SECTION 310 Laws Governing Muktzeh on Shabbos (1-20)

סימן שי דִּינֵי מֻקְצֶה בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ' סְעִיפִים:

1 It has already been explained in sec. 308[:2] that an object that is muktzeh because it is repulsive is permitted [to be moved on Shabbos]. Therefore, a board1 on which fish are [usually] hung to dry, even though it is repulsive, is permitted to be moved.2

א כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח א שֶׁמֻּקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מִאוּס מֻתָּר, לְפִיכָךְ עֵץ1 שֶׁתּוֹלִין בּוֹ דָּגִים לְיַבְּשָׁם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מָאוּס – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלו: ב, 2

2 The laws of muktzeh do not apply to any food that is fit to be eaten3 on [that] Shabbos,4even if it is set aside as merchandise, e.g., dates, almonds, and other fruits that were set aside to be transported to another place to be sold.5 It is permitted to eat them on Shabbos. Even if one performed an act that clearly indicated6 that he was not thinking of eating them on Shabbos, e.g., he sowed [kernels of] wheat in the ground, it is permitted to [remove them from the ground and] eat them on Shabbos if they have not yet sprouted roots.7 Similarly, eggs that were placed under chickens to grow [and hatch] chicks may be carried.8

Similar [laws apply] regarding dates: the manner in which] dates [are processed is] that they are harvested before they have ripened. They are then collected in baskets and [left] to ripen [in the baskets] as a matter of course. [The dates] are permitted to be eaten9 even before they have ripened.10

Similar [laws apply] to all types of fruit that are set aside in a designated place11 to dry. One may eat [all types of fruit]4 before they dry, with the exception of dried figs and raisins. [Figs and grapes] are forbidden to be eaten or moved from the time12 they are set aside in a designated place until they have dried out thoroughly. [The rationale is that] shortly after they have been moved to that place, they become unfit to eat until they have thoroughly dried out, because they become repulsive in the interim.13 Therefore, they are forbidden [to be moved] on Shabbos [since] they are [deemed] muktzeh. Needless to say, this applies if [the fruit] is entirely unfit [to eat], for then its status is worse than all [substances classified as] muktzeh; it is comparable to that of stones and earth.14 Even designating [the produce to be eaten on Shabbos] while it is still day [on Friday] is not effective [in changing its status],15 as will be explained.16 Moreover, even if [the figs and raisins] are in [an intermediate state] – neither entirely fit to be eaten nor totally unfit to be eaten, i.e., some people would eat them [in that state] and others would not,15 – they are, nevertheless, forbidden as muktzeh. [The rationale is that] since [the person] performed an act that clearly indicated that he did not intend to use [the fruit],6 their status remains unchanged until they are entirely fit to be eaten.

[Figs and raisins] do not resemble other [foods in a situation] where a person performed an act that clearly indicates that he has absolutely no intention of using them. [The rationale is that other produce never becomes entirely repulsive. Hence,] even though [one] performed such an act, he did not entirely divert his attention from [eating] it. However, this is not the case with regard to figs and raisins. Since the person knows that figs and raisins will become repulsive [during the drying process], when he leaves them to dry, he considers them as set aside (muktzeh) absolutely until they are entirely dry and have improved to the extent that they are fit for everyone [to eat].17 Even though at this time, [i.e.,] on Shabbos, [the person] changed his mind and decided to eat them, this does not cause them to be considered as designated [to be eaten], since he considered them as set-aside at the commencement of the Shabbos [bein hashmashos].18For,as will be explained,19 any entity a person considered as set-aside during bein hashmashos is considered as muktzeh for the entire Shabbos.

ב כָּל דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה בְּשַׁבָּתג, 4 – אֵין בּוֹ דִּין מֻקְצֶה,ד, 3 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא עוֹמֵד לִסְחוֹרָה, כְּגוֹן תְּמָרִים וּשְׁקֵדִים וּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת ה הָעוֹמְדִים לְהוֹלִיכָם לִסְחוֹרָה לְמָקוֹם אַחֵרו, 5 – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם דָּחָה אוֹתָם בְּיָדַיִם6 מִלְּאָכְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן חִטִּים שֶׁזְּרָעָן בַּקַּרְקַע ז – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת ח אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא הִשְׁרִישׁוּ.ט, 7 וְכֵן בֵּיצִים שֶׁנְּתָנָן תַּחַת הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת לְגַדֵּל אֶפְרוֹחִים י – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָןיא, 8 וְכֵן תְּמָרִים הַנִּלְקָטִים קֹדֶם בִּשּׁוּלָם וְכוֹנְסִים אוֹתָם בְּסַלִּים וְהֵם מִתְבַּשְּׁלִים שָׁם מֵאֲלֵיהֶם – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶם9 קֹדֶם גְּמַר בִּשּׁוּלָם.יב, 10

וְכֵן כָּל מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים אוֹתָם בַּמֻּקְצֶה12 לְיַבְּשָׁם – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶם4 קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ.יג חוּץ מִגְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים,יד שֶׁאָסוּר לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶם אוֹ לְטַלְטְלָןטו מִשֶּׁהִנִּיחָם11 בַּמֻּקְצֶה עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ לְגַמְרֵי, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מַסְרִיחוֹת בֵּינְתַיִםטז, 13 וְאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה מִשֶּׁנִּשְׁתַּהוּ שָׁם מְעַט עַד שֶׁיִּתְיַבְּשׁוּיז לְגַמְרֵי,יח וְלָכֵן אֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה.

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם אֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן גְּרוּעִין מִכָּל מֻקְצֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן כַּאֲבָנִים וְעָפָר,יט, 14 וַאֲפִלּוּ הַזְמָנָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵין מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהֶם,כ, 15 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.כא, 16 אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵן רְאוּיִין וְאֵינָן רְאוּיִין, שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁאוֹכְלִים אוֹתָן וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינָן אוֹכְלִים.כב, 15 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁדָּחָה אוֹתָן בְּיָדַיִם6 – אֵינָן עוֹלִין מִידֵי דְחִיָּתָן עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רְאוּיִין לְגַמְרֵי.

