SECTION 313 Carrying a Door, a Window, or a Lock on Shabbos (1-25)

סימן שיג טִלְטוּל דֶּלֶת וְחַלּוֹן וְהַמַּנְעוּל בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ"ה סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply to] an object used to plug a window1 – whether a board or any other article used to plug a window, even if it is an object that is not categorized as an implement (k’li)2 in any context, and one did not use it to plug a window during the week, but seeks to use it to plug [a window] for the first time on Shabbos:3If [the person] thought of using [the object] to plug [a window] (on Shabbos) while it was still day [on Friday] (or he thought to designate [the object] so that it would be ready to be used as a plug for a window, even though he did not specifically think of [using it] on Shabbos), he is permitted [to carry the object and to plug the window with it].4 Thinking about [using the object] for this purpose places it in the category of utensils. [Hence,] it is permitted to be carried like all other utensils. (For as stated in sec. 308[:50],5 thought is effective in [changing the status of] an object that is commonly designated for [a specific function]. If one once plugged [a window] with this [object] before the commencement of Shabbos, it is categorized as a k’li because of that action, even though he did not [specifically] think of using it as a plug on [this] Shabbos, since it is an object that is commonly designated for that purpose, as stated [in sec. 308:51, 53].)

It is even permitted to plug a roof’s skylight with a plug that is permitted to be carried, even though it was not tied or hanging there while it was still day [on Friday].6 Doing so does not constitute making a tent on Shabbos,7because one is merely making an addition to a tent,8 and this addition is only temporary; it is not made to last for long, since the aperture is opened frequently. Making a temporary addition to a tent is permitted [on Shabbos]. What is forbidden is making an entire temporary tent, as will be explained in sec. 315[:2].9 For this reason, if this plug is not designated to be opened frequently,10 but only after long intervals, it is forbidden to plug even a window in a wall with [the object], for then it is as if one is adding a permanent structure to the wall.

א פְּקָק הַחַלּוֹן,א, 1 כְּגוֹן לוּחַ אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁסּוֹתְמִין בּוֹ הַחַלּוֹן,ב אֲפִלּוּ הוּא דָבָר שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי2 כְּלָל,ג וְגַם לֹא פָקַק בּוֹ מֵעוֹלָם בְּחֹל,ד וּבָא לִפְקוֹק בּוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת3 – אִם חָשַׁב עָלָיוה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לִפְקוֹק בּוֹ (בְּשַׁבָּת, אוֹ שֶׁחָשַׁב עָלָיו שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מוּכָן וְעוֹמֵדו לִהְיוֹת פְּקָק לַחַלּוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חָשַׁב עַל הַשַּׁבָּת בְּפֵרוּשׁז) – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר,4 שֶׁעַל יְדֵי מַחֲשָׁבָה זוֹ יָרְדָה עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי וְהֻתַּר בְּטִלְטוּל כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִיםח (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"חט, 5 שֶׁמַּחֲשָׁבָה מוֹעֶלֶת בְּדָבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְיַחֲדוֹ לְכָךְ. וְאִם פָּקַק בּוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אַף שֶׁלֹּא חָשַׁב עָלָיו לִפְקוֹק בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, יָרְדָה עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עַל יְדֵי פְּקִיקָה זוֹ,י כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דָבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְיַחֲדוֹ לְכָךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם יא).

וַאֲפִלּוּ אֲרֻבָּה שֶׁבַּגַּג מֻתָּר לִפְקוֹקיב בַּפְּקָק הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר וְתָלוּי שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.יג, 6 וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם עֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל בְּשַׁבָּת,7 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה בָּזֶה אֶלָּא תּוֹסָפוֹת לְאֹהֶל,יד, 8 וְהוֹסָפָה זוֹ עֲרַאי הִיא,טו שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה לְהִתְקַיֵּם הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה לְהִפָּתֵחַ תָּדִיר,טז וְתוֹסֶפֶת אֹהֶל עֲרַאי מֻתֶּרֶת, וְלֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הָאֹהֶל עֲרַאי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שט"ו.יז, 9 לְפִיכָךְ אִם אֵין פְּקָק זֶה עָשׂוּי לְהִפָּתֵחַ תָּדִיר10 אֶלָּא לְעִתִּים רְחוֹקִים – אָסוּר לִפְקֹק, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא חַלּוֹן שֶׁבַּכֹּתֶל,יח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹסִיף בִּנְיָן הַקָּבוּעַ בַּכֹּתֶל:יט

2 A rod that was prepared to be used to lock [a door]11 – i.e., it is inserted into the wall next to the door [to serve as a bolt] – need not be tied to the door while it is still day [on Friday].12 For even if the rod was not tied to the door and hanging there while it was still day [on Friday], but was inserted [into the wall] on Shabbos, it is not considered as building on Shabbos,since [the person] does not leave [the rod] there. That would make it a permanent part of the building.13 Instead, he frequently removes and inserts it.

Nevertheless, this act bears a slightly closer resemblance to building than plugging up a window or a skylight.14 Therefore, even though: a) one already thought about using a rod to bolt a door closed on Shabbos while it was still day [on Friday], b) he even designated [the rod] for this purpose for all time, and c) he even used [the rod] as a bolt many times during the week and set it aside for this purpose, he is forbidden to bolt the door with it on Shabbos unless he modifies it by performing an act that prepares it to be used for this purpose.15 The modification [must] indicate that [the rod] is prepared to be used for this purpose,16 (for then it is apparent that he is not leaving [the rod] there and making it a permanent part of the building,13 but rather it is intended to frequently be removed and inserted. The act of modification must make [this purpose] evident, for the object becomes categorized as a k’li through this modification. [Hence, using it is permitted because] it is not common practice to install a k’li in a building and leave it there as a permanent part of the structure.)

[After such a modification is made,] it is permitted to bolt [the door] with [the rod] even though it was never used as a bolt before the Shabbos commenced. As is the law applying to all other keilim used for permitted tasks,17 [the rod] is also permitted to be carried even for reasons other than to use it for a permitted task or because one requires the place it occupies.18 If, however, the situation is such that it is forbidden to bolt the door with [the rod] on Shabbos, even if [the rod] is designated to bolt [the door] with during the week, [the rod] may be carried only to be used for a permitted task or because one requires the place it occupies, as is the law applying to keilim designated to be used for forbidden tasks.18

ב וְקָנֶה שֶׁהִתְקִינוֹ לִהְיוֹת נוֹעֵל בּוֹ,כ, 11 שֶׁתּוֹחֲבוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל אֵצֶל הַדֶּלֶתכא – אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּקְשְׁרֶנּוּ בַּדֶּלֶת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,כב, 12 שֶׁאַף שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה קָשׁוּר וְתָלוּי שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְתוֹחֲבוֹ שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה בְּשַׁבָּת, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ מְבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם,כג, 13 אֶלָּא עָשׂוּי לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וּלְהַכְנִיסוֹ תָּדִיר.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, דּוֹמֶה הוּא קְצָת לְבִנְיָן יוֹתֵר מִפְּקָק הַחַלּוֹן וְהָאֲרֻבָּה.כד, 14 וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף אִם חָשַׁב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאַף אִם יִחֲדוֹ לְכָךְ לְעוֹלָם, וְאַף אִם כְּבָר נָעַל בּוֹ פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת בְּחֹל וְהוּא מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ – אָסוּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן תִּקְּנוֹ וְעָשָׂה בוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה וֶהֱכִינוֹ לְכָךְכה, 15 בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁתִּקּוּנוֹ מוֹכִיחַ עָלָיו שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לְכָךְכו, 16 (שֶׁאָז נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם,13 אֶלָּא עָשׂוּי לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וּלְהַכְנִיסוֹ תָּדִיר, שֶׁכָּךְ מוֹכִיחַ מַעֲשֵׂה תִּקּוּנוֹ שֶׁעַל יְדֵי מַעֲשֵׂה תִּקּוּן זֶה יֵשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי, וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְשַׁקֵּעַ כְּלִי בְּבִנְיָן לְבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם לְעוֹלָםכז). וְאָז מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ אַף אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא נָעַל בּוֹ מֵעוֹלָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.

