SECTION 308 Articles that Are Permitted and Prohibited to Be Moved on Shabbos (1-89)

סימן שח דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים וְהָאֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ פ"ט סְעִיפִים:

1 The1 Sages2 forbade moving certain objects on Shabbos3 in the same manner as [one moves them] during the week.

Why was this prohibition instituted? [Our Sages] said: If the prophets4 cautioned and commanded that the way a person walks on Shabbos should differ from the way he walks during the week,5 and [similarly,] that [a person’s] conversation on Shabbos should be different than his weekday conversation,6 as it is written:4 “[If you restrain your feet because of the Shabbos… and you honor it by {refraining from}]... speaking about [mundane] matters,” how much more so should7 the manner in which [one] handles [objects] on Shabbos differ from the way he handles [them] during the week. Thus, one will not regard Shabbos as an ordinary weekday, and [consequently, he will not] come to pick up and repair utensils,8 [moving them] from corner to corner or from room to room, or move stones and the like to hide them.9

[These restrictions are necessary,] since [on Shabbos] a person is idle and sitting at home, [and it is likely that] he will seek something with which to occupy himself. [By performing such actions], he will not have ceased [his weekday] activity and thus will have negated the motivating principle for the Torah’s commandment:10 “So that [your male servant and female servant] will rest [like you].”

Furthermore, [the restriction was imposed] as a safeguard for the prohibition against transferring articles [from a private domain to the public domain].11 Perhaps one would forget and take an article that he was carrying in his hand [from a private domain] into the public domain.12 Accordingly, it would have been fitting to forbid moving even articles that one needs [to use on Shabbos. Nevertheless, such a restriction was not imposed, because] excessive decrees should not be imposed on the populace.

Another [reason for this prohibition is] that there are some people who are not craftsmen and are always idle – e.g., men of leisure and those who sit on the street corners. These individuals never perform labor. Were they to be allowed to walk, talk, and move [objects] as they do during the week, the result would be that their cessation of activity [on Shabbos] would not be discernible. For this reason, [our Sages instituted an obligation to] refrain from the activities [mentioned above], for this involves the cessation [of activities that are] universally relevant. Accordingly, [our Sages imposed] restrictions against moving [objects], and forbade all individuals from moving objects on Shabbos, with the exception of articles that are necessary [on Shabbos], as will be explained.

א אאָסְרוּ1 חֲכָמִים ב, 2 לְטַלְטֵל מִקְצָת דְּבָרִים בְּשַׁבָּת3 כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נָגְעוּ בְּאִסּוּר זֶה? אָמְרוּ: מָה אִם הִזְהִירוּ נְבִיאִים 4 וְצִוּוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הִלּוּכְךָ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּהִלּוּכְךָ בְּחֹל, ג, 5 וְלֹא שִׂיחַת הַשַּׁבָּת כְּשִׂיחַת הַחֹל,ד, 6 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרה, 4 "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר" – קַל וָחֹמֶר 7 שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַטִּלְטוּל בְּשַׁבָּת כְּטִלְטוּל בְּחֹל, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא כְּיוֹם חֹל בְּעֵינָיו וְיָבֹא לְהַגְבִּיהַּ וּלְתַקֵּן כֵּלִים8 מִפִּנָּה לְפִנָּה אוֹ מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, אוֹ לְהַצְנִיעַ לְהַסִּיעַו אֲבָנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן,9 שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל וְיוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵיתוֹ וִיבַקֵּשׁ דָּבָר שֶׁיִּתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא שָׁבַת, וּבָטֵל הַטַּעַם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָהז, 10 "לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ".ח

וְעוֹד, מִפְּנֵי גֶּדֶר הוֹצָאָה נָגְעוּ בָהּ,ט11 שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיוֹצִיא הַדָּבָר שֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל בְּיָדוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.י, 12 וְהָיָה מִן הָרָאוּי לְפִי זֶה לֶאֱסוֹר אֲפִלּוּ טִלְטוּל כֵּלִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָהֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין גּוֹזְרִים עַל הַצִּבּוּר יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי.יא

וְעוֹד, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּקְצָת הָעָם אֵינָם בַּעֲלֵי אוּמָנוּת אֶלָּא בְּטֵלִים כָּל יְמֵיהֶם, כְּגוֹן הַטַּיָּלִין וְיוֹשְׁבֵי קְרָנוֹת שֶׁכָּל יְמֵיהֶם הֵם שׁוֹבְתִים מִמְּלָאכָה, וְאִם יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְהַלֵּךְ וּלְדַבֵּר וּלְטַלְטֵל כִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים – נִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא שָׁבַת שְׁבִיתָה הַנִּכֶּרֶת, לְפִיכָךְ שְׁבִיתָה מִדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ הִיא שְׁבִיתָה הַשָּׁוָה בְּכָל אָדָם. וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה נָגְעוּ בְּאִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל, וְאָסְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְטַלְטֵל אָדָם בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא כֵּלִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:יב

2 Any entity that is categorized as a k’li13[i.e., a utensil or useful implement] is permitted to be moved on Shabbos,14in accordance with the guidelines that will be explained. [This includes] even a k’li ordinarily used to perform an activity that is forbidden,15 i.e., a k’li that is [made to be used] for performing a task forbidden on Shabbos – for example, a hatchet used to chop wood,16 a blacksmith’s16 or goldsmith’s17 hammer, and the like.

[The license mentioned above applies] even to a k’li used to perform an activity that is forbidden [when that k’li] is [also] muktzeh [i.e., set aside, not to be used] because it is repugnant,18 i.e., a person diverts and turns his attention away from [the k’li] because it is repugnant and he will not use it for another permitted activity. For example, a used earthenware lamp which was not kindled on that Shabbos19is not considered as muktzeh, set aside20 [in an absolute sense] for that reason.21 Even though [such an article] is not fit to be used for another permitted activity because it is objectionable and repugnant, for example a lamp, even a metal [lamp] in which kerosene was burnt,22 it is not considered muktzeh and is not [entirely] forbidden to be moved.23 Instead, it may be moved [according to the guidelines that apply to] other keilim used for forbidden activities, since it is, nevertheless, fit to be used to cover containers.24

ב כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי 13 עָלָיו – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,יג, 14 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר, אֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר,15 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהַכְּלִי הוּא מְיֻחָד לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הָאָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת,יד כְּגוֹן קֻרְדֹּםטו שֶׁמְּבַקְּעִים בּוֹ עֵצִים,16 אוֹ קֻרְנוֹס שֶׁל נַפָּחִיםטז, 16 אוֹ שֶׁל זֶהָבִיםיז, 17 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם.

וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מִאוּסוֹ,יח, 18 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָדָם מַסִּיחַ וּמַקְצֶה דַעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ מֵחֲמַת מִאוּסוֹיט מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בִּמְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, כְּגוֹן נֵר יָשָׁן שֶׁל חֶרֶס שֶׁלֹּא הִדְלִיקוּ בּוֹ בְּאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת 19 – אֵין לוֹ דִּין מֻקְצֶה20 בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ.כ, 21

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי כְּלָל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בִּמְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁל הֶתֵּר מֵחֲמַת מִאוּסוֹ וְסִרְחוֹנוֹ,כא כְּגוֹן נֵר, אֲפִלּוּכב שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת,כג שֶׁהִדְלִיקוּ בּוֹ נֵפְטְ22 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לוֹ דִּין מֻקְצֶה לְהֵאָסֵר בְּטִלְטוּל,כד, 23 אֶלָּא מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כִּשְׁאָר כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר,כה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם רָאוּי הוּא לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ כֵּלִים:כו, 24

3 Even a utensil that is set aside not to be used for any purpose, e.g., utensils prepared and ready to be sold as merchandise,25 which are not commonly used for any purpose [are not necessarily deemed as muktzeh]. If the person is not careful never to use them at all [for his personal use], he is not considered to have diverted his attention from using them entirely. Therefore, they are not deemed muktzeh and thus are not forbidden to be moved.26

To what does the above apply? To an article that is actually a utensil. [Different laws apply,] however, to an article that is not actually a utensil, but is placed in the category of utensils, because it is fit to be used for some purpose on Shabbos, e.g., rolls of wool that are fit to be used for support or to sit on,27 and all other similar objects. If one places [such objects] in a warehouse for [the purpose of] selling them, he nullifies their previous classification as utensils and it is forbidden to move them,28 even though he would use them without any compunction. [Such objects remain muktzeh] unless [the person] later changes his mind and designates them to be used [for his personal purposes] for all time.29

ג וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי שֶׁהִקְצָה אוֹתוֹ מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ, כְּגוֹן כֵּלִים הַמּוּכָנִים וְעוֹמְדִים לִסְחוֹרָה,כז, 25 שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶםכח מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם – לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ עֲדַיִן מֵהֶם לְגַמְרֵיכט מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לָהֶם דִּין מֻקְצֶה לְהֵאָסֵר בְּטִלְטוּל.26

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי מַמָּשׁ אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּלִי מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי מֵחֲמַת שֶׁרָאוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן גִּזִּין שֶׁל צֶמֶר שֶׁרְאוּיִין לְהִסָּמֵךְ וְלָשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם,ל27 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, אִם הִכְנִיסָן לָאוֹצָר לִסְחוֹרָה – בִּטֵּל תּוֹרַת כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה עֲלֵיהֶם, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם,לא, 28 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד כְּלָל עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם,לב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חָזַר וְיִחֲדוֹ לְתַשְׁמִישׁלג לְעוֹלָם:לד, 29

4 [Similarly, stringent laws apply to] all utensils that are designated as merchandise and one is careful not to use them for any other purpose, even though they are not very valuable. Needless to say, [the laws soon to be detailed] apply to utensils of great value that are used for an activity forbidden [on Shabbos],30 even though they are not [set aside as] merchandise, but the person avoids using them for any other purpose so that their value will not diminish. It is forbidden to move such utensils on Shabbos31even for the sake of their place, i.e., one needs to perform a [permitted] activity in the place where that utensil is located. [Nor is it permitted to move the utensil in order] to use it letzorech gufo, for a permitted purpose,32 i.e., the person changed his mind and decided to perform a [permitted] act using the utensil itself.

([This stringency applies] when [a person] changes his mind after nightfall. If, however, he changes his mind while it is still day [on Friday], it is permitted to move [the utensil on Shabbos], because the status of an article classified as muktzeh may be changed through thought, as will be explained.)33 [Utensils deemed muktzeh for these reasons] are termed, muktzeh machmas chisaron kis, muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss.”

ד וְכָל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁהֵם עוֹמְדִים לִסְחוֹרָה וְהוּא מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶםלה שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם כֵּלִים הַיְקָרִים בְּיוֹתֵר,לו וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כֵּלִים הַיְקָרִים בְּיוֹתֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן לִסְחוֹרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּלַאכְתָּם לְאִסּוּר,לז, 30 וּמַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶםלח מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵרלט שֶׁלֹּא יִפָּחֲתוּ דְמֵיהֶם – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּתמ, 31 אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ,מא דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁכְּלִי זֶה מֻנָּח שָׁם,מב אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ,מג, 32 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּמְלַךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ בְּגוּף כְּלִי זֶה.

(וְהוּא שֶׁנִּמְלַךְ כֵּן מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה,מד אֲבָל אִם נִמְלַךְ כֵּן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, שֶׁמַּחֲשָׁבָה מוֹעֶלֶת לְמֻקְצֶה,מה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרמו).33

וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס:

5 Similar [laws apply to] a knife used for ritual slaughter34 or circumcision,35 a razor used by barbers, and a knife used by scribes to sharpen their quills. Since [their owners] are careful not to use [these knives] for another purpose that is permitted on Shabbos,36it is forbidden to move [the knives] even to use them [for a permitted purpose] or to use the space where they are located. [This stringency applies] even if this knife is inserted into a sheath together with other knives. We do not say that it can be assumed that [the owner] is not particular at all [about using it for other purposes], since he inserted it into a sheath together with other knives.

Nevertheless, the prohibition involves only removing this knife from the sheath or moving the sheath with this knife after the other knives have been removed from it.37 As long as, by contrast, the other knives remain in the sheath, it is permitted to move [the sheath], even though this knife [that is muktzeh] is also in [the sheath. This license is granted] provided it is impossible to shake out the knife from the sheath, or there is concern that [the knife will be damaged38 and] a loss will be suffered if one shakes it out [of the sheath], or he needs the place where the sheath is resting. This will be explained in sec. 309[:4] and sec. 310[:17]39 with regard to other utensils that serve as a base to [both] entities that are forbidden [to be moved] and [others] that are permitted [to be moved]. See the rationale for all the above in those sources.

ה וְכֵן סַכִּין שֶׁל שְׁחִיטָהמז, 34 וְשֶׁל מִילָה,מח, 35 וְאִזְמֵל שֶׁל סְפָרִים, וְסַכִּין שֶׁל סוֹפְרִים שֶׁמְּתַקְּנִין בּוֹ הַקֻּלְמוֹסִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּקְפִּידִים שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר הַמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת36 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָםמט אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָם וּמְקוֹמָם.נ

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַסַּכִּין הַזֶּה תָּחוּב בִּנְדָן עִם סַכִּינִים אֲחֵרִיםנא – אֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם אֵין מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו כְּלָל, הוֹאִיל וּתְחָבוֹ בִּנְדָן עִם שְׁאָר סַכִּינִים.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין אִסּוּר אֶלָּא לְהוֹצִיא סַכִּין זֶה מֵהַנְּדָן, אוֹ לְטַלְטֵל הַנְּדָן עִם סַכִּין זֶה לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹצִיא מִתּוֹכוֹ שְׁאָר הַסַּכִּינִים,37 אֲבָל בְּעוֹד שֶׁשְּׁאָר הַסַּכִּינִים בְּתוֹכוֹ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסַּכִּין זֶה גַּם כֵּן בְּתוֹכוֹ.נב וְהוּא שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר סַכִּין זֶה מֵהַנְּדָן, אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ הֶפְסֵדנג, 38 אִם יְנַעֲרֶנּוּ, אוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַנְּדָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"טנד וְש"ינה, 39 בִּשְׁאָר כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר, עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם לְכָל זֶה:

6 Similarly, in places where people are careful to avoid using a pestle that is used to crush spices for another purpose so it will not become soiled, the pestle is [also] deemed muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss.40 However, in places where people are not careful about [using their pestle for other purposes, the pestle] may be moved so that it may be used [for a permitted purpose] or because its place is required, like other utensils used for activities forbidden [on Shabbos], as will be explained.41

Similarly, blank paper that is designated for writing is [also deemed] muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss, because one is careful not to use it for any other purpose lest it become soiled.42 Moreover, [the paper] is not deemed a k’li, a utensil, since [one] is careful not to use it [for another purpose], as will be explained.43

ו וְכֵן קֻרְנָס שֶׁדָּכִין בּוֹ בְּשָׂמִיםנו בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּקְפִּידִים עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלֵךְנז – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס.נח, 40 אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין מַקְפִּידִים עָלָיו – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ אוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ כִּשְׁאָר כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר,נט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.ס, 41

וְכֵן נְיָר חָלָק הָעוֹמֵד לִכְתִיבָה – הוּא מֻקְצֶהסא מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס, שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עָלָיו שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלֵךְ.סב, 42 וְעוֹד, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ – אֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:סג, 43

7 Thus, it may be concluded that there are three categories of muktzeh into which utensils may be placed. [Utensils from] two [of these categories] are permitted to be moved [under certain circumstances], and those from the third category are forbidden [in all instances: a) utensils that are] muktzeh because they are repugnant,44 and [b) utensils that are] muktzeh because they have been designated not to be used45 are permitted [to be moved under certain circumstances, and c) those that are] muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss are forbidden [to be moved entirely].46

There is a fourth category of muktzeh – an entity that is muktzeh because it became forbidden bein hashmashos47 and the factor causing its prohibition ceased on Shabbos. There [are situations within this category where a] lenient [ruling is given]48 and others [where] stringency [is required].49 This [category] will be explained in sec. 310.

ז נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁשְּׁלֹשָׁה מִינֵי מֻקְצֶה הֵם בְּכֵלִים, שְׁנַיִם מֻתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל,סד וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי אָסוּר. מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מִאוּססה, 44 וּמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהִקְצָה אוֹתוֹ מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁסו, 45 – מֻתָּרִים, וּמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס46 – אָסוּר.סז

וְיֵשׁ עוֹד מִין מֻקְצֶה רְבִיעִי, וְהוּא דָבָר שֶׁהָיָה מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת47 וְהָלַךְ לוֹ הָאִסּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת, וְיֵשׁ בְּדָבָר זֶה לְהָקֵל48 וּלְהַחֲמִיר,49 וְיִתְבָּאֵר זֶה בְּסִמָּן ש"י:סח

8 All the above applies with regard to entities that are placed in the category of utensils50 (keilim). However, any entity that is not categorized as a k’li and is neither food for humans nor for animals, e.g., stones,51 money,52 wood,53 reeds,54 beams,55 earth,56 sand, flour, dough57 ([i.e., dough] belonging to a Jew – [though] there are, however, authorities who permit [moving] dough belonging to a non-Jew, as will be explained in sec. 310[:3])58 – a corpse,59 live animals,60 and all other articles like these [are considered muktzeh in an absolute sense].

[This category] even [includes] objects that are fit to be used for a function permitted on Shabbos, e.g., stones that are suitable for cracking open nuts, small stones that are fit to cover containers, or the like. Since these objects are not categorized as utensils,61 it is forbidden to move them even in order that they may be used [for a permitted purpose] or because their place is required, except according to the guidelines that will be given.62 This [category] is called muktzeh by virtue of its very substance.

ח וְכָל זֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו,50 אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו וְאֵינוֹ מַאֲכַל אָדָם וְלֹא מַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה,סט כְּגוֹן אֲבָנִים,ע, 51 וּמָעוֹת,עא, 52 וְעֵצִים,53 וְקָנִים,54 וְקוֹרוֹת,55 וְעָפָר,56 וְחוֹל,עב וְקֶמַח, וְעִסָּהעג, 57 (שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,אֲבָל שֶׁל נָכְרִי יֵשׁ מַתִּירִים,עד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"יעה, 58), וְהַמֵּת,עו, 59 וּבַעֲלֵי חַיִּים,עז, 60 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ,עח וַאֲפִלּוּ דָבָר שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן אֲבָנִים שֶׁרְאוּיִין לִפְצוֹעַ בָּהֶן אֱגוֹזִים,עט וּצְרוֹרוֹתפ שֶׁרְאוּיוֹת לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶן כֵּלִים,פא וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶםפב, 61 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָם וּמְקוֹמָם,פג אֶלָּא עַל פִּי הַדְּרָכִים שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֲרוּ.פד, 62 וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת גּוּפוֹ:פה

9 This category of muktzeh also includes all foods from which it is forbidden to derive benefit,63 for they may not be used even to feed dogs. [This applies] even if the substances are forbidden only by Rabbinic decree, e.g., the wine of non-Jews64 and the like. [Also included are] even [foods] that are prohibited only on [that Shabbos]day itself – for example, tevel,65 which could be made fit on Saturday night and eaten [then], but is forbidden to be made fit on Shabbos because of a Rabbinic decree, as will be explained in sec. 339[:7].66 It, or any similar item, is deemed muktzeh by virtue of its very substance, and it is forbidden to be moved even to be used [for a permitted purpose] or because its place is required.

[Different laws apply,] by contrast, when foods are forbidden to be eaten, [but] benefit may be derived from them, [and thus] they may be fed to dogs. If they are prepared and ready to be fed to dogs, e.g., meat from an animal that died, or was treif,67 or the like,68 it is permitted to move them, like other foods for animals. [This leniency does not apply to foods] that are not ready to be fed to dogs because of the nature of the prohibition [related to them], i.e., they are prohibited only on [that] Shabbos, e.g., liquid that oozed out of produce on its own on Shabbos, whichis forbidden to be drunk only on that [Shabbos],69an egg that was laid on Shabbos whichis forbidden to be eaten only on that [Shabbos],70 milk that was milked on Shabbos,71which is forbidden [to be drunk] only on that [Shabbos], and similarly, all comparable substances.72 True, [these foods] could be fed to dogs. However, they are not designated for this purpose, but rather for human consumption [once they become permissible, i.e., from] Saturday night [onward. Hence, on Shabbos,] it is forbidden to move them even when they are needed [for a permitted purpose] or because their place is required.

By contrast, [food] that is also forbidden to be eaten during the week,73 even though it will be permitted to be eaten at a later date, e.g., chadash,74is permitted to be moved even in Eretz Yisrael.75[The rationale is that] since it will remain forbidden for an extended time, it is also76 designated to be fed to animals or sold to non-Jews during the time [it is forbidden for Jews].77

ט וּבִכְלַל מֻקְצֶה זֶה הוּא, כָּל מַאֲכָלוֹת הָאֲסוּרוֹת בַּהֲנָאָה,63 שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַאֲכִילָן אֲפִלּוּ לַכְּלָבִים, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין אִסּוּרָן אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,פו כְּגוֹן סְתָם יֵינָםפז, 64 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין אִסּוּרָן אֶלָּא בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בִּלְבָד, כְּגוֹן טֶבֶלפח, 65 שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְתַקְּנוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וּלְאָכְלוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְתַקְּנוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ט,פט, 66 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה – הוּא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת גּוּפוֹ,צ וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ.צא

אֲבָל מַאֲכָלוֹת הָאֲסוּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה וּמֻתָּרוֹת בַּהֲנָאָה, שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַאֲכִילָן לַכְּלָבִים אִם הֵן מוּכָנִין וְעוֹמְדִים לְהַאֲכִילָן לַכְּלָבִים,צב כְּגוֹן נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת67 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶןצג, 68 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן כִּשְׁאָר מַאֲכָלֵי בְהֵמָה. וְאִם אֵינָן עוֹמְדִים לַכְּלָבִיםצד מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּרָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרָן אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן מַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ מִן הַפֵּרוֹת מֵאֲלֵיהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֲסוּרִים בִּשְׁתִיָּה בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בִּלְבָד,צה, 69 וְכֵן בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֲסוּרָה בַּאֲכִילָה בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בִּלְבָד,צו, 70 וְכֵן חָלָב שֶׁנֶּחְלַב בְּשַׁבָּת,71 שֶׁאָסוּר בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בִּלְבָד,צז וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם,צח, 72 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַאֲכִילָם לַכְּלָבִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן עוֹמְדִים לְכָךְצט אֶלָּא לַאֲכִילַת אָדָם בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן וּמְקוֹמָן.

אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאִסּוּר אֲכִילָתוֹ הוּא גַם בְּחֹל,73 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ הֶתֵּר לְאַחַר זְמַן, כְּגוֹן הֶחָדָשׁ74 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹק אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל,קא, 75 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּמְשָׁךְ זְמַן אִסּוּרוֹ הַרְבֵּה – הֲרֵי הוּא עוֹמֵד גַּם76 בְּתוֹךְ הַזְּמַןקב לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לִבְהֵמוֹת וּלְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִים:קג, 77

10 There is another category of muktzeh on Shabbos and festivals that includes foods and beverages: [food that is] muktzeh because of a mitzvah. [This category] will be explained in sec. 63878 and sec. 514[:24].79

Thus, there are five categories of muktzeh that are forbidden [to be moved]: a) muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss,80 b) muktzeh by virtue of its very substance,81 c) muktzeh because of the prohibition against benefitting from it or eating it,82 d) muktzeh because of a mitzvah, and e) muktzeh because the substance was muktzeh bein hashmashos, as will be explained in sec. 310[:4-5].

י וְיֵשׁ עוֹד מִין מֻקְצֶה בְּאֹכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִים בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, וְהוּא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מִצְוָה,קד שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תרל"ח78 וְתקי"ד.קה, 79

נִמְצְאוּ כָּל מִינֵי הַמֻּקְצֶה הָאֲסוּרִים חֲמִשָּׁה, מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס,קו, 80 וּמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת גּוּפוֹ,קז, 81 וּמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה אוֹ אֲכִילָה,קח, 82 וּמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מִצְוָה, וּמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהָיָה אָסוּר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"י:קט

11 Any entity that is categorized as a k’li,83 even if it is very large and heavy, is nevertheless considered a utensil despite its size and weight.83 This also applies to a [very] large stone or beam, even if ten people are required to move it.83 If it was categorized as a utensil, i.e., it was designated to be moved for a particular purpose in the manner that will be explained,84 it may be moved on Shabbos.

יא כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי,13 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא גָדוֹל וְכָבֵד הַרְבֵּה – לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל שֵׁם כְּלִי מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא מֵחֲמַת גָּדְלוֹ וְלֹא מֵחֲמַת כָּבְדּוֹ.קי, 83 וְהוּא הַדִּין לְאֶבֶן גְּדוֹלָהקיא אוֹ קוֹרָה גְדוֹלָה,קיב אֲפִלּוּ מִטַּלְטֶלֶת בַּעֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם,83 אִם יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיִּחֲדָה לְטַלְטְלָהּ לְאֵיזֶה תַשְׁמִישׁקיג וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרקיד, 84 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת:

12 One may move85 a k’li ordinarily used86 to perform an activity that is forbidden [on Shabbos] to use it [for a permitted purpose].87 For example, [one may move] a hatchet to cut up dried figs or a hammer to crack open nuts, or [one may] even [move such] a k’li to use as a support for other keilim,88 or the like. [Such a k’li may also be moved] because its place is required.89 It is, however, forbidden [to move such a k’li] for its own sake. For example, [it is forbidden to move such a k’li if] it is lying in a place where [one] worries that it might be stolen, or it might fall and break, or it is lying in the sun89 and [one] fears that it might crack there and wants to move it to a shady place, or any similar instance. If [one] thinks about using [this k’li] for a [permitted] purpose in another place,90 or he thinks about performing an act in the place the k’li [currently] occupies,91 he is permitted to move it from there, even though his primary intent in moving it is to prevent it frombeing stolen or broken in its present location.92

יב כְּלִי85 שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּרקטו, 86 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ,קטז, 87 כְּגוֹן קֻרְדֹּם לַחְתּוֹךְ בּוֹ דְּבֵלָה, וְקֻרְנָס לִפְצוֹעַ בּוֹ אֱגוֹזִים,קיז אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לִסְמוֹךְ בּוֹ כֵּלִיםקיח, 88 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה,קיט בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ.קכ, 89

אֲבָל לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַכְּלִי מֻנָּח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיָּרֵא שֶׁלֹּא יִגָּנֵב מִשָּׁם,קכא אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִפּוֹל וְיִשָּׁבֵר,קכב אוֹ שֶׁמֻּנָּח בְּחַמָּהקכג, 89 וְיָרֵא שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּקֵּעַקכד שָׁם וְרוֹצֶה לְטַלְטְלוֹ מִשָּׁם לִמְקוֹם הַצֵּל, וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה – אָסוּר.

וְאִם מְחַשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר,90 אוֹ שֶׁמְּחַשֵּׁב לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ אֵיזֶה תַשְׁמִישׁ בְּמָקוֹם זֶה שֶׁהַכְּלִי מֻנָּח שָׁם91 – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְטַלְטְלוֹ מִמָּקוֹם זֶה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעִקַּר כַּוָּנָתוֹ בְּטִלְטוּלוֹ הוּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יִשָּׁבֵר בְּמָקוֹם זֶה:קכה, 92

13 When one moves [such a k’li] because [he requires] its place, he does not have to cast it down from his hand immediately after removing it from the place that he requires.93 Instead, it is permitted for him to put [the k’li] down in any place he desires and put it [safely] away there.94 [The rationale is that] since [the k’li] is already in his hand, he is permitted to move it beyond the space he requires [to be vacated].

[Moreover,] even if one forgets and picks up an article that is muktzeh in an absolute sense,95 he is permitted to move it to whichever place he desires, since it is already in his hand.96 There is an authority who forbids [moving] an article that is muktzeh in an absolute sense, and it is appropriate to give weight to his words97 unless the situation involves a loss, as explained in sec. 266[:19].98

יג כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִיכוֹ מִיָּדוֹ מִיָּד שֶׁפִּנּוּהוּ מִמָּקוֹם זֶה הַצָּרִיךְ לוֹ,93 אֶלָּא מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶהקכו לְהַצְנִיעוֹ שָׁם,94 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הוּא בְּיָדוֹ – רַשַּׁאי לְטַלְטְלוֹ יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שָׁכַח וְנָטַל בְּיָדוֹקכז מֻקְצֶה גָמוּר95 – רַשַּׁאי לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הוּא בְּיָדוֹ.קכח, 96

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹסֵר בְּמֻקְצֶה גָמוּר.קכט וְרָאוּי לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו,קל, 97 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ו:קלא, 98

14 Any [article that is] muktzeh is only forbidden to be moved. One may, however, touch it with his hand, as long as he does not shake even a portion of it, as explained in sec. 265[:6].99 Therefore, it is permitted to touch a candelabra whose lights are burning if it is not suspended in the air, as explained in that source.100 Similarly, [one may touch] the stove of a winter home while fire is burning inside of [it]. It is also permitted to pick up an article that is permitted to be moved that is lying atop an article that is muktzeh, as explained in that source.101 Similarly, one may place an article on top of [the article that is muktzeh].102 Also, one may [even] sit on [the article that is muktzeh],103 even if it moves beneath him, because it is being moved in an unusual manner. [This leniency is granted] provided he does not touch it with his hand, as will be explained.104

[The rationale for the latter points is that] it is not forbidden to derive benefit from using any article that is muktzeh provided one does not cause it to move. [This is permitted] as long as – while using the article that is muktzeh – he does not perform a [specific forbidden] act using the substance of the [article that is] muktzeh. For example, [it is prohibited] on a festival to light a fire under wood that is muktzeh even though he does not move [the wood] at all, as will be explained in sec. 501[:11].105

יד כָּל מֻקְצֶה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בְּטִלְטוּל, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִגַּע בּוֹ בְּיָדָיו,קלב וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יְנַעֲנֵעַ אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָתוֹ,קלג וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ה.קלד, 99 וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לִגַּע בִּמְנוֹרָה שֶׁהַנֵּרוֹת דּוֹלְקוֹת עָלֶיהָ אִם אֵינָהּ תְּלוּיָה בַּאֲוִיר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,100 אוֹ בְּתַנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף שֶׁהָאֵשׁ דּוֹלֶקֶת בְּתוֹכוֹ. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִקַּח דְּבַר הֶתֵּר הַמֻּנָּח עַל דְּבַר מֻקְצֶה,קלה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,קלו, 101 וְכֵן לְהַנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבָּיו.קלז, 102

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לֵישֵׁב עָלָיוקלח, 103 אַף אִם הוּא מִתְנַעֲנֵעַ תַּחְתָּיו,קלט שֶׁטִּלְטוּל כִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא,קמ וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בּוֹ בְּיָדָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קמא, 104 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל מֻקְצֶה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּלֹא טִלְטוּל.קמב וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה בְּגוּף הַמֻּקְצֶה עַל יְדֵי תַּשְׁמִישׁ זֶה, כְּגוֹן לְהַצִּית אֵשׁ בְּיוֹם טוֹב תַּחַת עֲצֵי מֻקְצֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזִיזֵם כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"א:קמג, 105

15 All articles that are muktzeh are only forbidden [to be moved] in the [same] manner they are ordinarily moved during the week, i.e., with one’s hands. It is, however, permitted to move [an article that is muktzeh] with one’s body,106 as will be explained in sec. 311[:15].107 This is called moving [an article] in an unusual manner, because it is a deviation from the [ordinary] weekday manner [of moving it]. Therefore, it is permitted to move an article that is muktzeh with one’s feet,108 moving it from place to place while walking if one needs the place [it occupies]109 or even for the sake of the article that is muktzeh itself in order to hide it away (see sec. 311[:15]). Needless to say, one may move an article by blowing on it, for there is no greater example of moving an article in an unusual manner than this.

טו כָּל מֻקְצֶה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא לְטַלְטְלוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל,קמד דְּהַיְנוּ בְּיָדָיו, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּגוּפוֹ,קמה, 106 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א,קמו, 107 וְזֶהוּ נִקְרָא טִלְטוּל כִּלְאַחַר יָד,קמז שֶׁהוּא בְּשִׁנּוּי מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל.קמח וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מֻקְצֶה בְּרַגְלָיו,קמט, 108 לְפַנּוֹתוֹ לְכַאן וּלְכַאן דֶּרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ,קנ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ,109 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֻּקְצֶה עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַצְנִיעוֹ (עַיֵּן סִמָּן שי"אקנא).

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מֻקְצֶה עַל יְדֵי נִפּוּחַ,קנב שֶׁאֵין לְךָ טִלְטוּל כִּלְאַחַר יָד גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה:קנג

16 One may110 move a utensil that is used for a permitted activity,111 i.e., it is designated for an activity that is permitted on Shabbos, e.g., a cup, a bowl, or the like. [Not only may such a utensil be moved] so that it may be used [for a permitted purpose] or because one needs its place, it may also be moved for the sake of the utensil itself, i.e., [if] one is concerned that [the utensil] might break or be stolen in its present place, he may move it from there to hide it. He may [also] move it from [direct exposure to] the sun into the shade if he is concerned that it may crack in the sunlight.111

It is, however, forbidden to move any utensil – even if it is used for a permitted activity – for no reason at all.112 [This prohibition has a Scriptural source.] In the era of Nechemiah the son of Chachal’yah,113 the people were treating the Shabbos prohibitions lightly,114 as it is written:115 “In those days, I saw in Judah [people] treading [grapes in] wine presses on Shabbos and bringing [in] stacks [of grain]….” The Sages [therefore] created a safeguard and a fence [to protect] the prohibition against transferring [articles from one domain to another], decreeing that it is forbidden to move any utensils, even those used for a permitted activity and even for the sake of the activity they are designated for, with the exception of cups, bowls, a knife, and other similar articles that are fundamentally necessary for the Shabbos meals.

Afterwards, when the Sages saw that the people were beginning to be somewhat more scrupulous in their observance of the Shabbos prohibitions, they permitted any utensil that is used for a permitted activity to be moved so that it may be used [for a permitted purpose] or because one needs its place.

Later, when they saw that the people were becoming even more scrupulous [in their Shabbos observance, the Sages] allowed any utensil that is used for a permitted activity to be moved for the sake of the utensil itself.116 Nevertheless, the Sages never brought to a vote the release of the prohibition against moving a utensil for no purpose at all, and thus the prohibition established by the Sages in the days of Nechemiah ben Chachal’yah, remained in place.117

טז כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר,קנד, 111 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת,קנה כְּגוֹן כּוֹס וּקְעָרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶןקנו – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ110 אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁבֵר אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִגָּנֵב מִשָּׁםקנז וּמְטַלְטְלוֹ מִשָּׁם לְהַצְנִיעוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁמְּטַלְטְלוֹ מֵחַמָּה לְצֵלקנח שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּקֵּעַ בְּחַמָּה.קנט, 111

אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל – אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל שׁוּם כְּלִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר,קס, 112 לְפִי שֶׁבִּימֵי נְחֶמְיָה בֶּן חֲכַלְיָה113 שֶׁהָיוּ הָעָם מְזַלְזְלִים בְּאִסּוּרֵי שַׁבָּת,קסא, 114 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּבקסב, 115 "בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם רָאִיתִי בִיהוּדָה דּוֹרְכִי[ם] גִּתּוֹת בַּשַּׁבָּת וּמְבִיאִים הָעֲרֵמוֹת וְגוֹ'", עָשׂוּ חֲכָמִים סְיָג וְגָדֵרקסג לְאִסּוּר הוֹצָאָה,קסד וְגָזְרוּ עַל כָּל הַכֵּלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתָּם לְהֶתֵּר שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלָם כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישָׁן הַמְּיֻחָד לָהֶם, חוּץ מִן כּוֹסוֹת וּקְעָרוֹת וְסַכִּין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםקסה מֵהַכֵּלִים הַצְּרִיכִים בְּיוֹתֵרקסו לִסְעֻדַּת הַשַּׁבָּת.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁרָאוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁחָזְרוּ הָעָם לְהִזָּהֵר קְצָת בְּאִסּוּרֵי שַׁבָּת – חָזְרוּ וְהִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁרָאוּ שֶׁחָזְרוּ הָעָם לְהִזָּהֵר יוֹתֵר – חָזְרוּ וְהִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ,קסז, 116 אֲבָל לְטַלְטֵל שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל עֲדַיִן לֹא נִמְנוּ עָלָיו חֲכָמִים לְהַתִּירוֹ, וְנִשְׁאָר עוֹמֵד בְּאִסּוּרוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר בִּגְזֵרַת חֲכָמִים שֶׁבִּימֵי נְחֶמְיָה בֶּן חֲכַלְיָה:קסח, 117

17 In contrast, all types of foods and beverages that are permitted on Shabbos118and all types of books119 that are permitted to be read [on Shabbos]120 are permitted to be moved even if there is no need for them at all. For the decree instituted in the days of Nechemiah concerned only utensils, and not food or scrolls. Thus, their status at present is the same as it was before the decree in the days of Nechemiah, when it was permitted to move any article fit [to be used] on Shabbos even when there was no need for it at all. In contrast, an object that is not fit [to be used] on Shabbos was forbidden to be movedeven in the days of David and Shlomoh or [even] before then.121

However, utensils – even cups, bowls, a knife, and the like – were all included in the [original] decree that they not be moved except [when using them] for their usual purpose, but not [even for the use of] their place or to use them for a purpose for which they were not designed. For [our Sages] removed them from the category of other utensils only because their use is of greater necessity [for the observance of Shabbos] than all other utensils.122 Accordingly, they granted license to use [such utensils] only for their [designated] purpose. Later, when [our Sages] relaxed [their prohibition] and permitted moving any utensil used for a permitted purpose,123 even for the sake of the utensil itself, [then] cups, bowls, a knife, and the like were included in this [leniency. Nonetheless, our Sages] permitted moving them only for the sake of the utensil itself, but not without any purpose at all.

יז אֲבָל כָּל מִינֵי אֹכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת,118 וְכָל מִינֵי סְפָרִים119 שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִקְרוֹת בָּהֶםקסט, 120 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל,קע לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ בִּימֵי נְחֶמְיָה אֶלָּא עַל כֵּלִים וְלֹא עַל אֹכָלִים וּסְפָרִים,קעא וַהֲרֵי הֵם עַכְשָׁו כְּמוֹ קֹדֶם הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁבִּימֵי נְחֶמְיָה, שֶׁהָיָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל כָּל דָּבָר הָרָאוּי בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל.

אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי בְּשַׁבָּת – הָיָה אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל אַף בִּימֵי דָוִד וּשְׁלֹמֹהקעב אוֹ קֹדֶם לְכֵן.121

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כֵּלִים, אֲפִלּוּ כּוֹסוֹת וּקְעָרוֹת וְסַכִּין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן כֻּלָּן הָיוּ בִּכְלַל הַגְּזֵרָה, שֶׁגָּזְרוּ גַם עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלָן כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישָׁן, וְלֹא לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמָן וְלֹא לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמְּיֻחָד לָהֶן, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הוֹצִיאוּ אוֹתָן מִכְּלַל שְׁאָר כֵּלִים אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַצֹּרֶךְ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתַשְׁמִישָׁן יוֹתֵר מִבְּתַשְׁמִישׁ שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים,122 אִם כֵּן אֵין לְהַתִּירָן אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישָׁן בִּלְבָד. וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהִתִּירוּ, וְחָזְרוּ וְהִתִּירוּ, לְטַלְטֵל כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר123 אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ, גַּם כּוֹסוֹת וּקְעָרוֹת וְסַכִּין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן הָיוּ בִּכְלַל זֶה, וְלֹא הֻתְּרוּ אֶלָּא לְטַלְטְלָן לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל:

18 Nevertheless, in a location where there is an eruv, it is permitted for a person to carry a knife with him even when he goes to the synagogue,even though he has no need for a knife there, since he will need it later that day.124 The prohibition against moving an article without a purpose applies only when [the person] will not need it at all that entire day. If, however, [the person] will use [the article later] that day and he carries it with him to have it on hand at that time, it is permitted [to move the article]. Since he desires that the article be on hand [when he needs it], this is considered as moving it for a purpose.

יח וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לְאָדָם לִשָּׂא הַסַּכִּין אֶצְלוֹ אַף כְּשֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם עֵרוּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שָׁם לְסַכִּין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,124 וְלֹא אָסְרוּ טִלְטוּל שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ כְּלָל כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֲבָל אִם יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ הַיּוֹם וְהוּא נוֹשְׂאוֹ אֶצְלוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מוּכָן לוֹ בִּשְׁעָתוֹ – מֻתָּר,קעג כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ בְּכָךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מוּכָן לוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה טִלְטוּל לְצֹרֶךְ:

19 Tefillin are not governed by the same laws as holy books125 nor even by those governing a utensil used for a permitted purpose, since it is forbidden to go out to the public domain while [wearing] them [on Shabbos],126 and whenever it is forbidden to go out [to the public domain wearing] an article, it is forbidden to wear it at all on Shabbos, even at home, lest one forget and go out while wearing [the article], as explained in sec. 303[:23].127 Moreover, even according to the authorities mentioned in that source who permit wearing such articles at home, tefillin are not deemed to be a utensil that one is permitted to use, since they are designated to be worn for the purpose of the mitzvah, and on Shabbos, it is forbidden to wear them for that purpose, as explained in sec. 31[:1].128 Therefore, it is forbidden to move [tefillin] even for their own sake, i.e., to hide them so that they will not be stolen if one is in a place where the majority of the thieves are Jewish and the tefillin will not be denigrated while in [the thieves’] possession, [for Jewish thieves will treat the tefillin with respect].

They may, however, be moved for a permitted purpose, e.g., to protect one from demons129 or because he requires their place, like [other] utensils used to perform forbidden activities [that may be moved for a permitted purpose or to use their place], because they are included in the category of utensils and garments. [This is reflected in the fact that] one who goes out to the public domain wearing them is exempt, because they are considered like a garment or an ornament,130 as stated in sec. 301[:3].

יט הַתְּפִלִּין אֵין דִּינָן כְּסִפְרֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ,125 וְלֹא אֲפִלּוּ כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר,קעד שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קעה, 126 וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ – אָסוּר לְלָבְשׁוֹ כְּלָל בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֵצֵא בּוֹ,קעו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ג.קעז, 127

וְאַף לְהַמַּתִּירִין שָׁם לִלְבּוֹשׁ בַּבַּיִת – אֵין הַתְּפִלִּין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר,קעח הוֹאִיל וְהֵן מְיֻחָדִים לְלָבְשָׁן לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה, וּבְשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְלָבְשָׁן לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ל"א,קעט, 128 לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמָן, כְּגוֹן לְהַצְנִיעָן שֶׁלֹּא יִגָּנְבוּקפ אִם הוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁרֹב הַגַּנָּבִים הַמְּצוּיִים שָׁם הֵם יִשְׂרְאֵלִים, שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ הַתְּפִלִּין לִידֵי בִּזָּיוֹן בְּיָדָם,קפא

אֲבָל לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן, כְּגוֹן בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּשְׁמְרוּהוּ מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין,קפב, 129 אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמָן – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר, שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן תּוֹרַת כְּלִי וּמַלְבּוּשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – פָּטוּר, הוֹאִיל וְהֵן דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁקפג וְתַכְשִׁיט,קפד, 130 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"א:קפה

20 Similarly, a shofar, a trumpet, and other musical instruments are forbidden to be moved, except to be used for a permitted purpose or to use their place like other utensils used to perform forbidden activities, since it is forbidden to sound [a shofar] or make music with instruments on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 588[:4]131 and sec. 339[:2].132

כ וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹפָרקפו אוֹ חֲצוֹצְרוֹתקפז וּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי שִׁיר – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָם אוֹ מְקוֹמָם כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר,קפח שֶׁאָסוּר לִתְקוֹעַ אוֹ לְזַמֵּר בִּכְלֵי שִׁיר בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקפ"חקפט, 131 וְשל"ט:קצ, 132

21 A utensil that is used for both permitted and forbidden activities may be moved even for the sake of the utensil itself, as is the law regarding a utensil used for permitted activities. [License is granted] since it is also designated [to be used for] the performance of permitted activities.133

כא כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אַף לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר,קצא הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מְיֻחָד גַּם כֵּן לִמְלֶאכֶת הֶתֵּר:133

22 If a mortar contains garlic or other similar substances that are [ordinarily] ground in it, it is permitted to move [the mortar on Shabbos]even for its own sake,134 although it is a utensil used to perform a forbidden activity.135 [The rationale is that] the mortar is considered as secondary, and [therefore] batel136 to the garlic inside it just like a pot is secondary to the cooked food inside it. Thus, it is as if one is moving only the garlic, and [the garlic] may be moved even for no reason at all.137 If, by contrast, one places in a mortar a loaf of bread, a baby, or other articles that are permitted to be moved, but to which the mortar does not become secondary,138 it is forbidden to move the mortar for its own sake [because of these articles]. For license to move [an article that is muktzeh] because of a loaf of bread, a baby, or the like, was granted only to bring a corpse into the shade, as will be explained in sec. 311[:1, 7].139

There are authorities who differ [with the above and] maintain that a mortar or any utensil typically used for a forbidden task are permitted to be moved for the sake of the article itself via a loaf of bread, a baby, or any other article that is permitted to be moved.140 [Our Sages’] statement141 that license to move via a loaf of bread or a baby was not granted except with regard to a corpse applies only with regard to objects that are absolutely muktzeh142 and are forbidden to be moved, even to be used for a permitted purpose or to use their place. [In contrast, the Sages] ruled leniently regarding a utensil that is used for a forbidden purpose, and thus is not absolutely muktzeh. [They permitted such a utensil] to be moved to use for a permitted purpose or for the use of its place. Similarly, [our Sages ruled] leniently and [permitted one] to move [such a utensil] via a loaf of bread or a baby, even for the sake of the utensil itself.

