SECTION 315 Activities Forbidden because [They Involve the Construction] of a Shelter on Shabbos (1-20)

סימן שטו דְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is forbidden to construct a shelter,1 i.e., a roof that protects one from an [undesired] influence, e.g., from the sun,2 from the rain, or from any another [undesired] influence.3 [This prohibition includes] even [erecting] a temporary [shelter] that is [constructed] flimsily and will not last,4 and even one that lacks walls under it, i.e., one spreads a mat over four poles.5 Nonetheless, since it is made to shelter and protect, it is considered a shelter in a full sense. Our Sages forbade [constructing] it even though it is temporary. [This is] a decree, [instituted lest one construct] a permanent shelter [that would be prohibited as] a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of building.6

א אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹהֶל,א, 1 דְּהַיְנוּ גַּגב הַמַּאֲהִיל עָלָיו לְהָגֵן מֵאֵיזֶה דָבָר, כְּגוֹן מִן הַחַמָּהג, 2 אוֹ מִן הַגְּשָׁמִיםד אוֹ מֵאֵיזֶה דָּבָר אַחֵר,ה, 3 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עֲרַאיו שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְהִתְקַיֵּם,ז, 4 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין מְחִצּוֹת תַּחְתָּיו, כְּגוֹן שֶׁפּוֹרֵס מַחֲצֶלֶת עַל גַּבֵּי אַרְבַּע קֻנְדֵּסִין,ח, 5 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּי כְּדֵי לְהַאֲהִיל וּלְהָגֵן – הֲרֵי זֶה אֹהֶל גָּמוּר,ט וַאֲסָרוּהוּ חֲכָמִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עֲרַאי, גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל קֶבַעי שֶׁהוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה:יא, 6

2 [Our Sages] only prohibited the initial construction [of a temporary shelter] on Shabbos.7If, however, a temporary shelter had already been erected while it was still day [on Friday], it is permitted to add to it on Shabbos. For example, if a mat was extended a handbreadth’s width8 – the [minimum] measure referred to as a shelter – while it was still day [on Friday], it is permitted to extend it to its entire length the following day9 and [even] to add other mats [as extensions to the original mat. The rationale is that] the entire addition is merely a supplement to the shelter of a handbreadth that was constructed on the previous day. One may even extend [the mats] over walls in such an instance.

The handbreadth mentioned must [extend outward from] the rolled-up [portion of the mat]. Thus, even if the entire mat was rolled and placed [on top of a shelter] while it was still day [on Friday, it does not suffice that] the rolled up mat is [itself] a handbreadth or more wide. [Instead,] a length of at least a handbreadth must have been spread out as a shelter and extended from [the rolled up portion], because the rolled up portion does not appear as a shelter at all.

ב וְלֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,7 אֲבָל אִם הָיָה אֹהֶל עֲרַאי עָשׂוּי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת,יב כְּגוֹן אִם הָיְתָה הַמַּחֲצֶלֶת פְּרוּסָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּדֵי טֶפַח,יג, 8 שֶׁזֶּהוּ שִׁעוּר לִהְיוֹת נִקְרָא אֹהֶליד – מֻתָּר לְפָרְסָהּ כֻּלָּהּ לְמָחָר9 וּלְהוֹסִיף עוֹד מַחְצְלָאוֹת,טו שֶׁהַכֹּל אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא תּוֹסֶפֶת לְאֹהֶל טֶפַח הֶעָשׂוּי מֵאֶתְמוֹל.טז וַאֲפִלּוּ לִפְרוֹס עַל מְחִצּוֹת מֻתָּר בְּעִנְיָן זֶה.יז

וְטֶפַח שֶׁאָמְרוּ הוּא חוּץ מִן הַכְּרִיכָה,יח דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהַמַּחֲצֶלֶת כֻּלָּהּ אַף שֶׁהִיא כְּרוּכָה וּנְתוּנָה שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְיֵשׁ בָּעֳבִי עִגּוּל כְּרִיכָתָהּ כְּדֵי טֶפַח וְיוֹתֵר, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי טֶפַח פָּרוּס לְאֹהֶל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁסְּבִיב הָעִגּוּל אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּאֹהֶל כְּלָל:יט

3 All of the above applies with regard to [the construction of] a shelter, i.e., a roof.10 It is, however, permitted to erect temporary dividers [and walls on Shabbos] even as an initial and preferred option.11 Even when one erects [temporary dividers] as protection against the sun or the cold, this does not cause them to be considered as a shelter. Similarly, [a divider] may be erected so that the wind will not extinguish the [Shabbos] candles.12 Needless to say, it is permitted to erect dividers strictly for the sake of modesty, e.g., so as not to reside in an [entirely] open space, or to intervene between men and women during a sermon, or in any similar situation.13

Making a temporary divider is never forbidden except when one does so [for a purpose of halachic significance, e.g.,] to permit the use of a sukkah, as will be explained in sec. 630,14 or to permit carrying, as will be explained in sec. 362[:13-14],15 or to permit [an act that would otherwise be] forbidden. For example, one [might] erect a partition ten handbreadths in height in front of sacred texts by spreading out a sheet or a mat so that one will be permitted to engage in marital intimacy in that room16 or to relieve oneself there.17 It is forbidden to construct [such a partition] initially18 on Shabbos, because in any situation where a partition causes an act to be permitted, it creates a distinct domain. For example, when [erecting a partition] causes the prohibition against carrying [in a given area] to be released, it defines that area as a private domain and, by doing so, makes it distinct from the adjoining public domain or karmelis. Similarly, [when one erects a partition] in a room containing holy texts, [the partition] divides [the room] into two domains: the holy texts are located in their own distinct domain and [the person] engages in intimacy or relieves himself in another distinct domain. Since he erects [the partition] in order to establish an independent domain, it is comparable to his making a shelter.19

If, however, one need not establish a distinct domain, he may initially erect a partition on Shabbos, even if it causes an act that would otherwise be forbidden to be permitted. For example, one hangs a divider in front of the light of a lamp so that he will be permitted to engage in marital intimacy.20 In this instance, establishing an independent domain is unnecessary. Instead, as long as the divider is sufficiently high so that when he is engaged in intimacy he does not see the lamp, and the divider is sufficiently dense so that the light is not seen clearly through the divider, it is permitted to be intimate.21 [This is true] even though the divider is: a) not ten handbreadths high and thus does not constitute a separate domain at all, and also b) [the divider] is not tied down tightly, [i.e., it is not tied down] to the extent that the wind will not cause it to sway, as is necessary when tying down a divider that establishes a separate domain, [as required] in the presence of sacred texts, as explained in sec. 240.22

Since it is not required to establish a separate domain, it is permitted to [erect the divider] on Shabbos even if in actual fact [the divider] does establish a separate domain, i.e., it is ten handbreadths high and tied down tightly.23