וְגַם מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ,18 כְּדִין שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁמְּלַאכְתָּם לְהֶתֵּר,כח, 17

אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאָסוּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ בְּחֹל – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ אוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ, כְּדֵין כְּלִי הַמְיֻחָד לִמְלֶאכֶת אִסּוּר:כט, 18

3 [Inserting] a nager, i.e., a peg that is inserted into a hole in the doorsill to lock the door, resembles building9 because of its insertion into the doorsill more than inserting a rod in the wall [that is only inserted] from the side [as a bolt. Hence, ordinarily,] such a peg may not be used to bolt the door closed [on Shabbos], even if it is designated for that purpose and even if [the peg] was modified in a manner that indicates that it is prepared to be used for that purpose. Instead, [the peg] must be attached19 [to the door or the doorframe]20 while it is still day [on Friday].9

([After the peg is attached,] it may then be used to bolt the door, even if it was never previously used for that purpose and even if [the peg] was not designated for [that purpose].) [The rationale is that] since [the peg] was connected and attached [to the door] while it was still day [on Friday], it does not appear that one is building on Shabbos.

ג וְנֶגֶר ל שֶׁהוּא יָתֵד שֶׁתּוֹחֲבִין אוֹתוֹ בְּחוֹר שֶׁבָּאַסְקֻפָּה לִנְעוֹל הַדֶּלֶת,לא הוֹאִיל וְתוֹחֲבִין אוֹתוֹ בָּאַסְקֻפָּה לְמַטָּה – דּוֹמֶה הוּא לְבִנְיָן9 יוֹתֵר מִקָּנֶהלב שֶׁתּוֹחֲבִין בַּכֹּתֶל מִן הַצַּד, וְאֵין נוֹעֲלִים בּוֹ, אַף שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לְכָךְ, וְאַף אִם תִּקְּנוֹ וְעָשָׂה בוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה הַמּוֹכִיחַ עָלָיו שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לְכָךְ,לג אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קָשׁוּר19 שָׁם20 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםלד, 9 (וְאָז מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ אַף שֶׁלֹּא נָעַל בּוֹ עֲדַיִן מֵעוֹלָם, וְאַף אִם לֹא יִחֲדוֹ לְכָךְ), שֶׁהוֹאִיל וְהוּא קָשׁוּר וּמְחֻבָּר שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה בְּשַׁבָּת:לה

4 How should [the peg] be attached [to the door]? When [the peg] has a bulbous head,21 i.e., its head is thick and is fit to be used as a pestle to crush and grind pepper corns, [then] since it resembles a k’li, using it does not appear to resemble building so closely, because it is not common practice to install a k’li in a building and make it a permanent part of the structure. [See figs. 12 and 13.] Therefore, [the peg] need not be strongly attached [to the door]. It is sufficient for [the peg] to be attached with a thin string, even if this string is not [strong enough] to hold it – i.e., if [a person] wanted to remove [the peg] from there and carry it with this string, [the string] would immediately snap, this [form of attachment] suffices.9 [Moreover, it is acceptable] even if [the peg] is not attached to the door itself, but to the door’s bolt (or to the doorframe. True, it is not that evident that [the peg] was tied there for the sake of locking the door before the Shabbos commenced, since: a) it is not attached to the door itself, and b) it is not attached with a strong bond. Nevertheless, [one who bolts the door closed with this peg] does not appear to be building on Shabbos since [the peg] resembles a k’li.)

[One may bolt the door with such a peg] even if the string is long and the peg is not at all hanging in the air when it is removed from the hole in the doorway, but lies entirely on the ground.22 This is not of consequence because [the peg] was attached to [the door or doorframe] with a string before Shabbos commenced.

ד כֵּיצַד יְהֵא קָשׁוּר? אִם יֵשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גְּלֻסְטְרָא,לו, 21 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁרֹאשׁוֹ עָב וְרָאוּי לְבוּכְנָא לִכְתּוֹשׁ וְלִשְׁחוֹק בּוֹ פִּלְפְּלִין,לז הוֹאִיל וְהוּא דוֹמֶה לִכְלִילח – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כָּל כָּךְ כְּבוֹנֶה,לט שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְשַׁקֵּעַ כְּלִי בְּבִנְיָן לְבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם. מ וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקֶּשֶׁר אַמִּיץ, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אִם קָשׁוּר בְּחֶבֶל דַּק, שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִהְיוֹת נִטָּל בְּחֶבֶל זֶה, שֶׁאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה לִטְּלוֹ מִשָּׁם וּלְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יְדֵי חֶבֶל זֶה, מִיָּד הָיָה נִפְסָק – דַּי בְּכָךְ,מא, 9 אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר בַּדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ אֶלָּא בִּבְרִיחַ הַדֶּלֶתמב (אוֹ בַּמְּזוּזָה,מג שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁקָּשׁוּר שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בִּשְׁבִיל נְעִילַת הַדֶּלֶת, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר בַּדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ, וְגַם הוֹאִיל וְאֵין הַקֶּשֶׁר אַמִּיץ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה בְּשַׁבָּת, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא דוֹמֶה לִכְלִימד).

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַחֶבֶל הוּא אָרֹךְ וְאֵין הַנֶּגֶר תָּלוּי כְּלָל בָּאֲוִיר כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹמְטוֹ מֵהַחוֹר שֶׁבַּמִּפְתָּן, אֶלָּא כֻּלּוֹ מֻנָּח בָּאָרֶץ22 – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,מה הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מְחֻבָּר שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עַל יְדֵי הַחֶבֶל:מו


Fig. 12 and 13: A peg with a bulbous head that is attached to a door
Fig. 12 and 13: A peg with a bulbous head that is attached to a door

5 [More stringent rules apply] if [the peg] does not have a bulbous head.23 If [the peg] is attached to the door itself 24 – even if [the peg] is attached with a thin string that is not [strong] enough to carry it25 – that is sufficient. ([The rationale is that] it is evident that [the peg] was attached there while it was still day [on Friday] for the sake of bolting the door closed, since it was attached to the door itself even though it was not attached with a strong bond. Hence, it does not appear that the person is building on Shabbos.)[This leniency applies] even when [the peg] lies entirely on the ground after it is removed from the hole.

If, by contrast, [the peg] is not attached to the door itself, but to a bolt (or the doorpost), it must be attached with a bond that is sufficiently strong that [the peg] could be carried by [the cord or string].24 (For when [the peg] is attached firmly with a strong cord, it is apparent that the peg is set aside to bolt the door closed, even if it is not attached to the door itself. Hence, it will not appear that the person is building on Shabbos.) [This leniency applies] even if [the peg] lies entirely on the ground when it is removed from the hole in the doorsill.

