SECTION 309 Whether it is Permitted to Move an Article [that is Muktzeh] by [Moving a Permitted] Article with it on Shabbos (1-11)

סימן שט טִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי דָבָר אַחֵר אִם מֻתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"א סְעִיפִים:

1 In a private domain, a person may lift up his son1 [even though the child] is holding a stone in his hand;2 [the father] is not considered to be moving the stone by his [own] hands.3 [This leniency is granted,] provided [the father] has no alternative, e.g., his son longs for him2 to the extent that if [the father] does not pick him up, he will become ill.4 [Our Sages] did not issue a decree against moving [a forbidden object when one does so] without actually [holding it] by hand in an instance where there is a danger of illness. Moreover, [in this instance,] it is impossible to cast away the stone from the child’s hand, because he will shout and cry.

If, however, the son does not long [for his father to the above degree], it is forbidden to pick him up. [This situation] does not resemble other instances where a forbidden article is moved as a matter of course when one moves the permitted article that is together with [the forbidden one. In those instances,] the Sages granted license [in cases] when it is impossible to shake the forbidden [article] away from the permitted [article], as will be explained.5 [Nevertheless, the situation at hand is different, for] such license was granted only when one needs the permitted entity. In this instance, by contrast, there is not such a great need to pick up the child, since he does not long [for his father to that great an extent].

א נוֹטֵל אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ א בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד ב, 1 וְהָאֶבֶן בְּיָדוֹ,2 וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כִּמְטַלְטֵל אֶת הָאֶבֶן בְּיָדָיו. ג, 3 וְהוּא שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר,2 כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִבְנוֹ גַּעֲגוּעִין עָלָיו, ד שֶׁאִם לֹא יִטְּלֶנּוּ יֶחֱלֶה, ה, 4 וְלֹא גָזְרוּ עַל טִלְטוּל שֶׁלֹּא בְּיָדַיִם מַמָּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנַת חֹלִי.ו וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַשְׁלִיךְ הָאֶבֶן מִיַּד הַתִּינוֹק, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיִּצְעַק וְיִבְכֶּה. ז

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ גַּעֲגוּעִין עָלָיו – אָסוּר לִטְּלוֹ. ח וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִשְׁאָר טִלְטוּל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר שֶׁמִּטַּלְטֵל מֵאֵלָיו עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל בְּיָדוֹ אֶת הַדָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר שֶׁעִמּוֹ, שֶׁהִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר הָאִסּוּר מִן הַהֶתֵּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר, ט, 5 לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ כֵּן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְדָבָר הַמֻּתָּר, אֲבָל כַּאן אֵין זֶה צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ לִטּוֹל אֶת הַתִּינוֹק כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ גַּעֲגוּעִין עָלָיו: י

2 Even when the son longs for his father, [the father] was permitted [to pick up his son] only when [the child was holding] a stone.6 If, however, [the child] is holding a dinar7 in his hand, it is forbidden8 even to hold [the child’s] hand while he is walking in a private domain.9 [This is] a decree, [instituted] lest the dinar fall from [the child’s] hand and his father forget10 and pick it up. Thus, he would be moving [an article that is] muktzeh in an ordinary fashion and [our Sages] showed concern and decreed [against moving muktzeh] in an ordinary fashion even in an instance where there is a danger of [the child becoming] ill,11 since there is no threat to [the child’s] life if [his father] will not pick him up.

בוַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ גַּעֲגוּעִין עָלָיו לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא בְּאֶבֶן,6 אֲבָל אִם דִּינָר7 בְּיָדוֹ – אָסוּר יא, 8 אֲפִלּוּ לֶאֱחוֹז בְּיָדוֹ וְהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ בְּרַגְלָיו בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, יב, 9 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל הַדִּינָר מִיָּדוֹ וְיִשְׁכַּח אָבִיו10 וְיַגְבִּיהֶנּוּ, יג וְנִמְצָא מְטַלְטֵל מֻקְצֶה טִלְטוּל גָּמוּר, וּלְטִלְטוּל גָּמוּר חָשְׁשׁוּ וְגָזְרוּ אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנַת חֹלִי, יד, 11 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם סַכָּנַת נֶפֶשׁ אִם לֹא יִטְּלֶנּוּ: טו

