SECTION 311 The Laws Governing [Moving] a Human Corpse on Shabbos and Other Instances When Objects Are Carried in an Indirect Manner (1-15)

סימן שיא דִּין מֵת בְּשַׁבָּת וּשְׁאָר טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד וּבוֹ ט”ו סְעִיפִים:

1 It is forbidden to move a human corpse, because it is muktzeh.1 Nevertheless, if [the corpse] is lying in a place where one is afraid that it will be ravaged by fire,2 it is permitted to move [the corpse] in order to save it.3 [The rationale is that our] Sages removed the prohibition against moving [a corpse] so that one will not be motivated to violate a more severe prohibition4 – extinguishing a fire – because he will panic about [the body of] his dead [and take steps so that it will not be consumed by fire.

Nevertheless, all measures that one can employ to increase the permissibility of his actions should be used. For example, if one has an object that is permitted to be carried even when [the object] is not needed to perform an activity nor is its place [required] – e.g., a child, a loaf of bread, or other foods, or any utensil used for a permitted activity5 – he should move [the corpse] via the other object, i.e., he should place the permitted object on the corpse or near [the corpse], and carry them both together.

[The following courses of action should be followed] if one does not have another article that is permitted to be carried [together with the corpse]. If the corpse is lying on a bed and one has another bed, he should transfer the corpse from one bed to the other and then from the other [bed] back to the original one6 until it reaches a place where it is protected from the fire. [This is permitted because the person] is moving the corpse in an indirect manner.7 [He is permitted to move the bed on which the corpse is lying because] the bed did not become a base for the corpse, since [the corpse] does not require [the bed]; indeed, all that is necessary [for the corpse] is that it be placed on the ground.8

If the person does not have another bed, he may carry [the corpse] on the bed [where it is lying].9 And even if [the corpse] is not lying on a bed, [the person] may carry it by hand – [though that is] carrying [muktzeh] in an absolute sense – to save [the corpse] from the fire.

א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמֵּת הוּא מֻקְצֶה וְאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל, א, 1 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אִם הוּא מֻטָּל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיָּרֵא עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי הַדְּלֵקָה2 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַצִּילוֹ,ב, 3 שֶׁהִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי אִסּוּר חָמוּרג, 4 לְכַבּוֹת אֶת הַדְּלֵקָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָּהוּל עַל מֵתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂרֵף.ד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת יוֹתֵר בְּהֶתֵּר – צָרִיךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת,ה דְּהַיְנוּ אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ אוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ, כְּגוֹן תִּינוֹק, אוֹ כִּכָּר,ו אוֹ שְׁאָר אֳכָלִין, אוֹ כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּרז, 5 – מְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יָדוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּנִּיחַ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר עַל הַמֵּת אוֹ אֶצְלוֹח וּמְטַלְטֵל שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד.ט

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל, אִם הַמֵּת מֻנָּח עַל הַמִּטָּה וְיֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹד מִטָּה אַחֶרֶת – הוֹפְכוֹ מִמִּטָּה זוֹ לְמִטָּה זוֹי וּמִזּוֹ לְזוֹ6 עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעֶנּוּ לְמָקוֹם הַמְשֻׁמָּר מִן הַדְּלֵקָה, שֶׁזֶּהוּ טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד,7 וְהַמִּטָּה לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לַמֵּת, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין צָרִיךְ אֵלֶיהָ, שֶׁכָּל עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לַהֲטִילוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע.יא, 8 וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מִטָּה אַחֶרֶת – נוֹשְׂאוֹ בְּמִטָּה זוֹ,9 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ מֻנָּח בַּמִּטָּה, מְטַלְטְלוֹ טִלְטוּל גָּמוּר בְּיָדָיו לְהַצִּילוֹ מִן הַדְּלֵקָה:יב

2 There are some authorities who permit taking the corpse out to a karmelis10ifit is not possible to save it in any other way, so that the corpse will not be disgraced [by] being consumed by fire. [This leniency is granted, because concern for] the honor of created beings11 is so great that it supersedes the Torah’s prohibitive commandment:12 “Do not swerve from the matter that they will tell you.”10 This mitzvah commands us to heed all Rabbinic ordinances, and the prohibition [against carrying into] a karmelis is also a Rabbinic ordinance.13

Nevertheless, if there is an object [available] that is permitted to be carried, [the corpse] should be taken out together with it in order to minimize the prohibition against moving [muktzeh]. True, the prohibition against [carrying into] a karmelis is overridden because of [concern for] the honor of created beings. Nevertheless, since the prohibition against moving [muktzeh] can be minimized by [also] carrying a permitted article [together with the article that is muktzeh], it should be minimized to whatever degree possible. Even though one increases [the extent to which] the prohibition against [carrying into] a karmelis is being violated – for one also carries [into the karmelis] the object that is permitted to be carried – this is of no consequence, since the prohibition against [carrying into] a karmelis has already been entirely superseded to allow the corpse to be taken out. Nonetheless, since the prohibition against moving [muktzeh] can be minimized, it should not be overridden [entirely.14 The rationale is that] it is preferable to increase [the extent to which] one prohibition is overridden than to override two prohibitions [entirely].15