ה וְאִם אֵין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גְּלֻסְטְרָא,מז, 23 אִם הוּא קָשׁוּר בַּדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ,מח, 24 אֲפִלּוּ קָשׁוּר בְּחֶבֶל דַּק שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִנָּטֵל בּוֹמט, 25 – דַּי בְּכָךְ (לְפִי שֶׁנִּכָּר יָפֶה שֶׁקָּשׁוּר שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בִּשְׁבִיל נְעִילַת הַדֶּלֶת, הוֹאִיל וְקָשׁוּר בַּדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ, נ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַקֶּשֶׁר אַמִּיץ, וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה בְּשַׁבָּתנא), וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כֻּלּוֹ מֻנָּח בָּאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹמְטוֹ מֵהַחוֹר.נב

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר בַּדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ אֶלָּא בַּבְּרִיחַ (אוֹ בַּמְּזוּזָהנג) – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקֶּשֶׁר אַמִּיץ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לִנָּטֵל בּוֹנד, 24 (שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא קָשׁוּר יָפֶה בְּחֶבֶל חָזָק, נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לִנְעִילַת דֶּלֶת, אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר בַּדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ, וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה בְּשַׁבָּתנה), וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כֻּלּוֹ מֻנָּח בָּאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹמְטוֹ מֵהַחוֹר שֶׁבָּאַסְקֻפָּה:נו

6 All the above applies when the doorsill is raised and its hole does not reach to the ground. If, however, the hole extends under the doorsill and reaches the ground, so that when one inserts the peg in the hole, it penetrates the ground below [the doorsill], then the person appears to be building [when inserting the peg. Hence,] it is forbidden to bolt [the door] with [the peg] under any circumstances, even if it has a bulbous head and is attached to the door with a strong cord.

When does the above apply? When the peg makes a new hole in the ground whenever [it is used]. If, however, one initially made a hole in the ground into which the end of the peg will be inserted, and from that time onward, the peg does not make an additional hole in the ground, the person does not appear to be building and he may bolt [the door] with [the peg] in the manner described above.26

ו וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהָאַסְקֻפָּה הִיא גְבוֹהָה וְאֵין הַחוֹר שֶׁלָּהּ נוֹקֵב עַד לָאָרֶץ,נז אֲבָל אִם נִפְחַת הַחוֹר מִתַּחְתָּיו וְהִגִּיעַ לָאָרֶץ, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּכְנִיס הַנֶּגֶר בַּחוֹר נוֹקֵב הַנֶּגֶר תַּחְתָּיו בָּאָרֶץנח – הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה,נט וְאָסוּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אַף אִם יֵשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גְּלֻסְטְרָא, וְקָשׁוּר בַּדֶּלֶת בְּחֶבֶל חָזָק. ס

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַנֶּגֶר נוֹקֵב תָּמִיד נֶקֶב חָדָשׁ בָּאָרֶץ, אֲבָל אִם מִתְּחִלָּה עָשָׂה חָלָל בַּקַּרְקַע מָקוֹם שֶׁרֹאשׁ הַנֶּגֶר יִהְיֶה נִכְנָס לְשָׁם, וְשׁוּב אֵין הַנֶּגֶר מוֹסִיף נֶקֶב בָּאָרֶץ – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה, וּמֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹסא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:סב, 26

7 When a handle had been inserted into the middle of a peg, thereby causing it to resemble a hammer, which is a k’li, [one] is permitted to use [this peg] to bolt a door.24 [He may do so] even if [the peg] penetrates the ground [below the doorsill] and even if it was not attached [to the door or the doorframe] at all. [The rationale is that] it does not appear that the person is building, since it is apparent [because of the handle] that [the peg] is a k’li.27

[The ruling regarding this type of peg] does not resemble [the one applying to a peg] that has a bulbous head, which also resembles a k’li, yet nevertheless must be attached to [the door or the doorframe] and may not penetrate the earth [below the doorsill. The rationale for the distinction is that] in this instance, the person himself performed an action by inserting the handle into the peg and thereby transformed [the peg] into a k’li. In contrast, with regard to the peg with a bulbous head, the person did not personally perform any action to cause [the peg] to be categorized as a k’li.28

Similar [laws apply to] a bolt when one of its ends is inserted into a hole in the wall on one side of the door and the other end [is inserted] into a hole on the other side of the door.29 If there is a ring in [the] center [of the bolt] with which it is held when opening and closing [the door], and through which one draws the bolt [in the direction he desires], [the ring] serves as a handle for the bolt and it is permitted to bolt [the door] with it, even though it is not attached [to the door or the doorframe] at all.

ז נֶגֶר שֶׁתָּחַב בּוֹ בֵּית יָד בְּאֶמְצִיעוּתוֹ, וַהֲרֵי הוּא דוֹמֶה לְמַקֶּבֶת שֶׁהוּא כְּלִיסג – מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹסד, 24 אַף אִם הוּא נוֹקֵב בָּאָרֶץ,סה וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר כְּלָל,סו שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה, הוֹאִיל וְנִכָּר בּוֹ שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי.27 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְיֵשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גְּלֻסְטְרָא, שֶׁדּוֹמֶה גַם כֵּן לִכְלִי, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת קָשׁוּר וְשֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נוֹקֵב בָּאָרֶץ, לְפִי שֶׁכָּאן עָשָׂה בּוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה בְּיָדַיִם בִּתְחִיבַת הַבֵּית יָד לְתוֹכוֹ, וְעַל יְדֵי כָךְ עֲשָׂאוֹ כְּלִי, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן הַגְּלֻסְטְרָא לֹא עֲשָׂאָהּ הוּא בְּיָדַיִם בִּשְׁבִיל תּוֹרַת כְּלִי.סז, 28

וְכֵן הַבְּרִיחַסח שֶׁתּוֹחֲבִין קָצֶה הָאֶחָד בַּנֶּקֶב שֶׁבַּחוֹמָה מִצַּד הַדֶּלֶת מִכָּאן וְקָצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי בַּנֶּקֶב שֶׁמִּצַּד הַדֶּלֶת מִכָּאן,29 אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ טַבַּעת בְּאֶמְצָעִיתוֹ שֶׁאוֹחֲזִין בָּהּ בִּשְׁעַת פְּתִיחָה וּנְעִילָה וּמוֹשְׁכִין בָּהּ אֶת הַבְּרִיחַ – הֲרֵי הוּא בֵּית יָד לַבְּרִיחַ, וּמֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בּוֹ אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר כְּלָל:סט

Fig. 14: A movable bolt whose ends can be inserted into either side of the wall
Fig. 14: A movable bolt whose ends can be inserted into either side of the wall

8 [The following rules apply when one seeks to secure shut] any entrance to a house that is not used for [both] entry and departure on a regular basis,30 but rather, on infrequent31 occasions,32 e.g., [an entrance to] a yard behind a house, which one does not enter and depart through on a regular basis. [Let us presume that] for this [type of] entrance, one constructed a door that does not revolve on a hinge (i.e., a sharp piece of wood that projects from the door that can be inserted into a hole in the socket so that the door can revolve in either direction). Instead, [the person] stands [the door] erect in the space of the entrance when he desires to close it. [There are several examples of such “doors”:] one made of boards, a reed mat that was hung and erected there as a door,32 or even an opening in a garden or a courtyard that was closed with a fence of thorns that was made to serve as a door. At times, on infrequent occasions, one opens this “door,” enters or departs through the opening, and then closes it.