3 When there was a hole in a basket and one plugged it with a stone (fitting it there tightly)12 while it was still day [on Friday], it is permitted to move [the basket],13 because it is not considered as having become a base for a forbidden article. [The rationale is that] even the stone becomes [part of] the implement (when it is firmly attached to it) since it becomes like its wall.13

Similar [principles apply] when a stone is hung inside a hollow gourd to weigh it down so that it can be used to draw water.14 If the stone was securely tied [inside the gourd] while it was still day [on Friday] so that it will not fall from [the gourd] when [the gourd] is used to draw [water], it is permitted to draw [water] with [the gourd].15 [The rationale is that] even the stone becomes permitted to move since it became like the gourd itself, because [the stone] is batel16 to [the gourd]. If [the stone] is not [secured there], it is forbidden to draw [water] with [the gourd],17 unless one permanently designated this stone [be used] for this purpose, as stated in sec. 308[:53].18

ג כַּלְכָּלָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נְקוּבָה וּסְתָמָהּ בְּאֶבֶן טז מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם (אִם הִדְּקָהּ שָׁם בְּחֹזֶק יז)12 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ,13 שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר, יח לְפִי שֶׁאַף הָאֶבֶן נַעֲשָׂה כְּלִי (כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהֻדָּק בָּהּ יט), שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה כְּדָפְנָהּ. כ, 13

וְכֵן דְּלַעַת חֲלוּלָה שֶׁתּוֹלִין בָּהּ אֶבֶן לְהַכְבִּידָהּ לְמַלֹּאת בָּהּ מַיִם,14 אִם הָאֶבֶן קָשׁוּר בָּהּ יָפֶה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹפֵל מִמֶּנָּה כְּשֶׁמְּמַלְּאִים בָּהּ – מֻתָּר לְמַלֹּאת בָּהּ, כא, 15 לְפִי שֶׁאַף הָאֶבֶן הֻתַּר בְּטִלְטוּל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כְּמוֹ הַדְּלַעַת עַצְמָהּ שֶׁהוּא בָּטֵל אֶצְלָהּ. כב, 16 וְאִם לָאו – אָסוּר לְמַלֹּאת בָּהּ, כג, 17 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִחֵד אֶבֶן זֶה לְכָךְ לְעוֹלָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל בְּסִמָּן ש"ח: כד, 18

4 [The following laws apply when] an object that is forbidden to be moved19 lies on an object that is permitted to be moved:20 If [the forbidden object] was consciously placed on [the permitted object] while it was still day on Friday with the intent that it remain [on the permitted object] during Shabbos as well, the permitted object becomes a base for the forbidden object and becomes forbidden to be moved, exactly like the [forbidden] object itself.

However, if the person did not intend to have [the forbidden object] remain there on Shabbos, but [simply] forgot to remove it before the commencement of Shabbos, [the permitted object] does not become a base for [the forbidden one].20 The same ruling applies if [the permitted object] became a base for both a forbidden and a permitted object,21 e.g., [when] on Friday, he also placed on [the permitted object] an object that is permitted to be moved which is more important22 than the forbidden object, as will be explained in sec. 310[:16]. Since it did not become a base for the forbidden object alone, [the base] retains its permitted status. [The base] is permitted to be moved even though the forbidden object on [the base] is moved along with it as a matter of course.

Nevertheless, if it is possible to shake off the forbidden object from [the base] immediately, he must shake it off at the outset, [before moving it.20 Only] afterwards, may he carry the permitted object alone to the place where he needs it. If, however,

a) it is impossible for him to shake off [the forbidden object],23

b) shaking off the forbidden object will damage the permitted object,24

c) or shaking [the forbidden object] off will not be effective in enabling him to satisfy the need for which he is moving [the objects],25 for example, he is moving the permitted object with the forbidden object on it because he needs to clear the place they are presently occupying to perform a task there or for another purpose and were he to shake off the forbidden object there, he would not be able to fulfill that purpose in that place,

he is permitted to move the permitted object with the forbidden object on it.

ד דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל19 שֶׁמֻּנָּח עַל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר,20 אִם הִנִּיחוֹ עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מִדַּעְתּוֹ עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר מֻנָּח שָׁם גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת – הֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה הַהֶתֵּר בָּסִיס לְהָאִסּוּר, כה וְנֶאֱסַר בְּטִלְטוּל כָּמוֹהוּ מַמָּשׁ. כו

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר מֻנָּח שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת וְשָׁכַח לַהֲסִירוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, כז שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס אֵלָיו. כח, 20 וְכֵן אִם נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר, כט, 21 כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם גַּם דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל שֶׁחָשׁוּב יוֹתֵר22 מִדָּבָר הָאָסוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"י, ל כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא עוֹמֵד עֲדַיִן בְּהֶתֵּרוֹ, לא וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אַף שֶׁגַּם הָאִסּוּר שֶׁעָלָיו מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ מֵאֵלָיו.

אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר הָאִסּוּר מִמֶּנּוּ מִיָּד – צָרִיךְ לְנַעֲרוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה, לב, 20 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְטַלְטֵל הַהֶתֵּר בִּלְבָד לְמָקוֹם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ אֵלָיו.

וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר, לג, 23 אוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֵיזֶה הֶפְסֵד בְּדָבָר הַמֻּתָּר לד, 24 אִם יְנַעֵר אֶת הָאִסּוּר, לה אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַסְפִּיק לוֹ הַנִּעוּר לְהַשְׁלִים בּוֹ הַצֹּרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְטִלְטוּל זֶה,25 כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל הַהֶתֵּר עִם הָאִסּוּר שֶׁעָלָיו לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְפַנּוֹת מְקוֹמָם זֶה שֶׁהֵם עָלָיו עַכְשָׁו כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ אוֹ צֹרֶךְ אַחֵר לו בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יְנַעֵר כַּאן הָאִסּוּר לֹא יוּכַל לְהַשְׁלִים צָרְכּוֹ בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה לז – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַהֶתֵּר עִם הָאִסּוּר שֶׁעָלָיו:

5 What is implied? A basket filled with fruit that [also] has a stone inside of it.26 Even though one intentionally placed the stone there while it was still day [on Friday], intending that it remain there on Shabbos, since there is [also] fruit in the basket,27 [the basket] becomes a base for [both] forbidden and permitted articles and does not become forbidden to be moved.28 Therefore, if the fruit [it contains] is fresh and very soft, e.g., figs or grapes, which would become filthy and spoiled if they were shaken out on the earth, one may move the basket as it is, i.e., with [both] the fruit and the stone in it, taking it to the place where he needs the fruit so that it can be eaten there. One is not obligated to take the fruit by hand and bring it [there], because they might fall from his hands to the earth and become filthy.

If [the fruit] is lying in small baskets within the larger one,29 he should remove the small baskets by hand from the larger one, and bring them one by one in a manner where there is no concern that the fruit will fall to the earth.30

If he needs to take the large basket itself to another place to use it for a given purpose, he should remove the small baskets from the larger one by hand and place them on the ground. Then, he should shake out the stone from [the larger basket before] taking [it to the other place].

If the fruit was dry and would not be spoiled when soiled by the ground,31 even if the fruit is not in [small] baskets, one should not move the large basket as it is, with the fruit and the stone [in the basket]. Instead, whether he needs the fruit or the basket, he should [first] cast [the fruit] out together with the stone,32 and then pick up [the fruit from the ground] by hand and return it to the basket, if he so desires.

However, if he needs the place where the large basket [is lying,] and shaking out [the fruit and the stone there] will [prevent him from using that space], he is permitted to take [away the basket] as is, in all instances.33

ה כֵּיצַד? כַּלְכָּלָה מְלֵאָה פֵּרוֹת וְהָאֶבֶן בְּתוֹכָהּ, לח, 26 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ פֵּרוֹת בְּכַלְכָּלָה27 – הֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר, וְלֹא נֶאֶסְרָה בְּטִלְטוּל. לט, 28 וְלָכֵן אִם הֵם פֵּרוֹת רְטֻבִּים מ וְרַכִּים מְאֹד, מא כְּגוֹן תְּאֵנִים וַעֲנָבִים, מב שֶׁאִם יְנַעֲרֵן יִתְטַנְּפוּ בַּקַּרְקַע מג וְיִפָּסְדוּ מד – מֻתָּר לִטּוֹל הַכַּלְכָּלָה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא עִם הַפֵּרוֹת וְהָאֶבֶן שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וּלְהוֹלִיכָהּ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁצְּרִיכִים לוֹ הַפֵּרוֹת לְאָכְלָם שָׁם. מה וְאֵין מְחַיְּבִים אוֹתוֹ לִטּוֹל הַפֵּרוֹת בְּיָדָיו וּלְהוֹלִיכָם, מו כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִפְּלוּ מִיָּדָיו לָאָרֶץ וְיִתְטַנְּפוּ. מז

