוֹ, שֶׁהַפַּרְעוֹשׁ אֵינוֹ מַזִּיק הַגּוּף אֶלָּא מְצַעֲרוֹ בִּלְבַד.רכו

וְאִם אֵינָן רָצִין עַתָּה אַחֲרָיו, אֶלָּא שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ עַל הֶעָתִיד – אָסוּר לְהָרְגָם הֲרִיגָה הַנִּכֶּרֶת שֶׁהִיא נַעֲשֵׂית בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְדָרְסָם לְפִי תֻמּוֹרכז בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ.רכח, 102 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן כְּדֵי לַהֲרוֹג, אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּרְאֶה עַצְמוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוֹלֵךְ לוֹ לְפִי תֻמּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן כְּלָל לַהֲרוֹג,רכט שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ104 אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – לֹא גָזְרוּ עָלֶיהָ כְּלָל בִּמְקוֹם הֶזֵּק הַגּוּף, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא חֲשָׁשׁ בְּעָלְמָא, אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּזֶה הִצְרִיכוּ לְשַׁנּוֹת בַּהֲרִיגָתָן בְּכָל מַה דְּאֶפְשָׁר לְשַׁנּוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ לְהַרְאוֹת עַצְמוֹ כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְכַוֵּן לְהָרְגָם.רל

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִינֵי חַיָּה וְרֶמֶשׂ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּנְשִׁיכָתָן סְפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת, שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים הֵן מְמִיתִין וְלִפְעָמִים אֵין מְמִיתִין – צָרִיךְ לְשַׁנּוֹת בַּהֲרִיגָתָן, כָּל שֶׁאֵינָן רָצִין אַחֲרָיו.רלא

אֲבָל מִינֵי רְמָשִׂים שֶׁאֵינָן מַזִּיקִין, כְּגוֹן נְמָלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – אָסוּר לְדָרְסָם אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהָרְגָם אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ". וְצָרִיךְ לְדַקְדֵּק בְּהִלּוּכוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהֵם מְצוּיִים.רלב

וּלְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּבִים עָלֶיהָ – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לַהֲרוֹג כְּשֶׁרָצִין אַחֲרָיו, וְלִדְרוֹס לְפִי תֻמּוֹ כְּשֶׁאֵין רָצִין אַחֲרָיו, אֶלָּא בְּמִינֵי חַיָּה וְרֶמֶשׂ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּנְשִׁיכָתָם סְפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת.רלג אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵמִית לְעוֹלָם בִּנְשִׁיכָתוֹ – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְדָרְסוֹ,רלד וַאֲפִלּוּ רָץ אַחֲרָיו,רלה שֶׁאֵין מְחַלְּלִים שַׁבָּת בִּמְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל הֶזֵּק הַגּוּף.רלו, 105

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.רלז, 106 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ107 יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹרלח בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר, דְּהַיְנוּ אִם אֵין רָץ אַחֲרָיו – אַל יִדְרְסֶנּוּ, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהִשָּׁמֵר מִמֶּנּוּ וּלְהַזְהִיר לַאֲחֵרִים שֶׁיִּשָּׁמְרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ:

23 People who kill spiders on Shabbos should be admonished, because they do not harm [humans].108 True, there is concern that [spiders] might fall into the food. Nevertheless, this is not a common phenomenon. Moreover, the foods can be covered, and only in one in a thousand cases is it dangerous if [a spider falls] into the food. Furthermore, even if there was a concern for danger, [our Sages] only granted license to tread [on the creatures] as a matter of course, [not to kill them outright].

כג אוֹתָן הָאֲנָשִׁים שֶׁהוֹרְגִין בְּשַׁבָּת הַשְּׂמָמִית (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שפי"ן) – צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ מַזֶּקֶת.108 וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁתִּפֹּל לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי הוּא, וְגַם אֶפְשָׁר לְכַסּוֹת הַמַּאֲכָלִים, וְגַם אַחַת מֵאֶלֶף הִיא מְסֻכֶּנֶת בְּמַאֲכָל.רלט וְגַם אִם הָיָה בָהּ חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה – לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא לִדְרוֹס לְפִי תֻמּוֹ:רמ

24 When game animals109 or fowl are raised on a person’s property, e.g., he raises deer, geese, chickens,110 or doves in his home or courtyard, one who traps111 them on Shabbos is exempt,112 because it is as if they are already trapped and ready [to be taken]. In contrast, a person who traps doves from a dovecote or a loft113 is liable, for they have yet to be trapped. When a person comes to take them from their nests, they are wont to slip away and flee from their nests.

In contrast, when fowl are raised in a home, when they return to their pen in the evening, it is easy to snare them there, because then they are not prone to slip away and flee. Accordingly, they are not considered as “yet to be trapped” even when they are outside their pen, because in the evening, they will come to their pens on their own accord. Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to trap [such fowl], i.e., to pursue them until they enter a place where it is easy to snare them.114 Taking them by hand is forbidden regardless, independent of the prohibition against trapping, because they are muktzeh.115

When does the statement that [it is forbidden to trap game animals or fowl raised in a home]116 apply? When they are located in a courtyard or in a house that is so large that were they not raised among people, a trap [or] special techniques would be necessary to snare them there and they would be deemed as “yet to be trapped.” For example, they were located in a house so large that it is impossible to catch hold of them in one leap,117 and one chases them until they enter a room that is not that large and closes the door there in front of them. If, however, they are in a house that is not that large, they are considered to be trapped and ready [to be taken. Indeed,] even if they are in the public domain, it is permitted [for] one [to] push them118 into a large house like that [described above, since in such an instance,] they have not been trapped at all.