ג וְכָל זֶה בְּאֹהֶל שֶׁהוּא גַג.10 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצּוֹת עֲרַאי לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,כ, 11 וַאֲפִלּוּ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ כְּדֵי לְהָגֵן מִן הַחַמָּה אוֹ מִן הַצִּנָּהכא – אֵינָהּ כְּאֹהֶל בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ.כב וְכֵן אִם עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל הַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְכַבֶּה אוֹתָן הָרוּחַ.כג, 12 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצּוֹת לִצְנִיעוּת בְּעָלְמָא,כד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא יוֹשֵׁב בְּמָקוֹם מְגֻלֶּה, אוֹ כְּגוֹן מְחִצָּה שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּרָשָׁה לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין אֲנָשִׁים לְנָשִׁים,כה וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.13

וּלְעוֹלָם אֵין מְחִצַּת עֲרַאי אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עוֹשֶׂה כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר סֻכָּה,כו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תר"ל,כז, 14 אוֹ לְהַתִּיר טִלְטוּל,כח עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שס"ב,כט, 15 אוֹ לְהַתִּיר שְׁאָר אִסּוּר,ל כְּגוֹן שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מְחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים בִּפְנֵי הַסְּפָרִים בִּפְרִיסַת סָדִין אוֹ מַחֲצֶלֶת כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא מֻתָּר לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶר,16 אוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁם צְרָכָיולא, 17 – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,18 לְפִי שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהַמְּחִצָּה מַתֶּרֶת – הִיא חוֹלֶקֶת שָׁם רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, כְּגוֹן כְּשֶׁמַּתֶּרֶת אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל הִיא עוֹשָׂה אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְחוֹלֶקֶת אוֹתוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ כַּרְמְלִית שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ, וְכֵן בְּחֶדֶר שֶׁבּוֹ הַסְּפָרִים, הִיא חוֹלֶקֶת אוֹתוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי רְשֻׁיּוֹת, הַסְּפָרִים הֵם בִּרְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, וְהוּא מְשַׁמֵּשׁ וְעוֹשֶׂה צְרָכָיו בִּרְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ,לב וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּחֲלֹק רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל.לג, 19

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ שֶׁתְּחַלֵּק רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף אִם הִיא מַתֶּרֶת אִסּוּר.לד כְּגוֹן שֶׁתּוֹלֶה מְחִצָּה בִּפְנֵי אוֹר הַנֵּר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ,לה, 20 שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כָּאן לְחִלּוּק רְשֻׁיּוֹת, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמְּחִצָּה הִיא גָּבוֹהַּ מֵהַנֵּר בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה אֶת הַנֵּר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמְּשַׁמֵּשׁ,לו וְגַם הִיא עָבָה קְצָת בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הָאוֹר נִרְאֶה יָפֶה דֶּרֶךְ הַמְּחִצָּהלז – מֻתָּר לְשַׁמֵּשׁ21 אַף אִם אֵינָהּ גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ חוֹלֶקֶת רְשׁוּת כְּלָל, וְגַם אִם אֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה בְּטוֹב בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל הָרוּחַ לְהָנִיד אוֹתָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִקְשׁוֹר כֵּן בִּמְחִצּוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת לְחִלּוּק רְשֻׁיּוֹת, כְּגוֹן בִּפְנֵי הַסְּפָרִים,לח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ר"מ,לט, 22 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ שֶׁתְּחַלֵּק רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ אַף בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁחוֹלֶקֶת רְשׁוּת, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהִיא גְבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וּקְשׁוּרָה הֵיטֵב:מ, 23

4 Similar [laws apply] with regard to sacred texts: If one hangs a divider before all the sacred texts that are not uncovered at all,24 there is no need to establish a separate domain, provided there is another cover over the sacred texts in addition to this divider. For even if this divider is not ten handbreadths high and is not thoroughly tied, in which case it does not establish a separate domain at all,25 nevertheless, its status is [certainly] not inferior to any other covering. Accordingly, it is permitted to relieve oneself and even to engage in intimacy [in a room] where there is another cover over the holy texts in addition to this divider, for then there are two coverings [for the holy texts]. This is equivalent to placing them in a container within a container.26

Therefore,27 it is permitted to hang such a divider on Shabbos even in a manner where it divides [the room] into separate domains, since dividing [the space] into two rooms is unnecessary. Needless to say, it is permitted to cover the holy texts with two covers of clothing, because in that instance, a partition is not [erected] at all.

ד וְכֵן בִּסְפָרִים אִם תּוֹלֶה הַמְּחִצָּה נֶגֶד כָּל הַסְּפָרִים שֶׁאֵין מְגֻלִּין כְּלָל,24 שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כָּאן לְחִלּוּק רְשֻׁיּוֹת, אִם יֵשׁ מִכְסֶה אֶחָד עַל הַסְּפָרִים לְבַד מִמְּחִצָּה זוֹ, שֶׁאַף אִם אֵין מְחִצָּה זוֹ גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְגַם אֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה בְּטוֹב שֶׁאֵינָהּ חוֹלֶקֶת רְשׁוּת כְּלָל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינָהּ גְּרוּעָה מִכִּסּוּי בְּעָלְמָא,מא, 25 וּמֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת צְרָכָיו שָׁם, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְשַׁמֵּשׁ, אִם יֵשׁ מִכְסֶה אֶחָד עַל הַסְּפָרִים לְבַד מִמְּחִצָּה זוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ כָּאן שְׁנֵי כִסּוּיִים, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כִּכְלִי בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי.מב, 26

לְפִיכָךְ,27 מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁחוֹלֶקֶת רְשׁוּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ שֶׁתַּחֲלֹק רְשֻׁיּוֹת.מג וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹת הַסְּפָרִים בִּבְגָדִים שְׁנֵי כִסּוּיִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן מְחִצָּה כְּלָל:מד

5 Even [when] the holy texts are uncovered [and visible] above the partition – in which instance, the partition is not considered as a covering – or there is no other covering over the holy texts, if one desires to engage in intimacy, it is necessary that the partition be ten handbreadths high and tied down as required by law, so that it will establish a separate domain.28 [Nevertheless,] even [in such an instance,] and similarly, whenever else one desires to erect a partition that divides a domain, it is only forbidden to initially construct it on Shabbos. If, however, [a partition] measuring a handbreadth was erected before Shabbos, it is permitted to add to it on Shabbos, for it is [always] permitted to add to a temporary shelter,29 both when this handbreadth extends from above downward, as well as when the handbreadth extends downward or from the side.

For example, [when] a mat was wrapped around a pole [above] and [a portion] a handbreadth long had [already] been extended downward while it was still day [on Friday], it is permitted to roll [the mat] down in its entirety on Shabbos and [then] tie it down as required by law.30 [Similarly,] if a handbreadth of the partition extends from the side, i.e., if a handbreadth of a partition had [already] been extended from the side in front of the holy texts, it is permitted to hang a sheet in front of them on Shabbos (see fig. 22 above). For the sheet constitutes an addition to a temporary shelter. Even if the [portion] that extends [from the existing] partition is permanent, that is of no consequence, as explained in sec. 313[:1], for [erecting such a structure] is forbidden only when the additional [newly erected] portion is permanent.