וְאִם הֵם מֻנָּחִים בְּסַלִּים קְטַנִּים תּוֹךְ הַכַּלְכָּלָה29 – יִטּוֹל הַסַּלִּים בְּיָדוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הַכַּלְכָּלָה מח וְיוֹלִיכֵם אֶחָד אֶחָד בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ הַפֵּרוֹת לָאָרֶץ.30

וְאִם צָרִיךְ לִטּוֹל גּוּף הַכַּלְכָּלָה מט לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ שָׁם אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ – יִטּוֹל הַסַּלִּים מִתּוֹכָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וְיַנִּיחֵם עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְנַעֵר הָאֶבֶן מִתּוֹכָהּ וְיִטְּלֶנָּה.

וְאִם הֵם פֵּרוֹת יְבֵשִׁים שֶׁאֵינָם נִפְסָדִים כְּשֶׁהֵם מִתְטַנְּפִים בַּקַּרְקַע31 אַף שֶׁאֵינָם בְּסַלִּים – לֹא יִטּוֹל הַכַּלְכָּלָה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא עִם הַפֵּרוֹת וְהָאֶבֶן,נ בֵּין שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַפֵּרוֹת בֵּין שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַכַּלְכָּלָה, נא אֶלָּא יְנַעֲרֵם מִתּוֹכָהּ עִם הָאֶבֶן, נב, 32 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְלַקְּטֵם בְּיָדוֹ וְיַחֲזִירֵם לַכַּלְכָּלָה נג אִם יִרְצֶה.

אֲבָל אִם צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַכַּלְכָּלָה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יַסְפִּיק לוֹ הַנִּעוּר – מֻתָּר לוֹ לִטְּלָהּ מִכַּאן כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא בְּכָל עִנְיָן: נד, 33

6 Similar [rules apply] if one placed a stone on a barrel of wine34 as a covering and forgot to remove it from there before Shabbos,or if he placed coins on a pillow and forgot to remove [them] from there before Shabbos.35If he needs to take wine from the barrel or lie on the pillow, he should tilt the barrel on its side [so that] the stone will fall and shake out the pillow [so that] the coins will fall off.36 [This is permitted] because the barrel and the pillow did not become bases for forbidden objects.37

If the barrel was standing amid other barrels and positioned in a manner that makes it impossible for him to tilt [the barrel] in its [present] place,38 he may pick it up as is – with the stone on it – and move it to another place to tilt it there so that the stone will fall off.36

If one needs the place occupied by the barrel or the pillow and [merely] shaking off [the stone or the coins] will [still prevent him from using that space], he is permitted to pick up [the barrel or pillow] together with the stone or coins that are upon them, in order to clear the space [they are presently occupying].36

If he does not require the pillow itself or its place, but is concerned that the coins on it will be stolen, he is forbidden even to shake [the pillow] in a manner that the coins will fall under it, because moving [a forbidden object] via [a permitted one] was permitted only when one is moving the permitted object for its own sake, but not for the sake of the forbidden object,39 as will be explained in sec. 311[:14].

ו וְכֵן אִם הִנִּיחַ אֶבֶן עַל פִּי חָבִית נה שֶׁל יַיִן34 לְכִסּוּי נו וְשָׁכַח לַהֲסִירָהּ מִשָּׁם נז קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת, נח אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחַ מָעוֹת עַל הַכַּר נט וְשָׁכַח לִטְּלָם מֵעָלֶיהָ ס קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת,35 וְהוּא צָרִיךְ לִטּוֹל יַיִן מִן הֶחָבִית סא אוֹ לִשְׁכַּב עַל הַכַּר, סב כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחָבִית וְהַכַּר לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר סג, 37 – הֲרֵי הוּא מַטֶּה הֶחָבִית עַל צִדָּהּ וְהָאֶבֶן נוֹפֶלֶת, וּמְנַעֵר אֶת הַכַּר וְהַמָּעוֹת נוֹפְלִים.36

וְאִם הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית בֵּין הֶחָבִיּוֹת סד בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַטּוֹתָהּ בִּמְקוֹמָהּ סה, 38 – יָכוֹל לְהַגְבִּיהָהּ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהִיא עִם הָאֶבֶן שֶׁעָלֶיהָ סו וּלְנָשְׂאָהּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר סז לְהַטּוֹתָהּ שָׁם כְּדֵי לְהַפִּיל הָאֶבֶן מֵעָלֶיהָ.36