If, [in any of the above instances,] there is a hinge on these “doors”33 – or even if they do not have a hinge at this time, but they once had a hinge that broke off and its place is still apparent,32 it is permitted to close these [“doors”] on Shabbos.32 [The rationale is that] since there is an indication [that these “doors” once had] hinges, [but they broke off,] it is evident that they are “doors” that were made to be opened and closed. [Hence,] it does not appear that one is building. It is only when these [“doors”] have hinges that one must be careful that the hinge does not become inserted into the hole [of its socket], as will be explained.34

If, however, these [“doors”] do not have [even] an indication [that they once had] a hinge, it is forbidden to close them on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] since they are wont to be opened only on infrequent occasions, one appears to be erecting a permanent partition when closing them, since there is no indication that they are doors.35

ח כָּל פֶּתַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וְלִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר30 אֶלָּא לְעִתִּים32 רְחוֹקִים,ע, 31 כְּגוֹן רְחָבָה שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵי הַבָּתִּים שֶׁאֵין נִכְנָסִין וְיוֹצְאִין בָּהּ תָּדִיר,עא אִם עָשָׂה לְפִתְחָהּ דֶּלֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ סוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירָהּ (פֵּרוּשׁ "צִיר" הוּא עֵץ חַד הַבּוֹלֵט מִן הַדֶּלֶת לְהַכְנִיסוֹ בַּחוֹר שֶׁבָּאֶדֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא הַדֶּלֶת חוֹזֶרֶת לְכָאן וּלְכָאןעב), אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ זוֹקְפָהּ עַל חֲלַל הַפֶּתַח לְסָתְמוֹ בָּהּ,עג בֵּין שֶׁדֶּלֶת זוֹ עֲשׂוּיָה מִקְּרָשִׁים, בֵּין שֶׁהִיא מַחֲצֶלֶת שֶׁל קָנִים שֶׁתְּלָאָהּ וּזְקָפָהּ שָׁם לַדֶּלֶת,עד, 32 וְכֵן פִּרְצָה שֶׁבַּגִּנָּה וְשֶׁבַּחָצֵר שֶׁגְּדָרָהּ בַּקּוֹצִיםעה וַעֲשָׂאוּם כְּעֵין דֶּלֶת,עו וְלִפְעָמִים פּוֹתֵחַ דֶּלֶת זוֹעז וְנִכְנָס וְיוֹצֵא בְּפִרְצָה זוֹ לְעִתִּים רְחוֹקִים וְחוֹזֵר וְנוֹעֲלָהּ, אִם יֵשׁ צִיר בִּדְלָתוֹת אֵלּוּ,עח, 33 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בָּהֶם עַתָּה אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶן צִירעט וְנִשְׁבַּר וּמְקוֹמוֹ נִכָּרפ, 32 – מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת,פא, 32 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּהֶכֵּר הַצִּיר שֶׁבָּהֶן נִכָּרִין הֵן שֶׁהֵן דְּלָתוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת לִפְתִיחָה וּנְעִילָה, וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה.פב אֶלָּא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר אִם יֵשׁ לָהֶן צִיר שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזוֹר הַצִּיר לְחוֹרוֹ,פג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.פד, 34

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לָהֶן הֶכֵּר צִיר – אָסוּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת,פה שֶׁהוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין לְהִפָּתֵחַ אֶלָּא לְעִתִּים רְחוֹקִים – הֲרֵי הֵן נִרְאִין בִּנְעִילָתָן כְּבִנְיַן מְחִצָּה קְבוּעָה,פו כָּל שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן הֶכֵּר שֶׁהֵן דְּלָתוֹת:35

Fig. 15: A door that revolves on hinges
Fig. 15: A door that revolves on hinges

9 Even if these [“doors”] do have hinges,33 [our Sages] did not permit closing them unless one tied [the doors] and hung them [in place] while it was still day [on Friday], with the intent [of using them] to close [the entrance]. Only then is it permitted to close [the entrance] with them. Although [these “doors” are] dragged over the ground32 when one opens them, and they must be picked up and stood erect over the doorframe when one closes them, [using these doors is nevertheless permitted. The rationale is that] one does not appear to be building on Shabbos, since [the doors] were attached and connected [to the doorframe] while it was still day [on Friday].

If one ties and affixes [the doors in the entrance] so that even when they are opened, they do not drag on the ground32 – even though they are [suspended] merely a hairsbreadth above the ground – it is permitted to close them [on Shabbos],even if they do not possess any indication of a hinge. The person does not appear to be building when closing [these doors],36 since even when [“the doors”] are open, they are connected and affixed there effectively, for they are not dragged on the earth.

ט וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן צִיר,33 לֹא הִתִּירוּ לִנְעוֹל בָּהֶן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁקְּשָׁרָן וּתְלָאָן שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לִנְעוֹל בָּהֶן, וְאָז מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהֶן אַף אִם כְּשֶׁפּוֹתְחָן הֵן נִגְרָרוֹת בָּאָרֶץפז, 32 וּכְשֶׁנּוֹעֲלָן מַגְבִּיהָן וְזוֹקְפָן עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה,פח שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן קְשׁוּרוֹת וּמְחֻבָּרוֹת שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה בְּשַׁבָּת.פט

וְאִם קְשָׁרוֹ וּקְבָעוֹ שָׁם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאַף כְּשֶׁפּוֹתְחָן אֵינָן נִגְרָרוֹת בָּאָרֶץ,צ, 32 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן גְּבוֹהִין מִן הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא כִּמְלֹא נִימָאצא – מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהֶם אַף אִם אֵין לָהֶן הֶכֵּר צִיר,צב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה בִּנְעִילָה זוֹ,צג, 36 הוֹאִיל וְאַף כְּשֶׁהֵן פְּתוּחִין הֵן מְחֻבָּרִים וּקְבוּעִין שָׁם הֵיטֵב שֶׁאֵינָן נִגְרָרוֹת בָּאָרֶץ:

10 An opening through which one frequently enters and departs is permitted to be closed with a door that does not even have an indication of a hinge37 and which [furthermore,] drags on the ground when it is opened, or even with [a door] that [must be] removed entirely when it is opened, since it is not attached there at all.38 [The rationale is that] since it is made to be opened frequently, [the person] is not making a permanent partition [by closing it], but [is] merely [making] a temporary one. And there is absolutely no prohibition against making a temporary partition on Shabbos, except in the manner to be explained in sec. 315[:3].39

י וּפֶתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וְלִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר – מֻתָּר לְנָעֳלוֹצד אֲפִלּוּ בְּדֶלֶת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ הֶכֵּר צִיר37 וְהִיא נִגְרֶרֶת בָּאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁפּוֹתְחָהּ,צה אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹמְטִין אוֹתָהּ לְגַמְרֵי כְּשֶׁפּוֹתְחִין אוֹתָהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה שָׁם כְּלָל,צו, 38 לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲשׂוּיָה לְהִפָּתֵחַ תָּדִיר – אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה בִּנְעִילָתָהּ מְחִצָּה קְבוּעָה אֶלָּא עֲרַאי,צז וְאֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצַּת עֲרַאי בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שט"ו:צח, 39

11 All the above applies [to an entrance] with a threshold40 upon which [the doorframe] is erected; the threshold indicates that the door is made to [be opened and] closed, and [was] not [placed there for the purpose] of building. If, however, [the entrance] does not have a threshold and [the “door”] is placed down on the earth when it is closed, and removed and lifted up when it is opened – as long as [the “door”] does not revolve on a hinge41– one may not close it [on Shabbos] since [the doorway] does not have the form of an entrance.42 [This stringency applies] even if [the door] has a hinge,43 it is [suspended] above the ground, and the opening is frequently used to enter and depart.44 There are authorities who permit [using a “door” to open and close] the entrance [even though it lacks a threshold] if it is frequently used to enter and depart.45 Leniency may be shown [in this instance, since the matter is one of] Rabbinic Law.