ב וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַצִּילוֹ כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי הוֹצָאָה לְכַרְמְלִית – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןיג, 10 מִשּׁוּם בִּזְיוֹן הַמֵּת שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂרֵף, שֶׁגָּדוֹל כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת11 שֶׁדּוֹחֶה מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה,יד שֶׁהִיא12 "לֹא תָסוּר מִן הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יַגִּידוּ לְךָ וגו'",טו, 10 שֶׁבְּמִצְוָה זוֹ נִצְטַוִּינוּ לִשְׁמוֹעַ לְכָל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,טז וְאִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית גַּם כֵּן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.יז, 13

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל – צָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ עִמּוֹ כְּדֵי לְהָקֵל אִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל,יח שֶׁאַף שֶׁאִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית נִדְחֶה מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ עַל יְדֵי טִלְטוּל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר – צָרִיךְ לְתַקְּנוֹ בְּכָל מַה דְּאֶפְשָׁר.יט וְאַף שֶׁמּוֹסִיף בְּאִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית, שֶׁמּוֹצִיא עִמּוֹ גַּם הַדָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית נִדְחֶה כְּבָר לְגַמְרֵי בְּהוֹצָאַת הַמֵּת. אֲבָל אִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ אֵין לָנוּ לִדְחוֹתוֹ,כ, 14 שֶׁמּוּטָב לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּאִסּוּר אֶחָד מִלִּדְחוֹת שְׁנֵי אִסּוּרִים:כא, 15

3 [The following laws apply when] a corpse is lying in the sun and one is afraid that it will become foul-smelling.16 If there is an object that is permitted to be carried [nearby, the person] should carry [the corpse] together with [that object] from the sun to the shade. If [the person] does not [have a permitted object], he should not move [the corpse] at all, not even by transferring it from bed to bed.17 [The rationale is that our Sages] did not grant license to carry [an article that is muktzeh in] an indirect manner except when it is being carried for the sake of a permitted object, as will be explained.18 In this instance, by contrast, [the person] is carrying [the object solely] for the sake of the corpse, which is [itself] forbidden to be carried. [Our Sages] only granted license [to disregard] the prohibition against taking [an object] out to a karmelis [to preserve] the honor of a corpse,19 because it is not possible to minimize [that prohibition] when it is necessary [to violate it]. Since, by contrast, the prohibition against moving [muktzeh] can be minimized by carrying a permitted object with [the corpse], it was never released [entirely] in any situation – even if one does not have a permitted object – except in the instance of a fire, lest one be motivated to extinguish it.20

ג מֵת הַמֻּטָּל בַּחַמָּהכב וְיָרֵא עָלָיו פֶּן יַסְרִיחַ,כג, 16 אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל – מְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יָדוֹ מֵחַמָּה לְצֵל, וְאִם לָאו – לֹא יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ כְּלָל, אֲפִלּוּ לְהַפְּכוֹ מִמִּטָּה לְמִטָּה,כד, 17 שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּרכה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,כו, 18 אֲבָל כָּאן הוּא מְטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֵּת הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל. וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַמֵּת19 אֶלָּא אִסּוּר הוֹצָאָה לְכַרְמְלִית,כז שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ כְּלָל כְּשֶׁצְּרִיכִים לְכָךְ, אֲבָל אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיְּטַלְטֵל עִמּוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר – לֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ בְּשׁוּם עִנְיָן,כח אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר,כט אֶלָּא בִּדְלֵקָה בִּלְבַד הִתִּירוּהוּ, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לְכַבּוֹת:ל, 20

4 Even if a person has a permitted article [with which he could carry the corpse], but he does not have a shady place in that domain, he is forbidden to take [the corpse] out to a karmelis via a permitted article if it is possible to provide [protection for the corpse from the sun] by spreading mats for shade over it in the manner to be explained.21 If, however, there is no possibility of doing so – and similarly, if a corpse is lying in a house, and it is approaching the point where it will become foul-smelling, and there is no cool place in that domain into which to move it – there are authorities who permit taking it out to a karmelis via a permitted article so that the corpse will not become foul-smelling and disgraced.

[More stringent rules apply,] however, if a corpse has already become foul-smelling inside a house and one desires to take it out [of the home] to prevent its odor from [disturbing] the members of the household. If [the members of the household] have another place where they can go, the corpse should not be removed from [the house]. Instead, [the corpse] should be left in its place and [the people] should leave.22 If not, it is permitted to remove [the corpse as an expression of respect for the living], since “great is the honor of [our fellow] beings.”23 Similarly, if one desires to remove [the corpse] out of respect for the honor of the corpse, that it not become loathsome in the eyes of the living, it is permitted to take [the corpse] out [to a karmelis] if [those in the house] have no other place to go. Similarly, if [the corpse] was lying in other disgraceful circumstances – e.g., it was on a ship and there were non-Jews24 gathering there, which is somewhat disgraceful for [the corpse], it is permitted to bring [the corpse] into a dwelling via a karmelis, using a permitted article. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