וְאֵינָן דּוֹמִין לִשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁדְּחָאָם בְּיָדַיִם שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים, לְפִי שֶׁאַף שֶׁדְּחָאָם בְּיָדַיִם – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מֵהֶן לְגַמְרֵי, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים שֶׁהִנִּיחָן לְיַבְּשָׁן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיַּסְרִיחוּ – הִקְצָה דַעְתּוֹ מֵהֶןכג לְגַמְרֵי עַד שֶׁיִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ לְגַמְרֵי וְיִתַּקְּנוּ הֵיטֵבכד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רְאוּיִין לַכֹּל.כה, 17 וְאַף שֶׁעַכְשָׁו בְּשַׁבָּת נִמְלַךְ לְאָכְלָם – אֵינָם מוּכָנִים עַל יְדֵי כָךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיוּ מֻקְצִים מִדַּעְתּוֹ מִתְּחִלַּת הַשַּׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,כו שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהֻקְצָה מִדַּעַת הָאָדָם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת18 – הֻקְצָה לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ:19

3 To what does the above apply? To dried figs and raisins belonging to a Jew. By contrast, dried figs and raisins belonging to a non-Jew that are [in an intermediate state] – neither entirely fit to be eaten nor totally unfit to be eaten20 – are permitted, because the laws of muktzeh do not apply with regard to objects belonging to a non-Jew.21 [The rationale is that] everything a non-Jew [possesses] is prepared to be used; he does not set anything aside, but instead, thinks about [using] everything.22 Thus, since [the produce in his possession] is prepared for one person,23 it is prepared for all people.24

To what does the above apply? To produce [that was] harvested [before Shabbos]. If, however, [the produce] was attached to the earth [before Shabbos] and harvested on Shabbos, it is forbidden to be eaten or to be moved even if it belongs to a non-Jew who harvested it for himself. [This prohibition applies] even if the non-Jew [made known] his intent while it was still day [on Friday, revealing that he planned] to pick this produce on Shabbos, i.e., one heard the non-Jew say on Friday, “Tomorrow, I will pick this produce.25

[The prohibition against eating and moving this produce applies] even when the produce has already fully ripened [before Shabbos], in which instance, preparing to use it is of halachic significance, even when the produce is still attached, aswill be explained in sec. 318[:6].26 Nevertheless, the produce is forbidden to be eaten and to be moved. As will be explained in sec. 325[:8, these restrictions are] a decree [instituted lest one partake of] fruit that falls [from a tree on Shabbos. Eating such fruit is forbidden on that Shabbos,] as will be explained in sec. 322.27

[Similar laws apply if an animal] was not yet trapped28 while it was still day [on Friday], and a non-Jew trapped [the animal] on Shabbos; [the animal] is forbidden as muktzeh on Shabbos. Even if [the non-Jew] intended to trap [the animal] on Shabbos, his intent is not of consequence at all since the matter is not dependent on him.29 [The rationale is:] Since [the animal] was not under the person’s control at all, it is not considered as designated for use30 [even though he made his intentions known].

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּגְרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים שֶׁל נָכְרִי – מֻתָּרִיןכז אִם הֵם רְאוּיִין וְאֵינָן רְאוּיִין,כח, 20 שֶׁאֵין דִּין מֻקְצֶה בְּשֶׁל נָכְרִי,כט, 21 לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל מוּכָן אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ מַקְצֶה כְּלוּם וְדַעְתּוֹ עַל הַכֹּל,ל22 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מוּכָן לְאִישׁ אֶחָד23 – מוּכָן לַכֹּל.לא, 24

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּדָבָר תָּלוּשׁ, אֲבָל מְחֻבָּר שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁל נָכְרִילב שֶׁתְּלָשׁוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בְּדַעַת הַנָּכְרִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לִתְלוֹשׁ פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמַע אֶת הַנָּכְרִי אוֹמֵר בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת "לְמָחָר אֶתְלוֹשׁ פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ",לג, 25 וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּגְמַר בִּשּׁוּלָן שֶׁהֲכָנָה מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדָם בִּמְחֻבָּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"חלד, 26 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הֵם אֲסוּרִים בַּאֲכִילָה וּבְטִלְטוּל מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת פֵּרוֹת הַנּוֹשְׁרִיןלה שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ב,לו, 27 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה.לז

וְדָבָר שֶׁהָיָה מְחֻסָּר צִידָה28 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְצָד אוֹתוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לָצוּד בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר תָּלוּי בּוֹ,29 וַהֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּלָל – אֵין זֶה מִן הַמּוּכָן:לח, 30

4 Any object that was forbidden to be moved bein hashmashos [remains forbidden to be moved throughout the entire Shabbos]31even though the factor that [originally] caused [the object] to be forbidden becomes no longer relevant on Shabbos.32 For example,33 an object was muktzeh [during] bein hashmashos because it was forbidden, e.g., [a food] was forbidden to be eaten because of a certain prohibition,34 thereby [making it] unfit for any purpose. [Therefore, the food] was deemed muktzeh during bein hashmashos and [thus] forbidden to be moved. Even though the prohibition [against partaking of the food was] lifted [later that] Shabbos and it became fit [to be eaten], [the food] nevertheless remains forbidden to be moved throughout the entire Shabbos.

When does the above apply? When the person “pushes away [the object] by hand,”35 i.e., [he intentionally performs an act that] causes [the object] to be forbidden.6 For example, [one] kindled a lamp while it was still day [on Friday] and it burned out after bein hashmashos. [Even though] oil remained in [the lamp], this oil was “pushed away” by human action [i.e., by placing it in the lamp, the person made it unfit [for use] on Shabbos. For when [the person] kindled [the lamp], it became forbidden to use the oil in that lamp on Shabbos,because [doing so would involve] the prohibition of extinguishing [a fire].36 Accordingly, it is forbidden to use [the oil on Shabbos] even after the lamp burns out37 and the prohibiting factor is removed. Since [the possibility of using the oil] was removed from the person’s thoughts during bein hashmashos,the time when Shabbos commences –for he removed the thought of using it from his mind when he caused it to be forbidden – it became muktzeh for the entire Shabbos.38