ה וַאֲפִלּוּ הַסְּפָרִים מְגֻלִּים לְמַעְלָה מֵהַמְּחִצָּה, שֶׁאֵין מְחִצָּה זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה כִּסּוּי, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין עוֹד כִּסּוּי עַל הַסְּפָרִים וְרוֹצֶה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ, וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַמְּחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וּקְשׁוּרָה כְּהִלְכָתָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּחֲלֹק רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ,28 וְכֵן בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה לְחַלֵּק רְשׁוּת – אֵין אִסּוּר אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה עֲשׂוּיָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּשִׁעוּר טֶפַח – מֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת,מה שֶׁתּוֹסֶפֶת אֹהֶל עֲרַאי מֻתֶּרֶת,מו, 29 בֵּין שֶׁטֶּפַח זֶה הוּא מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה, כְּגוֹן מַחֲצֶלֶת הַכְּרוּכָה עַל הַמּוֹט מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וּכְדֵי טֶפַח מִמֶּנָּה מְשֻׁלְשָׁל לְמַטָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לְשַׁלְשֵׁל כֻּלָּהּ לְמַטָּה בְּשַׁבָּתמז וּלְקָשְׁרָהּ כְּהִלְכָתָהּ,30 וּבֵין שֶׁטֶּפַח זֶה הוּא מִן הַצַּד, כְּגוֹן אִם הָיְתָה מְחִצָּה בּוֹלֶטֶת מִן הַצַּד לִפְנֵי הַסְּפָרִים רֹחַב טֶפַח – מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹת סָדִין בִּפְנֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהַסָּדִין הוּא תּוֹסֶפֶת אֹהֶל עֲרַאי.מח וְאַף שֶׁהַמְּחִצָּה הַבּוֹלֶטֶת שָׁם הִיא קְבוּעָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ג,מט שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהַתּוֹסֶפֶת הִיא קְבוּעָה:

Fig. 22: A partition a handbreadth wide that covers part of a bookcase containing holy texts
Fig. 22: A partition a handbreadth wide that covers part of a bookcase containing holy texts

6 All the above applies with regard to a temporary partition. However, [erecting] a permanent partition is forbidden under all circumstances, even if it was erected only for the sake of modesty. [Moreover,] it is even forbidden to make a permanent addition to a partition under any circumstances. Nevertheless, one may hang decorative tapestries on Shabbos – even if they are hung [with the intent that they remain there] permanently, since they are not being hung to establish a partition.31

ו וְכָל זֶה בִּמְחִצַּת עֲרַאי, אֲבָל מְחִצָּה קְבוּעָה אֲסוּרָה בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ נַעֲשֵׂית אֶלָּא לִצְנִיעוּת בְּעָלְמָא.נ וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהוֹסִיף עָלֶיהָ תּוֹסֶפֶת קָבוּעַ אָסוּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן.נא

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת סְדִינִים הַמְצֻיָּרִים לְנוֹי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקְּבוּעִין שָׁם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין שָׁם לִמְחִצָּה:נב, 31

7 One may hang a curtain on Shabbos in a doorway in place of a door,32even though it is hung [with the intent that it remain] there permanently. [The rationale is that] since it is tossed to and fro by ordinary winds, and furthermore, it does not prevent people from entering and departing, it is not categorized as a permanent partition, but rather as a temporary one. It is not forbidden to erect [such a partition,] as long as it is not constructed in order to release [someone from] a prohibition.33

Similarly, for this very reason, it is permitted to hang a paroches34 in front of an Aron HaKodesh35 on Shabbos. [This license applies]even if the ark lacks a door and the paroches serves as the fourth wall [and “door” of the ark. The rationale is that] it is a temporary partition, hung there only for the sake of modesty.

[The license above is granted] provided that when hanging the curtain or the like, one is careful not to fold it a handbreadth widthwise, for by doing so, he would be making a roof of a handbreadth for the structure.36 Therefore, if it is a large curtain, it should be hung by two people, for [two people] can hang it in concert without [the curtain] becoming folded. One person alone, by contrast, is forbidden [to hang a large curtain].

A canopy that has a roof-like [overhang] sewn and hung around it as a valance is forbidden to be hung on Shabbos under any circumstance, even if ten people [hang it together. The rationale is that] it is impossible for the valance not to become somewhat raised and [thereby] create a temporary shelter.

ז וְהַוִּילוֹןנג שֶׁתּוֹלִין לִפְנֵי הַפֶּתַחנד בִּמְקוֹם דֶּלֶת,נה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא תָּלוּי שָׁם בִּקְבִיעוּתנו – מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.נז, 32 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא נָע וָנָד בְּרוּחַ מְצוּיָה, וְגַם אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב לְהוֹלְכִים וְעוֹבְרִים וְשָׁבִים דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא מְחִצָּה קְבוּעָה אֶלָּא מְחִצַּת עֲרַאי,נח וְאֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר כְּשֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה לְהַתִּיר.נט, 33

וְכֵן הַפָּרֹכֶת34 שֶׁלִּפְנֵי אֲרוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ35 מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹתוֹ שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּתס מִטַּעַם זֶה,סא אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין דֶּלֶת לָאָרוֹן וְהַפָּרֹכֶת הוּא מְחִצָּה רְבִיעִית לָאָרוֹן,סב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּחִצַּת עֲרַאי הוּא וְאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי אֶלָּא לִצְנִיעוּת.סג

וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁתּוֹלֶה הַוִּילוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹסד שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּפֵל לְרָחְבּוֹ טֶפַחסה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁתּוֹלֶה אוֹתוֹ,סו שֶׁנִּמְצָא עוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל בְּגַג טֶפַח.סז, 36 לְפִיכָךְ, אִם הוּא וִילוֹן גָּדוֹל – תּוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁנַיִם,סח שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לִתְלוֹתוֹ כֻּלּוֹ כְּאֶחָד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַפֵּל,סט אֲבָל אֶחָד אָסוּר.ע

וְכִלָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ גַּגעא תָּפוּר וְתָלוּי סְבִיבָהּ כְּעֵין שָׂפָהעב – אָסוּר לִתְלוֹתָהּ כְּלָל בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בַּעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא תִגְבַּהּ הַשָּׂפָה מְעַט וְתֵעָשֶׂה אֹהֶל עֲרַאי:

8 [The following laws apply regarding] wooden [beams that are extended over the deck of a ship]. An end of one of these beams is inserted into [a socket] on one side of the ship, [the beam is] then bent in [the shape of] a semicircle,37 [and] the other end [of the beam is inserted into a socket] on the other side [of the ship], and mats are spread over them to offer protection from the sun or the rain.38 If the beams are – or even if only one of them is – a handbreadth wide, it is permitted to spread mats over them on Shabbos, for [these mats] are only being added to a temporary shelter39 that had already been constructed while it was still day38 [on Friday].40

[Moreover,] even if none of [the beams] are a handbreadth wide, but they are [placed] within three handbreadths of each other [and together the widths of the beams equal a handbreadth, the beams] are considered as a shelter. [The rationale is that whenever objects] are within three handbreadths of each other [they are considered as constituting a continuous span], based on [the principle of] lavud.41It is [therefore] permitted to spread a mat over them on Shabbos.38

Similarly, if a child’s bassinet has bands [of wood extending over it] and a sheet is spread over them to protect [the child] from flies, when the bands are made in the manner described above,42 it is permitted to spread the sheet over them on Shabbos. If they are not [made in this manner], it is forbidden.