ד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ צֵל בְּאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת – אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ תַּקָּנָה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּפְרְסוּ מַחְצְלָאוֹת לְצֵל,לא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.לב, 21 אֲבָל אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּכָךְ, וְכֵן מֵת הַמֻּנָּח בַּבַּיִת וְהוּא קָרוֹב לְהַסְרִיחַלג וְאֵין לוֹ מָקוֹם קַר בְּאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת לְפַנּוֹתוֹ שָׁמָּהלד – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִין לְהוֹצִיאוֹ לְכַרְמְלִיתלה עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר,לו מִשּׁוּם בִּזְיוֹן הַמֵּת שֶׁלֹּא יַסְרִיחַ.לז

אֲבָל אִם הִסְרִיחַ כְּבָר בַּבַּיִת וְרוֹצֶה לְהוֹצִיאוֹ כְּדֵי לְסַלֵּק רֵיחוֹ מִבְּנֵי הַבַּיִת,לח אִם יֵשׁ לָהֶם מָקוֹם אַחֵר לָצֵאת לְשָׁם – אֵין מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ, אֶלָּא מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְיוֹצְאִים הֵם.22 וְאִם לָאו – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ,לט שֶׁגָּדוֹל כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת.מ, 23

וְכֵן אִם רוֹצֶה לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּזֶּה בֵּין הַחַיִּיםמא – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ אִם אֵין לָהֶם מָקוֹם אַחֵר לָצֵאת לְשָׁם.מב

וְכֵן אִם הוּא מֻטָּל בְּבִזָּיוֹן אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה בִּסְפִינָה וְהָיוּ הַנָּכְרִים24 מִתְאַסְּפִים שָׁם, שֶׁזֶּהוּ בִּזָּיוֹן קְצָת אֵלָיומג – מֻתָּר לַהֲבִיאוֹ דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית לַבַּיִתמד עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:מה

5 It is, however, forbidden to take [the corpse] out to [an area halachically defined as] a public domain in a complete sense,25 even in the case of a fire. [This prohibition is] also [accepted] by those authorities who maintain that taking the corpse out to [the public domain] is only forbidden by Rabbinic decree and not by Scriptural Law. [Their reason {for leniency} is that taking a corpse out to a public domain] is a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah, a forbidden labor that a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor was performed,26 as explained in sec. 278[:1-2. However, these authorities also agree that] this prohibition was not relaxed in consideration of the honor of [our fellow] beings, since [the prohibition] has a source in a Scriptural commandment – i.e., [taking an object out to a public domain would be Scripturally prohibited] if one would require it for a purpose. In contrast, [the prohibition against taking an object into] a karmelis is fundamentally of Rabbinic origin.27

ה אֲבָל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה – אָסוּרמו, 25 אֲפִלּוּ בִּדְלֵקָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהוֹצָאַת הַמֵּת אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ,26 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ח,מז וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת, הוֹאִיל וְעִקָּרָהּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, דְּהַיְנוּ אִם הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְגוּפָהּ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן הַכַּרְמְלִית עִקָּרָהּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:מח, 27

6 It is even forbidden [for a Jew to instruct] a non-Jew [to carry a corpse] into the public domain,28 because it is shameful for a deceased person that it be said that the Shabbos was desecrated in a complete sense because of his [corpse], even when that desecration was performed by a non-Jew. [When,] by contrast, [the corpse is brought into] a karmelis, everyone knows that [carrying in such a domain] is not a [Scripturally forbidden] labor and is fundamentally a Rabbinic decree.

ו וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אָסוּר בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,מט, 28 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁגְּנַאי הוּא לַמֵּת שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ הַבְּרִיּוֹת נִתְחַלֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת חִלּוּל גָּמוּר, אַף שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַחִלּוּל עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן הַכַּרְמְלִית הַכֹּל יוֹדְעִין שֶׁאֵינָהּ בִּכְלַל מְלָאכוֹת וְעִקָּרָהּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:נ

7 [Our Sages] did not permit carrying [a forbidden object] by carrying a permitted object with it except in the instance of a corpse.29 By contrast, other objects that are forbidden to be carried are forbidden to be carried when carrying a permitted object with them. [This restriction applies] even when one does not carry [the permitted object] for the sake of the forbidden object,30 but rather for the sake of the permitted object. [Even so, our Sages] only permitted carrying [a forbidden object] via a [permitted] object for the sake of the permitted object when one carries the permitted object in his hands and the forbidden object is carried together with it. When, by contrast, one carries the forbidden object in his hands and the permitted object is carried with it, license was only granted in the instance of a corpse.31

ז לֹא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר אֶלָּא בְּמֵת בִּלְבַד,נא, 29 אֲבָל שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּלנב – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר,נג אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ מְטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר הָאָסוּר30 אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל הַהֶתֵּר בְּיָדָיו וְהָאִסּוּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל הָאִסּוּר בְּיָדָיו וְהַהֶתֵּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ – לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא בְּמֵת בִּלְבַד:נד, 31

8 Even with regard to a corpse, license [to carry it] was granted only for the sake of its own honor,32 but not for the sake of kohanim, so that they may remain in their homes,33 or for any other purpose, even if it is associated with a mitzvah.