יא וְכָל זֶה בְּדֶלֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ אַסְקֻפָּה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה40 שֶׁזּוֹקְפִין אוֹתָהּ עָלֶיהָ, שֶׁאַסְקֻפָּה מוֹכַחַת עַל הַדֶּלֶת שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה לִנְעִילָהצט וְלֹא לְבִנְיָן. אֲבָל אִם אֵין לָהּ אַסְקֻפָּה, וּכְשֶׁנּוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ מוֹרִידִין אוֹתָהּ עַל הָאָרֶץ, וּכְשֶׁפּוֹתְחִין שׁוֹמְטִין אוֹתָהּ ק וְעוֹקְרִין אוֹתָהּ, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין לָהּ צוּרַת הַפֶּתַחקא, 42 – אֵין נוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לָהּ צִיר,קב, 43 כָּל שֶׁאֵינָהּ סוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירָהּ,41 וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא גְבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ,קג וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא פֶּתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר.קד, 44

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקה בְּפֶתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר.45 וְיֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:קו

12 Similar [laws apply to] a door that is made of one board that must be removed and lifted up to be opened.41 Since [this door] does not resemble other doors,46 one may not close [an opening] with it even if it has a hinge, as long as it does not revolve on that hinge. [This stringency applies] even if [the door] is [suspended] above the ground, [the opening] has a threshold, and it is an opening that is frequently used to enter and depart, because it appears that [the person] is building and placing a board in the wall. There are authorities who permit [using such a door] if the entrance is frequently used to enter and depart.45 [In this instance, as well,] leniency may be shown [since the matter involves a point of] Rabbinic Law.

יב וְכֵן דֶּלֶת הֶעָשׂוּי מִלּוּחַ אֶחָד, וּכְשֶׁפּוֹתְחִין שׁוֹמְטִין אוֹתָהּ וְעוֹקְרִים אוֹתָהּ,קז, 41 הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לִשְׁאָר דְּלָתוֹת46 – אֵין נוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לָהּ צִיר,קח כָּל שֶׁאֵינָהּ סוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירָהּ, וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא גְבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ,קט וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לָהּ אַסְקֻפָּה,קי וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא פֶּתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר,קיא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה וְנוֹתֵן קֶרֶשׁ בַּכֹּתֶל.קיב

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקיג בְּפֶתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר.45 וְיֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:קיד

Fig. 16: A door placed at an entrance with a threshold
Fig. 16: A door placed at an entrance with a threshold

13 When, by contrast, a door is made from many boards and [the entrance] has a threshold, all authorities agree that it is permitted to close [such a door] if the entrance is frequently used to enter and depart [see fig. 16], even if: a) [the door] is removed and displaced entirely when it is opened, since it is not attached there at all, and b) it does not have any indication of a hinge, as explained above.47

This law also applies in a place where [entrances are] closed with many separate boards and there are areas carved out [around the entrance] above and below, into which the boards are inserted. Since the entrance is closed with several boards, they are all considered as one door made up of many boards. It is permitted to close [the entrance] with [these boards] even though they are removed entirely when the entrance is opened, they do not have any indication of a hinge, [because they close] an entrance that is frequently used to enter and depart.

יג אֲבָל דֶּלֶת הָעֲשׂוּיָה מִקְּרָשִׁים הַרְבֵּהקטו וְיֵשׁ לָהּ אַסְקֻפָּהקטז – מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלקיז בְּפֶתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר, אַף שֶׁשּׁוֹמְטִין וְעוֹקְרִין אוֹתָהּ לְגַמְרֵי כְּשֶׁפּוֹתְחָהּ,קיח שֶׁאֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה שָׁם כְּלָל, וְאַף אִם אֵין לָהּ הֶכֵּר צִיר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קיט, 47

וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹעֲלִין בִּקְרָשִׁים הַרְבֵּה מְפֹרָדִים וְיֵשׁ חֲקִיקָה לְמַעְלָה וּלְמַטָּה שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין שָׁם הַקְּרָשִׁים,קכ הוֹאִיל וְהַפֶּתַח נָעוּל בְּכַמָּה קְרָשִׁים – חֲשׁוּבִים כֻּלָּם כְּדֶלֶת אַחַת עֲשׂוּיָה מִקְּרָשִׁים הַרְבֵּה,קכא וּמֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהֶם אַף שֶׁשּׁוֹמְטִין אוֹתָהּ לְגַמְרֵי כְּשֶׁפּוֹתְחִין, וְאַף שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם הֶכֵּר צִיר, אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא פֶּתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר:

14 [The following rules apply to] all doors of storage units,48 e.g., a chest, a box, and a closet,49 with doors on their sides and two hinges, i.e., two [pointed] heads that project from the door, one on its top that is inserted into a hole in the lintel [of the chest, box, or closet] and one below that is inserted into the hole in its threshold:50 If the lower hinge becomes entirely dislodged, it is forbidden to return it [to its place. This is] a decree [instituted] lest one forcefully stick it [back] into place49 with hammers or a hatchet so that it will not be able to slip out from [its place again. For by doing so,] one would be liable for building, as will be explained,51 or for “striking with a hammer” (makeh bepatish),52 as will be explained in sec. 314[:17].53

If, however, [only] a portion of [the lower hinge] slipped [from its place], one may push it back into its place.49 There is no concern that perhaps he will push [the hinge] forcefully [into place with hammers or a hatchet], because that is not necessary since it did not slip from its hole entirely. Nevertheless, if even a portion of the upper hinge slipped [from its place], it is forbidden to push [the hinge] back into its place. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one stick it forcefully into place [with hammers or a hatchet. Greater concern was shown regarding the upper hinge than the lower one] because the upper [hinge] must be pressed [into place] more forcefully than the lower hinge. However, the lower hinge will remain in its hole as a matter of course when the upper hinge is in place.

יד כָּל דַּלְתוֹת הַכֵּלִים,48 כְּגוֹן שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּלקכב, 49 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם דְּלָתוֹת מִצִּדֵּיהֶם,קכג וְיֵשׁ לָהֶן שְׁנֵי צִירִים,קכד דְּהַיְנוּ שְׁנֵי רָאשִׁים הַבּוֹלְטִים מִן הַדֶּלֶת, אֶחָד לְמַעְלָה הַנִּכְנָס בַּחוֹר שֶׁבַּמַּשְׁקוֹף וְאֶחָד לְמַטָּה הַנִּכְנָס בַּחוֹר שֶׁבָּאַסְקֻפָּה,קכה, 50 אִם יָצָא צִיר הַתַּחְתּוֹן כֻּלּוֹ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ – אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע,קכו דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּהַדְּקוֹ שָׁם בְּחֹזֶק49 בְּמַקָּבוֹת וְגַרְזֶןקכז שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל עוֹד לָצֵאת מִשָּׁם, וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה,קכח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קכט, 51 אוֹ מִשּׁוּם מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ,קל, 52 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ד.קלא, 53

אֲבָל אִם יָצָא מִקְצָתוֹ – דּוֹחֲקוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּחֲזִירוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ,קלב, 49 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כָּל כָּךְ לָזֶה, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין כֻּלּוֹ יוֹצֵא מֵהַחוֹר.קלג אֲבָל אִם יָצָא צִיר הָעֶלְיוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָתוֹ – אָסוּר לְדָחֳקוֹ וּלְהַחֲזִירוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ,קלד גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע, שֶׁהָעֶלְיוֹן צָרִיךְ לְהַדְּקוֹ בְּחֹזֶק יוֹתֵר מֵהַתַּחְתּוֹן,קלה שֶׁהַתַּחְתּוֹן הוּא מִתְקַיֵּם מֵאֵלָיו בְּחוֹרוֹ כְּשֶׁהָעֶלְיוֹן הוּא בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:קלו

Fig. 17: A closet door that revolves on two hinges
Fig. 17: A closet door that revolves on two hinges

15 [There are] even [restrictions] with regard to the door [of such a storage unit] that is hingeless from above or below, but [is hinged] at its midpoint [see fig. 18], i.e., a [pointed] edge juts out of [the storage unit] at its midpoint, and opposite it, there is a hole in the doorpost in the opening [of the unit]. The [pointed] edge is inserted into the hole when the door is closed, and it is removed from the hole when [the door] is opened. In this instance, there is no concern that one will stick [the pointed edge] forcefully [into the hole with hammers or a hatchet], since the door is made to be opened and closed frequently.

Nevertheless, it is forbidden to return this hinge to its hole on Shabbos. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one [return a door with] a hinge that is not hinged at its midpoint [using hammers or a hatchet].