ח עֵצִים שֶׁתּוֹקְעִים רֹאשָׁם הָאֶחָד בְּדֹפֶן הַסְּפִינָה, וְכוֹפְפִין רֹאשָׁם הַשֵּׁנִי בְּעִגּוּל37 עַד דֹּפֶן הַשֵּׁנִי, וּפוֹרְסִים עֲלֵיהֶם מַחְצְלָאוֹתעג לְהָגֵן מִן הַחַמָּהעד אוֹ מִן הַגְּשָׁמִים,עה, 38 אִם יֵשׁ בְּרֹחַב הָעֵצִים טֶפַח, אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם – מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס עֲלֵיהֶם מַחְצְלָאוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת,38 שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מוֹסִיף עַל אֹהֶל עֲרַאיעו, 39 הֶעָשׂוּי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.עז, 40

וַאֲפִילוּ אֵין בְּשׁוּם אֶחָד מֵהֶם רֹחַב טֶפַח, אִם הֵם סְמוּכִים זֶה לָזֶה בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִיםעח – הֲרֵי הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים אֹהֶל,עט שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים הוּא כְּלָבוּד,פ, 41 וּמֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס עֲלֵיהֶם מַחְצְלָאוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת.פא, 38 וְכֵן עֲרִיסַת הַתִּינוֹק שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חֲשׁוּקִים וּפוֹרְסִין עֲלֵיהֶם סָדִיןפב לְהָגֵן מִפְּנֵי הַזְּבוּבִים,פג אִם הַחֲשׁוּקִים הֵם בְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר42 – מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס עֲלֵיהֶם סָדִין בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאִם לָאו – אָסוּר:פד

Fig. 23: Mats spread over beams to provide shelter over the deck of a ship
Fig. 23: Mats spread over beams to provide shelter over the deck of a ship

Fig. 24: A tabletop placed over table legs
Fig. 24: A tabletop placed over table legs

9 Whenever one spreads [a covering similar to] a roof [over a structure] to use it for a specific intent, e.g., he places a tabletop over the table legs, there is no difficulty involved [in his doing so], even though he makes a temporary roof 43 since he does not have the intent to create a shelter, i.e., to cover the space beneath it.44 Nevertheless, if one also erects temporary walls under this roof, [the structure] is comparable to a shelter and may not be made in the conventional manner, i.e., [one may not build it] from below upward, but [must construct it] in an unconventional manner, from above downward.45 [Take,] for example, a bed whose legs are wide boards that are joined together like the sides of a chest,46 over which is spread a leather cover or over which beams are placed, upon which to sleep. [It is permitted to assemble such a bed on Shabbos.47 However,] one should not erect the legs first and then place the leather cover or beams on it, as he would during the week. [This is forbidden,] because it resembles building a structure. Instead, he should hold the leather covering or the beams in the air and place the feet under them. This does not resemble building a structure, because a structure is not built from above downward.

ט כָּל גַּג עֲרַאי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בּוֹ לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל43 שֶׁיַּאֲהִיל עַל מַה שֶּׁתַּחְתָּיו,44 אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ בְּגוּפוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמֵּשִׂים דַּף הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַל רַגְלָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בָּזֶה גַּג עֲרַאי – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל.פה

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם מַעֲמִיד גַּם מְחִצּוֹת עֲרַאי תַּחַת גַּג זֶהפו – הֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְאֹהֶל,פז וְאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה לְמַעְלָה, אֶלָּא מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּהפח דֶּרֶךְ שִׁנּוּי.פט, 45 כְּגוֹן מִטָּהצ שֶׁהָרַגְלַיִם שֶׁלָּהּ הֵם דַּפִּים מְחֻבָּרִים כְּדָפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה,צא, 46 וּפוֹרְסִים עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹרצב אוֹ שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים עֲלֵיהֶם קְרָשִׁים מִלְמַעְלָהצג לִישַׁן עֲלֵיהֶם – לֹא יַעֲמִיד אֶת הָרַגְלַיִם בַּתְּחִלָּה וְיַנִּיחַ הָעוֹר אוֹ הַקְּרָשִׁים עֲלֵיהֶםצד כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל,צה שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל,צו אֶלָּא יֹאחֵז הָעוֹר אוֹ הַקְּרָשִׁים תְּחִלָּה בָּאֲוִיר וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָשִׂים הָרַגְלַיִם תַּחְתֵּיהֶם, שֶׁאֵין זֶה דוֹמֶה לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל,צז שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִבְנוֹת מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה:צח, 47

10 [More stringent rules apply] if such a bed48 does not have a leather cover or beams on it, but instead [consists of] ropes strung [across its frame] from above and there are more than three handbreadths between one rope and another – in which instance, the principle of lavud does not apply. It is forbidden to spread a sheet over [this bed] initially on Shabbos,49 or to place a pillow or a cushion on it, because this resembles constructing a shelter. Similarly, it is forbidden [on Shabbos] to remove a garment placed over [the ropes], because that resembles demolishing a shelter. If, however, a pillow, a cushion, or other garment – a handbreadth in measure – was [already] spread over [the frame] before Shabbos, it is permitted to spread [cushions and bedclothes] over the entire bed on Shabbos, for one is merely adding to an existing temporary shelter.50

י וְאִם מִטָּה זוֹ48 אֵין עָלֶיהָ עוֹר אוֹ קְרָשִׁים, אֶלָּא הִיא מְסֹרֶגֶת בַּחֲבָלִים מִלְמַעְלָה, אִם יֵשׁ בֵּין חֶבֶל לְחֶבֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, שֶׁאֵין כָּאן לָבוּד – אָסוּר לִפְרוֹס עָלֶיהָ סָדִין בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,49 אוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ כַּר אוֹ כֶּסֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּה דוֹמֶה לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְסַלֵּק בֶּגֶד הַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁעָלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּסוֹתֵר אֹהֶל. וְאִם הָיָה עָלֶיהָ כַּר אוֹ כֶּסֶת אוֹ בֶּגֶד אַחֵר פָּרוּס מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כְּשִׁעוּר טֶפַח – מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס בְּשַׁבָּת עַל כָּל הַמִּטָּה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מוֹסִיף עַל אֹהֶל עֲרַאי:צט, 50

Fig. 25: A bed of the Talmudic era with a frame made from boards — (a) a space more than 3 handbreadths
Fig. 25: A bed of the Talmudic era with a frame made from boards — (a) a space more than 3 handbreadths

Fig. 26: A bed supported by bedposts — (a) a space more than 3 handbreadths
Fig. 26: A bed supported by bedposts — (a) a space more than 3 handbreadths

11 All of the above applies with regard to a bed with “walls,” i.e., its legs are [wide boards] like the sides of a chest, even if it does not have four “walls,” but only two, one opposite the other.51