It is, however, permitted to have a non-Jew carry [a corpse] for the sake of a mitzvah, e.g.,a wedding,34 even though a permitted object is not being carried with it. [The rationale is that] any shvus of a shvus is permitted in a situation involving a mitzvah.35 Needless to say, in any situation where it is permitted to carry [a corpse] by carrying a permitted object with it for the sake of [the corpse’s] honor,32 it is permitted to have [the corpse] carried by a non-Jew, even though a permitted object is not carried with it.36

ח וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵת לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹדוֹ,נה, 32 אֲבָל לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ כֹּהֲנִים שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ בְּבָתֵּיהֶם,33 אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר אַחֵר,נו אֲפִלּוּ הוּא דְבַר מִצְוָה.

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן חֲתֻנָּה,נז, 34 אֲפִילוּ שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, שֶׁכָּל שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת מֻתָּר בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה.נח, 35 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹדוֹ,32 שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר:נט, 36

9 All the above applies with regard to moving [the corpse] in an ordinary manner. One is, however, permitted to move [the corpse] in an abnormal manner – i.e., to slide it from bed to bed37 – even [if he does so not for the corpse’s sake, but] for the sake of kohanim, or if he requires the place where the corpse is lying, or for the sake of the object the corpse is lying on. [The rationale is that the Sages only] forbade moving [a forbidden object] in an abnormal manner when one [does so] for the sake of the forbidden object – in this instance, for the sake of the corpse that is forbidden to be carried. Here, by contrast, one is not moving [the corpse] for its own sake, but for the sake of a permitted object.

[In such a situation,] if one does not have another bed [upon which to transfer the corpse], it is permitted to carry [the corpse] on the bed [where it is lying], since it is undesirable38 to cause [the corpse] to fall to the ground, for [once it is on the ground, the person] would not be permitted to move [the corpse] afterwards, [even] in an abnormal manner. And whenever it is undesirable38 to cause [a forbidden object] to fall to the ground, it is permitted to carry it in an ordinary manner when one is not carrying it for the sake of the forbidden object, as stated in sec. 309[:6] with regard to a stone that was forgotten [to be removed and left] on top the opening of a barrel.

ט וְכָל זֶה בְּטִלְטוּל גָּמוּר, אֲבָל טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד, דְּהַיְנוּ לְהַפְּכוֹ מִמִּטָּה לְמִטָּה37 – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ כֹּהֲנִים,ס אוֹ אִם צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַמֵּת, אוֹ לַדָּבָר שֶׁהַמֵּת מֻנָּח עָלָיו,סא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ הָאִסּוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֵּת הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל, אֲבָל כָּאן אֵינוֹ מְטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֵּת אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר אַחֵר הַמֻּתָּר.סב

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מִטָּה אַחֶרֶת – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּמִטָּה זוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר38 לְנַעֲרָהּ לְהַפִּיל אוֹתוֹ מֵעָלֶיהָ לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי שׁוּב לֹא יוּכַל לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּטִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד, וְכָל שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר38 לְנַעֲרָהּ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ כְּדַרְכָּהּ כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ הָאִסּוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"טסג בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ אֶבֶן עַל פִּי הֶחָבִית:

10 [Our Sages] required placing a permitted object on a corpse only when the corpse is naked or it is clothed in shrouds, because [shrouds] are considered secondary to [the corpse]39 and, like [the corpse], are forbidden to be carried. When, however, a corpse is clothed in the garments [the deceased] was wearing during his lifetime, there is no need to place anything else on it.40 [The rationale is that] the garments are permitted to be carried since they are not secondary to the corpse, because [the garments] will be removed from him and [the deceased will be] clothed in shrouds.41

י לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ לְהַנִּיחַ עַל הַמֵּת דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל אֶלָּא בְּמֵת עָרוּם,סד אוֹ שֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בְּתַכְרִיכִים, שֶׁהֵן בְּטֵלִין אֶצְלוֹ,סה, 39 וַאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל כָּמוֹהוּ. אֲבָל מֵת שֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בְּבִגְדּוֹסו שֶׁהָיָה לָבוּשׁ בּוֹ מֵחַיִּים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ עָלָיו כְּלוּם,40 שֶׁבֶּגֶד זֶה הוּא מֻתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל אֶצְלוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲתִידִים לְהַפְשִׁיטוֹ מֵעָלָיו וּלְהַלְבִּישׁוֹ תַּכְרִיכִים:סז, 41

11 When a corpse is lying in the sun,42 and [the people present] have nowhere to take it or they do not desire to move [the corpse] from its place, they are permitted to erect a temporary shelter [to protect the corpse from the sun],43 doing so with guile [i.e., by erecting a temporary shelter and using it] for the sake of a living person.44

How is this accomplished? Two people should come and sit on the ground, one on either side [of the corpse]. When [their places] become [too] hot [to sit upon] because of the ground’s being heated by the sun, one [of them] brings a couch and sits on it, and the other brings a couch and sits on it.45 When [the place where they are sitting] becomes [too] hot from above, [i.e., the sun’s rays beat down on their heads,] one [of them] brings a mat46 and spreads it over himself for shade, and the other brings a mat and spreads it over himself [for shade].47

[Afterwards,] one should stand his couch erect, remove it,48 and depart. The other should [stand his couch erect,] remove it, and depart. In this manner, the covering is created on its own accord, [as it were,] for the upper portions of the two mats are next to [and leaning on] each other and their two ends are located on the ground on either side of the corpse.