On a festival, by contrast, it is permitted [to return such a door to its place.54 This leniency was granted to enhance] the joy of the festival, as will be explained in sec. 519[:1].55

טו וַאֲפִלּוּ דֶּלֶת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ צִיר לֹא לְמַעְלָה וְלֹא לְמַטָּה אֶלָּא בְּאֶמְצָעָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁבְּאֶמְצָעָהּ בּוֹלֵט רֹאשׁ אֶחָד וּכְנֶגְדּוֹ יֵשׁ חוֹר בִּמְזוּזַת הַפֶּתַח, וְתוֹחֲבִין אוֹתוֹ בַּחוֹר כְּשֶׁנּוֹעֲלִין הַדֶּלֶת, וּכְשֶׁפּוֹתְחִין מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ מֵהַחוֹר, שֶׁכָּאן אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַדֶּלֶת עֲשׂוּיָה לִפְתּוֹחַ וְלִנְעוֹל תָּדִיר – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִיר צִיר זֶה לְחוֹרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם צִיר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּאֶמְצַע הַדֶּלֶת.קלז

אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב מֻתָּר,54 מִשּׁוּם שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקי"ט:קלח, 55

Fig. 18: The door of a storage unit with a hinge at its midpoint
Fig. 18: The door of a storage unit with a hinge at its midpoint

16 All the above applies to returning the doors [and reaffixing them in place]. It is, however, permitted to remove doors from storage units in all situations,56 as long as they [were] not inserted forcefully in place. [The prohibition against] demolishing does not apply because [the forbidden labors of] building and demolishing do not apply with regard to keilim [of any type]. If, however, [the doors are] firmly embedded [within the units], separating them does involve [the forbidden labor of] demolishing, as will be explained.57

טז וְכָל זֶה לְהַחֲזִיר הַדְּלָתוֹת, אֲבָל לִטּוֹל הַדְּלָתוֹת מֵהַכֵּלִים – מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן,קלט, 56 אִם אֵינָן תְּקוּעִין בָּהֶן בְּחֹזֶק, וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בִּנְיָן וּסְתִירָה בְּכֵלִים.קמ אֲבָל אִם הֵן תְּקוּעִין בְּחֹזֶק – יֵשׁ בִּפְרִיקָתָן מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:קמא, 57

17 It is, however, forbidden both to remove and to return the door of a house, or of a storage pit, a cistern, or [other] keilim that are connected to the ground58 – for example, a chicken coop, which is a k’li that is attached to the ground. [The rationale is that] whenever an object is attached to the ground, [the forbidden labors of] building and demolishing apply.59 For this reason, the custom of having a non-Jew remove the windows [of a dining room] during large feasts in the summer60 is not desirable. [The rationale is that] were a Jew to remove these windows, he would be liable for a sin-offering61 since he is demolishing for the sake of building, for afterwards, he will return [the windows to their original location]. As such, instructing a non-Jew [to remove the windows constitutes] a shvus in a complete sense. It is not [merely] a shvus of a shvus, whichis permitted when discomfort is involved, as explained in sec. 307[:12].62

[There are authorities who maintain that] one is liable for demolishing with the intent to build only when one intends the new [structure] to be an improvement over the original one, as explained in sec. 278[:2]. According to these authorities, removing the windows [with the intent of then returning them] only involves a Rabbinic prohibition, [and thus,] instructing a non-Jew is [merely] a shvus of a shvus, that was permitted when discomfort is involved.

Accordingly, those who rely on the leniency [of the latter opinion] should not be admonished, because they have authorities upon whom to rely. Nevertheless, every person should follow the stringency of the first view, for fundamentally [it is accepted as halachah]. Also, the populace at large should be warned, for there are many who err and remove the fourths of windows (called “quarters”) from the window63 without knowing that this violates a severe prohibition.64

יז אֲבָל דֶּלֶת שֶׁל בַּיִת וְשֶׁל בּוֹר וְדוּת,קמב אוֹ שֶׁל כֵּלִים הַמְחֻבָּרִים בַּקַּרְקַע, כְּגוֹן לוּל שֶׁל תַּרְנְגוֹלִים שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי וּמְחֻבָּר בַּקַּרְקַע – אָסוּר בֵּין לִטּוֹל בֵּין לְהַחֲזִיר,58 שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַמְחֻבָּר בַּקַּרְקַע יֵשׁ בּוֹ בִּנְיָן וּסְתִירָה.קמג, 59 לְפִיכָךְ, מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִים בִּסְעֻדּוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה לִטּוֹל הַחַלּוֹנוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי60 – לֹא יָפֶה הֵם עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּנְטִילָה זוֹ יֵשׁ חִיּוּב חַטָּאת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל,61 שֶׁהוּא סוֹתֵר עַל מְנָת לִבְנוֹת, שֶׁהֲרֵי עָתִיד לְהַחֲזִירָן אַחַר כָּךְ, וְאִם כֵּן כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי – הֲרֵי זֶה שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר,קמד וְאֵינוֹ שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת שֶׁהִתִּירוּהוּ בִּמְקוֹם מִצְטַעֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז.קמה, 62

וּלְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁסּוֹתֵר עַל מְנָת לִבְנוֹת אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁבִּנְיָן הָאַחֲרוֹן יִהְיֶה יוֹתֵר טוֹב מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"חקמו – אֵין בִּנְטִילַת הַחַלּוֹנוֹת אֶלָּא אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְלוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת שֶׁהִתִּירוּהוּ בִּמְקוֹם מִצְטַעֵר.

לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּהַמְּקִלִּין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם עַל מִי שֶׁיִּסְמְכוּ. אֲבָל כָּל אָדָם יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהִיא עִקָּר. וְגַם צָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לָרַבִּים שֶׁנִּכְשָׁלִים שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין רְבִיעִיּוֹת הַחַלּוֹנוֹת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קוואטיר"ן) מִן הַחַלּוֹנוֹת,63 וְאֵינָם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּזֶה אִסּוּר גָּדוֹל:קמז, 64

18 Even when keilim are not attached to the ground, if they are large enough to contain 40 seah65– i.e., they are one cubit by one cubit in area and three cubits high66 including their walls, but not including the thickness of the legs and the surrounding rims – they are considered as a structure [literally, “tent”] and [the forbidden labors of] building and demolishing apply to them. Therefore, it is forbidden to remove their doors.67

יח וַאֲפִלּוּ כֵּלִים שֶׁאֵינָם מְחֻבָּרִין לַקַּרְקַע, אִם הֵם גְּדוֹלִיםקמח כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁמַּחֲזִיקִין אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה,קמט, 65 דְּהַיְנוּ אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה בְּרוּם שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת66 עִם הַדְּפָנוֹת בְּלֹא עֳבִי הָרַגְלַיִם וְהַלְּבַזְבְּזִיןקנ – הֲרֵי הֵם כְּאֹהֶל, וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן בִּנְיָן וּסְתִירָה,קנא וּלְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לִטּוֹל דַּלְתוֹתֵיהֶם מֵהֶם:קנב, 67

19 The [above] statement68 that the prohibitions of building and demolishing do not apply with regard to keilim applies only to unsubstantial acts of building and demolishing – for example, removing a door from an implement and returning it. Returning [the door] is not considered building in a complete sense,69 because [the door is fundamentally] separate from the implement, since it is not attached there firmly and can be removed easily. For that same reason, removing [the door] is not considered demolishing [a structure that is considered] a building in a complete sense. Similar [laws apply to] an implement assembled from component parts. As long as those parts are not firmly attached, taking it apart is not considered demolishing in a complete sense, nor is putting it back together considered building in a complete sense.