ד כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה אָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת31 וּבְשַׁבָּת הָלַךְ לוֹ הַדָּבָר הַגּוֹרֵם לוֹ הָאִסּוּר,לט, 32 כְּגוֹן33 דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה מֻקְצֶה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר, מ דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת אֵיזֶה אִסּוּר שֶׁהָיָה אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה34 וְלֹא הָיָה רָאוּי לִכְלוּםמא בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הָיָה מֻקְצֶה וְאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל,מב וּבְשַׁבָּת נִסְתַּלֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ הָאִסּוּר וְנַעֲשָׂה רָאוּי – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁדְּחָאוֹ הָאָדָם בְּיָדַיִם,מג, 35 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהָאָדָם גָּרַם לוֹ הָאִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם,6 כְּגוֹן נֵר שֶׁהִדְלִיקוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםמד וְכָבָה אַחַר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שֶׁמֶן, וְשֶׁמֶן זֶה נִדְחָה בִּידֵי אָדָם מִלִּהְיוֹת רָאוּי בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִדְלִיקוֹ נֶאֱסַר לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר כִּבּוּי,מה, 36 לָכֵן אָסוּר לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁכָּבָה הַנֵּרמו, 37 וְנִסְתַּלֵּק הָאִסּוּר, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת הָיָה מֻקְצֶה מִדַּעַת הָאָדָם שֶׁהִקְצָה אוֹתוֹ מִדַּעְתּוֹ כְּשֶׁגָּרַם לוֹ הָאִסּוּר – הֻקְצָה לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ:מז, 38

5 Similarly, when an object that was unfit to be used bein hashmashos because of its own state – [i.e.,] it was not [unfit]because of a prohibition – became fit after nightfall, it is forbidden to be moved for the entire Shabbos if [the object] was also made unfit for use bein hashmashos because of human action. For example, when dried figs or raisins that were not fit to be eaten bein hashmashos39 dried thoroughly on Shabbos and became fit [to eat on Shabbos, they remain forbidden the entire Shabbos].40 [The rationale is:] Since they were intentionally set aside from the person’s thoughts when he set them out to dry, they became muktzeh for the entire Shabbos.

ה וְכֵן דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה רָאוּי בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא מֵחֲמַת אֵיזֶה אִסּוּר וְנַעֲשָׂה רָאוּי מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה, שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ אִם נִדְחָה בִּידֵי אָדָםמח מִלִּהְיוֹת רָאוּי בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, כְּגוֹן גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ רְאוּיִין בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת39 וּבְשַׁבָּת נִתְיַבְּשׁוּ לְגַמְרֵי וְנַעֲשׂוּ רְאוּיִין,מט, 40 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הָיוּ מֻקְצִין מִדַּעַת הָאָדָם שֶׁהִקְצָם מִדַּעְתּוֹ כְּשֶׁהִכְנִיסָן לְיַבְּשָׁן – הֻקְצוּ לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ: נ

6 If, however, an object was muktzeh during bein hashmashos independent of the person’s thought process, it does not [necessarily remain] muktzeh for the entire Shabbos, for example, an object that became muktzeh because of an intrinsic prohibition that was not brought about by the person’s actions.41 [If] the prohibition was removed after nightfall, [the object] is no longer considered as muktzeh, even though when bein hashmashos arrived, the person had diverted his attention from [the object] entirely and did not at all anticipate that the prohibition would be lifted on Shabbos.An example of this is animals that were muktzeh on Shabbos42because they are forbidden to be slaughtered.43 If one slaughtered [an animal] on Shabbos for the sake of a sick person who became ill on that day,44 a healthy person is [also] permitted to eat [the animal’s meat while] raw,45 even though he had diverted his attention from [the animal] when bein hashmashos arrived, because of the prohibition against slaughtering. [The meat is not muktzeh for the entire Shabbos] because the prohibition [against eating the meat of a live animal] is [an] intrinsic [prohibition] that was not brought about by man’s actions. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

ו אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה מֻקְצֶה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם – לֹא הֻקְצָה לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ, כְּגוֹן דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר הַבָּא מֵאֵלָיונא וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי גְּרָמַת הָאָדָם,41 וּמִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה נִסְתַּלֵּק הָאִסּוּר – שׁוּב אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ לְגַמְרֵי וְלֹא הָיָה מְצַפֶּה כְּלָל שֶׁיִּסְתַּלֵּק הָאִסּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים שֶׁהֵם מֻקְצִים בְּשַׁבָּת42 מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר שְׁחִיטָהנב, 43 וּשְׁחָטָם בְּשַׁבָּת לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶהנג שֶׁחָלָה הַיּוֹם44 – מֻתָּר לְבָרִיא לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶם חַינד, 45 אַף שֶׁהִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מֵהֶם כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעוּ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר שְׁחִיטָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אִסּוּר הַבָּא מֵאֵלָיו וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי גְּרָמַת הָאָדָם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:

7 All the above applies with regard to an object that was muktzeh throughout bein hashmashos.46 [Different laws apply,] however, when an object was fit [to be used] for even a small part of [the period of] bein hashmashos and then its status was downgraded – whether it was downgraded naturally or it was “pushed away by human activity” – [and as a result,] it became forbidden to be eaten or moved. If its state was later rectified,47 it returns to its [original status and is] permitted. [The rationale is that] it is not said that since [an object] became muktzeh and forbidden for part of the Shabbos, it became forbidden for the entire Shabbos. Such a statement applies only when [the object] became muktzeh at the very onset of the commencement of Shabbos, i.e., [at the beginning of] bein hashmashos.48In such an instance, [the object] became [muktzeh and thus] forbidden for the entire day.49 When, however, [the object] only became muktzeh afterwards,50 and thus it was not [in that state] for the entire day, [the object] does not [necessarily] become [unalterably] muktzeh for the remainder of the day. For there is no concept of an object being [unalterably] muktzeh for [only] part of a Shabbos –neither with regard to a prohibition against partaking of it nor with regard to a prohibition against moving it.