וְאִם צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הֶחָבִית וְהַכַּר סח בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הַנִּעוּר מַסְפִּיק לוֹ סט – יָכוֹל לְטַלְטְלָן כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן עִם הָאֶבֶן וְהַמָּעוֹת שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן כְּדֵי לִפָּנוֹת מְקוֹמָן. ע, 36

וְאִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לֹא לְגוּף הַכַּר וְלֹא לִמְקוֹמָהּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יִגָּנְבוּ הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁעָלֶיהָ – אָסוּר עא אֲפִלּוּ לְנַעֲרָהּ עב כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ הַמָּעוֹת תַּחְתֶּיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי דָבָר אַחֵר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר, וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר,39 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א: עג

7 All the above applies when one forgot [to remove the forbidden objects].40 If, however, one placed [the forbidden objects on the permitted object] intentionally [during the week], with the idea that they were to remain there on Shabbos as well, he is forbidden even to tilt or shake out [the barrel or the pillow.41 This restriction applies] whether one needs the place of the barrel or the pillow, or whether one needs [the barrel or the pillow] themselves, i.e., to take out wine from the barrel or to lie on the pillow. [The rationale is that the barrel and the pillow] became a base for a forbidden object and became forbidden like it.41 Like the forbidden article itself, [the barrel and the pillow] may not be moved at all, not even if they are merely tilted or shaken [so the forbidden article falls off].42

Even if [the person] did not intend that [the forbidden article] remain [on the permitted article] the entire Shabbos, but only at the commencement of Shabbos – i.e., he intended that [the forbidden article] remain there only until after bein hashmashos43 and then he would remove it from [the permitted object] by shaking it off – [that thought] is not at all effective in enabling him [to move the article], nor even to shake it off as he originally intended. Since the barrel or the pillow became the base for a forbidden article bein hashmashos, i.e., when Shabbos first begins, they become muktzeh for the entire Shabbos and his intent is not effective in enabling [the forbidden articles] to become permitted [to be moved].44

There are authorities who maintain that [the barrel or the pillow] do not become bases for a forbidden article unless [the person] intended for the stone or the coins to remain there for the entire Shabbos. If, however, he intended to remove them from there in the middle of Shabbos – whether via a non-Jew or by shaking them off – the barrel and the pillow never became a base for [the forbidden articles], not even at the commencement of the Shabbos. They never became forbidden to be moved and they did not become muktzeh for the entire Shabbos. Therefore, if the person changed his mind, even when Shabbos first commenced, [and decided] to tilt the barrel or shake out the pillow if he required [the barrel or the pillow] themselves, or to move them as is, with the stone or the coins on them, should he need the place they occupy, he is permitted [to move them as is the law regarding] one who forgets.

However, [even according to this view,] if he did not intend to remove the stone or the coins from the barrel or the pillow by shaking it off or via a non-Jew, but rather intended to move the barrel or the pillow in the midst of the Shabbos with the stone or the coins on them to another place via a non-Jew or via a Jew when he would require their space, [his intent] is not at all effective [in altering their status. The rationale is that] even in that [new] place, the stone and the coins will still be resting on [the barrel and the pillow] and hence, [there, as well, the barrel and the pillow] are considered a base for [the stone and the coins].

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. Nevertheless, in a situation where a loss might occur, one may rely on the second opinion, for example, if a candle fell on the table, as explained in sec. 277[:6].45

ז וְכָל זֶה בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ,40 אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחָם שָׁם מִדַּעְתּוֹ עד עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת, בֵּין שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הֶחָבִית וְהַכַּר, עה בֵּין שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְגוּפָן, לִטּוֹל הַיַּיִן מִן הֶחָבִית וְלִשְׁכַּב עַל הַכַּר – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַטּוֹתָן עו וּלְנַעֲרָן, עז, 41 לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר עח – נַעֲשׂוּ אִסּוּר כָּמוֹהוּ,41 וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ בְּהַטָּיָה וְנִעוּר בִּלְבָד כְּמוֹ הָאִסּוּר עַצְמוֹ. עט, 42