[All the above is necessary] because license was granted [by the Sages] to create a temporary shelter [only] in response to a living person’s discomfort and not because of [the disgrace that] the corpse [might suffer]. Therefore, even though the couches were not required in order for the shelter to be made, it was necessary for [the people] to sit [on the ground] until it became [too] warm [to sit there], and [also necessary to] bring couches to sit on, so that it would appear that the mats were not spread out to create a shelter for the corpse when both [mats] were combined, but rather [it would appear] that each individual spread one over himself to protect [himself] from the sun. For even when it became [too] warm [to sit] on the ground, each one brought his couch and sat on it. For this reason,49 they must stand [their couches] up, and remove them, and have the spread-out mats [remain] stand[ing], so that it will appear through these [actions] as well, it will appear that the mats were not spread out for the sake of the corpse, but to protect [the people] from the sun. [This will appear to be so] because when [the ground] became [too] warm [to sit] on, [each of them] brought his couch and sat on it, and when he rose, he stood it up, and then departed.

יא מֵת הַמֻּטָּל בַּחַמָּהסח, 42 וְאֵין לָהֶם מָקוֹם לְפַנּוֹתוֹ,סט אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצוּ לַהֲזִיזוֹ מִמְּקוֹמוֹע – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת עָלָיו אֹהֶל עֲרַאי43 עַל יְדֵי הַעֲרָמָה לְצֹרֶךְ הַחַי.עא, 44 כֵּיצַד? בָּאִים שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם וְיוֹשְׁבִיםעב מִשְּׁנֵי צְדָדָיועג עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע,עד חַם לָהֶם מִלְּמַטָּהעה מֵחֹם הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁרְתָחוֹ חַמָּהעו – זֶה מֵבִיא מִטָּתוֹ וְיוֹשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ, וְזֶה מֵבִיא מִטָּתוֹ וְיוֹשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ,45 חַם לָהֶם מִלְמַעְלָה – זֶה מֵבִיא מַחֲצֶלֶת46 וּפוֹרֵסעז עַל גַּבָּיועח לְצֵל,עט וְזֶה מֵבִיא מַחֲצֶלֶת וּפוֹרֵס עַל גַּבָּיו,47 זֶה זוֹקֵף מִטָּתוֹפ וּמְסִירָהּ מִשָּׁםפא וְנִשְׁמָט וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ,48 וְזֶה זוֹקֵף וּמֵסִיר מִטָּתוֹ וְנִשְׁמָט וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ, וְנִמְצֵאת מְחִצָּה עֲשׂוּיָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ,פב שֶׁהֲרֵי מַחֲצֶלֶת זֶה וּמַחֲצֶלֶת זֶה גַּבֵּיהֶן סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ, וּשְׁנֵי קְצוֹתֵיהֶן עַל הַקַּרְקַע מִשְּׁנֵי צִדֵּי הַמֵּת,פג שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹהֶל עֲרַאיפד בִּשְׁבִיל צַעַר הַחַי וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַמֵּת,פה וְלָכֵן הִצְרִיכוּ שֶׁיֵּשְׁבוּ מִתְּחִלָּה עַד שֶׁיִּחַם לָהֶם מִלְּמַטָּה, וְאָז יָבִיאוּ מִטּוֹת לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶן, אַף שֶׁאֵין בַּמִּטּוֹת צֹרֶךְ כְּלָל לַעֲשִׂיַּת הָאֹהֶל, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִרְאֶה שֶׁפְּרִיסַת הַמַּחְצְלָאוֹת אֵינָהּ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹהֶל עַל הַמֵּת בְּחִבּוּר שְׁתֵּיהֶן, אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לִפְרוֹס כָּל אֶחָד עַל עַצְמוֹ לְהָגֵן מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי גַּם כְּשֶׁחַם לָהֶם מִלְּמַטָּה הֵבִיא כָּל אֶחָד מִטָּתוֹ וְיָשְׁבוּ עֲלֵיהֶן. וּמִטַּעַם זֶה49 צְרִיכִים לִזְקוֹף וּלְהָסִיר מִטָּתָם מִשָּׁם וְלַעֲמוֹד פְּרִיסַת הַמַּחְצְלָאוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁגַּם בָּזֶה יְהֵא נִרְאֶה שֶׁפְּרִיסַת הַמַּחְצְלָאוֹת לֹא הָיְתָה בִּשְׁבִיל הַמֵּת אֶלָּא לְהָגֵן עֲלֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁחַם לוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה הֵבִיא מִטָּה וְיָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ וּכְשֶׁעָמַד זְקָפָהּ וְהָלַךְ לוֹ:פו

Fig. 8: People sitting on the ground next to the corpse
Fig. 8: People sitting on the ground next to the corpse

Fig. 9: The people sitting on couches
Fig. 9: The people sitting on couches

Fig. 10: Mats brought to create shade
Fig. 10: Mats brought to create shade

Fig. 11: The people departed and the couches removed
Fig. 11: The people departed and the couches removed

12 It is permitted to pour oil [or the like] over a corpse and rinse it, provided one does not move any of its limbs.50 [For this general principle applies to] all [objects that are] muktzeh – just as it is forbidden to move the entire object, so too is it forbidden to move any portion of it.51 It is even forbidden to move [a corpse] by means of a permitted object52 in order to wash it, unless it is so soiled with mud and filth that it becomes repulsive in the eyes of those who see it. For moving a corpse by means of a permitted object was allowed [by the Sages] only to save [the corpse] from becoming disgraced,53 for example, a corpse lying in the sun [which may be moved in this manner] so that it will not become foul-smelling or [to avoid] another type of disgrace, as explained above.52