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. Nevertheless, in a situation where there will be a great loss, one may rely on the second opinion.143

כב מְדוֹכָה, אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ שׁוּם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ מִדְּבָרִים הַנִּדּוֹכִים בָּהּ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּקצב אַף לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמָהּ,קצג, 134 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר,קצד, 135 לְפִי שֶׁהַמְּדוֹכָה הִיא טְפֵלָה וּבְטֵלָה136 לְהַשּׁוּם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַקְּדֵרָה טְפֵלָה לְהַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ,קצה וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ מְטַלְטֵל אֶת הַשּׁוּם בִּלְבַדּוֹ, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אַף שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל.137

אֲבָל אִם נָתַן בַּמְּדוֹכָה כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק, אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל שֶׁאֵין הַמְּדוֹכָה טְפֵלָה לָהֶם138 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ עַל יְדֵי כֵן לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמָהּ, שֶׁבְּמֵת בִּלְבָד הוּא שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל מֵחַמָּה לְצֵל עַל יְדֵי כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹקקצו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א,קצז, 139

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים וְאוֹמְרִיםקצח שֶׁהַמְּדוֹכָה אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ עַל יְדֵי כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק אוֹ שְׁאָר דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל,קצט, 140 וְלֹא אָמְרוּ141 שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ בְּטִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק לְבַד מִן הַמֵּת,ר אֶלָּא בְּטִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה גָמוּר142 הָאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אַף לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ, אֲבָל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקְצֶה גָמוּר וְהֵקֵלּוּ בּוֹ לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ אוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ – הֵקֵלּוּ בּוֹ גַּם כֵּן לְטַלְטְלוֹ עַל יְדֵי כִּכָּר אוֹ תִּינוֹק אַף לְצֹרֶךְ הַכְּלִי עַצְמוֹ.רא

וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.רב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה:רג, 143

23 Nolad [literally, “born”; i.e., an object that first comes into existence on Shabbos or on a festival]144 – for example, a non-Jew fashions a new utensil on Shabbos on his own initiative – is permitted to be moved and used on Shabbos,145 as stated in sec. 252[:12]146 and sec. 310[:3],147 even though one did not have in mind on the preceding day to move it today. On a festival, by contrast, one should rule stringently with regard to nolad, as will be explained in sec. 495[:13].

כג הַנּוֹלָד144 מֻתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת,רד כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה כְּלִי חָדָשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת מֵעַצְמוֹ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹרה וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ,145 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ברו, 146 וְסִמָּן ש"י,רז, 147 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ עָלָיו מֵאֶתְמוֹל לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְמָחָר.

אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּנוֹלָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"ה:רח

24 Similarly, whenever utensils that are permitted to be moved148 are shattered on Shabbos and their fragments cannot be used for the [same] purpose for which the original utensils were intended, but they are fit to be used for an entirely different activity, [the fragments] are deemed nolad,149 e.g., the fragments of a kneading trough [that are fit] to cover the opening of a barrel, and the fragments of a glass container [that are fit] to cover the opening of a small container, and all the like. They are deemed as new utensils and are permitted [to be moved] on Shabbos, but not on a festival, unless [the original utensil] was broken on the day preceding the festival. In that instance, they are considered as having been prepared for another activity before the commencement of the festival and hence are not [placed in the category of] nolad.

כד וְכֵן כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּלרט, 148 שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ בְּשַׁבָּתרי וְאֵין הַשְּׁבָרִים רְאוּיִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּם הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אֶלָּא מֵעֵין מְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת לְגַמְרֵי, כְּגוֹן שִׁבְרֵי עֲרֵבָה לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶם פִּי חָבִית, וְשִׁבְרֵי כְּלִי זְכוּכִית לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶם פִּי הַפַּךְ,ריא וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶהריב – הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹלָדריג, 149 שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כְּלִי חָדָשׁ, וּמֻתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא בְּיוֹם טוֹב,ריד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִשְׁבְּרוּ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁאז הוּכְנוּ לִמְלָאכָה אַחֶרֶת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,רטו וְאֵין זֶה נוֹלָד:

25 [A different law applies] if, however, the fragments are fit [to be used] to perform an activity resembling that performed with the original [utensil],149 e.g., the fragments of a kneading trough that are fit to have poured into them a thick concentrate resembling a dough which is mixed with water [and is ordinarily contained in] a trough,150 [or similarly,] the fragments of a glass container into which oil can be poured. [Such fragments] are not nolad, and they may be moved even if they were broken on a festival.

כה אֲבָל אִם הַשְּׁבָרִים רְאוּיִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מֵעֵין מְלַאכְתָּם הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,149 כְּגוֹן שִׁבְרֵי עֲרֵבָה לָצוּק לְתוֹכָן מִקְפָּהרטז עָבָה, שֶׁהִיא דוֹמֶה לְעִסָּה הַמְעֹרֶבֶת בְּמַיִםריז שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בַּעֲרֵבָה,150 וְשִׁבְרֵי כְּלִי זְכוּכִית לָצוּק לְתוֹכָם שֶׁמֶן – אֵין זֶה נוֹלָד,ריח וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם אַף אִם נִשְׁבְּרוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

26 If, however, the fragments are not fit to be used for any activity, they are considered muktzeh in an absolute sense,149 because they are not at all in the category of utensils. It is forbidden to move them on Shabbos,151 whether [the utensils] broke on Shabbos or during the week. On a festival, by contrast, if [the utensils] broke before the commencement of the festival, it is permitted to move [the fragments] to use as kindling if they are fit for that purpose,152 just as on a festival, one may move other wood [shavings] that are fit for kindling even though they [too] are not included in the category of utensils.153

כו וְאִם אֵין הַשְּׁבָרִים רְאוּיִים לְשׁוּם מְלָאכָהריט – הֲרֵי הֵם מֻקְצֶה גָמוּר,149 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָל,רכ וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָםרכא בְּשַׁבָּת,151 בֵּין שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ בְּחֹל.רכב אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב אִם נִשְׁבְּרוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם לְהַסָּקָה אִם הֵם רְאוּיִים לְכָךְ,רכג, 152 כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּיוֹם טוֹב שְׁאָר עֵצִים הָעוֹמְדִים לְהֶסֵּק אַף שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם:רכד, 153

27 All the above applies with regard to utensils that were permitted to be moved149 that broke. [More stringent laws apply,] however, when utensils that are muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss154 broke. [In this instance,] it is forbidden to move the pieces on Shabbos or a festival if [the utensil] broke that day, even though the fragments are not muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss.155 [The rationale is that] since [the owner] diverted his attention from [the utensils during] bein hashmashos47when the utensil that was muktzeh was still intact, [the fragments] are placed in the category of muktzeh for the entire day, as will be explained in sec. 310[:4].156

כז וְכָל זֶה בְּכֵלִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל149 שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ,רכה אֲבָל כֵּלִים הַמֻּקְצִים מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס154 שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ,רכו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשְּׁבָרִים אֵינָם מֻקְצִים מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס,155 אִם נִשְׁבְּרוּ בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,רכז שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצוּ מִדַּעַת הָאָדָםרכח בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת47 כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַכְּלִי הַמֻּקְצֶה שָׁלֵם עֲדַיִן – הֻקְצוּ לְכָל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"י:156

28 All fragments of utensils that are forbidden to be moved, even those that are not fit to be used for any activity, may be moved if they are lying in a place where they could cause injury. For example, fragments of glass utensils that broke on a table or in a place where [people] walk may be moved to clear them away so that they do not cause injury to the public. For [our Sages] did not apply the prohibition of muktzeh in a situation where physical injury could be caused to the public. [Indeed, in such a situation,] they did not even apply the prohibition against carrying in a karmelis,157 as will be explained.158

It is, however, forbidden to clear away fragments of earthenware utensils that are forbidden to be moved. Even though [if left there], people will step on them and they will break [even more], that is of no consequence, because there is no prohibition in breaking earthenware unless one breaks it intentionally, so that [by doing so the earthenware] will be fit to be used for a particular purpose.159 In such an instance, it is forbidden to do so, because this is comparable to fashioning a utensil, as will be explained in sec. 310.160

כח כָּל הַשְּׁבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל, אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָן שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיִים לְשׁוּם מְלָאכָה, אִם הֵם מֻנָּחִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לְהַזִּיק, כְּגוֹן כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוֹלְכִין – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַשְּׁבָרִים כְּדֵי לְפַנּוֹתָם שֶׁלֹּא יִזּוֹקוּ בָּהֶםרכט רַבִּים, שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם הֶזֵּק הַגּוּף שֶׁל רַבִּיםרל לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל אִסּוּר מֻקְצֶה, וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל בְּכַרְמְלִית,רלא, 157 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.רלב, 158

אֲבָל שִׁבְרֵי כְּלִי חֶרֶס הָאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל – אָסוּר לְפַנּוֹתָם.רלג וְאַף שֶׁדּוֹרְסִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְנִשְׁבָּרִים – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בִּשְׁבִירַת חֶרֶס, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שׁוֹבְרוֹ בְּמִתְכַּוֵּןרלד בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי עַל יְדֵי כָךְ לְאֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ,159 שֶׁאָז אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם תִּקּוּן כְּלִי,רלה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"י:רלו, 160

29 When an earthenware shard breaks off from a utensil, whether during the week or on Shabbos, and it is fit [to be used] to cover a container, it is permitted to move [the shard on Shabbos.161This leniency applies] even in a place where there are no containers [that the shard could be used] to cover, e.g., it is located in the public domain.161 [Nevertheless,] it is permitted to move [the shard] less than four cubits [in the public domain] since it would be placed in the category of utensils in a courtyard where containers are found.162

Similar laws apply to fragments of other utensils, except that the fragments of some of the other utensils are not permitted to be moved unless they are somewhat large – for example, the fragments of a kneading trough [which are fit] to cover the opening of a barrel. If, however, [the fragments] are not fit to cover the opening of a barrel, even though they are fit to cover a container smaller than a barrel, they are not placed in the category of utensils at all. [The rationale is that] the ordinary practice is to discard the small fragments of a broken kneading trough in a garbage dump. It is not at all common to designate them as coverings for a container smaller than a barrel. In contrast, an earthenware shard – even when it is small163 – is sometimes set aside to cover a small container. Accordingly, it is considered in the category of utensils even though it was not yet set aside for that purpose.164

כט חֲתִיכַת חֶרֶסרלז שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה מִכְּלִירלח בֵּין בְּחֹלרלט בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּתרמ וְהִיא רְאוּיָה לְכַסּוֹת בָּהּ כְּלִירמא – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ,161 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין כֵּלִים מְצוּיִים שָׁם לְכַסּוֹתָם בָּהּ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמֻּנַּחַת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםרמב, 161 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ שָׁם פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת, הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ בְּחָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם כֵּלִים.רמג, 162

וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּשִׁבְרֵי שְׁאָר כֵּלִים. אֶלָּא שֶׁשְּׁאָר כֵּלִים יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁאֵין שִׁבְרֵיהֶם מֻתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם גְּדוֹלִים קְצָת,רמד כְּגוֹן שִׁבְרֵי עֲרֵבָה לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶם פִּי חָבִית, אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם רְאוּיִים לְכִסּוּי פִּי חָבִית, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרְאוּיִים לְכִסּוּי פִּי כְּלִי קָטָן מֵחָבִית – אֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָל, לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁבָרִים הַקְּטַנִּים שֶׁל הָעֲרֵבה דֶּרֶךְ לְזָרְקָם לָאַשְׁפָּה,רמה וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לְיַחֲדָםרמו לְכִסּוּי פִּי כְּלִי קָטָן מֵחָבִית. אֲבָל חֲתִיכַת חֶרֶס, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא קְטַנָּה,רמז, 163 דֶּרֶךְ הוּא לִפְעָמִים לְיַחֲדָהּ לְכִסּוּי פִּי כְּלִי קָטָן,רמח לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יִחֲדָהּ עֲדַיִן:164

30 If a utensil is broken during the week and [the broken utensil] is discarded in a garbage dump while it is still day [on Friday], it is forbidden to move [any of its pieces] on Shabbos.165Since [the owner] is diverting his attention from using it to cover containers,166 it is no longer categorized as a utensil. Even if poor people [consider it] as fit to cover containers, but the owner is wealthy and he discarded it in a garbage dump, nonetheless, it is forbidden to be moved by all the poor people wherever they are found. [The rationale is that the determination of an article’s status] depends entirely on the owner, as will be explained.167

ל וְאִם נִשְׁבְּרָה מֵהַכְּלִי בְּחֹל וּזְרָקָהּ לְאַשְׁפָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת,רמט, 165 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִקְצָה אוֹתָהּ מִלְּכַסּוֹת בָּהּ כֵּלִים,166 וּבִטְּלָהּ מִהְיוֹת עוֹד תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ.רנ

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הִיא רְאוּיָה לַעֲנִיִּים לְכִסּוּי כֵּלִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּעָלֶיהָ הוּא עָשִׁיר וּזְרָקָהּ לָאַשְׁפָּה – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֲסוּרָה בְּטִלְטוּל לְכָל הָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם, שֶׁהַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַבְּעָלִים,רנא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:רנב, 167

31 If, however, [the owner] discards [the broken utensil] in a garbage dump on Shabbos, it is permitted to move [the broken utensil].165 [The rationale is that the article] was categorized as a utensil bein hashmashos, (dusk) which [marks] the commencement of Shabbos.168

לא אֲבָל אִם זְרָקָהּ לָאַשְׁפָּה בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ,רנג, 165 הוֹאִיל וְהָיָה עָלֶיהָ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת:רנד, 168

32 The concept that an article that is fit to cover a container is placed in the category of utensils does not apply to all articles, only to the fragments of utensils. Since the fragments were already categorized as utensils in a complete sense when [the utensil] was intact, they are not removed from that category even when [the utensil] is broken, as long as they are fit to cover [containers]. However, all entities that have no connection to [items that are] utensils in a complete sense, e.g., pebbles, stones, or the like, are not categorized as utensils, even though they are fit to cover [containers].169 It is forbidden to move them even to perform a permitted activity with them or to use their place, as explained above.170

It is therefore necessary to caution the many people who err and take a piece of wood that is not a utensil and use it as support for a plank so that one may lie on it, or the like. Nevertheless, it is permitted to have a non-Jew move any article that is muktzeh, as long as it is not being moved for the sake of the article itself, as explained in sec. 276[:9-10].171

לב לֹא בְּכָל דָּבָר אָמְרוּ שֶׁאִם רָאוּי לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ כְּלִי יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו אֶלָּא בְּשִׁבְרֵי כֵלִים בִּלְבָד,רנה הוֹאִיל וְהָיָה כְּבָר עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי גָּמוּר כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שְׁלֵמִים, לָכֵן לֹא נִפְקַע מֵהֶם אַף כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ אִם רְאוּיִין עֲדַיִן לְכִסּוּי.

אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שַׁיָּכוּת כְּלִי גָמוּר, כְּגוֹן צְרוֹרוֹת אוֹ אֲבָנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרְאוּיִים לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶם כֵּלִים – לֹא יָרַד עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ,169 וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָםרנו אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָם וּמְקוֹמָם,רנז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רנח, 170

וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לָרַבִּים שֶׁנִּכְשָׁלִים וְנוֹטְלִים חֲתִיכַת עֵץ שֶׁאֵינָהּ כְּלִי לִסְמוֹךְ בָּהּ אֵיזֶה דַף לִשְׁכּוֹב עָלָיו, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּעִנְיָן זֶה.

אֲבָל עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי מֻתָּר כָּל טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶהרנט כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֻּקְצֶה עַצְמוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ו:רס, 171

33 The fragments of a wick that are no longer fit to be used to kindle a lamp are considered like pebbles and stones172 that are forbidden to be moved173 even to perform a permitted activity or for the use of their place. In contrast, a wick that is intact – even if it had been lit once during the week or on the previous Shabbos – is considered a k’li and is governed by the laws of keilim used for a forbidden activity. [Hence,] it may be moved to perform a permitted activity or for the use of its place.

If, however, [the wick] was burning bein hashmashos on a given Shabbos, it becomes muktzeh for that entire Shabbos, as explained in sec. 279[:1].174

Similarly,175 an entire candle made of beeswax or tallow – even if it had been lit during the week or on the previous Shabbos – is deemed a k’li used for a forbidden activity.

[The fact that a candle is placed in this category has] led to an error being committed by many who move a candle that is intact [on Shabbos]176 in order to kindle it Saturday night or for the sake of a non-Jew, so that [the non-Jew] should light it for his own [purposes on Shabbos]. They err, for it is permitted to move a k’li used for a forbidden activity only when a Jew needs to use it on Shabbos itself to perform an activity that is permitted on Shabbos, e.g., [moving] a pestle to crack open nuts, as explained above.177

לג שִׁבְרֵי פְתִילָהרסא שֶׁאֵינָן עוֹמְדִים עוֹד לְהַדְלָקָה בְּנֵר – הֲרֵי הֵן כִּצְרוֹרוֹת וַאֲבָנִים172 שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן173 אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן וּמְקוֹמָן. אֲבָל פְּתִילָה שְׁלֵמָה,רסב אֲפִלּוּ נִדְלְקָה כְּבָר בְּחֹל אוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָהרסג – הִיא נִקְרֵאת כְּלִי, וְדִינָהּ כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּררסד שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ.

אֲבָל אִם דָּלְקָה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל שַׁבָּת זוֹ – הֻקְצֵית לְכָל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ט.רסה, 174

וְכֵן175 נֵר שָׁלֵם שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה אוֹ שֶׁל חֵלֶב,רסו וַאֲפִלּוּ נִדְלַק כְּבָר בְּחֹל אוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָה – נִקְרָא כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר.

וּמִכַּאן יָצָא טָעוּת הֶהָמוֹן שֶׁמְּטַלְטְלִים נֵר שָׁלֵםרסז, 176 לְצֹרֶךְ הַדְלָקַת מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,רסח אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ נָכְרִי שֶׁיַּדְלִיקֶנָּה לְעַצְמוֹ, וְטוֹעִים הֵם, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן קֻרְנָס לִפְצוֹעַ בּוֹ אֱגוֹזִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:רסט, 177

34 [The following guidelines apply regarding] all keilim that have doors affixed to them,178 regardless of whether the door [opens] from the side or it serves as a cover for the k’li from above. [If] the doors are detached from the keilim – whether on Shabbos or before Shabbos – those doors may be moved.179 [The rationale is that] when the doors are attached to the keilim, they too are considered as keilim, because [of the k’li to which they are attached].180 Although [the doors] are detached from the keilim afterwards, they do not cease to be categorized as keilim, since they are fit to be returned and reattached to the keilim.181

לד כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם דְּלָתוֹת קְבוּעוֹת בָּהֶם,ער, 178 בֵּין שֶׁהַדֶּלֶת הוּא מִן הַצַּדרעא בֵּין שֶׁהוּא כִּסּוּי עַל גַּבֵּי הַכְּלִי,ערב וְנִתְפָּרְקוּ הַדְּלָתוֹת מֵהֶם, בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּתרעג – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל אוֹתָן הַדְּלָתוֹת,179 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהָיוּ הַדְּלָתוֹת מְחֻבָּרוֹת בַּכֵּלִים הָיָה גַם עֲלֵיהֶן שֵׁם כְּלִי אַגַּב אֲבִיהֶן,עדר, 180 וְאַף שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ אַחַר כָּךְ מֵהַכֵּלִים – לֹא נִפְקַע מֵהֶם שֵׁם כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה עֲלֵיהֶן, הוֹאִיל וּרְאוּיוֹת לְהַחֲזִירָן וּלְחַבְּרָן אֶל הַכֵּלִים:ערה, 181

35 In contrast, doors that are detached from a home – whether they were detached on Shabbos or before Shabbos – are forbidden to be moved179 because they were never categorized as keilim. Although in their present, detached state, they are fit to be used [for other purposes] like other boards,182 nevertheless, it is not permitted to move them. [The rationale is that] they are fit to be returned [and reattached] to the house. As such, they remain designated for this purpose and not for [other] activities to be performed on them like other boards.

Whether it is permitted to remove [and/]or return the doors of a chest, a counter, and a closet,183 will be explained in sec. 313[:14ff.]184 and sec. 314[:17].

לה אֲבָל דַּלְתוֹת הַבַּיִת שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ מִן הַבַּיִת,רעו בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ בְּשַׁבָּתרעז בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן,179 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה שֵׁם כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן מֵעוֹלָם.רעח וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו כְּשֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ הֵן רְאוּיוֹת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר נְסָרִים182 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינָן מֻתָּרוֹת בְּטִלְטוּל, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיוֹת לְהַחֲזִירָן לַבַּיִת וּלְכָךְ הֵן עוֹמְדוֹת, וְלֹא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן כִּשְׁאָר נְסָרִים.רעט

דֶּלֶת שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל,183 אִם מֻתָּר לִטְּלָהּ מֵהֶם אוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לָהֶם – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"גרפ וְשי"ד:רפא, 184

36 When an [object] that is not in the category of a k’li is made into a covering for a k’li, it becomes categorized as a k’li. It is permitted to move [this object] like other keilim.185 [The above applies] provided the [object] was modified and an act was performed with [it] that prepared it for this [function, doing so] in a manner indicative of its designation for this [function], even though [the object] was never used as a cover before. If, however, [the object] was used as a cover before Shabbos commenced, even if it was only used [as a cover] once, that causes it to be categorized as a utensil.186 [In this situation,] one may move [the article] on Shabbos even though he did not perform any act preparing [the article for this purpose].