In contrast, the beds of the present era, which do not stand on legs that would be considered as walls,52 are permitted to be erected [by standing] the legs first and then placing the beams upon them. Alternatively, if [such a bed] is [supported by] ropes strung [from one side to the other], it is permitted to spread a sheet over [the bed] initially on Shabbos, even if there are three handbreadths between one rope and another. This is not deemed as erecting a shelter, since constructing a temporary shelter such as this – when there is no intent to construct a [permanent] shelter53 – was only prohibited by the Sages when it has “walls” under it that reach the ground. [Only] then does it resemble a shelter [and its construction is prohibited]. The laws that apply when the “walls” reach less than three handbreadths from the ground will be explained in sec. 502.54

יא וְכָל זֶה בְּמִטָּה זוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ הָרַגְלַיִם שֶׁלָּהּ שֶׁהֵן כְּדָפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין לָהּ אַרְבַּע מְחִצּוֹת, אֶלָּא שְׁתַּיִם זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ,ק, 51 אֲבָל מִטּוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ, שֶׁאֵין עַל רַגְלֵיהֶן תּוֹרַת מְחִצּוֹת52 – מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִידָהּ תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ לְהַנִּיחַ בָּהּ הַקְּרָשִׁים,קא אוֹ אִם הִיא מְסֹרֶגֶת בַּחֲבָלִים – מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס עָלֶיהָ סָדִין בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת אַף אִם יֵשׁ בֵּין חֶבֶל לְחֶבֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם עֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֹהֶל עֲרַאי כָּזֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בּוֹ לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל53 – לֹא אֲסָרוּהוּ חֲכָמִים, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּחְתָּיו מְחִצּוֹתקב הַמַּגִּיעוֹת לָאָרֶץ,קג שֶׁאָז הוּא דוֹמֶה לְאֹהֶל.קד

וְאִם הֵן מַגִּיעוֹת בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"ב:קה, 54

12 When one arranges barrels one atop the other, placing one on top of two others, he should hold the upper one in his hand and arrange the lower ones below it.55 He should not, however, arrange the lower [barrels] first and then place the upper [barrel] upon them, because the empty space between [the barrels causes the arrangement to] resemble a shelter55 that has two walls and a roof.56 Therefore, [the arrangement] must be made in an unconventional manner, [proceeding] from above downward.

It is, however, permitted to place one book down on [a table], another at its side, and a third on top of them, even though an empty space of a handbreadth is left between them.57 [This is permitted] because [the person] has no need at all for the space between them, and thus [the arrangement] does not resemble a shelter58 in which instance the empty space is used. [In contrast, with regard to an arrangement of] barrels, one needs the empty space so that the barrels do not become mildewed – indeed, this is why [one] arranges them in this manner. Similarly, with regard to a bed – even if it has only two sideboards, one opposite the other – the person makes use of the space under it, because he places sandals and the like there. Needless to say, this applies [to an even greater degree] when [the bedframe] has four walls like the sides of a chest, because he can then place his possessions there like he does in a chest.

יב כְּשֶׁמְּסַדְּרִין חָבִיּוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ אַחַת עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁתַּיִם – אוֹחֵז בְּיָדוֹ הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וִיסַדֵּר הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת תַּחְתֶּיהָ.55 אֲבָל לֹא יְסַדֵּר הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת תְּחִלָּה וְיַנִּיחַ הָעֶלְיוֹנָה עֲלֵיהֶן,קו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֶחָלָל שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּינֵיהֶן דּוֹמֶה לְאֹהֶל,קז, 55 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי מְחִצּוֹת וְגַג,56 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּדֶרֶךְ שִׁנּוּי מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה.

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ סֵפֶר אֶחָד מִכָּאן וְאֶחָד מִכָּאן וְאֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן,קח אַף שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּינֵיהֶן חָלָל טֶפַח,קט, 57 שֶׁהוֹאִיל וְאֵין צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לָאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶםקי – אֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְאֹהֶל58 שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בַּחֲלָלוֹ.

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בֶּחָבִית – צָרִיךְ הוּא לָאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַפְּשׁוּ הֶחָבִיּוֹת,קיא שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ הוּא מְסַדְּרָם כֵּן. וְכֵן בַּמִּטָּה, אַף אִם אֵין לָהּ אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי מְחִצּוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹקיב – יֵשׁ לוֹ צֹרֶךְ בָּאֲוִיר שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ, שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם בִּנְתִינַת סַנְדָּלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם.קיג וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ אַרְבַּע מְחִצּוֹת כְּדָפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַצְנִיעַ שָׁם חֲפָצָיו כְּמוֹ בַּתֵּבָה:קיד

13 In all instances, when a temporary “roof” was erected without the intent of making a shelter, [our Sages] only prohibited spreading it out over the “walls” erected under it on Shabbos itself when the“roof” was not affixed to the “walls” while it was still day [on Friday]. If, however, [the “roof”] was already affixed [to the walls] at that time, but it was folded over and stored away, it is permitted to extend [the “roof”] and stand it upright on Shabbos, for example, a folding chair.59 When one wants to sit on it, it is unfolded and the leather [seat] opens and is extended; when [one wants to] put [it] away, he closes it and the leather [seat] folds up of its own accord. It is permitted to open such a chair on Shabbos as an initial preference, even if it has “walls” under it. [The rationale is that] it does not resemble the construction of a shelter since he is not doing anything [new] at all; the “walls” were already made and prepared together with the “roof” while it was still day [on Friday]. It is only that they are extended on Shabbos so as to sit on them.

For this reason, it is permitted to erect a marriage canopy60 and remove it,61 and similarly, to use a [folding] shelf that is affixed to the wall on which holy texts are placed, even though it has walls.

יג כָּל גַּג עֲרַאי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בּוֹ לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל – לֹא אָסְרוּ לְפָרְסוֹ עַל הַמְּחִצּוֹת שֶׁמַּעֲמִיד תַּחְתָּיו בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַגַּג קָבוּעַ בִּמְחִצּוֹת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה כְּבָר קָבוּעַ בָּהֶן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ נִכְפָּלִים וּמֻנָּחִים – מֻתָּר לְפָשְׁטָן וּלְהַעֲמִידָן בְּשַׁבָּת.קטו כְּגוֹן כִּסֵּאקטז הֶעָשׂוּי פְּרָקִים,59 וּכְשֶׁרוֹצִים לֵישֵׁב עָלָיו פּוֹתְחִין אוֹתוֹ וְהָעוֹר נִפְתָּחקיז וְנִמְתָּח,קיח וּכְשֶׁמְּסִירִין אוֹתוֹ סוֹגְרִין אוֹתוֹ וְהָעוֹר נִכְפָּל – מֻתָּר לְפָתְחוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,קיט אַף אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מְחִצּוֹת תַּחְתָּיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם,קכ שֶׁהֲרֵי עֲשׂוּיִים וְעוֹמְדִים הֵם כְּבָרקכא הַגַּג עִם הַמְּחִצּוֹת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֶלָּא שֶׁמּוֹתְחָן בְּשַׁבָּת לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם. וּמִטַּעַם זֶה מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִיד הַחֻפָּה60 וּלְסַלְּקָה61, וְכֵן הַדַּף הַקָּבוּעַ בַּכֹּתֶל שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עָלָיו סְפָרִים,קכב אַף אִם יֵשׁ לָהֶן מְחִצּוֹת:

14 Extending all the sides of the opening of a hanging filter in which wine dregs are strained62 is considered as making a shelter. It is forbidden to tilt [such a filter] and extend it [on Shabbos,even] if it was hanging with wine dregs [in it] while it was still day [on Friday].63 Although making a “roof” without walls is not forbidden, [since it is not seen] as erecting a shelter,64 in this instance, doing so was prohibited so that one does not follow his ordinary weekday practice,65 as this would be degrading to the Shabbos. It is, however, permitted to hang [the filter] and extend it so that one can put fruit or other objects in it or even use it to [further] filter wine or water that is already clear [and hence] may be filtered on Shabbos.66This is not [considered] degrading to the Shabbos at all.