For this reason, the common custom of lifting a corpse from pillows by means of a permitted object even when there is no concern that it will become foul-smelling should be censured. Even if there is concern that the heat of the pillows may cause [the corpse] to become foul-smelling [the corpse may not be moved. Rather], the pillows should be pulled out from under it,50 but [the corpse itself] should not be moved.54

Vinegar may be poured over the garments of a corpse so that it will not become foul-smelling until Saturday night, when it will be possible to deal with its purification. [This is not forbidden] because one is [performing the forbidden labor of] whitening,55 since vinegar does not whiten. There is also [no reason to forbid doing so as] a decree lest one wring out [the liquid], because this decree was instituted only with regard to liquids that whiten, as explained in sec. 301[:59].56

יב מֻתָּר לָסוּךְ אֶת הַמֵּת וְלַהֲדִיחוֹ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יָזִיז בּוֹ שׁוּם אֵבֶר,פז, 50 שֶׁכָּל מֻקְצֶה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל כֻּלּוֹ – כָּךְ אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל מִקְצָתוֹ.פח, 51

וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ52 כְּדֵי לְרָחֳצוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה מְטֻנָּף בְּטִיט וְצוֹאָה עַד שֶׁמָּאוּס בְּעֵינֵי רוֹאָיו,פט שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל בַּמֵּת עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר אֶלָּא לְהַצִּילוֹ מִבִּזָּיוֹן,53 כְּגוֹן בְּמֻטָּל בַּחַמָּה שֶׁלֹּא יַסְרִיחַ אוֹ בִּזָּיוֹן אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.צ, 52

וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּמַה שֶּׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַמֵּת מֵעַל הַכָּרִים עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר אַף בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַסְרִיחַ.צא וְאַף אִם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיַּסְרִיחַ מֵחֹם הַכָּרִיםצב – שׁוֹמְטִין הַכָּרִים מִתַּחְתָּיוצג, 50 וְאֵין מְטַלְטְלִים אוֹתוֹ.54

וּמֻתָּר לְזַלֵּף חֹמֶץ עַל גַּבֵּי בְגָדִים שֶׁל הַמֵּת בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יַסְרִיחַ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוּכְלוּ לְהִתְעַסֵּק בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ, וְאֵין כָּאן מִשּׁוּם לִבּוּן,55 שֶׁהַחֹמֶץ אֵינוֹ מְלַבֵּן, וּגְזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט גַּם כֵּן אֵין גּוֹזְרִין אֶלָּא בְּמַשְׁקֶה הַמְלַבֵּן,צד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"א:צה, 56

13 If the mouth of a corpse opens and is continuing to open wider, one may tie the jaw so that it will not open further,57 but [he may] not close what already opened, not [even] partially, for it is forbidden to move a limb [of a corpse]. For this reason, a corpse’s eyes should not be closed on Shabbos.57At present, it is customary to close a corpse’s eyes on Shabbos and to move its limbs so that they will not become crooked, 58 because it is said that [failure to do so] invites danger.59 [Those who follow this practice] should not be admonished.

יג אִם הָיָה פִּיו נִפְתָּח וְהוֹלֵךְ – קוֹשֵׁר אֶת הַלֶּחִי בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יוֹסִיף לְהִפָּתֵחַ,57 אֲבָל לֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּסָּגֵר מַה שֶּׁנִּפְתַּח אוֹ קְצָתוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לְהָזִיזצו אֵבֶר. וּמִטַּעַם זֶה אֵין מַעֲצִימִין עֵינָיו שֶׁל מֵת בְּשַׁבָּת.צז, 57

וְעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ לְהַעֲצִים עֵינָיו בְּשַׁבָּת וּלְהָזִיז אֵבֶר שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַקֵּם,58 וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ סַכָּנָה בְּדָבָר,צח, 59 וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם:צט

14 The [following] general principle applies to carrying an object via another one: Whenever there are two objects and one [of them] is forbidden to be carried and the other is permitted, [and these objects] are: a) close to each other, intertwined together, or one is on top of the other; b) the permitted article did not become a base for the forbidden article, as stated in sec. 309[:6];60 and c) when one carries or moves one of them, the other is carried or moved with it, [our Sages] did not grant license to carry the forbidden object in his hand when the permitted object is carried with it in any instance except with regard to a corpse.61

[Moreover, stringency is required] even when one carries the permitted object in his hand and the forbidden object is carried with it, if his intention, when carrying [the two], is for the sake of the forbidden object itself.62 Needless to say, [this applies] when [the person] carries [the two objects] for the sake of the forbidden object,63 to save it from being damaged or harmed, to hide it, or for another purpose. [Furthermore,] even carrying [the two] because he needs to use the forbidden object for a permitted purpose, e.g., to sit or lie on it64 – which is permitted, as stated in sec. 308[:14, 52]65 – or [carrying] a lamp to use its light in another place,66 and so too all similar instances, is forbidden since [the person] is carrying [the two objects] for the sake of the forbidden object.