כד חַיָּה109 וְעוֹף הַגְּדֵלִים בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם,רמא כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁמְּגַדֵּל צְבָיִים בְּבֵיתוֹרמב אוֹ בַּחֲצֵרוֹ, אוֹ אַוָּזִים וְתַרְנְגוֹלִים110 וְיוֹנִים,רמג הַצָּדָן111 בְּשַׁבָּת – פָּטוּר,רמד, 112 שֶׁהֲרֵי נִצּוֹדִין וְעוֹמְדִין הֵן.רמה

אֲבָל הַצָּד יוֹנֵי שׁוֹבָךְ וְיוֹנֵי עֲלִיָּהרמו, 113 – חַיָּב,רמז שֶׁמְּחֻסָּרִין צֵידָה הֵן, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא לִטְּלָן מִקִּנֵּיהֶן – הֵן עֲשׂוּיִין לְהִשָּׁמֵט וְלִבְרוֹחַ מִקִּנֵּיהֶן.רמח

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן עוֹפוֹת הַגְּדֵלִים בַּבַּיִת, שֶׁכְּשֶׁהֵן בָּאִין לִכְלוּבָן בָּעֶרֶב נוֹחַ לְתָפְסָן שָׁם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָז אֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין לְהִשָּׁמֵט וְלִבְרוֹחַ, וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף כְּשֶׁהֵן חוּץ לִכְלוּבָן אֵינָן נִקְרָאִים מְחֻסָּרִים צֵידָה,רמט כֵּיוָן שֶׁלָּעֶרֶב יָבֹאוּ לִכְלוּבָן מֵאֲלֵיהֶן. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לְצוּדָן,רנ דְּהַיְנוּ לִרְדּוֹף אַחֲרֵיהֶן עַד שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹחַ לְתָפְסָן שָׁם.114 אֲבָל לְטַלְטְלָן בְּיָד אָסוּר בְּלֹא אִסּוּר צֵידָה, מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה.רנא, 115

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?116 כְּשֶׁהֵן בְּחָצֵר אוֹ בַּיִת גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאִם לֹא גָדְלוּ בֵּין בְּנֵי אָדָם הָיוּ צְרִיכִים מְצוּדָה,רנב דְּהַיְנוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ תַּחְבּוּלוֹת לְתָפְסָם שָׁם, וְהָיוּ נִקְרָאִים מְחֻסָּרִים צֵידָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא בַּיִת גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְתָפְסוֹ שָׁם בִּמְרוּצָה אַחַת,רנג, 117 וְרוֹדֵף שָׁם אַחֲרֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ לְחֶדֶר שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ וְנוֹעֵל הַדֶּלֶת בִּפְנֵיהֶם. אֲבָל אִם הֵם בְּבַיִת שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ – נִצּוֹדִין וְעוֹמְדִין הֵן.רנד אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הֵן בְּבַיִת גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְדוֹחֶה אוֹתָם118 עַד שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ לְבַיִת אַחֵר גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ – אֵין כָּאן צֵידָה כְּלָל, וּמֻתָּר:רנה

25 All of the above applies with regard to game animals and fowl. In contrast, domesticated animals119 that are raised in a person’s domain may be trapped even in the public domain.120

The same laws that govern game animals [raised in one’s domain] govern a cat. It is forbidden to trap it, except in the manner described above.121

All the above applies when these animals have not rebelled [and demonstrated their independence]. In contrast, even if a cow rebels122 – and needless to say, [if] a game animal or a fowl rebels – one who traps it on Shabbos is liable like one who traps wild animals or fowl. [The rationale is that these rebellious animals or fowl] also will not return to their pens in the evening.123

כה וְכָל זֶה בְּחַיָּה וְעוֹף, אֲבָל בְּהֵמוֹת119 הַגְּדֵלִים בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם – מֻתָּר לְצוּדָן,רנו אֲפִלּוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.רנז, 120

וְחָתוּל – דִּינוֹ כִּשְׁאָר חַיָּה, וְאָסוּר לְצוּדוֹרנח אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.רנט, 121

וְכָל זֶה בְּשֶׁלֹּא מָרְדוּ, אֲבָל אִם מָרְדוּ,רס אֲפִלּוּ פָּרָה שֶׁמָּרְדָה,122 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר חַיָּה וְעוֹף שֶׁמָּרְדוּ,רסא הַצָּדָן בְּשַׁבָּת – חַיָּב, כְּמוֹ הַצָּד חַיּוֹת וְעוֹפוֹת הַבָּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַלָּלוּ גַם כֵּן לֹא יָבֹאוּ לִכְלוּבָן לָעֶרֶב:123