To what does the above apply? To entities that are frequently used as coverings – for example, portions of boards and the like. [This does not apply] however, to entities that are not frequently used as coverings [on Shabbos] even though they were repeatedly used as a covering during the week. For example, a stone that was repeatedly used to cover the opening of a barrel is forbidden to be moved on Shabbos, as will be explained.187

לו דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו שֶׁעֲשָׂאוֹ כִּסּוּי לִכְלִי – נַעֲשָׂה עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עַל יְדֵי כָךְ, וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹרפב כִּשְׁאָר כֵּלִים.185 וְהוּא שֶׁתִּקְּנוֹ וְעָשָׂה בוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה וֶהֱכִינוֹ לְכָךְרפג בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁתִּקּוּנוֹ מוֹכִיחַ עָלָיורפד שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לְכָךְ,רפה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ לְכִסּוּי לְעוֹלָם. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ לְכִסּוּי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֲפִלּוּ פַּעַם אַחַת – זֶהוּ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי שֶׁלּוֹ,186 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּתרפו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה שׁוּם מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁל תִּקּוּן.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּדָבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ לְכִסּוּי, כְּגוֹן חֲתִיכוֹת נְסָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן, אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ כִּסּוּי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּדָבָר זֶה לְכִסּוּי פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת בְּחֹל, כְּגוֹן אֶבֶן שֶׁכִּסָּה בָּהּ אֶת פִּי הֶחָבִית פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת,רפז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:רפח, 187

37 The above applies with regard to the covers of keilim. However, the covers of [structures located in] the ground, e.g., the cover of a storage pit or a cistern, [are governed by a set of different rules].179 It is forbidden to move [such a cover] even if [it] was modified, and an act was performed [to adapt it to its present purpose], and it was used for this purpose many times during the week, unless it has a handle by which it is held when it is removed from the storage pit. [The handle] indicates that it was made to be moved and that it is defined as a k’li.188

The covers of containers that are entirely buried in the ground189 are governed by the same rules as the covers of [structures in] the ground. A decree was issued regarding [the covers of buried containers] lest [leniency be taken] with regard to [the covers of structures in the ground].179 If, however, a container was not buried entirely in the ground, even though it is attached to the ground – for example, the ovens of the [Talmudic] era, which were built like [large] pots with their bases attached [to the ground] by cement – [the] cover [of such a container] does not require a handle.190 Our ovens, by contrast, are built [directly] on the ground191 and their covers are governed by the laws applying to the cover of a cistern – they require a handle.

לז וְכָל זֶה בְּכִסּוּי כֵּלִים, אֲבָל כִּסּוּיֵי הַקַּרְקָעוֹת,רפט כְּגוֹן כִּסּוּי בּוֹר אוֹ דוּת,רצ, 179 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתִּקְּנוֹ וְעָשָׂה בוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, וְגַם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת בְּחֹל – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ,רצא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָהרצב שֶׁאוֹחֲזִין בּוֹ כְּשֶׁמְּסִירִים אוֹתוֹ מֵהַבּוֹר, שֶׁזֶּה מוֹכִיחַ עָלָיו שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי לְהִטַּלְטֵל וְיֵשׁ עָלָיו שֵׁם כְּלִי.רצג, 188

וְכִסּוּיֵי כֵלִים הַקְּבוּרִים בַּקַּרְקַע לְגַמְרֵי189 – דִּינָם כְּכִסּוּיֵי הַקַּרְקָעוֹת,רצד שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל אֵלּוּ מִפְּנֵי אֵלּוּ.רצה, 179 אֲבָל כְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּר בַּקַּרְקַע לְגַמְרֵי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע,רצו כְּגוֹן תַּנּוּרִיםרצז שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם שֶׁהָיוּ כִּקְדֵרָהרחצ וּמְחֻבָּרִים לְמַטָּה בְּטִיטרצט – אֵין כִּסּוּיָם צָרִיךְ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה.190 אֲבָל תַּנּוּרִים שֶׁלָּנוּ הַבְּנוּיִים עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע191 – דִּין כִּסּוּיָם כְּכִסּוּי הַדּוּתש שֶׁצָּרִיךְ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה:

38 A needle192 that is intact is permitted to be moved to remove a thorn,193 as is the law regarding any utensil [regularly] used [during the week] for a forbidden activity, which is permitted to be moved to use for a permitted function [on Shabbos].194

[The above applies] provided one is careful to remove the thorn in a manner which is not certain to cause bleeding while removing it. [Were one to remove the thorn in a manner that would certainly cause bleeding,] he would be liable for causing a wound.195 [This applies] even though [the person causes the wound] unintentionally, since he removes [the thorn] in a manner that will inevitably result in the performance of a prohibited act (p’sik raishah vilo yamus).196 [Hence,] for example, if the thorn turns over while it is being removed and it becomes impossible to remove without causing bleeding, its removal is forbidden.197

לח מַחַט192 שְׁלֵמָה – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ לִטּוֹל בָּהּ אֶת הַקּוֹץ,שא, 193 כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ.194

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר בִּנְטִילַת הַקּוֹץ שֶׁיִּטְּלֶנּוּ שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא דָםשב בְּוַדַּאי עַל יְדֵי נְטִילָתוֹ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם חוֹבֵל195 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנּוֹטְלוֹ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת",שג, 196 כְּגוֹן אִם נִתְהַפֵּךְ הַקּוֹץ בִּנְטִילָתוֹ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִשָּׁם מִבְּלִי הוֹצָאַת דָּם – אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ:דש, 197

39 When, however, the point or the eye of a needle becomes detached,198 it is forbidden to move [the needle],199 because it is no longer in the category of a k’li. [The broken needle] does not resemble the fragments of other keilim that are permitted to be moved, because they are [still] fit to be used for other purposes. [True,] this needle, whose point or eye was detached, is also fit to be used for another purpose, e.g., to remove a thorn. Nevertheless, [that reason is not sufficient for the broken needle to be considered in the category of a k’li,] since it is not common at all to designate [a broken needle] to be used for any [other] purpose. Instead, it is common for people200 to toss it into a [heap of] scrap metal.199 In contrast, since the fragments of other utensils are commonly reused for other purposes, they are not removed from the category of keilim.201

Nevertheless, if a [broken] needle was designated202 to be used for a given purpose, it is placed in the category of a k’li. [Therefore,] if it was designated to [be used] for an activity permitted on Shabbos, it is permitted to be moved according to the laws governing a k’li used for a permitted activity.203

A new needle in which an eye has not yet been made may be moved to perform a permitted activity.204 [The rationale is that] at times, a person will change his mind, leave such a needle as is without an eye, and designate it to remove thorns. Therefore, [the needle] is categorized as a utensil even if he did not yet designate it [for that purpose]. In contrast, when [a needle’s] point has been removed, [it is not common for] a person [to save it. Instead,] he casts it among the scrap metal.

לט אֲבָל מַחַט שֶׁנִּטַּל חֻדָּהּ אוֹ חוֹר שֶׁלָּהּ198 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ,שה, 199 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבָּטֵל תּוֹרַת כְּלִי מִמֶּנָּה.שו וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לְשִׁבְרֵי שְׁאָר כֵּלִים שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּלשז הוֹאִיל וּרְאוּיִים לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר,שח וּמַחַט זוֹ שֶׁנִּטַּל חֻדָּהּ אוֹ חוֹרָהּ רְאוּיָה גַּם כֵּן לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן לִטּוֹל בָּהּ אֶת הַקּוֹץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין רְגִילוּת כְּלָל לְיַחֵד אוֹתָהּ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ, אֶלָּא דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם200 לְזָרְקָהּ בֵּין גְּרוּטָאוֹתשט (פֵּרוּשׁשי שִׁבְרֵי מַתְּכוֹת),199 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּשִׁבְרֵי שְׁאָר כֵּלִים שֶׁרְגִילִים לְיַחֲדָם לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר,שיא לָכֵן לֹא נִפְקַע שֵׁם כְּלִי מֵהֶם.201

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יִחֵד202 מַחַט זוֹ לְאֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ – נַעֲשָׂה עָלֶיהָ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי,שיב וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּרשיג אִם יִחֲדָהּ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת.שיד, 203

וּמַחַט חֲדָשָׁה שֶׁלֹּא נִקְּבָה עֲדַיִן – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּשטו לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָהּ,שטז, 204 לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים אָדָם נִמְלָךְ עָלֶיהָשיז וּמַנִּיחָהּ כָּךְ בְּלֹא נֶקֶבשיח וּמְיַחֲדָהּ לִנְטִילַת קוֹץ,שיט לָכֵן יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ אַף שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא יִחֲדָהּ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁנִּטַּל חֻדָּהּ אָדָם זוֹרְקָהּ לְבֵין הַגְּרוּטָאוֹת:שכ

40 Even when the remnants205 of mats have become so worn out that they are not fit to sit on, they may nevertheless be moved,206 because they were not removed from the category of keilim in which they had been placed. [The rationale is that] they are still fit to be used to cover a [small amount of] filth.206 If, however, they were discarded in a garbage dump before Shabbos commenced, it is forbidden to move them, as explained above207 with regard to the fragments of other keilim.

מ שְׁיָרֵי מַחְצְלָאוֹתשכא, 205 שֶׁבָּלוּ,שכב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיוֹת לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶן – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן,206 שֶׁלֹּא נִפְקַע מֵהֶם שֵׁם כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה עֲלֵיהֶן,שכג הוֹאִיל וְהֵן רְאוּיוֹת עֲדַיִן לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶן אֵיזֶה טִנּוּף.שכד, 206

וְאִם זְרָקָן לָאַשְׁפָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן,שכה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהשכו, 207 בְּשִׁבְרֵי שְׁאָר כֵּלִים:

41 The remnants of worn-out garments, by contrast, [are governed by different laws].206 If each one of them is less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths208 in size, it is forbidden to move [these remnants], since they are fit neither for the poor nor for the rich. If they are three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths and they belonged to a poor person, any poor person is permitted to move them since they are fit for [the poor, e.g.,] to serve as patches for their clothes, unless their owner discarded them in a garbage dump209 before the commencement of the Shabbos.207

A rich man, by contrast, is forbidden to move [remnants of clothes] if they belonged to a poor person, unless they are three handbreadths by three handbreadths, in which instance, they are also fit for a rich man.210

When a rich man dwells in a poor man’s home [and] the remnants [of the clothes] belong to this poor man, [the status of the clothes, even with regard to the rich man] is determined by his host [since he dwells in the poor man’s home. The rich man] is permitted to move [the remnants of clothes] even though they are not fit for him, because they are considered fit [for use] in the house in which he is dwelling.

Remnants of a rich man’s clothing that are less than three handbreadths by three handbreadths are forbidden to all poor people wherever they are found. Since [the clothing remnants] are considered muktzeh for their rich owners because [the remnants] are not fit for [the rich owners, the remnants] are designated as muktzeh for everyone. It is as if their owner cast them into a garbage dump. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations, as will be explained.211

There are authorities who maintain that remnants of ordinary clothes are permitted to be moved by all people even though they [do] not [measure] three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths, because they are fit to wipe away [a small amount of] filth. Our Sages206 differentiated between [remnants that are] three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths and those that are smaller than that only with regard to the remnants of a tallis [used] for the mitzvah [of prayer], since a person will refrain from using [the remnant of a tallis] to wipe away [filth] or for any other degrading function.212

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first view. [The rationale is that] even though [very small remnants] are fit to be used to wipe [away filth], this does not cause them to be categorized as keilim unless they are designated for that purpose [before Shabbos or they are fit be used as a support for a k’li.]213 For even fragments of all other keilim are not categorized as keilim when they are fit to be used to wipe [away filth] if they are not designated for that purpose [before Shabbos], nor are fragments [categorized as keilim even if they are] fit to be used as a support for a k’li if they are not designated for that purpose. [The only exception is] when they are fit to cover a container, as explained above.214

מא אֲבָל מַטְלָנִיּוֹת,שכז שֶׁהֵן שְׁיָרֵי בְגָדִים שֶׁבָּלוּ,שכח, 206 אִם אֵין בְּכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן ג' עַל ג' אֶצְבָּעוֹת208 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן,שכט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיוֹת לֹא לַעֲנִיִּים וְלֹא לַעֲשִׁירִים.של

וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן ג' עַל ג' וְהֵן שֶׁל עָנִי – מֻתָּרִים כָּל הָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם לְטַלְטְלָן,שלא שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיוֹת לָהֶם לִטְלַאי בְּבִגְדֵיהֶם,שלב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן זְרָקוּם הַבְּעָלִים לָאַשְׁפָּה209 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.שלג, 207 אֲבָל עֲשִׁירִים אֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטְלָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל עָנִי,שלד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בָּהֶן ג' טְפָחִים עַל ג' טְפָחִים, שֶׁאָז הֵן רְאוּיוֹת גַּם לַעֲשִׁירִים.שלה, 210

וְעָשִׁיר שֶׁהוּא דָר בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל עָנִישלו זֶה שֶׁהַמַּטְלָנִיּוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא נִגְרָר אַחַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיוֹת לוֹ, הוֹאִיל וְהֵן רְאוּיוֹת בְּבַיִת זֶה שֶׁהוּא דָּר בּוֹ.שלז

אֲבָל מַטְלָנִיּוֹת שֶׁל עֲשִׁירִים שֶׁהֵן פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים עַל ג' טְפָחִים – אֲסוּרוֹת אַף לְכָל הָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻקְצוּ לְבַעֲלֵיהֶן הָעֲשִׁירִיםשלח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיוֹת לָהֶם – הֻקְצוּ לְכָל הָעוֹלָם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ כְּאִלּוּ זָרְקוּ אוֹתָן בַּעֲלֵיהֶן לָאַשְׁפָּה.שלט וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.שמ, 211

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםשמא שֶׁמַּטְלָנִיּוֹת שֶׁהֵן שְׁיָרֵי סְתָם בְּגָדִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם ג' עַל ג' אֶצְבָּעוֹת – מֻתָּרוֹת בְּטִלְטוּל לְכָל אָדָם, הוֹאִיל וְהֵן רְאוּיוֹת לְקַנֵּחַ בָּהֶם אֵיזֶה טִנּוּף. וְלֹא חִלְּקוּשמב, 206 בֵּין ג' עַל ג' אֶצְבָּעוֹת לְפָחוֹת מִכֵּן אֶלָּא בְּמַטְלָנִיּוֹת שֶׁהֵן שְׁיָרֵי טַלִּיתוֹת שֶׁל מִצְוָה, שֶׁאָדָם בּוֹדֵל עַצְמוֹ מִלְּקַנֵּחַ בָּהֶן וּמִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן תַּשְׁמִישׁ מְגֻנֶּה.שמג, 212

וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,שדמ שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיוֹת לְקִנּוּחַ – אֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִחֲדָן לְכָךְ,213 שֶׁאַף שִׁבְרֵי שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם אַף אִם הֵם רְאוּיִים לְקִנּוּחַ אִם לֹא יִחֲדָם לְכָךְ, אוֹ שֶׁרְאוּיִים לִסְמוֹךְ בָּהֶם אֵיזֶה כְּלִי וְלֹא יִחֲדָם לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רְאוּיִים לְכִסּוּי כְּלִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:שמה, 214

42 [On Shabbos,] one may remove a shoe – whether new215 or old – which is tightly fastened on a mold.216 One may slip the mold out from the shoe or slip the shoe off the mold. In this instance, there is no prohibition against moving the mold, because the mold is categorized as a k’li – [albeit one] used to perform a forbidden activity217 – and may be moved for the sake of its place,218 i.e., the empty space within the shoe taken up by the mold.219

מב מִנְעָל,שמו בֵּין חָדָשׁשמז, 215 בֵּין יָשָׁן,שמח שֶׁהוּא מְהֻדָּק עַל הַדְּפוּסשמט, 216 – מֻתָּר לְשָׁמְטוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ,שנ בֵּין לִשְׁמוֹט אֶת הַדְּפוּס מִתּוֹךְ הַמִּנְעָל, בֵּין לִשְׁמוֹט הַמִּנְעָל מֵעַל הַדְּפוּס.שנא וְאֵין כַּאן אִסּוּר בְּטִלְטוּל הַדְּפוּס,שנב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַדְּפוּס יֵשׁ עָלָיו שֵׁם כְּלִי אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר217, וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ,שנג, 218 דְּהַיְנוּ חֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל הַמִּנְעָל שֶׁהַדְּפוּס בְּתוֹכוֹ:שנד, 219

43 In the [Talmudic] era, sandals had two straps attached to them, one [attached] to either side [of the shoe’s sole, i.e.,] one to the inner side between one’s legs and one to the outer side. These straps were wound over the top of the person’s foot to hold the two sides of the sandal against the foot, because there was no leather on their sandals except [for the sole and] the two sides; they were entirely open above.220 Therefore, it was necessary to have two straps to hold the two sides of the sandal on one’s foot. If one of the straps was severed, it was impossible to walk [with that sandal] until [the strap] was fixed. Nevertheless, it was permitted to move [the sandal] even if [the strap and] the place where it was connected to [the sandal] were severed, because [the sandal] was still considered a k’li, because it was fit to be mended.

When did the above apply? When the inner strap, [the one on the side] between one’s legs, was severed.221 For if it was mended, the repair would not be apparent. If, however, the strap on the outer side was severed, it was not common to mend it, because the repair would be apparent to everyone and it was demeaning [to walk around with such a sandal]. Therefore, [if the outer strap tore,] the sandal was [considered as useless. It was] removed from the category of keilim and was forbidden to be moved [on Shabbos].222 It was not comparable to other broken keilim that were permitted to be moved, because they were fit to be used to cover containers.223 By contrast, it was not common to cover containers with a sandal, because it was repugnant.

מג סַנְדָּלִים שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם הָיוּ לָהֶם שְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת קְבוּעוֹת בִּשְׁנֵי צְדָדֵיהֶם, אַחַת בְּצַד פְּנִימִי לְבֵין שְׁנֵי רַגְלַיִם, וְאַחַת לְצַד חוּץ,שנה וְכוֹרְכִים שְׁתֵּי הָרְצוּעוֹת עַל הָרֶגֶל לְמַעְלָה לְהַחֲזִיק שְׁנֵי צִדֵּי הַסַּנְדָּל עַל רַגְלוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה עוֹר בְּסַנְדָּלֵיהֶם אֶלָּא בִּצְדָדֵי הַסַּנְדָּל בִּלְבָד, אֲבָל מִלְמַעְלָה הָיָה פָּתוּחַ לְגַמְרֵי,220 לְפִיכָךְ הָיוּ צְרִיכִים שְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת לְהַחֲזִיק שְׁנֵי צִדֵּי הַסַּנְדָּל עַל רַגְלוֹ,שנו וְאִם נִפְסְקָה אַחַת מֵהֶן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לֵילֵךְ בּוֹ עַד שֶׁיְּתַקְּנֶנּוּ,שנז וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ אַף אִם נִפְסְקָה עִם מְקוֹם קְבִיעוּתָהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲדַיִן יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו,שנח הוֹאִיל וְהוּא רָאוּי לַחֲזוֹר וּלְתַקְּנוֹ.שנט

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנִּפְסְקָה הַפְּנִימִיתשס שֶׁל בֵּין הָרַגְלַיִם,221 שֶׁאִם יְתַקְּנוּהָ – אֵין תִּקּוּנָהּ נִרְאֶה.שסא אֲבָל אִם נִפְסְקָה הַחִיצוֹנָה – אֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְתַקְּנָהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתִּקּוּנָהּ נִרְאֶה לַכֹּל וּגְנַאי הוּא,שסב וּלְפִיכָךְ בָּטֵל הַסַּנְדָּל מִתּוֹרַת כְּלִי וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ.שסג, 222 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְשִׁבְרֵי שְׁאָר כֵּלִים שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל הוֹאִיל וְהֵם רְאוּיִים לְכִסּוּי כֵּלִים,שסד, 223 אֲבָל הַסַּנְדָּל אֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ כֵּלִים מִפְּנֵי מְאִיסוּתוֹ:שסה

Fig. 7: A sandal of the Talmudic era
Fig. 7: A sandal of the Talmudic era

44 If [a sandal strap] was severed while [a person] was walking in a karmelis, license was granted to him to take a fresh reed224 – which was [suitable] as animal fodder and [hence] permitted to be moved – and wrap it around his sandal and tie [the reed],221 fixing [the sandal] so that it would not fall off his foot. It was, however, forbidden to tie a string or a band around [the sandal with a temporary knot]225 lest he regard them as part of the sandal and leave them there permanently. Thus, he would have made [the temporary knot into] a permanent knot.

Moreover, even [the use of] a fresh reed was permitted only in a karmelis, because if he did not do so and, [instead,] left the sandal there, it would be stolen. By contrast, it was forbidden to tie [the sandal] with a reed in a courtyard, which was a secure place, lest [the person] change his mind and regard [the reed] as a permanent part [of the sandal.226 This prohibition against using a reed applied in all instances,] whether it was the inner strap of the sandal that was severed or the outer strap. If, however, the inner strap was severed, [the sandal] was permitted to be moved to hide it away in a secure place in that courtyard. Conversely, if the outer strap was severed, it was forbidden, as explained [in the previous subsection].

מד וְאִם נִפְסְקָה כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ בְּכַרְמְלִית – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לִטּוֹל גֶּמִי לַח224 שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה וּמֻתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל וְלִכְרוֹךְ אוֹתוֹ עַל הַסַּנְדָּל,221 וְלִקְשׁוֹר לְתַקְּנוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִפּוֹל מֵרַגְלוֹ.שסו אֲבָל אָסוּר לִקְשׁוֹר עָלָיו חוּט אוֹ מְשִׁיחָה,225 שֶׁמָּא יְבַטְּלֵם לִהְיוֹת קְבוּעִים שָׁם לְעוֹלָם, וְנִמְצָא עָשָׂה קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא.שסז

וְאַף בְּגֶמִי לַח לֹא הִתִּירוּ כֵּן אֶלָּא בְּכַרְמְלִית, שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן וְיַעֲזוֹב הַסַּנְדָּל שָׁם – יִגָּנֵב מִשָּׁם. אֲבָל בְּחָצֵר שֶׁהוּא נִשְׁמָר שָׁם – אָסוּר לִקְשׁוֹר בְּגֶמִי,שסח שֶׁמָּא יִמָּלֵךְ וִיבַטְּלֶנּוּ,שסט, 226 בֵּין שֶׁנִּפְסְקָה רְצוּעָה הַפְּנִימִית בֵּין הַחִיצוֹנָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם נִפְסְקָה פְּנִימִית – רַשַּׁאי לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְהַצְנִיעוֹ בְּמָקוֹם מֻצְנָע בְּאוֹתוֹ חָצֵר, וְאִם נִפְסְקָה חִיצוֹנָה – אָסוּר,שע כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:שעא

45 All the above applied to the sandals of [the Talmudic] era that could not be worn at all if a strap was severed. The sandals of our era, by contrast, are fit to be worn even if a strap is severed.227 [Hence, a later-day sandal with a severed strap] is categorized as a k’li. [Accordingly,] it is permitted to be moved in all circumstances.