If, however, [the person] does not need the actual substance of the forbidden object, and he is carrying it together with the permitted object only for the sake of a permitted purpose – e.g., to free the space it occupies – this is referred to as, “carrying in an abnormal manner,” which our Sages permitted,67 as explained in sec. 309[:6] with regard to a stone [placed as a cover] over the opening of a barrel or coins on a pillow.

Needless to say, [leniency is granted] when one does not intend to carry the forbidden object68 because he has no need for it at all, [i.e., his] only [desire is] to carry the permitted object; however, it is impossible [for him] to carry the permitted object unless the forbidden object is carried along with it. For example, a harvested radish was buried in earth,69 with some of its leaves protruding. One may pick [the radish] up by [the leaves that are protruding from the earth] and remove it [from the earth],70 even though by doing so, he will move the earth from its place. [This leniency is granted] provided the radish did not sprout roots there and, thus, the prohibition against uprooting [produce] does not apply.71

Even if the person intended to sow [the radish] when he buried it, as explained in sec. 310[:2],72 and even if [the radish] increased in size because of the earth’s moisture, this is of no consequence, as long as it did not sprout roots. [Moreover,] the radish is not considered as a base for the earth covering it, even if [the person] intended for [the radish] to remain there throughout the entire Shabbos, because he did not intend that the radish serve the earth,73 but rather that the earth serve the radish. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.74

If none of the [radish] leaves protrude, there are authorities who permit inserting a spindle stick or a knife into the radish to remove it with them, causing the earth above [the radish] to be shaken off as a matter of course. True, [the person] will also lift up the earth that is on the radish as soon as he lifts up the radish. [Nevertheless,] that is of no consequence since [the person] is acting for the sake of a permitted object.75 There are authorities who forbid inserting [a spindle or a knife] into the earth, because it appears that one is producing a crevice.76 With regard to halachah, in questions of Rabbinic Law, one may follow the more lenient view.77

When, by contrast, produce is buried in hay or straw that is set aside for kindling,67 all authorities agree that one may insert a spindle or a knife into the [desired] produce and remove it, for the prohibition against [creating] a crevice applies only with regard to earth and the like,78 as will be explained in sec. 506[:2.79 Moreover,] if one designated hay or straw to be used to insulate produce, they are removed from the category of muktzeh and are permitted to be carried. The same laws apply to earth designated for this purpose, as explained.80

יד זֶה הַכְּלָל בְּטִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר: כָּל שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים אֶחָד אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ וְאֶחָד מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, וְהֵם סְמוּכִים זֶה לָזֶה אוֹ זֶה בָּזֶה אוֹ זֶה עַל זֶה,ק וְהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה הַהֶתֵּר בָּסִיס לָאִסּוּר עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ט,קא, 60 וּבִזְמַן שֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל אֶחָד מֵהֶם מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ הַשֵּׁנִי, אִם מְטַלְטֵל הָאִסּוּר בְּיָדוֹ וְהַהֶתֵּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ – לֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ בְּשׁוּם עִנְיָן אֶלָּא בְּמֵת בִּלְבַד.קב, 61

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מְטַלְטֵל הַהֶתֵּר בְּיָדָיו וְהָאִסּוּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ, אִם הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בְּטִלְטוּל זֶה לְצֹרֶךְ הָאִסּוּר,קג, 62 אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם מְטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ הָאִסּוּר עַצְמוֹקד, 63 כְּדֵי לְשָׁמְרוֹ מֵאֵיזֶה קִלְקוּל וְהֶפְסֵד, אוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַצְנִיעוֹ,קה אוֹ אֵיזֶה עִנְיָן אַחֵר, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אִם מְטַלְטֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ הָאִסּוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמֻּתָּר, כְּגוֹן לֵישֵׁב אוֹ לִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו,קו, 64 שֶׁזֶּהוּ מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ח,קז, 65 אוֹ כְּגוֹן נֵר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵרקח, 66 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, הוֹאִיל וּמִטַּלְטֵל בִּשְׁבִיל הָאִסּוּר – אָסוּר.קט

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לְגוּף הָאִסּוּר, וְאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַהֶתֵּר אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, כְּגוֹן לְפַנּוֹת מְקוֹמוֹקי – זֶהוּ טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד שֶׁהִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים,קיא, 67 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"טקיב בְּאֶבֶן שֶׁעַל פִּי הֶחָבִית וּמָעוֹת שֶׁעַל הַכַּר.

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לְטִלְטוּל הָאִסּוּר,68 שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ כְּלָלקיג רַק טִלְטוּל הַהֶתֵּר בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְטַלְטֵל הַהֶתֵּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יְטַלְטֵל הָאִסּוּר עַל יָדוֹ, כְּגוֹן צְנוֹן תָּלוּשׁ הַטָּמוּן בָּאָרֶץ69 וּמִקְצָת עָלָיו מְגֻלִּין – נוֹטְלוֹ בָּהֶם וּמוֹצִיאוֹ,קיד, 70 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּנְטִילָתוֹ מֵזִיז עָפָר מִמְּקוֹמוֹ.קטו וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא הִשְׁרִישׁ,קטז שֶׁאָז אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלֵשׁקיז, 71 אַף אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִזְרִיעָה כְּשֶׁטְּמָנוֹ שָׁם,קיח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"י.קיט, 72 וְאַף אִם הוֹסִיף מֵחֲמַת לַחוּת הַקַּרְקַע – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּםקכ כָּל שֶׁלֹּא הִשְׁרִישׁ. וְהַצְּנוֹן לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְהֶעָפָר שֶׁעָלָיו, אַף אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר מֻנָּח שָׁם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה כַּוָּנָתוֹ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַצְּנוֹן מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְהֶעָפָר,73 אֶלָּא שֶׁיְּהֵא הֶעָפָר מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְהַצְּנוֹן.קכא וְכֵן בְּכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.קכב, 74