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ אֶלָּא בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת בִּלְבָד, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם עַד לְאַחַר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בִּלְבָד, פ, 43 שֶׁאָז יְסִירֵם מִשָּׁם עַל יְדֵי נִעוּר – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם לְהַתִּיר לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הַנִּעוּר שֶׁהָיָה דַעְתּוֹ עָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ הֶחָבִית וְהַכַּר בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת – הֻקְצוּ לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ, פא וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת לְהַתִּירָם. פב, 44

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים פג שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂוּ בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם הָאֶבֶן וְהַמָּעוֹת כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִטְּלָם מִשָּׁם בְּאֶמְצַע הַשַּׁבָּת, בֵּין עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי פד בֵּין עַל יְדֵי נִעוּר פה – לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ כְּלָל הֶחָבִית וְהַכַּר בָּסִיס לָהֶם אֲפִלּוּ בִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְלֹא נֶאֶסְרוּ כְּלָל בְּטִלְטוּל, וְלֹא הֻקְצוּ לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ. וְלָכֵן אִם נִמְלַךְ אֲפִלּוּ בִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת לְהַטּוֹת הֶחָבִית וּלְנַעֵר הַכַּר, פו אִם הֻצְרַךְ לְגוּפָן, אוֹ לְטַלְטְלָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵן עִם הָאֶבֶן וְהַמָּעוֹת שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן אִם הֻצְרַךְ לִמְקוֹמָן – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר כְּמוֹ בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ. פז

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִטּוֹל הָאֶבֶן וְהַמָּעוֹת מֵהֶחָבִית וְהַכַּר עַל יְדֵי נִעוּר אוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, אֶלָּא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְטַלְטֵל בְּאֶמְצַע הַשַּׁבָּת אֶת הֶחָבִית וְהַכַּר עִם הָאֶבֶן וְהַמָּעוֹת שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אוֹ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּשֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לִמְקוֹמָן – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם יִהְיֶה הָאֶבֶן וְהַמָּעוֹת מֻנָּחִים עֲלֵיהֶם – הֲרֵי הֵן בָּסִיס לָהֶם.

וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, כְּגוֹן אִם נָפַל נֵר עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, פח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ז: פט, 45

8 All authorities agree that if an object becomes a base for a forbidden object bein hashmashos, even if the forbidden object was later removed, it is still forbidden to move [the base] for the entire Shabbos, just as [it is forbidden to do so] while the forbidden object was on it. [The rationale is that] since it was deemed muktzeh during bein hashmashos, it was deemed muktzeh for the entire Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 310[:4].

ח וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, צ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אַף אִם אַחַר כָּךְ נִטַּל הָאִסּוּר מֵעֲלֵיהֶן – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ כְּמוֹ כְּשֶׁהָיָה הָאִסּוּר עֲלֵיהֶן,צא שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצוּ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – הֻקְצוּ לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ, צב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"י: צג

9 A permitted object does not become a base for a forbidden object unless [the forbidden object] was placed there intentionally, for a purpose – whether for the sake of the forbidden object itself, [i.e.,] so that it would have a solid base, e.g., coins placed on a pillow, or for the sake of another object which is permitted [to be carried], e.g. a stone placed over the opening of a barrel.46 If, however, [the forbidden object] was placed there incidentally, without any particular purpose that would require its placement there, but just as different objects are often placed atop one another on a chest because it is not wide enough to clear a space on the bottom of the chest for each object, [the permitted object then] does not become a base for [the forbidden object. Instead, the situation] is governed by the laws that govern [a forbidden object that was] forgotten [on top of a permitted one].47

For this reason, it is permitted to move the tablecloth that is upon a table, even if a candelabra is standing on it. [The rationale is that] one does not need the candelabra on the tablecloth, only on the table. One places it on the tablecloth only because it is impossible for him to clear a place for the candelabra on the table itself, or because he does not think of making place for it. Therefore, the tablecloth does not become a base for the candelabra and it does not become forbidden to be moved.48