מה וְכָל זֶה בְּסַנְדָּלִים שֶׁלָּהֶם, שֶׁמִּשֶּׁנִּפְסְקָה הָרְצוּעָה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנָעֳלוֹ כְּלָל, אֲבָל סַנְדָּלִים שֶׁלָּנוּ אַף אִם נִפְסְקָה הָרְצוּעָה רָאוּי לְנָעֳלוֹ227 וְתוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו, וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן:שעב

46 When a long shirt is washed and a reed inserted [in the shirt as a hanger] so that it can be hung out to dry on Friday, it is permitted to remove it from the reed [on Shabbos].228 It is, however, forbidden to remove the reed from [the shirt], because the reed is not a k’li.229 [It is only permitted to remove] the reed if it is designated for this purpose.230 Through this designation, it is categorized as a k’li, as will be explained.231 If one inserts a k’li [in the shirt as a hanger], it is permitted to remove [the k’li] from [the shirt] even if it is a k’li used for a forbidden [weekday] activity, since it is being moved for the sake of its space, i.e., the empty space occupied by the reed inside the shirt.232

מו חָלוּק שֶׁכִּבְּסוּ אוֹתוֹ וְתָחֲבוּ בּוֹ קָנֶהשעג מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתשעד לִתְלוֹתוֹ בּוֹ לְיַבְּשׁוֹ – יָכוֹל לְשָׁמְטוֹ מִן הַקָּנֶה.228 אֲבָל לִטּוֹל הַקָּנֶה מִתּוֹכוֹ – אָסוּר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּלִי,שעה, 229 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִחֵד הַקָּנֶה לְכָךְ,שעו, 230 שֶׁאָז נַעֲשָׂה עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עַל יְדֵי יִחוּד זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.שעז, 231 וְאִם תָּחֲבוּ בּוֹ כְּלִי־מֻתָּר לִטְּלוֹ מִתּוֹכוֹ,שעח אֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר,שעט כֵּיוָן שֶׁטִּלְטוּל זֶה הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ,שפ דְּהַיְנוּ חֲלַל הֶחָלוּק שֶׁהַקָּנֶה בְּתוֹכוֹ:שפא, 232

47 When one of the supports of a cooking range becomes detached, [i.e., one of] its pegs that serves as a leg [comes off], it is forbidden to move [the range]233 to perform a permitted activity.234 [This was] a decree [instituted] lest one return the leg [to its place,] inserting it there forcefully, in which instance, he becomes liable for building.235

Similarly, if one – and how much more so, two – of the legs of a long bench become detached, it is forbidden to move the bench and place it over another bench and sit on it. [This restriction applies] even if the leg becomes detached while it is still day [on Friday], unless one sits on the bench without returning the leg [at least] once before Shabbos. [Since he sits on the bench without fixing it,] there is no concern that he will change his mind and try to reinsert [the leg] on Shabbos. It is forbidden, however, to return [the leg] to its place on Shabbos even if it is [only inserted] loosely. [This was] a decree [instituted] lest one insert [the leg] there forcefully. It is [permitted to reinsert the leg loosely] only if the leg was always attached in such a loose manner, as will be explained in sec. 313[:21].

All the above applies when the leg becomes detached. If, however, [the leg] breaks off, it is permitted to move the bench, place it on top of another bench, and sit on it, even if one did not sit on it in this manner before Shabbos. [The rationale is that] there is no concern that he will [attempt to] forcefully reinsert the leg in this instance, because [the leg itself is broken and] its top [part] remains [embedded] in the bench.

מז כִּירָה שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה אַחַת מִיַּרְכוֹתֶיהָ,שפב דְּהַיְנוּ פִּטְפּוּטִין שֶׁלָּהּ כְּעֵין רַגְלַיִםשפג – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ233 לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָהּ,שפד, 234 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזִיר לָהּ הָרֶגֶל וְיִתְקָעֶנָּה שָׁם בְּחֹזֶק, וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה.שפה, 235

וְכֵן סַפְסָל אָרֹךְ שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה אַחַת מֵרַגְלָיו, כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שְׁתַּיִם – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ עַל סַפְסָל אַחֵר וְלֵישֵׁב עָלָיו,שפו אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁמְטָה הָרֶגֶל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יָשַׁב עָלָיו כָּךְ פַּעַם אַחַת קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת בְּלִי הַחֲזָרַת הָרֶגֶל,שפז שֶׁאָז אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִמָּלֵךְ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ וּלְתָקְעָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת.שפח

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לְשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּרִפְיוֹן, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקָעֶנָּה בְּחֹזֶק,שפט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן דַּרְכָּהּ לְעוֹלָם לִהְיוֹת שָׁם רְפוּיָה,שצ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ג.שצא

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה הָרֶגֶל, אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁבְּרָה – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַסַּפְסָל וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ עַל סַפְסָל אַחֵר וְלֵישֵׁב עָלָיו, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא יָשַׁב עָלָיו כָּךְ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁכַּאן אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזִירֶנָּה וְיִתְקָעֶנָּה,שצב כֵּיוָן שֶׁרֹאשָׁהּ נִשְׁאָר בַּסַּפְסָל:

48 Bricks that remain after a building’s [construction] are permitted to be moved.236 [The rationale is that] from this time onward, they are no longer designated [to be used] for building, but rather to be leaned on or sat on.237 Therefore, they are categorized as keilim. If, [however,] one arranges [the bricks] one on top of the other, he reveals his intent – that he is setting them aside for building [in the future]. It is [then] forbidden to move [the bricks], because they are not categorized as keilim [anymore].238

מח לְבֵנִים שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ מֵהַבִּנְיָן – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם,236 לְפִי שֶׁמֵּעַתָּה אֵינָן עוֹמְדִין לְבִנְיָן אֶלָּא לְהִסָּמֵךְ וְלָשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם,שצג, 237 וְלָכֵן תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם.שצד וְאִם סִדְּרָם זֶה עַל זֶה – גִּלָּה דַעְתּוֹ שֶׁהִקְצָם לְבִנְיָן, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם,שצה שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם:שצו, 238

49 When a thorn239 is found in the public domain, it is permitted to move it240 less than four cubits [at a time]241 until one moves [the thorn] to the side of the public domain.242 In a karmelis, one may move [the thorn] according to his ordinary manner of conduct, [i.e.,] even picking it up just once [and moving it] for a longer distance.243 [These leniencies are granted] because there is reason for concern that people at large could be injured by [the thorn]. For [the Sages] did not establish a prohibitive decree (a shvus) against carrying four cubits in a karmelis,244[carrying] less than four cubits in the public domain,245 and moving muktzeh246in instances where [there is a possibility that] the public may be injured.

מט קוֹץ239 הַמֻּנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ240 פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹתשצז, 241 עַד שֶׁיְּסַלְּקֶנּוּ לְצִדֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,שצח, 242 וּבְכַרְמְלִית מְטַלְטְלוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּהשצט בַּעֲקִירָה אַחַת,ת, 243 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִזּוֹקוּ בָּהּ רַבִּים, וּבִמְקוֹם הֶזֵּק רַבִּים לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּתתא טִלְטוּל ד' אַמּוֹת בְּכַרְמְלִית,244 אוֹ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,תב, 245 וְטִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה:תג, 246

50 There247 are date fronds248 that are designated to be sat on and others that are set aside for kindling, like other wood. If one cuts [the fronds] from the date palm [with the intent of using them] for kindling,249 they are muktzeh like other wood and it is forbidden to move them.248 [The date fronds] are not categorized as keilim, since they are set aside to use for kindling.250

If, however, [before Shabbos,]one changed his mind concerning [the date fronds] and designated them to be used for sitting until the time when it would become necessary to move them,248 this [later] thought removed [the fronds] from the [category in which they were previously placed because of the person’s] original thought.251 If [the person] changed his mind concerning [the fronds] in this manner before Shabbos, thus causing them to be categorized as keilim,252 it is permitted to move [the fronds] on Shabbos to arrange them so that he can sit on them. [This license is granted] even though, during the week, when the person changed his mind [and thought about] sitting on the palm fronds, he did not explicitly think of sitting on them also on Shabbos.253Instead, [when the person] changed his mind, he was [only] thinking about sitting on [the fronds] during the week.

[The above leniency applies] even when [the person] did not change his mind and designate [the fronds] to be set aside to be sat on [on a regular basis]. However, while it was still day [on Friday], he thought about sitting on [the fronds] only on the next day, Shabbos, and then using them for kindling on Saturday night. [This is sufficient for the person] to be permitted to move [the fronds] and arrange them to be sat on for that Shabbos.254

נ חֲרָיוֹתתד שֶׁל דֶּקֶל,תה, 247 יֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁמְּיַחֲדִים אוֹתָם לִישִׁיבָה, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁעוֹמְדִים לִשְׂרֵפָה כִּשְׁאָר עֵצִים,תו, 248 וְאִם קְצָצָם מִן הַדֶּקֶל לִשְׂרֵפָה249 – הֲרֵי הֵם מֻקְצֶה כִּשְׁאָר עֵצִים, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם,תז, 248 שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם,תח הוֹאִיל וְעוֹמְדִים לִשְׂרֵפָה.250

אֲבָל אִם נִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶםתט אַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עוֹמְדִים וּמְיֻחָדִים לִישִׁיבָה עַד עֵת שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְפַנּוֹתָם248 – הֲרֵי מַחֲשָׁבָה זוֹ מוֹצִיאָם מִידֵי מַחֲשָׁבָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,תי, 251 אִם נִמְלַךְ כֵּן קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת,תיא וְנַעֲשָׂה עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי,תיב, 252 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם בְּשַׁבָּתתיג לְסַדְּרָם לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם,תיד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּחֹל לִישִׁיבָה לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת,253 אֶלָּא נִמְלַךְ כֵּן עַל יְשִׁיבַת הַחֹל.תטו

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא נִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עוֹמְדִים וּמְיֻחָדִים לִישִׁיבָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁחָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם לְמָחָר בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד, וּלְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם לִשְׂרֵפָה – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם וּלְסַדְּרָם לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת זוֹ:תטז, 254

51 Even if [the person] did not think of sitting on [the fronds] at all, but by happenstance255 he sat on them for a little while before Shabbos, he may move [the fronds] on Shabbos256 in order to arrange them and sit on them. Similarly, one may move [the fronds] for the sake of their place or for their own sake,257 as is the law regarding a k’li that is used for a permitted purpose. Since fronds are commonly designated for sitting as well,258 sitting on them [even by happenstance] prepares them to be sat on [later] and causes them to be categorized as keilim.259

נא וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָל לִישִׁיבָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵרַע מִקְרֶה255 שֶׁיָּשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מְעַט קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם בְּשַׁבָּת256 לְסַדְּרָם וְלֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם.תיז וְהוּא הַדִּין לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמָם, אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמָם,257 כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר,תיח לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁדַּרְכָּם שֶׁל חֲרָיוֹת לְיַחֲדָם גַּם כֵּן לִישִׁיבָה,258 לְפִיכָךְ כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם – הוּכְנוּ לִישִׁיבָה עַל יְדֵי כֵן, וְנַעֲשָׂה עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי:תיט, 259

52 [Different laws apply,] by contrast, to other [types of] wood and, similarly, to a row of stones.260 Even if one sits on [the wood or the stones] many times during the week and also thinks about using them for sitting [upon] on Shabbasos until the time when he will have to move them from their present place, this does not suffice to categorize them as keilim, since – unlike fronds – they are uncomfortable to sit on and are therefore not commonly designated for sitting. Therefore, sitting on [wood or stones] or thinking about [using them for that purpose] alone does not prepare them [for that purpose] as long as [the person] does not permanently designate [the wood or stones] for that purpose.261

[There is an exception to this general rule:] When one performs a significant act to prepare [the wood or the stones] to be sat on, i.e., he arranges them while it is still day [on Friday] so that they should be ready for sitting on the following day.260 A significant act like this is effective in causing [the wood or stones] to be categorized as keilim,262 despite the fact that it is not common to designate them for this purpose.263 If, however, one [merely] brushes off [the wood and stones] while it is still day [on Friday] so that he may sit on them the following day, this is considered a minimal act and is not effective in changing their status.260

All of the above refers solely to [changing the status of the wood or stones so that] it will be permitted to move them on Shabbos and arrange them so that one can sit on them. It is, however, permitted to sit on [the wood or stones] in their current state, [i.e.,] without touching them to arrange them. [This is permitted] even though one [previously] never sat on them, [nor] thought [to sit on them], nor performed any action with them before Shabbos commenced. [The rationale is that] the prohibition governing all [types of] muktzeh involves only moving [the forbidden article]. Even if [the stones or the wood] will move beneath [the person] when he sits on them, this is not considered [forbidden] movement, because he is moving them in an unusual and irregular manner.264

It is, however, forbidden to move [wood or stones that one arranged to sit on] for a purpose other than sitting, [e.g.,] to use their place or to use them for another purpose.265 [The rationale is that] the act of arranging [the wood or stones] is effective only with regard to moving them for the sake of sitting, because that is the purpose for which [the person] arranged them.

נב אֲבָל שְׁאָר עֵצִים,תכ וְכֵן נִדְבָּךְ שֶׁל אֲבָנִים,תכא, 260 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת בְּחֹל, וְגַם חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עוֹמְדִים לִישִׁיבָה גַּם בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת עַד עֵת שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְפַנּוֹתָם מִכַּאן – לֹא יָרַד עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עַל יְדֵי כָךְ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם שֶׁל שְׁאָר עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים לְיַחֲדָם לִישִׁיבָה,תכב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין נוֹחַ לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶםתכג כְּמוֹ עַל הַחֲרָיוֹת, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא הוּכְנוּ לְכָךְ עַל יְדֵי יְשִׁיבָה אוֹ עַל יְדֵי מַחֲשָׁבָה בִּלְבָד, כֹּל שֶׁלֹּא יִחֲדָם לְכָךְ לְעוֹלָם.תכד, 261

אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה בָּהֶם מַעֲשֶׂה רַבתכה לַהֲכִינָם לִישִׁיבָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁסִּדְּרָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מוּכָנִים לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם לְמָחָר,תכו, 260 שֶׁמַּעֲשֶׂה גָדוֹל כָּזֶה מוֹעִיל לְהוֹרִיד עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי,תכז, 262 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם לְיַחֵד לְכָךְ.263 אֲבָל אִם שִׁפְשְׁפָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּדֵי לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם לְמָחָר – הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֶׂה כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וְאֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם.תכח, 260

וְכָל זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְהַתִּיר לְטַלְטְלָם בְּשַׁבָּתתכט לְסַדְּרָם לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם, אֲבָל לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם כָּךְ בְּלִי שֶׁיִּגַּע בָּהֶם לְסַדְּרָם – מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן,תל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מֵעוֹלָם, וְלֹא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שׁוּם מַחֲשָׁבָה, וְלֹא עָשָׂה בָּהֶם שׁוּם מַעֲשֶׂה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁכָּל מֻקְצֶה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא בְּטִלְטוּל בִּלְבָד. וְאַף אִם הֵם מִתְנַעַנְעִים תַּחְתָּיו בִּישִׁיבָתוֹ – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא טִלְטוּל, שֶׁטִּלְטוּל כִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא.תלא, 264

וּלְטַלְטְלָם שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ יְשִׁיבָה אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמָם אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר – אָסוּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין מַעֲשֵׂה הַסִּדּוּר מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא לְטִלְטוּל שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ יְשִׁיבָה,265 שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ סִדְּרוּם:תלב

53 It is forbidden to move a block of wood or a stone in order to cover the opening of a barrel, to close a door, or to pound in a plug so as to close a hole in a barrel. Even if [such an article] is used many times for this purpose during the week, and while it is still day [on Friday], one thinks about using it for this purpose on Shabbos, this is not at all effective [in changing the article’s status]266 unless one permanently designates it for this purpose. Permanently designating [the wood or stone] for such a purpose is effective in causing them to be categorized as keilim. In contrast, designating such articles for such a purpose for one Shabbos alone does not cause them to be categorized as keilim unless one performs an act that modifies them,267 thereby indicating that they are prepared and designated to be used [for this purpose]. In such an instance, it is permitted to move [the wood or stone] for the purpose for which they were prepared, but not for another purpose.

To what does the above apply? To [using the wood or stone for tasks like] covering the opening of a barrel, closing a door, pounding in a plug, and the like, though it is not common to designate wood or stones for [these tasks]. If, however, [on Friday,] one thought to use [these articles] on the following day for tasks they are commonly used for, e.g., he thought about [using] a stone to crack open nuts [on Shabbos], it is even permitted to move [the stone] for all his needs,268 although he only designated the [stone] for this task for this Shabbos alone. [The rationale is that] since it is fitting to permanently designate [the stone] for this purpose, and it is common to use [a stone] for this purpose, therefore minimal preparation – merely thinking of using [the stone to crack open nuts on] this Shabbos alone – is sufficient for [the stone] to be considered as prepared [to be used on Shabbos]. Alternatively, if one used [the stone] for this purpose even once before the commencement of Shabbos, [the stone] is considered as prepared for that purpose, even if [the person] did not think of using it on this Shabbos.

נג אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּקַעַת עֵץ אוֹ אֶבֶן לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶם פִּי הֶחָבִית, אוֹ לִסְגּוֹר בָּהֶם אֶת הַדֶּלֶת, אוֹ לְהַכּוֹת בָּהֶם בְּבַרְזָא לִסְתּוֹם הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁבֶּחָבִית, אַף אִם כְּבָר נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ זֶה פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת בְּחֹל, וְגַם חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם,266 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִחֲדָם לְכָךְ לְעוֹלָם,תלג שֶׁאָז יָרַד עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִיתלד עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנִּתְיַחֲדוּ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ זֶה לְעוֹלָם. אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁיִּחֲדָם לְתַשְׁמִישׁ זֶה לְשַׁבָּת זוֹ בִּלְבָד – אֵין זֶה מוֹרִיד עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה בָּהֶם שׁוּם מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁל תִּקּוּןתלה, 267 הַמּוֹכִיחַ שֶׁהֵם מוּכָנִים וְעוֹמְדִים לְכָךְ,תלו שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם לְצֹרֶךְ אוֹתוֹ דָבָר שֶׁהוּכְנוּ לוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר.תלז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּכִסּוּי פִּי הֶחָבִית וּסְגִירַת הַדֶּלֶת וְהַכָּאָה בְּבַרְזָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ, שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם שֶׁל עֵץ וְאֶבֶן לְיַחֵד אוֹתָם לְכָךְ, אֲבָל אִם חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם לְמָחָר תַּשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לְיַחֵד אוֹתָם לְתַשְׁמִישׁ זֶה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁחָשַׁב עַל הָאֶבֶן לִפְצוֹעַ בָּהּ אֱגוֹזִים לְמָחָר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יִחֲדָהּ לְכָךְ אֶלָּא לְשַׁבָּת זוֹ בִּלְבָד – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּתלח גַּם לְכָל צְרָכָיו,תלט, 268 לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לְהִתְיַחֵד לְכָךְ לְעוֹלָם וְדַרְכָּהּ בְּכָךְ, לְפִיכָךְ דַּי לָהּ בַּהֲכָנָה קַלָּה לַהֲכִינָהּ לְכָךְ, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּמַחֲשָׁבָה לְשַׁבָּת זוֹ בִּלְבָד,תמ אוֹ אִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּבָר תַּשְׁמִישׁ זֶה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֲפִלּוּ פַּעַם אַחַת בִּלְבָד – הוּכְנָה לְכָךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ לְשַׁבָּת זוֹ:תמא

54 A branch that is somewhat crooked at its top in a manner that resembles a fork, that is fit to have a bucket tied to it [and thus can then be used to dip the bucket into a well] to be filled, is forbidden [to be used]269 to fill [with water] on Shabbos,even when one had in mind on Friday to do so on Shabbos. [There is an exception to this prohibition:] when [the branch] was tied to the bucket on Friday.

[The restriction mentioned previously is] a decree [instituted] lest [the branch] prove to be too long for [the person’s purpose] and he lop off its end. [There is ample reason for such a concern, since the branch] is soft and easy to cut. [Such an act is forbidden because the person] would be preparing a k’li on Shabbos.270

נד זְמוֹרָהתמב שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרֹאשָׁהּ עַקְמוּמִיּוּת כְּעֵין מַזְלֵג שֶׁרָאוּי לִתְלוֹת בָּהּ דְּלִי וּלְמַלֹּאת בָּהּ,תמג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְמַלֹּאת בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר269 לְמַלֹּאת בָּהּ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה קְשׁוּרָה בִּדְלִי מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,תמד גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תִּהְיֶה אֲרֻכָּה לוֹ וְיִקְטְמֶנָּה מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהִיא רַכָּה וְנוֹחָה לִקָּטֵם, וְנִמְצָא מְתַקֵּן כְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת:תמה, 270

55 A branch that was cut from a tree before the commencement of Shabbos to use as a table fan271 to chase away flies272 may be used as a fan on Shabbos and moved like any other k’li. Since one designated [the branch] for this purpose, he transformed it into a k’li in the most complete sense. The same law applies if [the person] designated [the branch to use as a switch with which] to frighten children [by threatening to] strike them with it,273 provided he designated it for that purpose before the Shabbos commenced.

It is, however, forbidden to pull out a twig from a broom274 used to sweep the house275 [for the purpose of threatening children. The rationale is that] by pulling [the twig] out, it is made fit for the purpose for which he seeks to use it, i.e., to strike children, and whenever one makes an article fit to be used for a given purpose, it is forbidden to do so [on Shabbos], because one is preparing a k’li, as will be explained in sec. 340[:17]. It is even forbidden to have a non-Jew remove [the twig],276 i.e., to pull [the twig] out from the broom head. Needless to say, it is forbidden to break off a twig from the broom head, because breaking it involves another prohibition – destroying a k’li, as will be explained in sec. 337[:3]. When, by contrast, one removes an entire twig, [it] is not considered as destroying a k’li. Instead, [the broom] resembles a k’li that is assembled from different parts. [In this instance,] taking [the broom] apart is not considered as destroying it, unless the parts are firmly embedded and [were assembled with] professional skill, as will be explained in sec. 313[:19-21].

נה עָנָף שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ מִן הָאִילָן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהָנִיף בּוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן271 לְהַבְרִיחַ בּוֹ הַזְּבוּבִים272 – מֻתָּר לְהָנִיף בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּתתמו וּלְטַלְטְלוֹ כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁיִּחֲדוֹ לְכָךְתמז – עֲשָׂאוֹ כְּלִי גָמוּר.תמח וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם יִחֲדוֹ לְאַיֵּם עַל הַתִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁיַּכֵּם בּוֹ,תמט, 273 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּחֲדוֹ לְכָךְ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.תנ

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתְלוֹשׁ עָנָף מִן הַמַּכְבֶּדֶת274 שֶׁמְּכַבְּדִים בָּהּ הַבַּיִת,275 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי תְּלִישָׁה זוֹ מְתַקְּנוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַה שֶּׁהוּא חָפֵץ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ הַכָּאַת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּתַקְּנוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ – יֵשׁ בּוֹ אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם תִּקּוּן כְּלִי,תנא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"מ.תנב

וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אָסוּר לְתָלְשׁוֹ,276 דְּהַיְנוּ לְנַתְּקוֹ וּלְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִתַּחַת הַכְּרָךְ שֶׁעַל הַמַּכְבֶּדֶתתנג וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאָסוּר לִשְׁבּוֹר עָנָף מִן הַמַּכְבֶּדֶת, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּשְׁבִירָה זוֹ עוֹד אִסּוּר אַחֵר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבִירַת כְּלִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ז.תנד אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמּוֹצִיא עָנָף שָׁלֵם – אֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם סְתִירַת כְּלִי, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לִכְלִי שֶׁל פְּרָקִים, שֶׁאֵין בִּפְרִיקָתָן מִשּׁוּם סוֹתֵר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן תְּקוּעִים בְּחִזּוּק וְאוּמָנוּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ג:תנה

56 [The following laws apply to] combed flax and carded wool277 that are placed over a wound:278 Even though one did not think to designate [the combed flax and carded wool to cover] his wound, but merely incidentally placed them on [top of] the wound before Shabbos and then removed them immediately, it is permitted to move them on Shabbos to place on his wound or for another purpose.279 [The rationale is that] such articles are commonly designated for [covering] wounds. Therefore, [merely placing them on the wound is sufficient] to prepare them for that purpose and to cause them to be categorized as a k’li.