ז וְכָל זֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁהָיָה מֻקְצֶה כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,נה, 46 אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה רָאוּי בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּמִקְצָתוֹ לְבָדנו וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְקַלְקֵל בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר בַּאֲכִילָה אוֹ בְּטִלְטוּל, בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקֵל מֵאֵלָיו בֵּין שֶׁנִּדְחָה בִּידֵי אָדָם,נז וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזַר וְנִתַּקֵּן47 – חָזַר לְהֶתֵּרוֹ. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצָה וְנֶאֱסַר כְּבָר בְּמִקְצָת הַשַּׁבָּת הֻקְצָה לִשְׁאֵרִית הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ,נח שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים כֵּן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהֻקְצָה בִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁהוּא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתנט, 48 שֶׁאָז הֻקְצָה לְיוֹם שָׁלֵם,49 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁלֹּא הֻקְצָה עַד אַחַר כָּךְ,50 שֶׁאֵין כַּאן יוֹם שָׁלֵם – לֹא הֻקְצָה לִשְׁאֵרִית הַיּוֹם, שֶׁאֵין מֻקְצֶה לַחֲצִי שַׁבָּת, בֵּין בְּאִסּוּר אֲכִילָה בֵּין בְּאִסּוּר טִלְטוּל: ס

8 [The following law applies when] dried figs and raisins were setaside because they were not fit [to be eaten], and when bein hashmashos arrived, they had already dried [completely] and became fit to be eaten. Even though the owner did not at all know [that the fruit had undergone this change] at the time they dried out, and [only] later [on that Shabbos] did he realize that [the figs or raisins] had already been dry bein hashmashos, they are permitted to be eaten51 [on that Shabbos.49 The rationale is that] initially, when[the person] set them aside and diverted his attention from them, he set them aside [and diverted his attention from them] only until they dried, and indeed, they had become dry and ready [to be eaten] while it was still day [on Friday].52

ח גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים שֶׁהָיוּ מֻקְצִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין, וּכְשֶׁהִגִּיעַ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת נִתְיַבְּשׁוּ כְּבָר וַהֲרֵי הֵם רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָדְעוּ הַבְּעָלִים כְּלָל בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹדַע לָהֶם שֶׁבְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת כְּבָר הָיוּ יְבֵשִׁים – מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה,סא, 51 שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה49 כְּשֶׁהִקְצוּ אוֹתָן וְהִסִּיחוּ דַעְתָּם מֵהֶם – לֹא הֻקְצוּ אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ, וַהֲרֵי נִתְיַבְּשׁוּ וְהוּכְנוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:סב, 52

9 When figs and raisins have dried to the extent that they are somewhat [but not entirely] ready [to be eaten] – i.e., there are some people who would eat them and others who would not – it is permitted to partake of them on Shabbos49 if [their owner] designated them to be eaten while it was still day [on Friday. The rationale is that] since [the owner] revealed his thought – that [the fruits] are fit for him – they are removed from the category of muktzeh.53 If [the owner] did not [designate the fruits to be eaten, they remain] forbidden. [The rationale is that] since he did not reveal [his change of] mind, [the fruits] remain in the category of muktzeh into which they were initially placed when they were not fit [to be eaten] by anyone.

[The above applies when the figs and raisins have reached a state that some would consider fit to eat.] If, however, a person designates the figs and raisins to be eaten [even though] they are not at all fit [to eat because they have not dried sufficiently, and are still considered disgusting by all people], his designation is of no consequence. It is as if [the person] designated a stone to be eaten.

ט גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ קְצָת בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהֵם רְאוּיִים וְאֵינָן רְאוּיִין, שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁאוֹכְלִין אוֹתָן וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינָן אוֹכְלִין, אִם הִזְמִינָם לַאֲכִילָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת,סג, 49 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁגִּלָּה דַעְתּוֹ שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין לוֹסד – יָצאוּ מִתּוֹרַת מֻקְצֶה.סה, 53 וְאִם לָאו – אָסוּר,סו שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא גִלָּה דַעְתּוֹ – הֲרֵי הֵן עוֹמְדִין בְּהַקְצָאָתָן שֶׁהָיוּ מֻקְצִין מִתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ רְאוּיִין לְשׁוּם אָדָם.

אֲבָל אִם הִזְמִין לַאֲכִילָה גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִים שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין כְּלָל – אֵין הַזְמָנָתוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם,סז שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַזְמִין אֶת הָאֶבֶן לַאֲכִילָה:סח

10 Whenever an object is forbidden to be moved, it is [also] forbidden to place a container under [the object] so that it will fall into [the container].54 [This restriction applies] even if one intends to shake [the object] out [of the container later. The rationale is that by doing so] he causes the container to be forbidden to be moved55 as long as the object that is muktzeh is in it. Thus, he will be negating the possibility of using [the container], and it is forbidden to negate the possibility of using a utensil even temporarily unless a significant loss is involved, as explained in sec. 265[:3, 7] and sec. 266[:25-26].56

It is, however, permitted to cover [the forbidden object] with a container,57 for by doing so, one does not cause the container to become forbidden to be moved. [This license is granted] provided the container does not touch the object that is muktzeh.58 True, it is permitted to merely touch an object that is muktzeh even with one’s hand, as long as he does not move it, as explained in sec. 308[:14]. Nevertheless, in this instance, since he is placing the container over the object that is muktzeh for the sake of the object that is muktzeh, it is forbidden to even touch [the object that is muktzeh] with the container.

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that our Sages warned against the container touching the object that is muktzeh only with regard to an object similar to an egg or the like, [i.e., an object] that would [certainly] move when touched by the container.59 Thus, the person would be moving [the object that is muktzeh] via the container, and [our Sages] permitted moving [an object that is muktzeh] via another article60 only [when one does so] for the sake of the permitted article, as will be explained in sec. 311[:14].61

י כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ – אָסוּר לִתֵּן תַּחְתָּיו כְּלִי כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפּוֹל לְתוֹכוֹ,סט, 54 אֲפִלּוּ אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לְנַעֲרוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ, ע מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאוֹסֵר הַכְּלִי בְּטִלְטוּל55 כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַמֻּקְצֶה בְּתוֹכוֹ, וְנִמְצָא מְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנו,ֹעא וְאָסוּר לְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי שָׁעָה אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה,עב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר[ס]"העג וְרס"ו.עד, 56