When, however, one sets out to make a new implement, he is considered to be building in a complete sense and is liable for [performing that forbidden labor].70 [Similarly,] one who breaks an implement that was totally intact is considered to have demolished a structure in a complete sense, and he is liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] demolishing.71 By the same token, one who forcefully inserts a piece of wood into a hatchet to serve as a handle is liable for building.72

Similarly, one who attaches one piece of wood to another – whether he firmly attaches it with a nail or forcefully inserts one piece of wood into the other until they become one – [has performed] a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of building and is liable. [By the same token,] one who removes a piece of wood that is firmly embedded within another is liable for demolishing, like one who demolishes [a structure considered to be] a building in a complete sense.

יט לֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁאֵין בִּנְיָן וּסְתִירָה בְּכֵלִים68 אֶלָּא בְּבִנְיָן גָּרוּעַ וּסְתִירַת בִּנְיָן גָּרוּעַ,קנג כְּגוֹן נְטִילַת הַדֶּלֶת מֵהַכְּלִי וְהַחְזָרָתָהּ,קנד שֶׁאֵין הַחֲזָרָה בִּנְיָן גָּמוּר,69 הוֹאִיל וַעֲדַיִן הִיא מְפֹרֶקֶת מֵהַכְּלִי, שֶׁאֵינָהּ תְּקוּעָה שָׁם בְּחֹזֶק וְיָכוֹל לִטְּלָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקַל, וְלָכֵן גַּם נְטִילָתָהּ אֵין זוֹ סְתִירַת בִּנְיָן גָּמוּר. וְכֵן כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל פְּרָקִים,קנה – אִם אֵין פְּרָקָיו תְּקוּעִין בְּחֹזֶק – אֵין בִּפְרִיקָתָן סְתִירָה גְמוּרָה, וְלֹא בְּהַחְזָרָתָן בִּנְיָן גָּמוּר.קנו

אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּלִי מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה בִּנְיָן גָּמוּר, וְחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה.קנז, 70 וְהַשּׁוֹבֵר כְּלִי שָׁלֵם – הֲרֵי זוֹ סְתִירַת בִּנְיָן גָּמוּר,קנח וְחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר.קנט, 71

וְכֵן הַתּוֹקֵעַ הָעֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַקַּרְדֹּם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְבֵית יָד – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה.קס, 72 וְכֵן כָּל הַתּוֹקֵעַ עֵץ בְּעֵץ, בֵּין שֶׁתָּקַע בְּמַסְמֵר בֵּין שֶׁתָּקַע בָּעֵץ עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְאַחֵד – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה וְחַיָּב.קסא וְכָל הַמְפָרֵק עֵץ תָּקוּעַ – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר,קסב כְּמוֹ הַסּוֹתֵר בִּנְיָן גָּמוּר:

20 [Moreover,] even assembling an implement made from component parts is considered as building73 in a complete sense if one firmly attaches the parts, i.e., he forcefully inserts them in a manner that requires strength and professional expertise.74 [One who does so] is liable for building if the implement is intended to remain assembled for a prolonged period of time.75 If [the implement] is not intended to remain assembled for a prolonged period of time, it is considered a temporary structure, and [constructing it] is forbidden according to Rabbinic decree,76 unless it is not intended to remain assembled at all, as will be explained.77

כ וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי שֶׁל פְּרָקִים, אִם תָּקַע פְּרָקָיו,קסג דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהִדְּקָם בְּחֹזֶקקסד בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָזֶה גְּבוּרָה וְאֻמָּנוּתקסה, 74 – הֲרֵי זֶה בִּנְיָן73 גָּמוּר, וְחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶהקסו אִם עָשׂוּי לְהִתְקַיֵּם הַרְבֵּה,קסז, 75 וְאִם אֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְהִתְקַיֵּם הַרְבֵּה – הֲרֵי זֶה בִּנְיָן עֲרַאי וְאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קסח, 76 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְקִיּוּם כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:קסט, 77

21 For these reasons,our Sages forbade reassembling on Shabbos any k’li that came apart that was [originally] assembled from component parts,78 even if one [re]attaches [the parts] in an insecure manner, and thus it is held together somewhat loosely, but not entirely loosely. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one [re-]attach [the parts] securely.79 If, however, one does not attach [the parts] firmly at all, but leaves them entirely loose, he is permitted [to reassemble them].80

[The above applies] provided that the k’li is always loosely assembled in such a manner. If, however, it is usually [assembled in a manner where its parts] are firmly and tightly attached and/or embedded, it is forbidden to reassemble [the k’li], even though one presently [re]attaches it only loosely. [This is] a decree lest he [re]attach [the parts] firmly.

There are authorities who maintain that a cup made up of component parts may be reassembled somewhat tightly.81 Although [a cup’s] parts are usually assembled somewhat tightly, we are not concerned that one will [re]attach them very tightly, because it is not at all82 common to attach the parts of such a cup so tightly that one would be liable for building. The prohibition against attaching [component parts of an implement] even somewhat [tightly] was instituted only with regard to a bed made up of component parts83 or any similar k’li where there is concern that one will attach the parts firmly.

Other authorities maintain that there is no difference between a cup and other keilim, and it is forbidden to reassemble a cup unless one leaves its [parts attached] in an entirely loose manner. One should follow this stringency except in a situation of great urgency; then, one may rely on the lenient view [of the other authorities] if it is not at all common to attach the parts of a cup [so] tightly.

Moreover, all authorities agree that cups that are made with [concentric] grooves84 and which are firmly attached are forbidden to be assembled even if one leaves them entirely loose.

Nevertheless, there is no prohibition with regard to covers of utensils that are made with concentric grooves (called shreif [in Yiddish, meaning, “screw threads”]), even though they are attached very tightly to the opening of the utensils.85 The removal [of such covers] is not [associated with the forbidden labor of] demolishing, nor is replacing them [associated with the forbidden labor of] building, because these actions are not at all intended to be lasting. Instead, [the covers] are [intended to be] continually opened and closed. [Our Sages] forbade temporary building and demolishing only when it was not intended to be undone on Shabbos itself, as will be explained in sec. 314[:19].

כא לְפִיכָךְ, כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁל פְּרָקִים שֶׁנִּתְפָּרֵק – אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַחֲזִירוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,קע, 78 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְהַדְּקוֹ אֶלָּא מְעַט בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא רָפוּי וְאֵינוֹ רָפוּי,קעא גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע בְּחֹזֶק.קעב, 79

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מְהַדְּקוֹ כְּלָל אֶלָּא מַנִּיחוֹ רָפוּי לְגַמְרֵי – מֻתָּר.קעג, 80 וְהוּא שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל כְּלִי לִהְיוֹת כָּךְ רָפוּיקעד לְעוֹלָם,קעה אֲבָל אִם דַּרְכּוֹ לִהְיוֹת מְהֻדָּק וְתָקוּעַ בְּחֹזֶק, אַף שֶׁעַכְשָׁו מַנִּיחוֹ רָפוּי – אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ,קעו גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע.קעז

וְכוֹס שֶׁל פְּרָקִים, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקעח שֶׁאַף שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לִהְיוֹת מְהֻדָּק קְצָת – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ וּלְהַדְּקוֹ קְצָת,81 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע בְּחֹזֶק, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הַכּוֹס כְּלָל82 לְהַדְּקוֹ כָּל כָּךְקעט בְּחֹזֶק עַד שֶׁיִּתְחַיֵּב עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לְהַדֵּק אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט אֶלָּא בְּמִטָּה שֶׁל פְּרָקִים83 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהּ מִשְּׁאָר הַכֵּלִים, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע בְּחֹזֶק.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקפ שֶׁאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין כּוֹס לִשְׁאָר כֵּלִים, וְאָסוּר לְהַחֲזִיר הַכּוֹס, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מַנִּיחוֹ רָפוּי לְגַמְרֵי. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּדִבְרֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בִּמְקוֹם צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל, אֲזַי יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ לְהָקֵלקפא אִם אֵין דֶּרֶךְ הַכּוֹס כְּלָל לְהַדְּקוֹ בְּחֹזֶק.