Needless to say, [the above applies] if one thought about designating [the combed flax and carded wool] to be placed on a wound while it was still day [on Friday], even if he did not [manage to] place them on the wound [before Shabbos]. And [it also applies] even if he did not think that [the combed flax and carded wool] would be designated and prepared [solely] to be used for his wound, but rather, [on Friday] thought to place them on the wound only on the following day, i.e., on Shabbos, and to cast them away on Saturday night. It also [goes] without saying [that these rules apply] if one performed an act280 with [the combed flax and carded wool] while it was still day [on Friday] to prepare them for this purpose, e.g., he applied oil to them and wound them into a bandage.

Placing [the combed flax and carded wool] on the wound on Shabbos is not forbidden as a healing action, which [our Sages] decreed [as forbidden as a safeguard lest one] grind herbs, as will be explained in sec. 328[:1. The rationale is that these substances] do not heal [the wound]. They are placed there only [as protection], so that one’s clothes will not further aggravate the wound.281

נו פִּשְׁתָּן סָרוּק וְצֶמֶר מְנֻפָּץ277 שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים עַל הַמַּכָּה,תנו, 278 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְיֻחָדִים לְמַכָּתוֹ, אֶלָּא הִנִּיחָם עַל מַכָּתוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מִקְרֶה קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת וֶהֱסִירָם מִמֶּנָּה לְאַלְתַּרתנז – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם בְּשַׁבָּתתנח לִתְּנָם עַל מַכָּתוֹתנט אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר,279 לְפִי שֶׁדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ דַּרְכָּם לְיַחֲדָם לְמַכָּה, לָכֵן הוּכְנוּ לְכָךְ בְּהַנָּחָה בְּעָלְמָא, וְיָרַד עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי.תס

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםתסא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְיֻחָדִים לְתִתָּם עַל הַמַּכָּה,תסב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נְתָנָם עֲדַיִן מֵעוֹלָם עַל הַמַּכָּה, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְיֻחָדִים וְעוֹמְדִים לְמַכָּתוֹ, אֶלָּא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהַנִּיחָם עָלֶיהָ לְמָחָר בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד וּלְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת יַשְׁלִיכֵם.תסג

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם עָשָׂה בָּהֶם מַעֲשֶׂה280 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לַהֲכִינָם לְכָךְ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁצְּבָעָם בְּשֶׁמֶן וּכְרָכָן בִּמְשִׁיחָה.תסד

וְאֵין אִסּוּר בְּהַנָּחָתָם עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם רְפוּאָה, שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם שְׁחִיקַת סַמְמָנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ח,תסה לְפִי שֶׁהֵם אֵינָם מְרַפְּאִים, וְאֵין מַנִּיחִים אוֹתָם אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְסָרְטוּ הַבְּגָדִים אֶת הַמַּכָּה:תסו

57 [The same laws apply to the] combed flax or carded wool that bald men place on their heads278 so that it appears that [they have] hair. It is permitted [for men] to move [the combed flax and carded wool] on Shabbos to place on their heads, or for another purpose,279 even though [the men] did not think about designating [these objects] for that purpose, but merely placed [these objects] on their heads incidentally once during the week.

Needless to say, [the above applies] if one thought to designate [the combed flax and carded wool] for this purpose while it was still day [on Friday], even if he never [actually] placed them on his head. And [the same law applies] even if he did not think to designate and prepare [the combed flax and carded wool] to be used for this purpose, but rather, [on Friday] thought to place them on his head only on the following day, i.e., on Shabbos, and to remove them on Saturday night and [then] make other [head coverings] for himself. It also [goes] without saying [that these rules apply] if one performed a [significant] action267 with [the combed flax and carded wool] while it was still day [on Friday] to prepare them for this purpose, e.g., he dyed them so they would be attractive and wound them with a band.

The above applies with regard to placing [the wool or the flax] on one’s head in his home. There are, however, authorities who forbid going out to the public domain282 [wearing such headpieces] unless one performs an action [that indicates that he intends to use them for this purpose, e.g.,] he dyes them or winds them [with a band]. If not, [these authorities maintain that] he should not go out wearing [such headpieces] unless he already placed them on his head once while it was still day [on Friday]. However, thinking [about using the wool or flax] or designating them for this purpose is effective only with regard to [the prohibition of] moving [muktzeh], but not with regard to [the prohibition against] transferring [an article to the public domain. The rationale is that] since he did not place [the combed flax and carded wool] on his head [for this purpose] before the commencement of Shabbos, and an action that demonstrates that they were prepared for this purpose was not performed, it appears that he is acting deceptively and [in fact, is merely seeking a way] to take [these textiles out into the public domain by placing them] on his head. [Such concerns do not apply to going out with] flax or wool on a wound, because the wound makes it evident that he requires them,283 and he does not appear to be acting deceptively even though he did not place [the wool or the flax] on [the wound] before Shabbos commenced.

נז וְכֵן פִּשְׁתָּן סָרוּק וְצֶמֶר מְנֻפָּץ שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים בַּעֲלֵי הַקָּרְחָה בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶם278 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִרְאִים כְּבַעֲלֵי שֵׂעָר,תסז, 277 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְיֻחָדִים לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא הִנִּיחָם עַל רֹאשׁוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מִקְרֶה פַּעַם אַחַת בְּחֹל – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם בְּשַׁבָּתתסח לְהַנִּיחָם בְּרֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר.279

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְיֻחָדִים לְכָךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחָם בְּרֹאשׁוֹ מֵעוֹלָם, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְיֻחָדִים וְעוֹמְדִים לְכָךְ, אֶלָּא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהַנִּיחָם בְּרֹאשׁוֹ לְמָחָר בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד וּלְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת יְסִירֵם מִמֶּנּוּ וְיַעֲשֶׂה לוֹ אֲחֵרִים.

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם עָשָׂה בָּהֶם מַעֲשֶׂה267 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לַהֲכִינָם לְכָךְ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁצְּבָעָן לְנוֹי וּכְרָכָן בִּמְשִׁיחָה.תסט

וְכָל זֶה לְהַנִּיחָם בְּרֹאשׁוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ, אֲבָל לָצֵאת בָּהֶם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןתע, 282 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה בָּהֶם מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁצְּבָעָן אוֹ שֶׁכְּרָכָן. וְאִם לָאו – לֹא יֵצֵא בָּהֶם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִנִּיחָם בְּרֹאשׁוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. אֲבָל מַחֲשָׁבָה וְיִחוּד אֵין מוֹעִילִים אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן טִלְטוּל וְלֹא לְעִנְיַן הוֹצָאָה,תעא לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחָם בְּרֹאשׁוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְגַם אֵין בָּהֶם מַעֲשֶׂה הַמּוֹכִיחַ שֶׁהֵם מְתֻקָּנִים לְכָךְ – הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כְּמַעֲרִים לְהוֹצִיאָם בְּרֹאשׁוֹ,תעב מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּפִשְׁתָּן וְצֶמֶר שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה – הֲרֵי מַכָּתוֹ מוֹכַחַת עָלָיו שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לָהֶם283 וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמַעֲרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחָם עָלֶיהָ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:תעג

58 It is permitted to move hides, whether or not they have been processed,284 because they are fit to be used as support and to sit on. Hence, [hides] are categorized as keilim.285 [The above applies] whether they belong to a private person or a craftsman who processes them and sells them.284 For even [the craftsman] is not meticulous about [never] using [the hides] as support or to sit on; he is not worried that doing so will cause their value to depreciate.286

When does the license to move unprocessed hides apply? When they have already dried. When, however, they are still moist, they are only fit to be used as support or to sit on in extreme situations; it is not common practice [to use such hides] for these purposes.287 Therefore, [the possibility of using the hides for] these purposes does not cause them to be categorized as keilim, and it is forbidden to move them.

There is an authority who permits [moving] even moist hides of large animals288 and forbids [moving] even dried hides of small animals,289 since they are not fit to be used as support or to sit on because they are small.290 Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion, as will be stated in sec. 334[:22] and sec. 499[:8].

נח עוֹרוֹת,תעד בֵּין עֲבוּדִין בֵּין שֶׁאֵינָן עֲבוֹדִיןתעה – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן,284 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרְאוּיִין לְהִסָּמֵךְ וְלָשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם,תעו וְיֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם,תעז, 285 בֵּין שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת בֵּין שֶׁל אוּמָן הַמְעַבְּדָןתעח וּמוֹכְרָן,תעט, 284 שֶׁאַף הוּא אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם לְהִסָּמֵךְ וְלָשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם,תפ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִפְחֲתוּ דְמֵיהֶם עַל יְדֵי כָךְ.286

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִיםתפא שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל עוֹרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן עֲבוּדִין? כְּשֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ כְּבָר, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהֵם לַחִים אֵינָם רְאוּיִים לְהִסָּמֵךְ וְלָשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם אֶלָּא מִדֹּחַק,תפב וְאֵין דַּרְכָּם בְּכָךְ,תפג, 287 וְלָכֵן אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם.

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּירתפד אַף בְּלַחִיןתפה שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה,288 וְאוֹסֵר שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה289 אַף בִּיבֵשִׁין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְהִסָּמֵךְ וְלָשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם מֵחֲמַת קָטְנָן.תפו, 290

וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,תפז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"דתפח וְסִמָּן תצ"ט:תפט

59 Boards belonging to a private person are permitted to be moved, while those belonging to a craftsman are forbidden [to be moved],291 since he is careful not to use [his boards] for any purpose lest they be ruined [through their use].291 Thus, [a craftsman’s boards] are considered muktzeh because [of the possibility] of financial loss.292 It is permitted to move [a craftsman’s boards, however,] if while it was still day [on Friday, the craftsman] thought about [using them as a tray] on which to serve bread to guests on Shabbos or for any other purpose.293

נט נְסָרִים שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם, וְשֶׁל אוּמָן אָסוּר,תצ, 291 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶםתצא מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַלְקְלוּ,תצב, 291 וַהֲרֵי הֵם מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס.תצג, 292 וְאִם חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לִתֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם פַּת לְאוֹרְחִים בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם:תצד, 293

60 It is permitted to remove morsels [of food] that are smaller than an olive-sized portion from a table.294 [This applies] even though [the bits of food] are not set aside to be eaten by humans,295 but are [only] fit [to be eaten by] animals294 or fowl. Similarly, bones294 that are fit for dogs,296 the peels of produce294 that are fit for animals, e.g., pods of kitniyos297 in which the kitniyos grow,and the like, are permitted to be removed from a table, because they are permitted to be moved like other animal feed.

[This law applies] even when the bones are separated from the meat and the pods from the produce on Shabbos itself and thus they are considered as nolad, objects that first came into existence on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 501[:16]. This, [however,] is of no consequence, since articles that are nolad are permitted [to be moved] on Shabbos.298 On festivals, however, one should be stringent with regard to articles that are nolad298and take care not to remove them from the table, as will be explained.299

If the shells [of produce] are not fit [to be eaten] by an animal, e.g., the shells of walnuts, almonds, and the like,300 they are forbidden to be moved, like wood and stones.301 It is forbidden to remove [such items] from a table, whether by hand or with another article held in one’s hand, e.g., to push them off [the table] with a knife or the like. Permission is granted to move [an article that is muktzeh] via another article only when the forbidden article is already lying on the permitted article and the person moves the permitted article with his hand, while the forbidden article is moved along with it as a matter of course.302 For example, one shakes out by hand the tabletop or the tablecloth on which shells were lying beforehand, and [as a result, the shells] are also shaken off and fall from it as a matter of course.303 [This is permitted] because the tabletop never became a base for a forbidden article,304 since the shells were not lying on it bein hashmashos, when Shabbos commenced.305By contrast, when one pushes [the shells] off [the table] with a knife, they are not being moved as a matter of course. Instead, they are being moved via the knife, which is serving him as an extended hand, as it were.306

ס מֻתָּר לְהַעֲבִיר מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן פֵּרוּרִין פְּחוּתִים מִכְּזַיִת,תצה, 294 אַף שֶׁאֵינָן עוֹמְדִים לַאֲכִילַת אָדָםתצו, 295 אֶלָּא לִבְהֵמָהתצז, 294 אוֹ לְעוֹפוֹת. וְכֵן עֲצָמוֹתתצח, 294 שֶׁרְאוּיִים לִכְלָבִים,תצט, 296 וּקְלִפֵּי פֵרוֹתתק, 294 שֶׁרְאוּיוֹת לִבְהֵמָה,תקא כְּגוֹן שַׁרְבִיטִים שֶׁל קִטְנִית297 שֶׁהַקִּטְנִית גָּדֵל בְּתוֹכָם,תקב וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם – מֻתָּר לְהַעֲבִירָן מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל כִּשְׁאָר מַאֲכָלֵי בְהֵמָה.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ הָעֲצָמוֹת מֵהַבָּשָׂר וְהַקְּלִפּוֹת מֵהַפֵּרוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ, וַהֲרֵי הֵן נוֹלָדתקג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"אתקד – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁהַנּוֹלָד מֻתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת.תקה, 298

אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּנוֹלָדתקו, 298 וּלְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַעֲבִירָן מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.תקז, 299

וְאִם אֵין הַקְּלִפּוֹת רְאוּיוֹת לִבְהֵמָה,תקח כְּגוֹן קְלִפֵּי אֱגוֹזִים [וּ]שְׁקֵדִיםתקט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן300 שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרוֹת בְּטִלְטוּלתקי כְּעֵצִים וַאֲבָנִיםתקיא, 301 – אָסוּר לְהַעֲבִירָן מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בֵּין בְּיָדָיו בֵּין בְּדָבָר אַחֵר שֶׁבְּיָדָיו, כְּגוֹן לְגָרְרָן בְּסַכִּין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ.תקיב

וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי דָבָר אַחֵר, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁדָּבָר הָאָסוּר כְּבָר הוּא מֻנָּח עַל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר וְהוּא מְטַלְטֵל בְּיָדָיו הַדָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר וְהַדָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ מֵאֵלָיו,תקיג, 302 כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּנַעֵר בְּיָדָיו אֶת הַטַּבְלָאתקיד אוֹ אֶת הַמַּפָּהתקטו שֶׁהַקְּלִפּוֹת מֻנָּחוֹת עָלֶיהָ כְּבָר וְהֵן נִנְעָרוֹת גַּם כֵּן וְנוֹפְלוֹת מֵעָלֶיהָ מֵאֲלֵיהֶן,303 שֶׁהַטַּבְלָא לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר,304 הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הָיוּ הַקְּלִפּוֹת מֻנָּחוֹת עָלָיו בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתתקטז שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת,תקיז, 305 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁמְּגָרְרָן בְּסַכִּין – אֵינָן מִטַּלְטְלִין מֵאֲלֵיהֶן, אֶלָּא הוּא מְטַלְטְלֵן עַל יְדֵי הַסַּכִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ כְּיָד אֲרֻכָּה:תקיח, 306

61 It is forbidden to lift the tabletop or the tablecloth with the shells on them and move them to another place. Instead, one must shake them out immediately [i.e., before moving them].307 True, the person would be moving a permitted object and taking it to another place while holding it, and the forbidden object is being moved on top of [the permitted object] as a matter of course. Nevertheless, [our Sages] did not permit moving [an object that is] muktzeh via another object in an ordinary manner if it is possible to immediately shake [the article that is muktzeh] off [the permitted object. Shaking the shells off is the preferred option because] shaking a [forbidden] article off [another object] is not deemed as moving [an object that is muktzeh] via another object in a complete sense, because [the object that is muktzeh] is being moved in an unusual [and irregular] manner.

If there is bread on the tabletop or tablecloth where the shells are lying, it is permitted to pick up [the tabletop or tablecloth] with everything [on it] and move it to any place one desires. [The rationale is that] the shells are considered insignificant in relation to the bread.308

סא וְאָסוּר לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַטַּבְלָא אוֹ הַמַּפָּה עִם הַקְּלִפּוֹת שֶׁעָלֶיהָ וּלְטַלְטְלָהּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְנַעֲרָן מִמֶּנָּה מִיָּד.תקיט, 307 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר הוּא שֶׁמְּטַלְטֵל וְנוֹשֵׂא בְּיָדָיו לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר וְדָבָר הָאָסוּר מִטַּלְטֵל עָלָיו מֵאֵלָיו,תקכ מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא הִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל מֻקְצֶה עַל יְדֵי דָבָר אַחֵר טִלְטוּל גָּמוּר כֹּל שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֲרוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ מִיָּד,תקכא שֶׁהַנִּעוּר אֵינוֹ טִלְטוּל גָּמוּר עַל יְדֵי דָבָר אַחֵר,תקכב שֶׁכִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא.

וְאִם יֵשׁ פַּת עַל הַטַּבְלָא אוֹ עַל הַמַּפָּה שֶׁהַקְּלִפּוֹת עָלֶיהָ – מֻתָּר לְהַגְבִּיהַּ עִם הַכֹּל וּלְטַלְטְלָהּ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַקְּלִפּוֹת הָאֵלּוּ הֵן בְּטֵלוֹת לְגַבֵּי הַפַּת:תקכג, 308

62 [Moreover, in certain instances, leniency is granted] even if there is nothing on the table except these shells or other articles that are unfit [even for use] as animal food. In a situation where shaking out [the tabletop or tablecloth] alone will not be effective for [the person] – e.g., he needs to use the ground where the table is located, and if he shakes out [the shells] there and they fall to the ground, he will not be able to use the ground for the task he desires to perform there – he is permitted to move the table to another place, even though the articles that are muktzeh are [still] lying on it.309 [The rationale is that] since [the table] did not become a base for [the shells or other items that are muktzeh], he is moving an entity that is permitted to be moved [i.e. the table] and the forbidden articles are moved along with it as a matter of course.

סב וְאַף אִם אֵין עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֶלָּא קְלִפּוֹת אֵלּוּ אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם מַאֲכָל לִבְהֵמָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הַנִּעוּר בִּלְבָד מוֹעִיל לוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יְנַעֲרָן מִמֶּנּוּ כַּאן וְיִפְּלוּ לָאָרֶץ כַּאן לֹא יוּכַל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם בָּאָרֶץ מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ – מֻתָּר לְסַלֵּק הַשֻּׁלְחָן לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַדְּבָרִים הַמֻּקְצִים מֻנָּחִים עָלָיו,תקכד, 309 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לָהֶםתקכה – הֲרֵי הוּא מְטַלְטֵל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר וְדָבָר הָאָסוּר מִטַּלְטֵל עִמּוֹ מֵאֵלָיו:תקכו

63 [The following laws apply to] bundles of straw and bundles of soft twigs:310 It is permitted to move [these bundles] if they were designated311 to be used for animal food, even if they are very large. Nevertheless, if one had no specific intent, it can be assumed that [the bundles of straw and bundles of soft twigs] were set aside to be used for kindling,312 and it is forbidden to move them. In places where straw gathered without a specific intent is not set aside for kindling, but rather to be used for animal fodder or to lie on, it is permitted to move [bundles of straw that have not specifically been designated to be used for these purposes].313

סג חֲבִילֵי קַשׁ וַחֲבִילֵי עֵצִיםתקכז רַכִּים,תקכח, 310 אִם הִזְמִינָםתקכט, 311 לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם אֲפִלּוּ הֵם גְּדוֹלִים הַרְבֵּה.תקל אֲבָל סְתָמָן לְהַסָּקָה הֵן עוֹמְדִין,תקלא, 312 וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם. וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁסְּתָם קַשׁ אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לְהַסָּקָה אֶלָּא לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה אוֹ לִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ:תקלב, 313

64 One may move any substance that is fit to be used as food for a species of animals or fowl commonly found [in one’s locale],314 even if it is not fit to be eaten by most species of animal or fowl.315 For example, one may move chatzav316even though it is only fit for deer, and mustard seeds even though they are only fit for doves,317 in places where deer and doves are common, i.e., in places where ordinary people commonly raise them and [ordinary people] are accustomed [to do so]. It is not sufficient that [such animals or fowl] are found only in the homes of lords.

סד כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְמַאֲכַל מִין חַיָּה וְעוֹף הַמְּצוּיִים – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ,תקלג, 314 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְרֹב מִינֵי חַיָּה וְעוֹף,315 כְּגוֹן הַחַצָּב316 שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֶלָּא לִצְבָיִים, וְהַחַרְדָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֶלָּא לְיוֹנִים317 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָםתקלד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַצְּבָיִים וְהַיּוֹנִים מְצוּיִים, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ סְתָם בְּנֵי אָדָם לְגַדְּלָם וּרְגִילִים בְּכָךְ, וְלֹא דַי בְּמַה שֶּׁמְּצוּיִים אֵצֶל הַשָּׂרִים בִּלְבָד:תקלה

65 [Different laws apply to] foods that are only fit for animals and fowl that are not commonly found in that town.318 If a person possesses that type of animal or fowl, he is permitted to move food that is fit for them. If not, he is forbidden [to do so].315

For this reason, it is forbidden to move bones in places where dogs are not commonly found – for example, one spends Shabbos in a field or in an inn where no dog is found. [This restriction applies] whether [the bones] are separated from the meat on Shabbos or on Friday. Bones that are so hard that they are not even fit for a dog [to eat] are forbidden to be moved315 in all places; [they are] like wood and stones.319

סה וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי אֶלָּא לְחַיָּה וְעוֹף שֶׁאֵינָם מְצוּיִים בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר,318 אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מֵאוֹתוֹ מִין חַיָּה אוֹ עוֹף – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַמַּאֲכָל הָרָאוּי לָהֶם,תקלו וְאִם לָאו – אָסוּר.תקלז, 315

וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל הָעֲצָמוֹת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין כְּלָבִים מְצוּיִים, כְּגוֹן אִם שׁוֹבֵת בַּשָּׂדֶה אוֹ בְּמָלוֹן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם כֶּלֶב, בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ מִן הַבָּשָׂר בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.תקלח

וַעֲצָמוֹת קָשִׁים כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאַף לַכֶּלֶב אֵינָן רְאוּיִין – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָןתקלט, 315 בְּכָל מָקוֹם כְּעֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים:319

66 Date pits320 are permitted to be moved in places where it is common to feed them to animals.321 Nevertheless, a person of distinction should be stringent with himself and move them only in an unusual and irregular manner – for example, to place near [the date pits] a piece of bread or other entity that is permitted to be moved, and move them [all] together.321 [The rationale is that] in many places, [date pits] are not fed to animals at all. Therefore, [such a person] should be stringent in this regard even in a place where they are fed [to animals].