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִכְפּוֹת עָלָיו כְּלִי,עה, 57 שֶׁבְּזֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר הַכְּלִי בְּטִלְטוּל.עו וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע הַכְּלִי בְּהַמֻּקְצֶה,עז, 58 שֶׁאַף שֶׁמֻּקְצֶה מֻתָּר בִּנְגִיעָה בְּעָלְמָא אֲפִלּוּ בְּיָדָיו כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְנַעֲנֵעַ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח,עח מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן שֶׁהַנָּחַת הַכְּלִי עַל הַמֻּקְצֶה לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֻּקְצֶה – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ נְגִיעָה עַל יְדֵי הַכְּלִי.עט

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים פ שֶׁלֹּא הִזְהִירוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע הַכְּלִי בְּהַמֻּקְצֶה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהַמֻּקְצֶה הוּא דָבָר הַמִּתְנַעֲנֵעַ עַל יְדֵי נְגִיעַת הַכְּלִי, כְּגוֹן בֵּיצָהפא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ,59 שֶׁנִּמְצָא הוּא מְטַלְטְלָהּ עַל יְדֵי הַכְּלִי, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי דָבָר אַחֵר60 אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א:פב, 61

11 Any object that is forbidden to be moved that is placed62 on an object that is permitted to be moved while it is still day [on Friday] with the intent that it remain there on Shabbos, causes the permitted object to be deemed a base for the forbidden object. [As a result, the permitted object] is forbidden to be moved just as is [the forbidden object itself], as explained in sec. 309[:4. Even if] the forbidden object was removed from the permitted object after nightfall,63 it is [still] forbidden to move [the permitted object] for the entire Shabbos.64

For example, when money65 is placed on a bed while it is still day [on Friday] with the intent that it remain there on Shabbos, and the money is removed from there by a non-Jew or a child after nightfall, the bed is [still] forbidden to be moved throughout the entire Shabbos. [The rationale is that] since [the bed] was deemed muktzeh during bein hashmashos as a result of a person intentionally making it a base for a forbidden article, it is deemed muktzeh for the entire Shabbos.66

[A different ruling applies,] however, if the money was not on the bed [at the beginning of] bein hashmashos, but rather was placed there afterwards by a non-Jew or a child – even if [the money] was placed [on the bed] with the consent of the Jewish [owner], and thus he consciously had in mind that [the bed] would be muktzeh as long as the money was on it.67 Nevertheless, the bed may be moved if the money was removed from it. [The rationale is that] since [the bed] was not deemed muktzeh during bein hashmashos, [it is permitted to be moved if the money is removed from it on Shabbos].

However, while the money is still on it, [the bed] is forbidden to be moved because of the prohibition against moving the money on it.64 One is, however, permitted to tilt [the bed] or shake it to cause the money to fall off.68 Afterwards, [one] may move [the money] to the place he desires. If he requires the place where the bed [is located], he may move [the bed] while the money is on it, as explained in sec. 309[:6]69 with regard to an object that does not become a base for a forbidden object. [That ruling applies here as well,] because [the bed] did not become a base for a forbidden object, since the forbidden object was not on [the bed during] bein hashmashos, as explained in sec. 265[:5] and sec. 266[:24].

יא כָּל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל שֶׁהִנִּיחוּ62 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּלפג עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר מֻנָּח שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַהֶתֵּר בָּסִיס לְהָאִסּוּר וְנֶאֱסַר בְּטִלְטוּל כָּמוֹהוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ט,פד וּמִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה נִטַּל הָאִסּוּר מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַהֶתֵּר63 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ,64 כְּגוֹן מִטָּה שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ מָעוֹת65 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת וּמִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה נִטְּלוּ הַמָּעוֹת מֵעָלֶיהָ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אוֹ קָטָן – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ,פה שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצֵית בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתפו מִדַּעַת הָאָדָםפז שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר – הֻקְצֵית לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ.66

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיוּ הַמָּעוֹת עָלֶיהָ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֶלָּא לְאַחַר כָּךְ הִנִּיחוּם עָלֶיהָ נָכְרִי אוֹ קָטָן, אֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחוּם לְדַעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵלפח שֶׁהֻקְצֵית מִדַּעְתּוֹ מִלְּטַלְטְלָם כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַמָּעוֹת עָלֶיהָ67 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ אִם נִטְּלוּ הַמָּעוֹת מֵעָלֶיהָ, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הָיְתָה מֻקְצֶה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.פט

אֲבָל בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַמָּעוֹת עָלֶיהָ אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ, צ מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁעָלֶיהָ.64 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַטּוֹתָהּ וּלְנַעֲרָהּ וּלְהַפִּיל הַמָּעוֹת מֵעָלֶיהָ,צא, 68 וּלְטַלְטְלָהּ אַחַר כָּךְ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְאִם צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹמָהּ – מְטַלְטְלָהּ וְהֵן עָלֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"טצב, 69 בְּדָבָר שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר, שֶׁגַּם זוֹ לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הָיָה הָאִסּוּר עָלֶיהָ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"הצג וְרס"ו:צד

12 All the above applies with regard to a bed that is not designated for money [to be placed on it] – or even if it is designated for that purpose, but money was never placed on it.64 [In these instances, moving the bed is permitted] because thought alone does not cause [an object] to become forbidden.70 If, however, [a bed] is designated for money71 and one actually performs an act, placing money on it [at least] once, even during the week, it is forbidden to move [the bed] on Shabbos,64even to use it to perform a permitted activity or to use the space it occupies. It does not resemble other utensils designated for forbidden activities that are permitted to be moved to perform a permitted activity or to use the place they occupy.72 [The rationale for the distinction is that] one need not be careful not to use [other utensils] for other permitted purposes [aside from those for which they are designated]. A person is, by contrast, wary not to use a bed that is designated for money [for any other purpose]; he sets aside a place for [the bed] so that it will not be moved for another purpose. Thus, it resembles objects that are muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss, which are forbidden to be moved even to perform a permitted activity or to use the space they occupy, as explained in sec. 308[:4].

There are authorities who differ with the above and permit moving [such a bed] to perform a permitted activity or to use the place they occupy, like other utensils designated for forbidden activities. One should be stringent [and follow] the first view. For this reason,73 one should not carry a purse used for money even though he removed the money from it on Friday74 unless he performed an act [indicating that] he no longer designated it [for that purpose],75 e.g., he opened it up from below, [thereby making it incapable of holding money].