ט אֵין הַהֶתֵּר נַעֲשֶׂה בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִנִּיחוֹ עָלָיו צד בְּכַוָּנָה צה לְאֵיזֶה צֹרֶךְ, צו בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ הָאִסּוּר עַצְמוֹ, צז בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּתְיַשֵּׁב עָלָיו בְּטוֹב, צח כְּגוֹן מָעוֹת שֶׁעַל הַכַּר, בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר אַחֵר הַמֻּתָּר, כְּגוֹן אֶבֶן שֶׁעַל פִּי הֶחָבִית. צט, 46 אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחוֹ עָלָיו בְּדֶרֶךְ אַקְרַאי, שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה לְאֵיזֶה צֹרֶךְ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻנָּח עָלָיו, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁרְגִילִין לְהָשִׂים בְּתֵבָה חֲפָצִים אֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ רֶוַח לְפַנּוֹת מָקוֹם לְכָל חֵפֶץ בְּשׁוּלֵי הַתֵּבָה – לֹא נַעֲשָׂה זֶה בָּסִיס לָזֶה, וְדִינוֹ כְּשׁוֹכֵחַ. ק, 47 וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַמַּפָּה שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְּנוֹרָה עוֹמֶדֶת עָלֶיהָ, קא לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַמְּנוֹרָה עַל הַמַּפָּה אֶלָּא עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְאֵינוֹ מַעֲמִידָהּ עַל הַמַּפָּה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְפַנּוֹת מָקוֹם לְהַמְּנוֹרָה בְּגוּף הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַצְמוֹ, אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְפַנּוֹת לָהּ מָקוֹם, וּלְפִיכָךְ לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית הַמַּפָּה בָּסִיס לְהַמְּנוֹרָה, וְלֹא נֶאֶסְרָה בְּטִלְטוּל:48

10 When there is an egg containing a chick in a chicken nest,49 the egg is forbidden to be moved because it is not fit even for a dog [to eat] because of its shell.50 [Hence,] the nest becomes a base for the egg. [The rationale is that] since the nest was made for the chickens, therefore, [the egg’s presence] is not comparable to an article that was forgotten [on top of a permitted article,] but to one that was intentionally placed there.51 Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

י קִנָּה שֶׁל תַּרְנְגוֹלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ בֵּיצָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ אֶפְרוֹחַ, קב, 49 שֶׁבֵּיצָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה בְּטִלְטוּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה אַף לְכֶלֶב מֵחֲמַת קְלִפָּתָהּ קג, 50 – הֲרֵי הַקִּנָּה נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְהַבֵּיצָה, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַקִּנָּה עֲשׂוּיָה לַתַּרְנְגוֹלִין – אֵין זֶה כְּשׁוֹכֵחַ אֶלָּא כְּמַנִּיחַ מִדַּעַת. קד, 51 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה: קה

11 If a person placed an object that is muktzeh on a permitted object belonging to another person without that person’s knowledge, the permitted object does not become a base for the forbidden object. [This ruling applies] even if the object that is muktzeh also belongs to that other person. [The rationale is that] a person cannot cause an object belonging to another to become forbidden without [that person’s] consent.52

[A different rule applies] if one performs [the act] for the benefit of the other person when it can be assumed that the other person appreciates the act performed for his benefit. For example, while it was still day [on Friday], Reuven took an earthenware utensil belonging to Shimon and placed it under a candle in Shimon’s house, so that the candle would fall into it and not burn down the house. The lamp, [in fact,] fell into [the utensil] before bein hashmashos andremained there until after bein hashmashos, thus making the utensil a base for the lamp. It is forbidden to move [the earthenware utensil] for the entire Shabbos. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

יא אִם אָדָם הִנִּיחַ דְּבַר מֻקְצֶה עַל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ, קו אַף אִם גַּם דָּבָר הַמֻּקְצֶה הוּא שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ קז – לֹא נַעֲשָׂה הַהֶתֵּר בָּסִיס לְהָאִסּוּר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָדָם אוֹסֵר חֵפֶץ שֶׁל חֲבֶרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ. קח, 52

וְאִם עָשָׂה כֵּן לְטוֹבַת חֲבֵרוֹ, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם נוֹחַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ דָּבָר זֶה שֶׁעָשָׂה לְטוֹבָתוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּטַל רְאוּבֵן כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן וְהֶעֱמִידוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם תַּחַת הַנֵּר בְּבֵית שִׁמְעוֹן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפּוֹל הַנֵּר לְתוֹכוֹ וְלֹא יִשָּׂרֵף הַבַּיִת, וְנָפַל הַנֵּר לְתוֹכוֹ קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְהָיָה בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד אַחַר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – נַעֲשָׂה הַכְּלִי בָּסִיס לְהַנֵּר, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה: קט