סו גַּרְעִינֵי תְמָרִים320 בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לְהַאֲכִילָן לִבְהֵמוֹת321 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן.תקמ וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אָדָם חָשׁוּב צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלָם אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שִׁנּוּי,תקמא כְּגוֹן שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ אֶצְלָם חֲתִיכַת פַּתתקמב אוֹ שְׁאָר דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּלתקמג וִיטַלְטְלֵם יַחַד,321 לְפִי שֶׁבִּמְקוֹמוֹת הַרְבֵּה אֵין מַאֲכִילִים אוֹתָם כְּלָל לִבְהֵמוֹת, לָכֵן יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר בָּהֶם אַף בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמַּאֲכִילִין:תקמד

67 [The following laws apply to] all shells and pits that are not fit [to serve as food] for animals: One may eat the food and discard [i.e., spit out, the pits and shells] behind him with his tongue.321 One should not discard [the pits and shells] with his hands322 nor should he discard them in front of him with his tongue, relying on the fact that when many [pits and shells] will accumulate in front of him, they will be repugnant and it will be permitted to remove them from that place, as is the law with regard to a geref shel re’ei, as will be explained.323 [This is not permitted,] because as an initial preference, it is not permitted to create a repugnant situation [on Shabbos],324 as will be explained.

סז כָּל הַקְּלִפִּין וְהַגַּרְעִינִין שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִבְהֵמָה אוֹכֵל אֶת הָאֹכֶל וְזוֹרְקָןתקמה בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹתקמו לַאֲחוֹרָיו,תקמז, 321 וְלֹא יִזְרְקֵם בְּיָדָיו,תקמח, 322 וְגַם לֹא יִזְרְקֵם בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ לְפָנָיו וְיִסְמוֹךְ בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁכְּשֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶם לְפָנָיו וְיִמָּאֲסוּ בְּעֵינָיו יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָן מִשָּׁם כְּדִין גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,תקמט, 323 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי לְכַתְּחִלָּה,תקנ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:תקנא, 324

68 It is permitted to move raw meat, even if it has not been salted at all,315 because since there are some people who are extremely forbearing325 and eat raw meat, [it is considered] fit for people to eat.326 (Such meat is not forbidden to be eaten because [of the prohibition against partaking] of blood, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 67.)327

In contrast, tough meat that is not fit to be eaten [raw] is forbidden to be moved.328 The same law applies with regard to other similar entities – for example, permitted fat329 [that is] raw [and] cold. True, it is fit for dogs. Nonetheless, it is not set aside [to be eaten] by dogs, but [to be eaten] by humans on Saturday night; [hence,]it is not fit for anything on Shabbos. Decaying meat (i.e. meat that reeks) is permitted to be moved,330 because it is fit for dogs and set aside [to be fed] to them.331

סח בָּשָׂר חַי, אֲפִלּוּ תָּפֵל, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָלוּחַ כְּלָל – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ,תקנב, 315 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי לַאֲכִילַת אָדָם,תקנג, 326 שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁדַּעְתָּם יָפֶהתקנד, 325 וְכוֹסְסִיןתקנה בָּשָׂר חַי (שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ מִשּׁוּם דָּם,תקנו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן ס"זתקנז).327

אֲבָל בָּשָׂר קָשֶׁה שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָכֹס אוֹתוֹ – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ.תקנח, 328 וְהוּא הַדִּין שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, כְּגוֹן שׁוּמָן329 חַי צוֹנֵן,תקנט שֶׁאַף שֶׁרְאוּיִין לִכְלָבִים – הֲרֵי אֵינָן עוֹמְדִים לִכְלָבִים אֶלָּא לַאֲכִילַת אָדָם לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, וּבְשַׁבָּת אֵינָן רְאוּיִין לוֹ לִכְלוּם.תקס

אֲבָל בָּשָׂר תָּפוּחַתקסא (פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁמַּסְרִיחַתקסב) – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ,330 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי לִכְלָבִיםתקסג וְעוֹמֵד לִכְלָבִים:תקסד, 331

69 Salted fish is permitted to be moved.332 Unsalted [raw] fish is forbidden [to be moved], because it is not fit for any human and it is not set aside to be tossed to the dogs.333

סט דָּג מָלוּחַ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ.332 וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מָלוּחַ – אָסוּר,תקסה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְשׁוּם אָדָם, וְאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לְהַשְׁלִיכָן לִכְלָבִים:תקסו, 333

70 Meat belonging to a non-Jew that was slaughtered on [Shabbos] is permitted to be moved like the meat of an animal that died on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 324[:5].334

ע בָּשָׂר שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט הַיּוֹם – מֻתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל כְּמוֹ בְּשַׂר נְבֵלָה שֶׁמֵּתָה בְּשַׁבָּתתקסז שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ד:תקסח, 334

71 One may move an amulet whose reliability has yet to be proven.335 True, it is forbidden to go out [to the public domain] wearing such [an amulet] because of concern that it is not at all effective, and thus is not categorized as an ornament. [Also, it is] in no way considered to be in the category of a k’li, for it is of no use whatsoever, even on weekdays. Nevertheless, [it may be moved in one’s home on Shabbos]. For our Sages’ concern only extends to the prohibition against taking [such an article] out [to the public domain],336 but does not apply with regard to the prohibition against moving it. [The above applies] whether [the amulet] contains a written formula or herbs. Whether it is permitted to hang an amulet on one’s person in a house and in a courtyard is explained in sec. 303[:23].337

עא קָמֵיעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין יוֹצְאִין בּוֹתקסט מֵחֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא אֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, וְאֵין תּוֹרַת תַּכְשִׁיט עָלָיו,תקע וְאִם כֵּן אֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם אַף בְּחֹל, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל כְּתָב בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל עִקָּרִין – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ,תקעא, 335 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא חָשְׁשׁוּ לְכָךְ אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן אִסּוּר הוֹצָאָה,335 אֲבָל לֹא לְעִנְיַן אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל. וְאִם מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹתוֹ עָלָיו בַּבַּיִת וּבֶחָצֵר – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ג:תקעב, 337

72 Whenever filth – such as feces, vomit, or bodily waste, whether of humans or chickens, or the like338 – is found in a courtyard that one lives in, [adjacent to] one’s dwelling339 – whether in a courtyard in front of one’s house or next to a house, which he frequently exits and enters, and is thus a place where people are concerned that it not contain filth – he is permitted to remove the filth to a dung heap or an outhouse.340[He may even move the filth directly] by hand, without [using] a container.341 [Such filth is generically referred to as] a geref shel re’ei.342 Similarly, if [the filth] is located in an alley through which people frequently pass, it is permitted to move [the filth] to the side.

However, [different rules apply if the filth] is located in another courtyard where one does not dwell or in a courtyard located behind the house.343 These are places where one is not concerned whether they contain filth, unless people sit there. When, by contrast, people do not sit there, one does not pay heed [to the presence of such filth] even though people come in and out of that place, because they do not come in and out of there frequently. Therefore, it is forbidden to remove the filth from there unless one sits there.

If one fears that a child may go there and soil himself with [the filth], it is permitted to cover [the filth] with a container,344 for a container may be moved even for the sake of an article that may itself not be moved on Shabbos, as explained in sec. 277[:8.345 Moreover,] even if the filth is located in a courtyard in which one dwells, but it is in the portion of the courtyard set aside for a dung heap or for chickens, it is forbidden to remove [the filth] from there.346

[Even] if a chamber potis located in a place where one does not object to its presence, but it is full, thus making it impossible to relieve oneself into it, it is permitted to remove it, [empty it,] and return it in the manner to be explained.347 [This leniency is granted] out of consideration for human dignity.

עב כָּל דָּבָר מְטֻנָּף, כְּגוֹן רְעִי וְקִיא וְצוֹאָה, בֵּין שֶׁל אָדָם בֵּין שֶׁל תַּרְנְגוֹלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם,338 אִם הָיוּ בְּחָצֵר שֶׁהוּא דָר בָּהּ,תקעג, 339 דְּהַיְנוּ חָצֵר לִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁאֵצֶל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא וְנִכְנָס לְתוֹכָהּ תָּדִיר, שֶׁזֶּהוּ מָקוֹם שֶׁמַּקְפִּידִין עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בּוֹ טִנּוּףתקעד – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָם לָאַשְׁפָּה אוֹ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא340 אֲפִלּוּ בְּיָדָיו מַמָּשׁ בְּלֹא כְלִי,תקעה, 341 וְזֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא בְּכָל מָקוֹם "גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי".תקעו, 342 וְכֵן אִם הֵם בְּמָבוֹי בִּמְקוֹם דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל – מֻתָּר לְסַלְּקָם לַצְּדָדִין.תקעז

אֲבָל אִם הֵם מֻנָּחִים בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָר שָׁם,תקעח וְכֵן אִם הֵם בְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵי הַבַּיִת,תקעט, 343 שֶׁזֶּהוּ מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַקְפִּידִים עָלָיו אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ טִנּוּף, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹשְׁבִים שָׁם, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵין יוֹשְׁבִים שָׁם אֵין מַקְפִּידִין אַף שֶׁנִּכְנָסִים וְיוֹצְאִין שָׁם, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין נִכְנָסִין וְיוֹצְאִין שָׁם תָּדִיר, לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאָם מִשָּׁם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹשֵׁב שָׁם.תקפ

וְאִם יָרֵא מִפְּנֵי הַתִּינוֹק שֶׁלֹּא יֵלֵךְ שָׁמָּה וְיִתְלַכְלֵךְ בָּהֶם – מֻתָּר לִכְפּוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלִי,תקפא, 344 שֶׁהַכְּלִי נִטָּל אַף בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת,תקפב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ז.תקפג, 345

וְאַף אִם הֵם בְּחָצֵר שֶׁדָּר בָּהּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵם בְּחֵלֶק הַמֻּקְצֶה מֵהֶחָצֵר לָאַשְׁפָּה אוֹ לְתַרְנְגוֹלִין – אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאָם מִשָּׁם.תקפד, 346

וְאִם גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי עוֹמֵד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַקְפִּידִים עָלָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד כָּךְ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מָלֵא וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִפָּנוֹת עָלָיו שָׁם – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וּלְהַחֲזִירוֹ בְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,תקפה, 347 מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת:תקפו

73 Although it is permitted to take out a chamber pot and a urinal to empty them in a dung heap, it is forbidden to return them to the home,348 because they are forbidden to be moved when they are empty since they are so repugnant that they are not even fit to be used to cover a container. It is only permitted to move an article that is muktzeh because of its repugnancy when it is fit to cover a container, as explained above.349

If one must return [these items to his home] so that he will be able to relieve himself in them again on this day, it is permitted to return them by placing water, that is permitted to be moved inside them,348 i.e., [water] that is still fit for an animal [to drink]350 even when it is in the urinal or the chamber pot.348

[True,] license to move an article that is forbidden to be moved because one is moving it [together] with an article that is permitted to be moved was only granted in the instance of a human corpse, as will be explained in sec. 311[:7].351 Nevertheless, in this instance, since [the person] will need to relieve himself in [the chamber pot or urinal] that day, leniency was granted [to return it] out of consideration for human dignity. The same laws apply if one must remove [the chamber pot or urinal together] with excrement later that day.

There are authorities who permit returning [these articles] to a home by putting water inside of them under all circumstances, even if one will not need to relieve himself in them [later] that day or remove excrement with them.

One should act stringently, following the first view. Nevertheless, in an instance where [the possibility of] a loss is involved, e.g., the chamber pot is somewhat valuable and one would suffer a loss if he left it in the dung heap and it was stolen from there, one may rely on the latter view.

עג גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי וְעָבִיט שֶׁל מֵי רַגְלַיִם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָם לָאַשְׁפָּה לְפַנּוֹתָם שָׁם – אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירָם לַבַּיִת,תקפז, 348 לְפִי שֶׁאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל אַף כְּשֶׁהֵם רֵיקָנִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם מְאוּסִיםתקפח כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיִים אֲפִלּוּ לְכַסּוֹת בָּהֶם כְּלִי,תקפט וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מִאוּס אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רָאוּי לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ כְּלִי,תקצ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תקצא, 349

וְאִם צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִירָם כְּדֵי לַחֲזוֹר וְלִפָּנוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם הַיּוֹם – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָם עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְתוֹכָם מַיִםתקצב הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל,348 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהֵם רְאוּיִים עֲדַיִן לִבְהֵמָה350 אַף כְּשֶׁהֵם בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָבִיט אוֹ הַגָּרָף.תקצג, 348 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לְטַלְטֵל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיְּטַלְטֵל עִמּוֹ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל אֶלָּא בְּמֵת בִּלְבָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א,תקצד, 351 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וְלִפָּנוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם הַיּוֹם – הֵקֵלּוּתקצה מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת.תקצו וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהוֹצִיא בָּהֶם צוֹאָהתקצז הַיּוֹם.

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןתקצח לְהַחֲזִירָם לַבַּיִת בְּכָל עִנְיָן עַל יְדֵי נְתִינַת מַיִם לְתוֹכָם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וְלִפָּנוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם הַיּוֹם וְלֹא לְהוֹצִיא בָּהֶם צוֹאָה.

וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַגָּרָף הוּא חָשׁוּב קְצָת וְיֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד אִם יַנִּיחֶנּוּ בָּאַשְׁפָּה וְיִגָּנֵב מִשָּׁם – יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה:תקצט

74 All the above352 applies when one puts down [and releases] the chamber pot [from his hand] when he reaches the dung heap. When, however, the chamber pot remains in [the person’s] hand [the entire time], all authorities agree that it is permitted to return [the chamber pot to his home after emptying it] under all circumstances, even without placing water in it, as is the law regarding all articles that are muktzeh: Once they are already in [the person’s] hand, he is permitted to move [the articles] to any place he desires, as explained above.353 Based on the exposition of the concept in that source354 – [and the conclusion] that it is desirable to be stringent in this instance as well, it is desirable to put water in [the chamber pot] even if it was in one’s hands the entire time.

עד וְכָל זֶה352 כְּשֶׁכְּבָר סִלְּקָם מִיָּדוֹ כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ לָאַשְׁפָּה, אֲבָל בְּעוֹדָן בְּיָדוֹ – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָםתר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל בְּכָל עִנְיָן, וְאַף בְּלִי נְתִינַת מַיִם לְתוֹכָם, כְּדִין כָּל מֻקְצֶה שֶׁאִם יֶשְׁנוֹ כְּבָר בְּיָדוֹ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תרא, 353 וּלְפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם354 שֶׁטּוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר בְּזֶה – גַּם כַּאן טוֹב לִתֵּן לְתוֹכָם מַיִם אַף שֶׁעוֹדָן בְּיָדוֹ:

75 One should not create a geref shel re’ei355 initially,356i.e., bring a substance that will eventually become repugnant into his presence or do something that will produce a repugnant [situation] with the intention that he will remove [the article] after it [in fact] becomes repugnant. Even though [our Sages] permitted removing a repugnant object, one should not initially perform an act that will definitely create something repugnant [near] him, and then remove [offensive article].357

Nevertheless, if one transgressed and did so, he is permitted to remove the article afterwards. [Moreover,] if initially [when creating a repugnant object], one did not have the intent of removing [the object], he is permitted to create [a repugnant object] even initially. Afterwards, if he changes his mind [and desires] to remove [the object], he is permitted to do so.

עה אֵין עוֹשִׂין גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי355 לְכַתְּחִלָּה,תרב, 356 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמֵּבִיא לְפָנָיו דָּבָר שֶׁעָתִיד לִמָּאֵס,תרג אוֹ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה דָבָר שֶׁעָתִיד לִמָּאֵס,תרד וְסוֹמֵךְ בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיּוֹצִיאֶנּוּ אַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיִּמָּאֵס,תרה שֶׁאַף שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְהוֹצִיא הַדָּבָר הַמָּאוּס, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה לְכַתְּחִלָּה דָבָר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּוַדַּאי אַחַר כָּךְ מָאוּס לְפָנָיו וְיוֹצִיאֶנּוּ.תרו, 357

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה כֵּן – מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ.תרז וְאִם אֵין בְּדַעְתּוֹ בִּתְחִלָּה שֶׁיּוֹצִיאֶנּוּ אַחַר כָּךְ – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה,תרח וְאַחַר כָּךְ אִם נִמְלַךְ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

76 In a situation where a loss is involved, one is permitted to establish the place where he sits358 next to a geref shel re’ei that is located in a place where one does not [generally] pay heed [to the presence of filth],359 so that the geref will be repugnant to him, and he will remove [the geref] from there and thus prevent its loss. For example, if a particular entity [is located] in a courtyard in which people do not dwell, and it will become repugnant and ruined because of rain that is falling on it,360 he may bring his couch there to lie on or bring his table there to eat [and thereby establish this place as his location]. The same applies with regard to bringing other items that he uses – for example, one’s books to study361 or the like – performing [an activity that] is considered as establishing his location [in that place. Afterwards,] when he feels uncomfortable because of the repugnant [nature of the geref], he may remove it to a place that is protected from the rain.362 [Similar principles apply in] all analogous situations.

Nevertheless, sitting near [the geref] alone, without a couch, table, or other personal article, is not effective at all [in being granted license to move the geref], because if he will feel uncomfortable due to the repugnant [nature of the geref], he is told: “Get up and go away from here, and sit in another place.” [The rationale is that] originally, he was not settled there and only [sat there] in a temporary fashion. When, by contrast, he establishes his sitting [in a significant fashion] via a couch, table, or other personal article, [the Sages do not] inconvenience [and force him] to uproot himself from the location he arranged. Instead, the geref may be removed from his presence.

עו בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מֻתָּר לִקְבּוֹעַ יְשִׁיבָתוֹ358 אֵצֶל גָּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי,תרט שֶׁהוּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַקְפִּידִין עָלָיותרי, 359 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּמָּאֵס הַגָּרָף בְּעֵינָיו וְיוֹצִיאֶנּוּ מִשָּׁם וְיִסְתַּלֵּק הַהֶפְסֵד, כְּגוֹן אִם אֵיזֶה דָבָר נִמְאָס וְנִפְסָד מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים הַיּוֹרְדִים עָלָיותריא, 360 בְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָר שָׁםתריב – יָכוֹל לְהַכְנִיס לְשָׁם מִטָּתוֹ לִשְׁכַּב עָלֶיהָ,תריג אוֹ לְהַכְנִיס שֻׁלְחָנוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל שָׁם,תריד וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר כְּלֵי תַשְׁמִישׁוֹ,תרטו כְּגוֹן סְפָרָיו לִלְמוֹד בָּהֶם,361 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּעִנְיָן זֶה, שֶׁזֶּהוּ נִקְרָא קְבִיעוּת יְשִׁיבָה,תרטז וּכְשֶׁתִּתְאוֹנֵן דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי הַמִּאוּסתריז יוֹצִיאֶנּוּ מִשָּׁם לְמָקוֹם הַמְשֻׁמָּר מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים,362 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּעִנְיָן זֶה.

אֲבָל יְשִׁיבָה בִּלְבַדָּהּ בְּלֹא מִטָּה אוֹ שֻׁלְחָן אוֹ שְׁאָר כְּלֵי תַשְׁמִישׁוֹ – אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִם תִּתְאוֹנֵן דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי הַמִּאוּס – אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קוּם וְלֵךְ מִכַּאן וְשֵׁב בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה לֹא הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב כַּאן וְעַכְשָׁו נִכְנַס דֶּרֶךְ עֲרַאי,תריח מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁקָּבַע כַּאן דִּירָתוֹ עַל יְדֵי מִטָּה אוֹ שֻׁלְחָן אוֹ שְׁאָר כְּלֵי תַשְׁמִישׁוֹ – אֵין מַטְרִיחִים אוֹתוֹ לַעֲקוֹר דִּירָתוֹ מִכַּאן, אֶלָּא מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הַגָּרָף מִלְּפָנָיו:

77 A person may bring an entire container of earth [into his home] while it is still day [on Friday]363 and empty it onto the ground in his house.364 He may use it for all his needs on Shabbos, e.g., to take some of it to cover spittle, feces, or the like, provided he designated a corner [of the house] for them. In such a situation, it is evident that [such a place be] set aside and prepared for such purposes. If, however, [a person] emptied [the earth] in the middle of his home where people tread, [the earth] is considered as part of the earthen floor of the home. It is muktzeh and forbidden to be moved.365

For this reason, produce that was buried in sand366 is permitted to be removed from its location on Shabbos. That sand [covering the produce] is not muktzeh, since it was originally set aside for this purpose, and a container or a corner was designated for it. [This license is granted] provided the sand is loose enough that there is no concern that [removing the produce] will produce a crevice,367 as will be explained in sec. 498[:29].

עז מַכְנִיס אָדָם מְלֹא קֻפָּתוֹ עָפָרתריט מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםתרכ, 363 וּמְעָרֶה אוֹתוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ לָאָרֶץ,תרכא, 364 וּמֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ כָּל צְרָכָיו בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן לִטּוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ לְכַסּוֹת רֹק אוֹ צוֹאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.תרכב וְהוּא שֶׁיִּחֵד לוֹ קֶרֶן זָוִית,תרכג שֶׁאָז נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מוּכָן וְעוֹמֵד לְכָךְ.תרכד אֲבָל אִם עֵרָה אוֹתוֹ בְּאֶמְצַע בֵּיתוֹ לְמִדְרַס רַגְלַיִם – הֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי עֲפַר קַרְקַע הַבַּיִת וּמֻקְצֶה הוּא, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ.תרכה, 365

לְפִיכָךְ, פֵּרוֹת הַטְּמוּנִים בְּחוֹל – מֻתָּר לִטְּלָם מִשָּׁם בְּשַׁבָּת,366 שֶׁאֵין אוֹתוֹ הֶעָפָר מֻקְצֶה,תרכו שֶׁהֲרֵי הֱכִינוֹ לְכָךְ מִתְּחִלָּהתרכז וְיִחֵד לוֹ כְּלִי אוֹ קֶרֶן זָוִית. וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא הֶעָפָר תִּחוּחַ כָּל כָּךְ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲשִׂיַּת גּוּמָא,367 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"ח:תרכח

78 [On Shabbos,] it is forbidden to move a domesticated animal, a non-domesticated animal, or a fowl,368 because they are not fit [for anything] on Shabbos369while still alive.370 It is even forbidden to move a fowl that is fit to amuse a crying child.371 Nevertheless, one may overturn a basket in front of chicks to enable them to ascend and descend by means of it,372 for a k’li may be moved even for the sake of an entity that may not be moved on Shabbos. True, the basket may not be moved while the chicks are on it, because of their presence on it.373 Even so, this does not involve even a temporary nullification of a utensil from it being prepared for use,374 since the chicks can be chased away from the basket as soon as they ascend or descend it, or [the person could prevent them] from standing on it for even one moment.375 After [the chicks] descend from [the basket], it is permitted to move [the basket].