יב וְכָל זֶה בְּמִטָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְיֻחֶדֶת לְמָעוֹת, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ יִחֲדָהּ לְמָעוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִנִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ מָעוֹת מֵעוֹלָם,צה, 64 שֶׁבְּמַחֲשָׁבָה בִּלְבַדָּהּ אֵינָהּ נֶאֱסֶרֶת.70 אֲבָל אִם יִחֲדָהּ לְמָעוֹת,71 וְעָשָׂה בָהּ מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ מָעוֹת פַּעַם אַחַת אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל64 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ בְּשַׁבָּתצו אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָהּ וּמְקוֹמָהּ.צז וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לִשְׁאָר כֵּלִים הַמְּיֻחָדִים לִמְלֶאכֶת אִסּוּר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָהּ וּמְקוֹמָהּ,צח, 72 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מַקְפִּידִים עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר הַמֻּתָּר, אֲבָל מִטָּה זוֹ הַמְּיֻחֶדֶת לְמָעוֹת – אָדָם מַקְפִּיד עָלֶיהָ וּמְיַחֵד לָהּ מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלָהּ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר, וַהֲרֵי הִיא דוֹמָה לְמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ,צט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וּמַתִּירִין לְטַלְטְלָהּ ק לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָהּ וּמְקוֹמָהּ כִּשְׁאָר כֵּלִים הַמְּיֻחָדִים לִמְלֶאכֶת אִסּוּר.קא

וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קב וְלָכֵן73 אֵין לְטַלְטֵל כִּיס שֶׁל מָעוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹצִיא הַמָּעוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,74 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה בוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה,75 שֶׁפְּתָחוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה וְסִלְּקוֹ מִן הַיִּחוּד:קג

13 Nevertheless, when a pocket for money was sewn into a garment,76 the garment is permitted to be worn77 if the money is removed from it, since the garment’s primary purpose is that it be worn and the pocket is secondary to it. Moreover, one is even permitted to place an article78 in that pocket or to remove an article from it. [The rationale is that the pocket] is deemed muktzeh only because a person is careful not to use it for other purposes, and in this instance, we see that he is not careful [to use the pocket solely for money]. (Analysis is, however, required, for then, seemingly, such a pocket would be permitted entirely.)79

יג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כִּיס שֶׁל מָעוֹת הַתָּפוּר בְּבֶגֶד,קד, 76 הוֹאִיל וְעִקַּר הַבֶּגֶד עוֹמֵד לִלְבּוֹשׁ, אִם הוֹצִיא הַמָּעוֹת מִשָּׁם – יוּכַל לִלְבּוֹשׁ הַבֶּגֶד,77 שֶׁהַכִּיס בָּטֵל אֶצְלוֹ.קה וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּכִּיס עַצְמוֹ מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ דָּבָר בְּתוֹכוֹ78 אוֹ לִטּוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַקְצָאָתוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאָדָם מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר, וְכַאן אָנוּ רוֹאִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיוקו (וְצָרִיךְ עִיּוּן דְּאִם כֵּן לִשְׁתְּרֵי לְגַמְרֵי):79

14 Even if there is money in [the pocket], it is only forbidden to wear the garment. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one forget [that he is carrying money in its pocket] and go out to the public domain while wearing it, as explained in sec. 301[:38-39]80 and sec. 303[:23]. It is, however, permitted to carry the garment81 even if one placed money in the pocket with the intent that it also remain there on Shabbos,and thus the pocket became a base for [the money]. Nevertheless, the garment [as a whole] did not become a base for it, because the money is not located in the main part of the garment. Thus, [when carrying the garment, the person] is carrying a permitted article in his hands and the forbidden article is carried along with it as a matter of course, in an indirect manner. [Carrying in such a manner] is not forbidden when one does not carry for the sake of the forbidden article, but rather for the sake of the permitted article, as will be explained in sec. 311[:14].82 It is, however, forbidden to insert one’s hand into the pocket if he placed money there with the intent that it remain there on Shabbos as well,83since the pocket becomes a base for [the money].84

יד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ מָעוֹת בְּתוֹכוֹ – אֵין אִסּוּר אֶלָּא לִלְבּוֹשׁ אֶת הַבֶּגֶד, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֵצֵא בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"אקח, 80 וְש"ג,קט אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל אֶת הַבֶּגֶד.קי, 81

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הִנִּיחַ אֶת הַמָּעוֹת בַּכִּיס עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַכִּיס בָּסִיס לָהֶם – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַבֶּגֶד לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לָהֶם, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין הַמָּעוֹת עַל עִקַּר הַבֶּגֶד,קיא וְדָבָר הַמֻּתָּר הוּא שֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל בְּיָדָיו וְהָאִסּוּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ מֵאֵלָיו בְּטִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד, שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטֵל בִּשְׁבִיל הָאִסּוּר אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א.קיב, 82

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיס יָדוֹ בַּכִּיס אִם הִנִּיחַ בּוֹ הַמָּעוֹת עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ בּוֹ גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת,83 שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַכִּיס בָּסִיס לָהֶם:קיג, 84

15 All the above applies when only the opening of the pocket is sewn to a hole in the garment and the entire pocket hangs freely.85 If, however, the entire length of the pocket is sewn86 onto the garment, the entire garment becomes a base for the money in the pocket like the pocket itself, for [the pocket and the garment] form a single entity.87

[Moreover, stringency is required] even if one pocketed the money with the intent of removing it before Shabbos, but forgot to remove [the money] while it was still day [on Friday], in which instance, [not only did the garment not become a base for the money,] the pocket did not become a base for [the money]. Nevertheless, if the money can be shaken out of the pocket, one should shake it out first. [Only] afterwards should he carry the garment to wherever he desires, as would be [the ruling] were the money to be [lying] on the primary part of the garment, as explained in sec. 309[:6] with regard to money on a pillow.