וְאִם אֵין מִקְצָת עָלָיו מְגֻלִּין – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקכג לִתְחוֹב כּוּשׁ אוֹ סַכִּין לְתוֹךְ הַצְּנוֹן וּלְהוֹצִיאוֹ בָּהֶם, וְהֶעָפָר שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו נִנְעָר מֵאֵלָיו. וְאַף שֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת הַגְבָּהָתוֹ אֶת הַצְּנוֹן מַגְבִּיהַּ גַּם הֶעָפָר שֶׁעָלָיו – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר הוּא.75 וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןקכד לִתְחוֹב בֶּעָפָר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה גוּמָא.76 וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל.קכה, 77

אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת הַטְּמוּנִים בְּקַשׁ אוֹ תֶּבֶן הַמֻּקְצִיםקכו לְהַסָּקָהקכז, 67 – מֻתָּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל לִתְחוֹב כּוּשׁ אוֹ סַכִּין לְתוֹךְ הַפֵּרוֹת וּלְהוֹצִיאָם,קכח שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר גּוּמָא שַׁיָּךְ אֶלָּא בְּעָפָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ,קכט, 78 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"ו.קל, 79 וְאִם יִחֵד הַקַּשׁ וְהַתֶּבֶן לְהַטְמִין בָּהֶם הַפֵּרוֹת – יָצְאוּ מִתּוֹרַת מֻקְצֶה וּמֻתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּעָפָר שֶׁיִּחֲדוֹ לְכָךְ,קלא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:קלב, 80

15 All the above applies when one carries [an object that is muktzeh] in one’s hand while carrying another [permitted] object.81 It is, by contrast, permitted to move an object that is muktzeh with one’s body and not with his hand82 even for the sake of the article that is muktzeh itself83 – for example, [moving] straw that is muktzeh because it can be assumed that it will be used for kindling.84 If [such straw] was placed on a bed without [the intent] to lie down on it, and on Shabbos, one decided to lie down on [the straw], he is permitted to move [the straw] with his body85 so that it will fluff up and be soft and comfortable to lie upon.86

If [the person] placed a pillow or a sheet on [the straw] while it was still day [on Friday], it is as if he sat on it or lay on it before the commencement of the Shabbos,and it is [considered as if the straw was] designated to be sat upon or lain upon. From this time onward, [this straw] is categorized as a utensil and it is permitted to be carried by hand. The same [law applies] if he thought about sitting or lying on [the straw] while it was still day [on Friday], as explained in sec. 308[:63] with regard to an object that is commonly designated to sit or lie upon. If he designated [the straw] for animal fodder, it is permitted to move [the straw] in any circumstance.87

All the above [restrictions apply] in places where it can be assumed that straw will be used for kindling. In contrast, in places where it can be assumed that it will be used for animal fodder or to lie upon, it is permitted to move [the straw] in all circumstances, as explained in that source.

טו וְכָל זֶה בְּטִלְטוּל בְּיָדָיו עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר,81 אֲבָל לְטַלְטֵל הַמֻּקְצֶה בְּגוּפוֹקלג שֶׁלֹּא בְיָדָיו – מֻתָּר82 אֲפִלּוּ מְטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הָאִסּוּר,קלד, 83 כְּגוֹן קַשׁ שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁסְּתָמוֹ עוֹמֵד לְהַסָּקָה,קלה, 84 וְאִם הוּא נָתוּן עַל הַמִּטָּה שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו וּבְשַׁבָּת הוּא בָּא לִשְׁכַּב עָלָיוקלו – מֻתָּר לְנַעֲנֵעַ בְּגוּפוֹקלז, 85 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא צָף וְרַךְ וְנוֹחַ לִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו.קלח, 86

וְאִם הִנִּיחַ עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כַּר אוֹ סָדִיןקלט – נַעֲשָׂה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיָּשַׁב אוֹ שָׁכַב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קמ וַהֲרֵי זֶה מוּכָן לִישִׁיבָה אוֹ לִשְׁכִיבָה, וּמֵעַתָּה יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיוקמא וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּיָדָיו. וְכֵן אִם חָשַׁב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לֵישֵׁב אוֹ לִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו,קמב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ח,קמג בְּדָבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ גַם כֵּן לְיַחֲדוֹ לִישִׁיבָה אוֹ לִשְׁכִיבָה. וְאִם הִזְמִינוֹ לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹקמד בְּכָל עִנְיָן.87

וְכָל זֶה בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁסְּתָם קַשׁ עוֹמֵד לְהַסָּקָה, אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁסְּתָמוֹ עוֹמֵד לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה אוֹ לִשְׁכִיבָה – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן,קמה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:קמו