If, however, the chicks were on the basket for the entire duration of bein hashmashos, it is forbidden to move [the basket] for the entire day, even after [the chicks] descend.376 [The rationale is that] since the basket became muktzeh and served as a base for a forbidden entity377 during bein hashmashos, it is deemed muktzeh for that entire day.378

עח אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּהֵמָה אוֹ חַיָּה אוֹ עוֹף,תרכט, 368 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִים בְּשַׁבָּת369 כְּשֶׁהֵם חַיִּים.תרל, 370 וַאֲפִלּוּ עוֹף שֶׁרָאוּי לְצַחֵק בּוֹ תִּינוֹק כְּשֶׁבּוֹכֶה – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ.תרלא, 371

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לִכְפּוֹת אֶת הַסַּל לִפְנֵי הָאֶפְרוֹחִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ וְיֵרְדוּ בּוֹ,תרלב, 372 שֶׁהַכְּלִי נִטָּל אַף לְצֹרֶךְ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת.תרלג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּעוֹד שֶׁהָאֶפְרוֹחִים עַל הַסַּל אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל אֶת הַסַּל מִפְּנֵי הָאֶפְרוֹחִים שֶׁעָלָיותרלד, 373 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין כַּאן בִּטּוּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹתרלה אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי שָׁעָה,374 הוֹאִיל וּבְיָדוֹ לְהַפְרִיחַ הָאֶפְרוֹחִים מֵהַסַּל מִיָּדתרלו שֶׁעָלוּ אוֹ שֶׁיָּרְדוּ עָלָיו, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעַמְדוּ עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ רֶגַע375 וּלְאַחַר שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מֵעָלָיו – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ.

וְאִם הָיוּ הָאֶפְרוֹחִים עַל הַסַּל כָּל מֶשֶׁךְ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתתרלז – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּרְדוּ,376 שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצָהתרלח וְנַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּרתרלט, 377 בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – הֻקְצָה לְכָל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ:תרמ, 378

79 It is permitted to assist any domesticated animal, non-domesticated animal, or fowl to walk in a private domain,379 i.e., one may hold the animals’ neck and sides and support them,380 and move their legs so that they walk, provided one does not lift up [the animals] to the extent that their legs381 are elevated above the ground. [This is prohibited because animals] are muktzeh and [are] forbidden to be moved.382

True, [there is a general rule that applies to] all articles that are muktzeh: Just as it is forbidden to move the entire article, so too is it forbidden to move part of the article.383 Nevertheless, [our Sages] permitted one to assist an animal in walking if this is necessary, out of consideration for its suffering.384 If, however, [animals] do not require this assistance, it is forbidden to even [merely] assist them.

It is forbidden to assist a chicken to walk when it requires this [assistance], because it lifts itself while it is being assisted and thus the person will be moving it entirely; the Sages did not permit this [even] out of consideration for the suffering of animals. One may, however, push [a chicken] from behind by hand so that it will enter the chicken coop, if [the chicken] fled from [the coop].385

עט כָּל בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף מְדַדִּין אוֹתָם בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,תרמא, 379 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאוֹחֵז בְּצַוָּארָן וּבִצְדָדִין וּמְסַיְּעָן,380 וּמְנַעֲנֵעַ רַגְלֵיהֶן שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ,תרמב וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַגְבִּיהֵם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּעָקְרוּ רַגְלֵיהֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ,381 שֶׁמֻּקְצִים הֵם וַאֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל.תרמג, 382

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מֻקְצֶה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל כֻּלּוֹ כָּךְ אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל מִקְצָתוֹ,תרמד, 383 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְדַדּוֹת אוֹתָם מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים,תרמה, 384 אִם הַבַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים צְרִיכִים לְכָךְ,תרמו אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְכָךְ – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְדַדּוֹת אוֹתָם.תרמז

וְתַרְנְגֹלֶת אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְדַדּוֹת אוֹתָהּתרמח אֲפִלּוּ הִיא צְרִיכָה לְכָךְ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מַגְבַּהַת עַצְמָהּ כְּשֶׁמְּדַדִּים אוֹתָהּ, וְנִמְצָא זֶה מְטַלְטֵלתרמט אֶת כֻּלָּהּ, וְזֶה לֹא הִתִּירוּ מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים.תרנ אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִדְחוֹת אוֹתָהּ מֵאֲחוֹרֶיהָ בְּיָדַיִם כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לַלּוּלתרנא אִם בָּרְחָה מִמֶּנּוּ:תרנב, 385

80 All the above applies with regard to assisting [a living being to walk] in a private domain. In a public domain, by contrast, it is forbidden to assist any domesticated animal, non-domesticated animal, or fowl to walk.386 [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one lift [the animals] up and walk with them, thus incurring a liability for carrying [animals] four cubits in the public domain. [Our Sages’] statement387 that “a living being carries itself” applies only to a human being, not to a domesticated animal, non-domesticated animal, or fowl.388

The laws pertaining to a karmelis are the same as those pertaining to a public domain in this context.389 [However,] pushing [the animals] from behind if they flee is permitted even in the public domain.

פ וְכָל זֶה לְדַדּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֲבָל בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אָסוּר לְדַדּוֹתתרנג שׁוּם בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף,תרנד, 386 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַגְבִּיהֵם וְיוֹלִיכֵם, וְיִתְחַיֵּבתרנה מִשּׁוּם מַעֲבִיר ד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ387 "הַחַי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת עַצְמוֹ" אֶלָּא בְּאָדָם, אֲבָל לֹא בִּבְהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף.תרנו, 388 וְכַרְמְלִית דִּינוֹ כִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְעִנְיָן זֶה.תרנז, 389

וְלִדְחוֹת אוֹתָם מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם אִם בָּרְחוּ – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:תרנח

81 A woman may assist her child390 to walk even in the public domain.391 It was not [deemed appropriate by our Sages] to decree [a prohibition] lest [a mother] lift up [her child] and carry him four cubits in the public domain, for even if [the mother] were to do this, she would not violate a Scriptural prohibition, only a Rabbinic one,392 because a living being carries itself.387 [This leniency applies] provided [the mother] does not drag [her child].393 Instead [the child] should lift one leg while leaving the other on the ground,391 supporting himself [on that foot] until he puts down the leg that he [previously] lifted up. Thus, he is always supporting himself with one leg. When, however, [the mother] drags [the child] while both his legs [are on the ground], it is equivalent to carrying him, and this is forbidden even in a karmelis.

When the child is so young that [the mother] must drag him while both his legs [are on the ground], [the mother] is liable [for violating a Scriptural prohibition] if she carries [the child in this manner] in the public domain. For [our Sages’] statement that “a living being carries itself” does not apply to such a [young] child. Similarly, one who carries a person who [cannot move because he is] bound394 or an invalid who is unable to walk at all395 is liable, because these individuals do not “carry themselves” at all.396

Moreover, even if [the child is] mature enough to walk on his feet alone, it is forbidden to carry him even in a karmelis, because [our Sages] said “a living being carries itself” only to exempt a person from liability for a sin-offering.397 It is, however, forbidden to [carry a child who can walk] as a shvus,398and in a karmelis, it is forbidden as a shvus of a shvus.399It is necessary to caution the many who err in this regard.

פא הָאִשָּׁה מְדַדָּה אֶת בְּנָהּתרנט, 390 אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,תרס, 391 שֶׁאֵין לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא תַּגְבִּיהֶנּוּ וְתוֹלִיכֶנּוּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁאַף אִם תַּעֲשֶׂה כֵּן – לֹא תַעֲבוֹר עַל דָּבָר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,392 שֶׁהַחַי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת עַצְמוֹ.תרסא, 387 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא תְגָרְרֵהוּ,393 אֶלָּא יְהֵא מַגְבִּיהַּ רַגְלוֹ הָאַחַת וְיַנִּיחַ הַשְּׁנִיָּה עַל הָאָרֶץ,תרסב, 391 וְיִשָּׁעֵן עָלֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזוֹר וְיַנִּיחַ רַגְלוֹ שֶׁהִגְבִּיהַּ, שֶׁנִּמְצָא לְעוֹלָם הוּא נִשְׁעָן עַל רַגְלוֹ הָאַחַת.תרסג אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִיא גוֹרֶרֶת שְׁתֵּי רַגְלָיו – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנוֹשְׂאָתוֹ,תרסד וְאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּכַרְמְלִית.תרסה

וְאִם הוּא קָטָן כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִגְרוֹר ב' רַגְלָיו וּנְשָׂאַתּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – חַיֶּבֶת, שֶׁבְּקָטָן כָּזֶה אֵין אוֹמְרִים הַחַי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת עַצְמוֹ.תרסו וְכֵן הַנּוֹשֵׂא אֶת הַכָּפוּתתרסז, 394 אוֹ אֶת הַחוֹלֶהתרסח שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ כְּלָלתרסט, 395 – חַיָּב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת עַצְמָן כְּלָל.עתר, 396

וְאַף אִם הוּא גָדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לֵילֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו לְבַדּוֹ – אָסוּר לִשָּׂא אוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּכַרְמְלִית,תרעא שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ הַחַי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא לִפְטוֹר מֵחַטָּאת,397 אֲבָל עַל כָּל פָּנִים אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת,תערב, 398 וּבְכַרְמְלִית הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת399. וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לְרַבִּים שֶׁטּוֹעִים בָּזֶה:

82 When a k’li becomes cracked, one should not pull out a shard from it400 so that he may use [the shard] to cover or to support [another k’li].401 [The rationale is that taking the shard] is comparable to preparing a k’li, and preparing any entity on Shabbos so that it can be used for a purpose is [forbidden] because one is preparing a k’li, as will be explained in sec. 340[:17].402

פב כְּלִי שֶׁנִּתְרוֹעֵעַ – לֹא יִתְלוֹשׁ מִמֶּנָּה חֶרֶס400 לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ אוֹ לִסְמוֹךְ בּוֹ,תרעג, 401 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְתַקֵּן כְּלִי,תרעד שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּתַקְּנוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ – יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם תִּקּוּן כְּלִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"מ:תרעה, 402

83 It is forbidden to play with a ball on Shabbos and festivals, because it is forbidden to move [a ball] since it is not categorized as a k’li. There are authorities who permit moving it and playing with it in a private domain.403 From earlier eras onward, it has become common custom to follow this leniency. Those who do so should not be admonished404 since they have authorities on whom to rely.

פג אָסוּר לִשְׂחוֹק בְּכַדּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב,תרעו לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו.תרעז וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיםתרעח לְטַלְטְלוֹ וְלִשְׂחוֹק בּוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַ[יָּחִיד].תרעט, 403 וְנָהֲגוּ מִקֶּדֶם לְהָקֵלתרפ וְלֹא מִחוּ בְּיָדָם,404 הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם עַל מִי שֶׁיִּסְמֹכוּ:

84 It is forbidden to carry silkworm eggs under one’s armpits, because they are forbidden to be moved since they are not fit for anything. Also, one’s body heat causes the eggs to hatch.405

פד אָסוּר לָשֵׂאת תַּחַת אַצִּילָיו זֶרַע הַתּוֹלָעִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂים הַמֶּשִׁי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל,תרפא שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם,תרפב וְעוֹד שֶׁמּוֹלִיד בְּחֻמּוֹ:תרפג, 405

85 There are authorities who forbid moving a garment belonging to a Jew that contains shaatnez406 even to use for a permitted purpose or to make use of the place it occupies. [The rationale is that the garment] is not fit for any purpose,407 neither to wear nor even to spread beneath oneself [to sit on]408 if it is not a stiff cloth, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 301.409 Other authorities permit [such a garment] to be moved to use for a permitted purpose or to make use of the place it occupies, because [the garment] is nevertheless categorized as a k’li; it is [only] that the activity for which it is used is forbidden.410

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. [The rationale is that] the categorization of an object as a k’li is halachically significant only with regard to [having the license to move] a k’li ordinarily used to perform an activity that is forbidden [to be performed] on Shabbos, while the activity [usually] performed with [that k’li] is permitted during the week. [Therefore,] even on Shabbos, [when the object]is not fit to be used at all, it is [still] permitted to be moved411 because it is categorized as a k’li, since it is fit to be used for its purpose during the week. For example, a kerosene lamp, whichit is not fit for anything on Shabbos,412 is [nevertheless] permitted to be moved since it is categorized as a k’li,413 as explained above.414 If, however, an object that is not fit to perform [its] function even during the week, for example, a garment that is shaatnez – that is forbidden to be worn during the week as well – is not included in the category of keilim or garments at all. [True,] it is fit to be used for a different function, e.g., to cover containers, to provide shade over one’s head, or another function [of this type, i.e.,] one that a garment is not designated for nor is it made for that purpose. [Nonetheless, the garment] is not included in the category of keilim [because of these functions] unless it was specifically designated for that purpose. [To cite a parallel:] Although all pebbles and stones are fit to cover containers, that is not [sufficient to] cause them to be included in the category of keilim unless they were specifically designated for that purpose, as explained above.415

The fact that [this] garment has the form and the appearance of an [ordinary] garment is not at all effective [in causing it to be included in the category of a k’li. The rationale is that] it is forbidden to be worn. [To cite a parallel:] Food that is forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos416has the form and the appearance of food, yet that does not [change its status and] permit it to be moved. And [indeed,] the category of food is a more inclusive [category in determining whether an object may be moved] than the category of keilim.417

פה יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםתרפד לְטַלְטֵל בֶּגֶד שַׁעַטְנֵז406 שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּמְקוֹמוֹ,תרפה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם,תרפו, 407 לֹא לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בּוֹ, וְלֹא לְהַצִּיעוֹ תַּחְתָּיו408 אִם אֵינוֹ בֶּגֶד קָשֶׁה, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן ש"א.תרפז, 409

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיםתרפח לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ אוֹ מְקוֹמוֹ,תרפט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו,תרצ אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר.410

וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,תרצא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא לִכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד אֲבָל בְּחֹל מְלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר, שֶׁאַף אִם בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ רָאוּי כְּלָל לְשׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ,411 הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁרָאוּי הוּא לִמְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּחֹל, כְּגוֹן נֵר שֶׁמַּדְלִיקִין בּוֹ נֵפְטְ, שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם,412 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי,413 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תרצב, 414 אֲבָל אִם גַּם בְּחֹל אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִמְלָאכָה, כְּגוֹן בֶּגֶד שַׁעַטְנֵז שֶׁאָסוּר לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בּוֹ גַּם בְּחֹל – אֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי וּמַלְבּוּשׁ כְּלָל, שֶׁאַף שֶׁרָאוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ כֵּלִים, אוֹ לְהַאֲהִיל בּוֹ לְמַעְלָה מֵרֹאשׁוֹ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּתַשְׁמִישִׁים אֵלּוּ, שֶׁאֵין הַבֶּגֶד מְיֻחָד לָהֶם וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ – אֵינָן מוֹרִידִין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת כְּלִי, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִחֲדוֹ לְכָךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּל צְרוֹרוֹת וַאֲבָנִים שֶׁהֵם רְאוּיִים לְכִסּוּי כֵּלִים, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עַל יְדֵי כָךְ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִחֲדָם לְכָךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תרצג, 415 וְאֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלָל לְהַבֶּגֶד מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו צוּרַת וְתֹאַר מַלְבּוּשׁ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָסוּר לְלָבְשׁוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין מוֹעִיל לְמַאֲכָל הָאָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָהתרצד בְּשַׁבָּת416 לְהַתִּירוֹ בְּטִלְטוּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו תֹּאַר אֹכֶל, וְתוֹרַת אֹכֶל עָדִיף מִתּוֹרַת כְּלִי:תרצה, 417

86 It is permitted to move a fan to chase away flies, because it is a k’li.418 One must, however, be careful not to kill a fly.419

פו מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מְנִיפָה כְּדֵי לְהַבְרִיחַ בָּהּ הַזְּבוּבִים,תרצו, 418 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּלִי הוּא. רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַהֲרוֹג זְבוּב:תרצז, 419

87 Brooms used to sweep the floor are considered as keilim used for a permitted task according to the authorities who permit sweeping a paved floor on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 337[:2]. Although such a broom is also used to sweep unpaved floors during the week,420 it is nevertheless considered a k’li used for both forbidden and permitted activities, which may be moved like a k’li used for permitted activities, as explained above.421 However, according to the authorities who forbid sweeping even a paved floor on Shabbos, it is forbidden to move [a broom] except to use for a permitted purpose or to make use of the place it occupies, like a k’li used for a forbidden activity.

Whether it is permitted to turn over and move an instrument used to predict [the position of] the stars [so that one can] look at it is explained in sec. 307[:31].422

פז מַכְבֵּדוֹת שֶׁמְּכַבְּדִין בָּהֶן הַקַּרְקַע – הֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּרתרחצ לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין לְכַבֵּד בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת קַרְקַע הַמְרֻצָּף,תרצט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ז.תש וְאַף שֶׁמְּכַבְּדִין בָּהֶן גַּם כֵּן קַרְקַע שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרֻצָּף בְּחֹל,420 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶתֵּר,תשא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תשב, 421

אֲבָל לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִים לְכַבֵּד בְּשַׁבָּת אַף קַרְקַע הַמְרֻצָּףתשג – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפָן אוֹ מְקוֹמָן, כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר.תשד

כְּלִי שֶׁחוֹזִים בּוֹ הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם מֻתָּר לְהַפְּכוֹ וּלְטַלְטְלוֹ לְהַבִּיט בּוֹ – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז:תשה, 422

88 The widespread custom is to forbid moving an instrument used to tell time, whether an hourglass423 or another type, e.g., a sundial,424 except to use [the instrument] for a purpose – i.e., he needs to use it for a certain permitted use425 or to make use of the place it occupies, like a k’li used for a forbidden activity. [The rationale is that the instrument] was made to measure time or shade, and that is comparable to measurement, which is forbidden on Shabbos.426[Such an instrument] should not be permitted [to be moved based on the logic that it enables] measurement related to a mitzvah427 – [e.g.,] it enables one to [measure his time for Torah] study – for a measurement connected with a mitzvah is permitted only when the measurement is itself a mitzvah – e.g., measuring a mikveh or the like. In this instance, by contrast, the measurement itself does not [directly] involve a mitzvah. If [one argues that the timepiece enables one to study, it can be rhetorically asked:] How can one have his study be dependent on a forbidden article, and through that [study], cause it to become permitted? This is the rationale for the custom [that forbids moving a timepiece]. Nevertheless, according to the letter of the law, there is no clear prohibition nor is there a clear leniency.428

פח מַה שֶּׁמּוֹרֶה עַל הַשָּׁעוֹת, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל חוֹל423 בֵּין שֶׁל מִין אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁרוֹאִין בְּצֵלתשו, 424 – נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג לְאָסְרוֹ בְּטִלְטוּלתשז כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּגוּפוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמֻּתָּר,425 אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ כִּכְלִי שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִסּוּר, לְפִי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לִמְדִידַת הַזְּמַן אוֹ הַצֵּל, וְיֵשׁ לְדַמּוֹתָהּ לִמְדִידָה הָאֲסוּרָה בְּשַׁבָּת.תשח, 426

וְאֵין לְהַתִּירָהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מְדִידָה שֶׁל מִצְוָה,427 שֶׁהוּא לוֹמֵד עַל יְדֵי כְּלִי זֶה, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ מְדִידָה שֶׁל מִצְוָה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהַמְּדִידָה בְּעַצְמָהּ יֵשׁ בָּהּ מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן לִמְדּוֹד הַמִּקְוֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ,תשט אֲבָל כַּאן הַמְּדִידָה בְּעַצְמָהּ אֵין בָּהּ שׁוּם עִנְיַן מִצְוָה, וְאִי מִשּׁוּם שֶׁלּוֹמֵד עַל יָדָהּ – אֵיךְ יִתְלֶה לִמּוּדוֹ בְּדָבָר הָאָסוּר וְיִהְיֶה מֻתָּר עַל יְדֵי כָךְ?תשי זֶהוּ טַעַם הַמִּנְהָג, אֲבָל מִן הַדִּין אֵין אִסּוּר בָּרוּר בַּדָּבָר וְלֹא הֶתֵּר בָּרוּר:תשיא, 428

89 An entity that is fit to be used on Shabbos but is considered inferior in the eyes of the wealthy, and it is not customary for them to use [this entity] because of their wealth, is considered muktzeh for them in an absolute sense, and is forbidden to be moved by them even if it belongs to the poor. Nevertheless, wealthy people staying in the home of a poor person are permitted to move [such articles] like the poor people themselves. If the entity in question belongs to a rich person, it is forbidden to be moved even by all poor people everywhere. Since it became muktzeh for its owners, it is muktzeh for everyone.429

To what does the above apply? To an entity that is not fit for its owners because it is considered inferior by them. If, by contrast, it is not fit for its owners because it is forbidden to them – e.g., wine for a Nazirite430 – this does not cause it to be deemed muktzeh, since it is permitted to others. Therefore, even a Nazirite is permitted to move it.

פט אֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר הָרָאוּי בְּשַׁבָּת, אִם הוּא גָרוּעַ בְּעֵינֵי הָעֲשִׁירִים וְאֵין דַּרְכָּם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ מֵחֲמַת עָשְׁרָם – נַעֲשָׂה דָּבָר זֶה מֻקְצֶה גָמוּר לָהֶם, וְנֶאֱסַר לָהֶם בְּטִלְטוּל, אַף שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים, אֶלָּא הָעֲשִׁירִים שֶׁבְּבֵית הָעֲנִיִּים מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטְלוֹ כְּמוֹ הָעֲנִיִּים עַצְמָם.תשיב

וְאִם דָּבָר זֶה הוּא שֶׁל עָשִׁיר – אָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל אַף לְכָל הָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצָה לִבְעָלָיו – הֻקְצָה לְכָל הָעוֹלָם.תשיג, 429

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִבְעָלָיו מֵחֲמַת גְּרִיעוּתוֹ בְּעֵינֵי בְעָלָיו, אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִבְעָלָיו מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר לָהֶם,תשיד כְּגוֹן יַיִן לְנָזִיר430 – לֹא נַעֲשָׂה מֻקְצֶה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מֻתָּר לַאֲחֵרִים, וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף הַנָּזִיר עַצְמוֹ מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ:תשטו