Even when a pocket [containing money] hangs entirely freely, license to carry the garment was granted only when [the pocket] was sewn onto the garment (for then it is secondary to the garment88 and the garment does not become forbidden because of it). [Different rules apply,] however, if a pouch89 full of money is tied to a garment. Since the pouch is considered an independent entity, (it does not become secondary to the garment. Therefore,) it is forbidden to move the (entire) garment90 if one placed the money in the pouch with the intent that [the money] remain there on Shabbos as well. (For then the pouch becomes a base for the money and the garment becomes a base for the pouch, which is tied to it and hanging from it.) Even if the money was removed from the pouch (or the pouch from the garment) after nightfall, it is forbidden to move the (entire) garment throughout the entire Shabbos (since it became a base [for the money] bein hashmashos). If [however, one] placed [the money in the pouch] with the intent of removing it before Shabbos and forgot to remove it while it was still day [on Friday], he must shake out the money from the pouch91 if it can be shaken out.92 He may then move the garment to any place he desires, provided he does not move it for the sake of the money, i.e., to hide it [in a secure place], as explained in sec. 309[:6].

Similarly, if there is money in a compartment [built] into a table,93 it is forbidden to move the table94 except in the manner that was explained,95 unless there was also an object that is permitted to be moved96 on the table97 while it was still day [on Friday]. In such an instance, [the table] became a base for [both] a permitted and forbidden object during bein hashmashos, and it is permitted to move it in the manner to be explained.98

טו וְכָל זֶה בְּכִיס שֶׁפִּיו בִּלְבָד תָּפוּר בְּחוֹר שֶׁבַּבֶּגֶד וְהוּא כֻּלּוֹ תָּלוּי,קיד, 85 אֲבָל אִם כֻּלּוֹ תָּלוּיקטו, 86 לְאָרְכּוֹ בַּבֶּגֶד – נַעֲשָׂה כָּל הַבֶּגֶד בָּסִיס לְמָעוֹת שֶׁבַּכִּיס כְּמוֹ הַכִּיס עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁהַכֹּל אֶחָד.קטז, 87

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הִנִּיחַ הַמָּעוֹת בַּכִּיס עַל דַּעַת לִטְּלָם מִמֶּנּוּ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת וְשָׁכַח לִטְּלָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לָהֶם אֲפִלּוּ הַכִּיס עַצְמוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר הַמָּעוֹת מֵהַכִּיס – צָרִיךְ לְנַעֵר מִתְּחִלָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְטַלְטֵל הַבֶּגֶד לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאִם הָיוּ הַמָּעוֹת עַל עִקַּר הַבֶּגֶד שֶׁהָיָה צָרִיךְ לְנַעֵר מִתְּחִלָּה,קיז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"טקיח בְּמָעוֹת שֶׁעַל הַכַּר.

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּכִיס שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ תָּלוּי – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל הַבֶּגֶד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא תָּפוּר בַּבֶּגֶד (שֶׁאָז הוּא בָּטֵל אֵצֶל הַבֶּגֶד,88 וְאֵין הַבֶּגֶד נֶאֱסָר בְּטִלְטוּל בִּשְׁבִילוֹ). אֲבָל אִם כִּיס89 מָלֵא מָעוֹת קָשׁוּר בַּבֶּגֶד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַכִּיס הוּא כְּלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ – (אֵינוֹ בָטֵל אֵצֶל הַבֶּגֶד, וּלְכָךְ) אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל (כָּל) הַבֶּגֶדקיט, 90 אִם הִנִּיחַ הַמָּעוֹת בַּכִּיס עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת (שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַכִּיס בָּסִיס לָהֶם, וְהַבֶּגֶד לַכִּיס הַקָּשׁוּר וְתָלוּי בּוֹ).

וְאַף אִם נִטַּל הַמָּעוֹת מֵהַכִּיס (אוֹ הַכִּיס מֵהַבֶּגֶד) מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה – אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל (כָּל) הַבֶּגֶד כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ (כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת).קכ

וְאִם הִנִּיחָם עַל דַּעַת לִטְּלָם קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת וְשָׁכַח לִטְּלָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – צָרִיךְ לְנַעֵר הַמָּעוֹת מֵהַכִּיס91 אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר,92 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְטַלְטֵל הַבֶּגֶד לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶהקכא אִם אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בִּשְׁבִיל הַמָּעוֹת כְּדֵי לְהַצְנִיעָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ט.קכב

וְכֵן אִם יֵשׁ מָעוֹת בְּתֵבָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָן93 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן94 אֶלָּא בְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,95 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן97 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל,קכג, 96 שֶׁאָז נַעֲשָׂה הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר, וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:קכד, 98

16 It was already mentioned in sec. 309[:4] that when an implement became a base for [both] a permitted and a forbidden object, it is permitted to be moved, provided the permitted object is more valuable than the forbidden object. If, however, the forbidden object is more valuable than the permitted object,99 the permitted [object] becomes secondary to the forbidden [object]100 and it is even forbidden to shake off the forbidden object, [just] as [it would be forbidden] were it to be a base for the forbidden [object] alone, as stated there.

If [the owner of] the permitted [object] does not value it because of his great wealth, even though it would be valued by everyone else, it is not considered valuable, because all [determinations of value] depend solely on the owner’s [perception of value], as stated in sec. 308[:30, 89]. See all the particulars pertaining to this law there.

טז כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"טקכה שֶׁכְּלִי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ. וְהוּא שֶׁדָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר חָשׁוּב מִדָּבָר הָאָסוּר, אֲבָל אִם דָּבָר הָאָסוּר חָשׁוּב יוֹתֵר מִדָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר99 – הֲרֵי הַהֶתֵּר בָּטֵל אֵצֶל הָאִסּוּר,100 וְאָסוּרקכו אֲפִלּוּ לְנַעֵר הָאִסּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁאִם הָיָה בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ, שֶׁאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְנַעֵר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.