יד מְשַׁמֶּרֶתקכג שֶׁתּוֹלִין אוֹתָהּ לָתֵת בָּהּ שְׁמָרִים לְסַנְּנָן וּמוֹתְחִים פִּיהָ לְכָל צַד62 – חָשׁוּב עֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל, וְאָסוּר לִנְטוֹתָהּקכד וּלְמָתְחָהּקכה אִם הָיְתָה תְּלוּיָה עִם הַשְּׁמָרִים מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.קכו, 63 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּג בְּלֹא מְחִצּוֹת אֵינוֹ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶלקכז, 64 – כָּאן אָסְרוּ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל,קכח, 65 מִשּׁוּם זִלְזוּל שַׁבָּת.קכט

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹתָהּ וּלְמָתְחָהּ כְּדֵי לִתֵּן בָּהּ פֵּרוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים,קל אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לְסַנֵּן בָּהּ יַיִן וּמַיִם צְלוּלִים, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְסַנְּנָם בְּשַׁבָּת,קלא, 66 וְאֵין כָּאן זִלְזוּל שַׁבָּת כְּלָל:

15 [The following laws apply to] a slanted shelter:67 If it has a flat roof a handbreadth wide at its top and it is made to stand [permanently],68 it is considered as a permanent structure. One who erects [such a structure] on Shabbos is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] building,69 and one who dismantles it is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] demolishing.70 [The above applies] even when [the shelter] does not have [a roof] the width of a handbreadth near its top, but the span that is within three handbreadths of [the shelter’s] top is a handbreadth wide [see fig. 27]. [The rationale is that] whenever there is [a span of] less than three handbreadths, we apply the principle of lavud, and thus it is as if [the shelter] has a roof a handbreadth wide. [Hence, it is considered as a permanent structure when it is made to stand permanently.]

If, however, [the shelter] does not have a roof a handbreadth wide or [a span] the width of a handbreadth within three handbreadths of its top, it is considered a temporary shelter. One who erects it initially on Shabbos is exempt [according to Scriptural Law]. According to Rabbinic decree, however, erecting or taking down [such a shelter] are both forbidden, even if it is not built at all to last.

טו אֹהֶל מְשֻׁפָּע,67 אִם יֵשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גַּג רָחָב טֶפַחקלב בְּיֹשֶׁר,קלג אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ טֶפַח אֶלָּא יֵשׁ בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לְרֹאשׁוֹ רָחָב טֶפַח, שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים הוּא כְּלָבוּד,קלד וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ יֵשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גַּג רָחָב טֶפַחקלה – הֲרֵי זֶה אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ,קלו, 68 אִם הוּא עָשׂוּי לְהִתְקַיֵּם,קלז וְהַנּוֹטֶה אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה,קלח, 69 וְהַמְפָרְקוֹ – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר,קלט, 70 כְּמוֹ סוֹתֵר בִּנְיָן גָּמוּר.קמ

אֲבָל אִם אֵין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גַּג טֶפַח, וְלֹא בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לְרֹאשׁוֹ רֹחַב טֶפַח – הֲרֵי זֶה אֹהֶל עֲרַאי, וְהָעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת – פָּטוּר,קמא אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קמב בֵּין לִנְטוֹתוֹ בֵּין לְפָרְקוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְקִיּוּם כְּלָל:קמג

Fig. 27: A slanted shelter — (a) the roof a handbreadth wide
Fig. 27: A slanted shelter — (a) the roof a handbreadth wide

Fig. 28: A tent with a span of a handbreadth within its three uppermost handbreadths
Fig. 28: A tent with a span of a handbreadth within its three uppermost handbreadths

16 What is implied? There is a folded cloth, draped over a pole, one half of which hangs down on one side of the pole and the other half on the other side, and both sides reach the ground.71 A person enters between the two sides [of the cloth] and sleeps in their shade. It is forbidden to hang such a cloth on Shabbos, even though it does not have a roof a handbreadth wide nor a span the width of a handbreadth within three handbreadths of its top.72 If [the cloth] was wrapped around the pole while it was still day [on Friday] and has strands hanging from its ends from which it can be pulled down from the pole to spread out in all directions, it may be pulled down by these strands on Shabbos. [The rationale can be explained as follows:] Since these strands were already hanging from it while it was still day [on Friday], and they are intended to be used to pull [the cloth] down and spread it out, their presence makes it as if the length of a handbreadth [of the cloth] was already spread out while it was still day [on Friday]. In such an instance, [by using these strands,] it is considered as if one is merely adding to a temporary shelter on Shabbos.73

[Moreover,] one may also take [the cloth] off the pole [on Shabbos. The rationale is that] whenever it is permitted to extend a shelter and [the forbidden labor of] building does not apply, [the forbidden labor of] demolishing also does not apply and it is permitted to take apart [the shelter]. The only exception is when one adds to a shelter of a handbreadth that was made while it was still day [on Friday. Although it is permitted to add to the shelter on Shabbos,]73 one may take down only the addition, not the shelter that was made the previous day. Nevertheless, in this instance, it is permitted to take the cloth off the pole,74 because a handbreadth’s length of it was not actually extended while it was still day [on Friday]. It is only that the strands are effective as if a handbreadth’s length was [already hanging down].