אֲבָל כּוֹסוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיִים בַּחֲרִיצִים סָבִיב84 וּמְהֻדָּקִים בְּחֹזֶק – לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירָם,קפב אֲפִלּוּ מַנִּיחָם רְפוּיִים לְגַמְרֵי.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כִּסּוּיֵי כֵּלִים הָעֲשׂוּיִים כָּךְ בַּחֲרִיצִים סָבִיב (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שרוי"ף), אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּהַדְּקִין אוֹתָם בְּחֹזֶק מְאֹד עַל פִּי הַכְּלִי85 – אֵין בָּהֶם שׁוּם אִסּוּר, לֹא בִּנְטִילָתָן מִשּׁוּם סְתִירָה, וְלֹא בְּהַחְזָרָתָן מִשּׁוּם בִּנְיָן, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין לְקִיּוּם כְּלָל, רַק לְפָתְחָן וּלְסָגְרָן תָּדִיר,קפג גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ בִּנְיָן עֲרַאי וּסְתִירָתוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי עַל מְנָת לְסָתְרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ד:קפד

22 Any k’li assembled from component parts that are fastened tightly in a manner that would cause a person to be liable [for its assembly] is forbidden to be taken apart on Shabbos, because [doing so violates the prohibition against] demolishing.86 If, however, [the k’li] is only loosely fastened, and thus fastening it in this manner is prohibited only because of a decree lest one fasten it tightly, [the prohibition against] demolishing does not apply to [the k’li], and it is permitted to take it apart [even] as an initial option.87

כב כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁל פְּרָקִים שֶׁהוּא מְהֻדָּק בְּחֹזֶק בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהָיָה חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם הִדּוּק זֶה – אָסוּר לְפָרְקוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר.קפה, 86 אֲבָל אִם הוּא מְהֻדָּק קְצָת, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בְּהִדּוּק זֶה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע בְּחֹזֶק – אֵין בּוֹ גַם כֵּן מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר, וּמֻתָּר לְפָרְקוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה:קפו, 87

23 When a beam from the roof of a home is broken, it is permitted to support it with a bench or with a bedpost,88 since they are keilim.89 [One may] not, [however, use the bench or bedpost] to raise [the beam back to its original position],88 for that would constitute building. It is merely permitted to prevent [the beam] from descending any further.

One may not, however, use an object that is not an implement to support the beam from below, even when [that object] was prepared to be moved,90 because doing so resembles building. This is not the case with regard to a k’li, for it is not common to leave it as a permanent part of a building, as explained above.91 [In addition to the above,] the k’li must be [standing] slightly loosely under the beam, in a manner where it can be removed from there whenever one desires.92 If, however, one attaches [the k’li] firmly, doing so in a manner that he would not be able to remove it from [its place,93 placing it there would be] forbidden, because one would be nullifying the possibility of using a k’li for its [inherent] purpose.94

The laws that apply when one of the legs of a bench becomes detached are explained in sec. 308[:47].

כג קוֹרָה מִתִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה – מֻתָּר לְסָמְכָהּ בְּסַפְסָל אוֹ בַּאֲרֻכּוֹת הַמִּטָּהקפז, 88 שֶׁהֵם כְּלִי,קפח, 89 לֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה,קפט, 88 שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה בּוֹנֶה,קצ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תוֹסִיףקצא לָרֶדֶת יוֹתֵר.קצב אֲבָל בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּלִי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּכַן לְטַלְטֵל – אָסוּר לִסְמוֹךְ בּוֹ תַּחַת הַקּוֹרָה,90 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְבוֹנֶה,קצג מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּכְלִי, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְבַטְּלוֹ לְבִנְיָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קצד, 91

וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַכְּלִי רָפוּי קְצָת תַּחַת הַקּוֹרָה, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לִטְּלוֹ מִשָּׁם כְּשֶׁיִּרְצֶה.קצה, 92 אֲבָל אִם מְהַדְּקוֹ שָׁםקצו בְּחֹזֶק בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל שׁוּב לִטְּלוֹ מִשָּׁםקצז, 93 – אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ.קצח, 94

סַפְסָל שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה אַחַת מֵרַגְלָיו – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ח:קצט

24 When a person levels the ground’s surface in a house95 or in a courtyard, i.e., he levels a mound or fills in a crevice or a cavity, he is [considered to be] building96 and he is liable [for the performance of a forbidden labor]. Therefore,97 when a courtyard becomes spoiled by rain, one may bring straw and scatter it there.98 [This is permitted] because the straw will not be left there permanently. Since it is fit for animal fodder or [to mix with] mortar, [it will ultimately be removed]. Therefore, [temporarily scattering straw] is not considered building. [One] should not, however, scatter a substance that he will leave there permanently, because it appears as if he intends to level the surface of the earth. Since he leaves [the material] there permanently, his act is equivalent to building a permanent structure.

To what does the above apply? To a courtyard that is spoiled. [In that instance,] since [the person] is coming to set his courtyard in order, it appears that he also seeks to level its surface. In other instances, by contrast, it is permitted to scatter even a substance that one will leave there permanently,99 since he does not intend to level its surface.

כד הַמַּשְׁוֶה פְּנֵי הַקַּרְקַע בַּבַּיִתר, 95 אוֹ בֶּחָצֵר,רא כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִשְׁפִּיל תֵּלרב אוֹ מִלָּא גוּמָא אוֹ גַיְארג – הֲרֵי זֶה בּוֹנֶה,96 וְחַיָּב. לְפִיכָךְ, חָצֵר שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקְלָה בְּמֵימֵי גְשָׁמִים – מֵבִיא תֶּבֶן97 וְזוֹרֶה בָּהּ,רד , 98 שֶׁהַתֶּבֶן אֵינוֹ מְבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם,רה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה אוֹ לְטִיט, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּנְיָן. אֲבָל לֹא יִזְרֶה בָּהּ דָּבָר שֶׁמְּבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם,רו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁווֹת פְּנֵי הַקַּרְקַע, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמְּבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם – הֲרֵי זֶה בִּנְיָן קָבוּעַ.רז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּחָצֵר שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקְלָה, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא בָּא לְתַקֵּן הֶחָצֵר – הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ מִתְכַּוֵּן גַּם כֵּן לְהַשְׁווֹת פָּנֶיהָ. אֲבָל בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר – מֻתָּר לִזְרוֹת בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁמְּבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם,99 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁווֹת פָּנֶיהָ:רח

25 When [one] scatters the straw in a courtyard that was spoiled, he should not scatter it [while holding the straw in] a basket or a container [in keeping with his ordinary practice].98 Instead, he should turn over the container, carry the straw on its overturned base, and scatter it from there, so that he will be deviating from his ordinary practice.100 It is, however, forbidden to scatter [the straw] by hand.101

כה כְּשֶׁזּוֹרֶה הַתֶּבֶן בְּחָצֵר שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקְלָה – לֹא יִזְרֶה לֹא בְסַל וְלֹא בְקֻפָּה,98 אֶלָּא בְּשׁוּלֵי הַקֻּפָּה,רט שֶׁיְּהַפְּכֶנּוּ וְיָבִיא הַתֶּבֶן עַל שׁוּלֶיהָ,רי כְּדֵי לְשַׁנּוֹת מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל.ריא, 100 אֲבָל אָסוּר לִזְרוֹת בְּיָדוֹ:ריב, 101