וְאִם הַהֶתֵּר אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב אֶצְלוֹ מֵחֲמַת רֹב עָשְׁרוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב לְכָל הָעוֹלָם – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא חָשׁוּב,קכז שֶׁהַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַבְּעָלִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח,קכח עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

17 Even if the permitted object is more valuable [than the forbidden object], if it is possible to shake off only the forbidden object, he must first shake [it] off and then move the implement [that is serving as a base] together with the permitted object to the place he desires. If it is not possible to shake off the forbidden object alone without [also shaking off] the permitted object, he should shake off the permitted object with it, if shaking off the permitted object will not cause a loss.101 Afterwards, he may take the permitted object alone and return it to the implement [that served as its] base if he so desires, as stated in that source.102

[The following rules apply] when the situation is such that [the person] will not be able to take the permitted object alone if he shakes it off, for example, a firepan that contained ashes before the commencement of Shabbos.103 [The firepan] is permitted to be carried because [the ashes] are fit to cover spittle or filth,104 but [the firepan] also contained fragments of wood or coals that are forbidden to be carried,105 and one needs to take the ashes to another place to cover [an undesirable substance] with them. [In this instance,] if he shakes out [the ashes from the firepan] together with the fragments of wood and coals, he will not be able to take the ashes alone by hand afterwards, [because] the fragments of [wood and] coals are [very] small and it is impossible to take the ashes without them.106 He may carry the firepan as it is, together with the ashes and the fragments of wood and coals, to the place he desires.107

When does the above apply? When he requires the ashes. If, however, he requires only the firepan108 itself, he should not carry it as is. Instead, he should discard the ashes, the fragments, and the coals in their place, since he loses nothing by discarding them, and he [may] take the firepan alone.

יז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר חָשׁוּב יוֹתֵר, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר הָאִסּוּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְנַעֵר מִתְּחִלָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְטַלְטֵל הַכְּלִי עִם הַהֶתֵּר לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר הָאִסּוּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי הַהֶתֵּר – יְנַעֵר גַּם הַהֶתֵּר עִמּוֹ אִם אֵין הֶפְסֵד בְּנִעוּרוֹ,101 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִטּוֹל הַהֶתֵּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ וְיַחֲזִירֶנּוּ לַכְּלִי אִם יִרְצֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.קכט, 102

וְאִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יְנַעֵר גַּם הַהֶתֵּר לֹא יוּכַל אַחַר כָּךְ לִטּוֹל הַהֶתֵּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ, כְּגוֹן מַחְתָּהקל שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵפֶר103 שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ רֹק אוֹ צוֹאָה,קלא, 104 וְיֵשׁ עָלֶיה גַּם כֵּן שִׁבְרֵי עֵצִיםקלב אוֹ פֶּחָמִיםקלג הָאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל,קלד, 105 וְצָרִיךְ לוֹ לְטַלְטֵל הָאֵפֶר לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ,קלה וְאִם יְנַעֲרֶנּוּ עִם הַשְּׁבָרִים וְהַפֶּחָמִים לֹא יוּכַל אַחַר כָּךְ לִטּוֹל הָאֵפֶר לְבַדּוֹ בְּיָדָיו,קלו כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֵם שְׁבָרִים קְטַנִּים אוֹ פֶּחָמִים קְטַנִּים, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִטּוֹל הָאֵפֶר מִבִּלְעָדָםקלז, 106 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַמַּחְתָּה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא עִם הָאֵפֶר וְהַשְּׁבָרִים וְהַפֶּחָמִיםקלח לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה.קלט, 107

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָאֵפֶר, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לְגוּף הַמַּחְתָּה108 – לֹא יְטַלְטְלֶנָּה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא, אֶלָּא יְנַעֵר הָאֵפֶר וְהַשְּׁבָרִים וְהַפֶּחָמִים בִּמְקוֹמָם,קמ הוֹאִיל וְאֵין הֶפְסֵד בְּנִעוּרָם,קמא וְיִטּוֹל הַמַּחְתָּה בִּלְבַדָּהּ:

18 All the above applies when the permitted object was [on the implement serving as a base] together with the forbidden object while it was still day [on Friday] and thus, [during] bein hashmashos, it became a base for both a forbidden and a permitted object. [In such an instance,] the implement does not become a base [for a forbidden article] even if the permitted object was removed from [the implement] after nightfall. [The rationale is that the implement] did not become a base [for a forbidden article alone during] bein hashmashos, as explained above.109

If, however, the forbidden article alone was on [the implement] during bein hashmashos,and after nightfall, a permitted object was placed on it as well, that is of absolutely no consequence. [The rationale is that] since it served as a base for a forbidden article alone during bein hashmashos, it became forbidden for the entire Shabbos.

יח וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַהֶתֵּר שָׁם עִם הָאִסּוּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קמב שֶׁבְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת נַעֲשָׂה הַכְּלִי בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר, וְאַף אִם מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה נִטַּל הַהֶתֵּר מִשָּׁם – לֹא נַעֲשָׂה הַכְּלִי בָּסִיס אָז, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בָּסִיס בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קמג, 109

אֲבָל אִם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הָיָה עָלָיו הָאִסּוּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ וּמִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה הֻנַּח גַּם הַהֶתֵּר עָלָיו – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, הוֹאִיל וּבְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הָיָה בָּסִיס לָאִסּוּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ – נֶאֱסַר לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ:קמד

19 Ashes are not permitted to be carried unless [the wood that turned to ashes] was kindled [and burned] while it was still day [on Friday]. If, however, [the wood] was kindled [and burned] on Shabbos, [the ashes] are forbidden as nolad, as will be explained in sec. 498[:24].110

If ashes [from wood] that was kindled [and burned] on Shabbos are mixed with ashes [from wood] that was kindled [and burned] on Friday, [and the permitted ashes from Friday form the majority of this mixture], the [ashes from Shabbos] are considered inconsequential because of the majority [of the permitted substance, i.e., the ashes from Friday], as long as [the ashes from Shabbos] never stood out as a distinct entity, as will be explained in that source.111

יט אֵין הָאֵפֶר מֻתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהֻסַּק מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֲבָל אִם הֻסַּק בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד,קמה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"ח.קמו, 110 וְאִם נִתְעָרֵב אֵפֶר שֶׁהֻסַּק בְּשַׁבָּת בְּאֵפֶר שֶׁל אֶתְמוֹל – בָּטֵל בְּרֹב, אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא הָיָה נִכָּר מֵעוֹלָם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ,קמז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:קמח, 111

20 When a chest contains objects that are permitted to be moved and money,112 [the chest] may be moved in its present state according to the stipulations explained above, if the money is not of primary importance.113

כ תֵּבָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל וּמָעוֹת,112 אִם הַמָּעוֹת אֵינָן עִקָּר – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיאקמט עַל פִּי הַתְּנָאִים שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ:קנ, 113