טז כֵּיצַד? טַלִּית כְּפוּלָהקמד שֶׁכּוֹפְלִין אוֹתָהּ עַל הַמּוֹט,קמה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁחֶצְיָהּ תְּלוּיָה עַל הַמּוֹט מִכָּאן וְחֶצְיָהּ מִכָּאן, וּשְׁנֵי קִצְווֹתֶיהָ מַגִּיעִין לָאָרֶץ,71 וְנִכְנָס וְיָשֵׁן שָׁם בַּצֵּל בֵּין שְׁתֵּי קִצְווֹתֶיהָקמו – אָסוּר לִתְלוֹתָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,קמז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ גַּג טֶפַח וְלֹא בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְרֹאשָׁהּ רָחָב טֶפַח.קמח, 72

וְאִם הָיְתָה כְּרוּכָה עַל הַמּוֹט מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קמט וְיֵשׁ בְּקִצְווֹתֶיהָ חוּטִין תְּלוּיִיןקנ שֶׁמּוֹשְׁכִין אוֹתָהּ בָּהֶם עַל הַמּוֹט לְפָרְסָהּ לְכָאן וּלְכָאןקנא – מֻתָּר לְמָשְׁכָהּ בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת,קנב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחוּטִין אֵלּוּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם תְּלוּיִים בָּהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּדֵי לְמָשְׁכָהּ בָּהֶם לְפָרְסָהּ – הֲרֵי הֵם מוֹעִילִים כְּמוֹ אִם הָיְתָה פְּרוּסָה רָחָב טֶפַח מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קנג שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא תּוֹסֶפֶת אֹהֶל עֲרַאי.73

וּמֻתָּר גַּם כֵּן לְפָרְקָהּ מֵעַל הַמּוֹט,קנד שֶׁכָּל אֹהֶל שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִנְטוֹתוֹ וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּנְיָן – אֵין בּוֹ גַם כֵּן מִשּׁוּם סְתִירָה וּמֻתָּר לְפָרְקוֹ,קנה חוּץ מִכְּשֶׁמּוֹסִיף עַל אֹהֶל טֶפַח הֶעָשׂוּי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,73 שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר אֶלָּא לִסְתּוֹר אֶת הַתּוֹסֶפֶת, אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הָאֹהֶל הֶעָשׂוּי מֵאֶתְמוֹל. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר כָּאן לְפָרֵק הַטַּלִּית מֵעַל הַמּוֹט,74 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּאן לֹא הָיָה אֹהֶל טֶפַח מַמָּשׁ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַחוּטִין מוֹעִילִין כְּמוֹ רֹחַב טֶפַח:

17 When does the above leniency apply? When [the cloth] does not have a roof a handbreadth wide nor a span a handbreadth wide within three handbreadths of its top.72 When, by contrast, it has a roof a handbreadth wide or a span a handbreadth wide within three handbreadths of its top, it is categorized as a permanent shelter [and it is forbidden to add to it. Accordingly,] the strands hanging from it are of no consequence,75 for it is forbidden even to add76 to a permanent shelter. True, this cloth is not [hung] in a manner in which it will remain in this place, for the person intends to take it down. Nevertheless, since it is extended in the manner resembling a permanent shelter, our Sages did not grant any leniency at all regarding it. [The rationale is that the person] might change his mind and decide that it should remain permanently extended in this position.77 Thus, he will have made an addition to a permanent shelter.

[Indeed,] the license [granted by our Sages] to add to a temporary shelter was granted only in an instance where it is entirely uncommon to leave [the shelter] extended in its present state,78 e.g., spreading mats over a beam or on a ship as described above.79 [In those instances,] it is entirely uncommon to leave the mats hanging permanently in the manner that they are spread out on Shabbos. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

יז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֵין לָהּ גַּג טֶפַח וְלֹא בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְרֹאשָׁהּ רֹחַב טֶפַח,72 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ גַּג טֶפַח, אוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְרֹאשָׁהּ רֹחַב טֶפַח, שֶׁזֶּהוּ אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ – אֵין הַחוּטִין מוֹעִילִין כְּלוּם,קנו, 75 שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לְהוֹסִיף76 עַל אֹהֶל קֶבַע אָסוּר.קנז

וְאַף אִם טַלִּית זוֹ אֵין עֲשׂוּיָה לְהִתְקַיֵּם כָּאן, שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְפָרְקָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא נְטוּיָה כְּדֶרֶךְ נְטִיַּת אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ – לֹא הֵקֵלּוּ בָּהּ חֲכָמִים כְּלוּם, שֶׁמָּא יִמָּלֵךְ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁתְּהֵא קְבוּעָה כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִיא נְטוּיָה,77 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהוֹסִיף אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ. וְלֹא הֵקֵלּוּ לְהוֹסִיף עַל אֹהֶל עֲרַאי, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לְקָבְעוֹ כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא נָטוּי,78 כְּגוֹן פְּרִישַׂת מַחֲצֶלֶת עַל גַּבֵּי קֻנְדֵּסִין אוֹ עַל הַסְּפִינָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קנח, 79 שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לִקְבּוֹעַ הַמַּחֲצֶלֶת שָׁם כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִיא פְּרוּסָה בְּשַׁבָּת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:

18 The curtain80 [of a bridal bed] that does not have a roof a handbreadth wide or span a handbreadth wide within three handbreadths of its top may be extended and taken down on Shabbos,81 since it is prepared [and hung around the bed] for this [specific] purpose.[This leniency is granted,] provided [the curtain] does not hang down a handbreadth from [the surface of] the bed.81 [The rationale for concern in such an instance is that] the curtain was made to shield [the couple] from the sun or from another [disturbing] factor,82 and it is categorized as a shelter. True, it does not have a roof. When, however, it hangs down a handbreadth from the bed, the bed is considered as [its] “roof” because of the “wall” a handbreadth long that extends around it. Granted, the bed is not intended to serve as protection [against the sun or the elements] and it is not categorized as a shelter. Nevertheless, since this handbreadth is termed as [part of] a shelter – [for] it is part of the curtain that is made to shelter – it is [considered that] there exists a shelter with a roof.

There is, by contrast, no [halachic] difficulty concerning a bed that does not have a curtain, even though the sheet that is spread over it descends a handbreadth beneath the bed from all sides. Although the bed becomes a “roof” for this “wall” that is a handbreadth in length, neither the handbreadth of the curtain nor the bed is categorized as a shelter. For this reason, it is permitted to spread a tablecloth over a table initially on Shabbos even when it descends a handbreadth below the table on all sides.

יח כִּלַּת80 חֲתָנִיםקנט שֶׁאֵין בְּגַגָּהּ טֶפַח וְלֹא בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְגַגָּהּ טֶפַח,קס הוֹאִיל וְהִיא מְתֻקֶּנֶת לְכָךְקסא – מֻתָּר לִנְטוֹתָהּ וּמֻתָּר לְפָרְקָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת.81 וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא מְשֻׁלְשֶׁלֶת לְמַטָּה מִן הַמִּטָּה טֶפַח,קסב, 81 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַכִּלָּה עֲשׂוּיָה לְהָגֵן מִן הַחַמָּהקסג אוֹ מִדָּבָר אַחֵר,קסד, 82 וְיֵשׁ שֵׁם אֹהֶל עָלֶיהָ,קסה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לָהּ גַּג, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִיא מְשֻׁלְשֶׁלֶת לְמַטָּה מִן הַמִּטָּה טֶפַח – הֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה נַעֲשֵׂית גַּג לַקִּיר טֶפַח שֶׁסְּבִיב הַמִּטָּה.קסו וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמִּטָּה אֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה לְהָגֵן, וְאֵין שֵׁם אֹהֶל עָלֶיהָ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֵׁם אֹהֶל עַל קִיר טֶפַח זֶה שֶׁהוּא מִכְּלַל הַכִּלָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לְהָגֵן – הֲרֵי יֵשׁ כָּאן אֹהֶל עִם גַּג.קסז

אֲבָל מִטָּה שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ כִּלָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַסָּדִין הַפָּרוּס עָלֶיהָ יוֹרֵד מִמֶּנָּה טֶפַח לְמַטָּה מִן הַמִּטָּה מִכָּל צְדָדֶיהָ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַמִּטָּה נַעֲשֵׂית גַּג לְקִיר טֶפַח זֶה – הֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן שֵׁם אֹהֶל כְּלָל,קסח לֹא עַל טֶפַח זֶה וְלֹא עַל הַמִּטָּה. וּמִטַּעַם זֶה מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס מַפָּה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף אִם הִיא יוֹרֶדֶת לְמַטָּה מִן הַשֻּׁלְחָן טֶפַח מִכָּל צְדָדָיו:קסט

19 A cloth that is spread over a barrel83 to cover it should not be spread over the entire barrel, because that [resembles creating] a shelter.84 Instead, a small portion of [the barrel’s] opening should be left uncovered. [The above applies] when the barrel is not entirely full, but rather there remains a handbreadth of empty space [devoid of liquid], and thus when one spreads the cloth over the entire opening, he is creating a shelter over an empty space of a handbreadth. If, however, the barrel is not lacking a handbreadth [of liquid,] the concept of creating a shelter does not apply, because any shelter that lacks a handbreadth of empty space is not considered as a shelter at all.85

When, however, there is a handbreadth of empty space, even though the walls around this empty space – i.e., the walls of the barrel – already existed while it was still day [on Friday, stringency is required. One might object, arguing that in this instance,] there should not be a prohibition because of [creating] a shelter, for it is permitted to place a pot on a range on Shabbos, as stated in sec. 253[:14].86 One is not considered to have constructed a shelter over the empty space of the range, because the walls of the range already existed while it was still day [on Friday], and [our Sages only] forbade making a temporary roof when the person did not intend to make a shelter in an instance where the person erects the walls under [the roof] on Shabbos, as explained above.87 Similarly, [it would seem that when placing] a cover over the barrel, one does not intend to create a shelter, [but] merely to cover it. Nevertheless, [covering a barrel] is not comparable to [placing] a pot on a range, because the openings of the barrels of [the] time [of the Talmud] were far wider than the openings of the ranges [in that era. Thus,] covering the entire opening of the barrel [could be said to] resemble making a shelter, even though the walls were made while it was still day [on Friday].

Similarly, [on Shabbos,] it is forbidden to remove a covering that covers the entire opening of a barrel, because this resembles demolishing a structure. [Such a cover] does not resemble the bung [of a barrel], which is permitted to be removed and [then] returned to its place, as explained in sec. 314[:14], because the bung was designed for that purpose and its design indicates that it is designated for this purpose. Therefore, it does not appear as [the roof of] a shelter. In contrast, when one covers [a barrel] with a cloth, [there is a resemblance to making a shelter]. Even if a cloth is designated for this purpose, it is not designed in a manner that indicates that it is designated for this purpose. The same laws apply with regard to covering other containers whose openings are very wide, like the wide openings of the barrels of that era.

יט בֶּגֶד שֶׁשּׁוֹטְחִיןקע עַל פִּי הֶחָבִיתקעא, 83 לְכַסּוֹתָהּ – לֹא יִשְׁטָחֶנּוּ עַל פְּנֵי כֻלָּה, מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל,קעב, 84 אֶלָּא יַנִּיחַ מִקְצָת פִּיהָ מְגֻלָּה.קעג וְהוּא שֶׁהֶחָבִית אֵינָהּ מְלֵאָה לְגַמְרֵי, אֶלָּא הִיא חֲסֵרָה טֶפַח, שֶׁאָז כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹטֵחַ הַבֶּגֶד עַל פְּנֵי כֻלָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל עַל חָלָל טֶפַח. אֲבָל אִם אֵינָהּ חֲסֵרָה טֶפַח – אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל,קעד שֶׁכָּל אֹהֶל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ חָלָל טֶפַח – אֵינוֹ קָרוּי אֹהֶל כְּלָל.קעה, 85

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם חָלָל טֶפַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּחִצּוֹת שֶׁל חָלָל זֶה, דְּהַיְנוּ דָּפְנֵי הֶחָבִית, הָיוּ כְּבָר עֲשׂוּיוֹת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְאִם כֵּן אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ קְדֵרָה עַל פִּי הַכִּירָה בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רנ"ג,קעו, 86 וְאֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל עַל חֲלַל הַכִּירָה, הוֹאִיל וְדָפְנֵי הַכִּירָה עֲשׂוּיוֹת וְעוֹמְדוֹת כְּבָר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קעז וְלֹא אָסְרוּ גַּג עֲרַאי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בּוֹ לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמַּעֲמִיד מְחִצּוֹת תַּחְתָּיו בְּשַׁבָּתקעח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קעט, 87 וְהַכִּסּוּי שֶׁעַל פִּי הֶחָבִית גַּם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בּוֹ לְאֹהֶל אֶלָּא לְכִסּוּי בְּעָלְמָא – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִקְדֵרָה עַל גַּבֵּי כִירָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁפִּי הֶחָבִית שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם הָיָה רָחָב הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִפִּי הַכִּירָה, וּכְשֶׁמְּכַסֶּה כָּל פִּיהָ – הֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל, אַף שֶׁהַמְּחִצּוֹת עֲשׂוּיוֹת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.קפ

וְהוּא הַדִּין שֶׁאָסוּר לִטּוֹל הַכִּסּוּי הַמְכַסֶּה כָּל פִּיהָ אִם הִיא חֲסֵרָה טֶפַח, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְסוֹתֵר אֹהֶל.קפא וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִמְגוּפָה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִטְּלָהּ וּלְהַחֲזִירָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ד,קפב לְפִי שֶׁהַמְּגוּפָה מְתֻקֶּנֶת לְכָךְ, וְתִקּוּנָהּ מוֹכִיחַ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לְכָךְ, לָכֵן אֵינָהּ נִרְאֵית כְּאֹהֶל, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁמְּכַסֶּה בְּבֶגֶד, אַף שֶׁהַבֶּגֶד מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין בּוֹ תִּקּוּן הַמּוֹכִיחַ עָלָיו שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לְכָךְ. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכִסּוּי שְׁאָר כֵּלִים הָרְחָבִים בְּיוֹתֵר, כְּרֹחַב פִּי הֶחָבִיּוֹת שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם:

20 There are authorities who maintain that this prohibition was not applied with regard to a barrel or the like, but only to a tank or the like,88 [whose opening] is uncommonly wide, [far wider than ordinary openings]. One should follow the stringency of the first opinion. [Nevertheless,] those who follow the leniency of the latter opinion should not be admonished, because there are authorities who maintain that the concept of [erecting] a shelter does not apply at all regarding the coverings of containers, even [those of] containers that are uncommonly wide.

כ וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקפג שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ כֵּן בְּחָבִית וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ, אֶלָּא בְּגִיגִית וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ88 שֶׁהִיא רְחָבָה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהַמְּקִלִּין כַּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה – אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם,קפד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקפה שֶׁאֵין בְּכִסּוּי כֵּלִים מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל כְּלָל אַף בְּכֵלִים הָרְחָבִים יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי: