SECTION 307 The Laws of Shabbos Relating to Speech (1-38)

סימן שז דִּינֵי שַׁבָּת הַתְּלוּיִים בְּדִבּוּר וּבוֹ ל"ח סְעִיפִים:

1 [It is written:1 “And you honor it by refraining from]… speaking about [mundane matters].” Our Sages interpret2 [this phrase to mean that] “your speech on Shabbos should not resemble your speech during the week.” One should not [speak of a forbidden activity], saying, “I will do such and such tomorrow.” [The restriction includes] even [speaking of] actions that are forbidden to be performed on Shabbos merely according to Rabbinic Law, e.g., hiring [a worker],3 commercial activity, or the like.

[The above restriction applies] even though what one says on Shabbos will have absolutely no effect on what he will do on the following day, and [as such,] does not resemble [the prohibition of] instructing another person to perform a task on his behalf on the following day. [In that instance,] the instruction [actually] causes the action to be performed on the following day, i.e., the other person will perform that task on the following day because of [his statement].4 Thus, by instructing the other person, he is “pursuing his concerns” on Shabbos. This is forbidden, [because the above-cited verse speaks of refraining from] “pursuing your concerns (and speaking about [mundane matters]).”5

When, by contrast, a person says that he, himself, will perform a particular task on the next day, there is no reason to prohibit his statement because of the prohibition against “pursuing your concerns,” since his statement will not avail him in “pursuit of his concerns.” Even if he would not have made this statement on Shabbos, he could still perform [the action] on the following day. Nevertheless, [making such a statement] is forbidden because of [the charge to refrain from] “speaking about [mundane matters],” i.e., that one’s speech on Shabbos should not resemble his speech during the week.

It is even forbidden to say, “I will perform this-and-this mitzvah the following day,” if the mitzvah is forbidden to be performed on Shabbos. License was granted to speak of “the concerns of Heaven”6 on Shabbos only when such speech is necessary for the [performance of the] mitzvah.7 In this instance, however, making this statement has no effect at all on his [actual] performance [of the mitzvah] the following day.

א "וְדַבֵּרא דָּבָר",ב, 1 דָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִיםג, 2 שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא דִבּוּרְךָ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּדִבּוּרְךָ שֶׁל חֹל,ד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר דָּבָר פְּלוֹנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה לְמָחָר,ה וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ו כְּגוֹן שְׂכִירוּת3 וּמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּרז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין דִּבּוּר זֶה שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת מוֹעִיל לוֹ כְּלוּם לַעֲשִׂיָּה שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לְמָחָר.

וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ לְמָחָר, שֶׁאֲמִירָה זוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת לַעֲשִׂיָּה שֶׁלְּמָחָר, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי אֲמִירָה זוֹ עוֹשֶׂה חֲבֵרוֹ לְמָחָר,ח, 4 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהוּא מוֹצֵא חֲפָצָיו בְּשַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי אֲמִירָה זוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וְאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ"ט ("וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר"י).5

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה דָּבָר פְּלוֹנִי לְמָחָר – אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר מִשּׁוּם "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ", שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹצֵא חֲפָצָיו עַל יְדֵי אֲמִירָה זוֹ, שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן לְמָחָריא – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר", שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא דִבּוּרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדִבּוּרוֹ בְּחֹל.

וַאֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר מִצְוָה פְּלוֹנִית אֶעֱשֶׂה לְמָחָר – אָסוּריב אִם הוּא מִצְוָה שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת.יג וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁחֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם מֻתָּר לְדַבֵּר בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת,יד, 6 אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ צֹרֶךְ לְמִצְוָה בְּדִבּוּר זֶה,7 אֲבָל כַּאן אֵין אֲמִירָתוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם לַעֲשִׂיָּה שֶׁלְּמָחָר:טו

2 [Moreover,] on Shabbos, it is even forbidden to excessively indulge in idle conversation8 that does not mention performing work at all, for “one’s speech on Shabbos should not resemble his speech during the week.” People who take pleasure in telling anecdotes and speaking about novelties are permitted to relate them on Shabbos as they do during the week. Nevertheless, even during the week, Torah scholars should not excessively indulge in such talk so as [not to be associated with] “a company of jesters.”9 However, a person who does not take pleasure in telling many anecdotes is forbidden to relate them on Shabbos so that another person will take pleasure in [hearing] them.10

ב וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשִׂיחַת דְּבָרִים בְּטֵלִים8 שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם זֵכֶר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה כְּלָל – אָסוּר לְהַרְבּוֹת בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת,טז שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא דִּבּוּר הַשַּׁבָּת כְּדִבּוּר הַחֹל.

וּבְנֵי אָדָם שֶׁסִּפּוּר שְׁמוּעוֹת וְדִבְרֵי חִדּוּשִׁים הוּא עֹנֶג לָהֶם – מֻתָּרִים לְסַפְּרָם בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ בְּחֹל.יז אֲבָל גַּם בְּחֹל אֵין לִבְנֵי תוֹרָה לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּשִׂיחָה זוֹ, מִשּׁוּם "מוֹשַׁב לֵצִים".יח, 9

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְעַנֵּג בְּרִבּוּי הַשְּׁמוּעוֹת – אָסוּר לְסַפְּרָם בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַנֵּג בָּהֶם חֲבֵרוֹ:יט, 10

3 On Shabbos, it is forbidden to have a non-Jew placed in custody because of a debt [he owes].11 During the week, however, [a Jew] may tell a [secular] judge, “Why didn’t you place that non-Jew in custody last Shabbos?”, even though [the judge] will understand from his words that [if the debt remains unpaid], he should place him in custody on future Shabbasos if [the debtor] happens to come to the town then.12

ג אָסוּר לְעַכֵּב הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל הַחוֹב,11 אֲבָל יָכוֹל לוֹמַר בְּחֹל לְשׁוֹפֵט "מַדּוּעַ לֹא עִכַּבְתָּ הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָה",כ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּבִין מִתּוֹךְ דְּבָרָיו שֶׁיְּעַכְּבֶנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת הַבָּאוֹת אִם יִזְדַּמֵּן אָז לָעִיר:12

4 It is forbidden to freeze the assets of a person that are being held in the possession of another person on Shabbos.

ד אָסוּר לְעַכֵּב נִכְסֵי רְאוּבֵן בְּיַד שִׁמְעוֹן בְּשַׁבָּת:כא

5 It is forbidden to speak about a matter that recalls one’s sorrow,13 for example, the death of his good friend or the like.

ה אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר אֵיזֶה דָבָר שֶׁנִּזְכַּר בּוֹ צַעֲרוֹ,13 כְּגוֹן מִמִּיתַת אוֹהֲבוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:כב

6 Whenever Jewish Law forbids the performance of an activity on Shabbos, it is forbidden to tell a non-Jew to perform [that activity on the Jew’s behalf] even if one tells [the non-Jew] before Shabbos to perform [the activity] on Shabbos.14[This restriction applies] even if he does not need this matter [attended to] until after Shabbos. For example, before Shabbos, one [may not] tell [a non-Jew] to hire workers on Shabbos to perform work for [the Jew] after Shabbos. Nevertheless, one may instruct a non-Jew to perform an activity on Shabbos that a Jew [is prohibited from performing] merely as a stringency.

ו כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת מִן הַדִּין – אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,כג, 14 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְדָבָר זֶה עַד לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת,כד כְּגוֹן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת לִשְׂכּוֹר לוֹ פּוֹעֲלִים בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ לוֹ מְלָאכָה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת.כה

אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא חֻמְרָא בְּעָלְמָא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַצְמוֹ – יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ:כו

7 Whenever it is forbidden to tell a non-Jew to perform a task on Shabbos, it is [also] forbidden to even hint to him to perform it. Similarly, it is forbidden to instruct him to perform a permitted task from which he will understand that he should perform a [forbidden] labor on Shabbos. For example, one [may not] tell a non-Jew, “Clean your nose,” so that [the non-Jew] will understand that [the Jew wants] him to remove the charred substances at the opening of a lamp, since this is like instructing him [directly] to remove those substances, except that [the Jew is merely] hinting. [Indeed,] even if the non-Jew seeks to remove the charred substances on his own initiative, without the Jew hinting [at the matter], if he acts on behalf of the Jew, [the Jew] must admonish him, because the lamp belongs to [the Jew], as stated in sec. 276[:3].15

It is, however, permitted to instruct a non-Jew in a manner that [enables the non-Jew] to infer that he should perform a labor [forbidden on Shabbos] after Shabbos,or to hint to him16 to perform a labor [forbidden on Shabbos] after Shabbos. [The rationale is that] the prohibition involves only speech, for the verse speaks [of refraining from] “speaking about [mundane matters].”17

If the person does not issue any instructions, but makes a statement in the presence of [the non-Jew] from which [the non-Jew] understands that he should perform on Shabbos a labor [forbidden to a Jew], it is permitted. For example, a non-Jew brings a letter that was sealed or tied [in a manner such] that a Jew is forbidden to open it18 and read it. He may tell the non-Jew, “I can’t read the letter as long as it is not open.” The non-Jew may then open it on his own initiative, for [the Jew] did not issue any instructions to him, nor even hint [at them] to him. Instead, the non-Jew understands on his own that it is necessary [for him to open the letter]. ([The rationale is that the non-Jew] acts on his own initiative to complete the task with which he was charged in delivering the letter. Therefore, [the non-Jew] need not be admonished [for opening the letter].)19

ז כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לִרְמוֹז לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ.כז וְהוּא הַדִּין שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹמַר לוֹ אֵיזֶה צִוּוּי לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיָּבִין מִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת,כח כְּגוֹן לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיְּקַנַּח חָטְמוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּבִין שֶׁיָּסִיר הַפֶּחָם שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַנֵּר,כט שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְצַוֵּהוּ לְהָסִיר הַפֶּחָםל אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא בְּרֶמֶז.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנָּכְרִי בָּא מֵעַצְמוֹ לְהָסִיר הַפֶּחָם בְּלֹא רְמִיזַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ אִם עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,לא כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנֵּר הוּא שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ו.לב, 15

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי אֵיזֶה צִוּוּי שֶׁיָּבִין מִמֶּנּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, אוֹ לִרְמוֹז לוֹ16 מְלָאכָה לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת,לג שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱסַר אֶלָּא דִבּוּר בִּלְבָד,לד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרלה "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר".לו, 17

וְאִם אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ שׁוּם צִוּוּי, אֶלָּא שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְפָנָיו אֵיזֶה דָבָר שֶׁמֵּבִין מִמֶּנּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר,לז כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא אִגֶּרֶת חֲתוּמָה אוֹ קְשׁוּרָה, שֶׁאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יָכוֹל לְפָתְחָהּלח, 18 וּלְקָרְאָהּ – יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְהַנָּכְרִי "אֵינִי יָכוֹל לִקְרוֹתָהּ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֵינָהּ פְּתוּחָה",לט וְהַנָּכְרִי פּוֹתְחָהּ מֵעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ שׁוּם צִוּוּימ אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֶמֶז, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי מֵבִין מֵעַצְמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן (וּלְדַעַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לְהַשְׁלִים פְּעֻלָּתוֹ בִּשְׁלִיחוּת אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ, וּלְכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹמא, 19):

8 After Shabbos passes, one is permitted to ask a non-Jew, “Why didn’t you do such and such this past Shabbos?” Although the non-Jew understands from [the Jew’s] words that he would like him to perform that action on the following Shabbos, there is nothing [improper] in [saying] this. [The rationale is that the Jew] is making the statement during the week, and in his statement, there is no (hint of) [a] command to perform the act the following Shabbos; it is only that the non-Jew understands this on his own.

([This leniency applies] provided the forbidden labor is one that does not require [the Jew] to admonish the non-Jew when he sees him perform [the task] on Shabbos, e.g., the forbidden labor is not being performed using articles belonging to a Jew and the non-Jew (is not) the Jew’s hired worker, but rather is accustomed to performing [such tasks for the Jew as a favor with the intent that the Jew will] return the favor. See sec. 244[:11]20 and sec. 252[:10]).21

ח מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת "מַדּוּעַ לֹא עָשִׂיתָ דָּבָר פְּלוֹנִי בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָה", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּבִין מִתּוֹךְ דְּבָרָיו שֶׁרְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת הַבָּאָהמב – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ כֵּן בְּחֹל, וְאֵין בַּאֲמִירָתוֹ זוֹ שׁוּם (רֶמֶזמג) צִוּוּי לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת הַבָּאָה,מד אֶלָּא שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי מֵבִין כֵּן מֵעַצְמוֹ.

(וְהוּא שֶׁעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה זוֹ הִיא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת כְּשֶׁרוֹאֶה אֶת הַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין הַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בַּחֲפָצִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהַנָּכְרִי (אֵינוֹ) שְׂכִירוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֶלָּא רָגִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּטוֹבַת הֲנָאָה, עַיֵּן סִמָּן רמ"דמה, 20 וְרנ"במו, 21):

9 In a locale where Shabbos is the market day, it is forbidden to give money to a non-Jew on Friday to buy a particular article, if that article can only be bought in that place on the market day, as commonly occurs in small villages.22 [The rationale is that] it is as if [the Jew] explicitly told [the non-Jew] to purchase [the item] for him on Shabbos,23which is the market day. (It is, however, permitted for [the Jew] to give [the non-Jew] money on Wednesday or Thursday; [this is allowed] for the reason explained in sec. 252[:6].)24

When it is somewhat possible to purchase [such articles] on other days as well, it is even permitted to give [the non-Jew] the money on Friday, as long as [the Jew] does not tell him, “Purchase it on Shabbos.”Nor may [the Jew] tell [the non-Jew] that he is departing on a journey immediately on Saturday night, for [then] the non-Jew will [understand that he is] required to purchase [the article] on Shabbos. This is tantamount to explicitly instructing him to purchase it on Shabbos, as stated in sec. 252[:5].25

The same laws with all these particulars apply when [a Jew] gives articles to a non-Jew to sell. [Accordingly,] it is desirable not to dwell at all in a town whose market day is Shabbos, because it is [virtually] impossible not to sin [in this regard]. If the market, however, is not in the Jewish neighborhood, there is no reason for concern.

ט בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיּוֹם הַשּׁוּק הוּא בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לִתֵּן מָעוֹת לְנָכְרִי מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁיִּקְנֶה לוֹ חֵפֶץ פְּלוֹנִי,מז אִם אוֹתוֹ חֵפֶץ אֵינוֹ מָצוּי לִקְנוֹת בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם אֶלָּא בְּיוֹם הַשּׁוּקמח כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל בַּעֲיָרוֹת קְטַנּוֹת,22 שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ אָמַר לוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ לִקְנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּתמט, 23 שֶׁהוּא יוֹם הַשּׁוּק.

(אֲבָל בְּד' וְה' מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לוֹנ מָעוֹת, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"בנא, 24).

וְאִם מָצוּי קְצָת לִקְנוֹת גַּם בִּשְׁאָר יָמִים – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לוֹ מָעוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ קְנֵה בְּשַׁבָּת,נב וְגַם לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד וְיִצְטָרֵךְ הַנָּכְרִי לִקְנוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ לִקְנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת,נג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב.נד, 25 וְכֵן הַדִּין לְעִנְיַן כָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ בְּנוֹתֵן כֵּלִים לְנָכְרִי לִמְכּוֹר.נה

וְטוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לָדוּר כְּלָל בְּעִיר שֶׁיּוֹם הַשּׁוּק הוּא בְּשַׁבָּת, כִּי אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יֶחֱטָא.נו וְאִם הַשּׁוּק אֵינוֹ בִּשְׁכוּנַת הַיְּהוּדִים – אֵין לָחוּשׁ:נז

10 One is permitted to tell a non-Jew on Friday, “Here is money as a loan. Use it to purchase this-and-this article for yourself tomorrow on the market day.26 I will come back and buy it from you after Shabbos, enabling you topay back the loan of this money and also to profit.”27

י מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת "הֵילָךְ מָעוֹת בְּהַלְוָאָה וּקְנֵה בָּהֶם לְעַצְמְךָ חֵפֶץ פְּלוֹנִי לְמָחָר בְּיוֹם הַשּׁוּק,26 וַאֲנִי אֶחֱזוֹר וְאֶקָּחֶנּוּ מִמְּךָ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּתנח בְּפֵרְעוֹן חוֹב מָעוֹת אֵלּוּ וְאֶתֵּן לְךָ רֶוַח":נט, 27

11 A non-Jew who contracted [with a Jew] to bring [the Jew’s] merchandise to a certain place [is forbidden] to take the merchandise from the Jew’s house on Shabbos. True, [having the non-Jew do so] is prohibited only because of the impression that might be created,28 as stated in sec. 246[:5]. Nevertheless,] it is appropriate to penalize [the Jew] financially according to his means, or – if he lacks financial resources – with lashes, as the court sees fit.29

[The Jew] is not penalized if he erred, thinking that [having the non-Jew do so] was permitted. His word is accepted if he says that he acted unwittingly, [without an awareness of the transgression].30

It is permitted for [a non-Jew] to take [merchandise] from [a Jew’s] home while it is still day [on Friday], even if he departs from the town on Shabbos, as explained in that source.31

יא מִי שֶׁשָּׂכַר לוֹ נָכְרִיס בְּקַבְּלָנוּתסא לְהוֹלִיךְ סְחוֹרָתוֹ לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, וּבָא הַנָּכְרִי וְלָקַח הַסְּחוֹרָה מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין כַּאן אִסּוּר אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן28 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"וסב – רָאוּי לְקָנְסוֹ בְּמָמוֹן לְפִי עָשְׁרוֹ, אוֹ בְּמַלְקוּת כְּפִי רְאוֹת עֵינֵי בֵּית דִּין אִם אֵין לוֹ מָמוֹן.סג, 29

וְאִם טָעָה שֶׁסָּבַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר – אֵין קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ, וְנֶאֱמָן לוֹמַר שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּשׁוֹגֵגסד, 30

וְאִם לָקַח הַסְּחוֹרָה מִבֵּיתוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםסה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּפְלִיג מִן הָעִיר בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:סו, 31

12 A Jew may instruct a non-Jew to perform on Shabbos any action that does not involve [Scripturally] forbidden labor, but is forbidden [for a Jew] to perform only as a shvus,32provided it is being performed for the sake of a person who is somewhat ill – even though his infirmity does not extend to his entire body nor are any one of his limbs in danger33 – or for the sake of a mitzvah.34 [For example,] a Jew may tell a non-Jew to climb a tree on Rosh HaShanah to bring down from there a shofar so that it may be sounded.35 Or [the Jew may] tell [the non-Jew] to bring hot water from one courtyard to another [even though] there is no eruv [uniting] them (or through a karmelis; see the explanation in sec. 325[:16]) [in order] to bathe a person who is extremely uncomfortable.

There are some authorities who maintain that the same laws apply when a loss is involved. [In such a situation, our Sages] did not institute restrictive decrees regarding a shvus – for example, to [have a non-Jew] transfer merchandise that is muktzeh from a place where it is being ruined because of rain.36 ([It is permitted] even to [have the non-Jew] bring it into the Jew’s house via a karmelis if no other option is available.) One may rely on their words when a severe loss37 is involved. (The same law applies when there is a great need, even though no loss is involved.)38

All the above applies when the non-Jew performs the task in the same manner as he would perform it during the week. [Different laws apply] when, however, he deviates from the manner in which he regularly performs the task during the week. Even though [performing a forbidden task in an unusual manner is forbidden] as a shvus in the complete sense,39 [nevertheless, not only a non-Jew, but] even a Jew is permitted [to perform a forbidden task in an unusual manner] in a situation where [severe]40 discomfort is involved, as will be explained in sec. 328[:20, 41].41 There are authorities who maintain that this same law applies when there is a loss involved.42 One may rely on their words when a severe loss is involved.37 (See sec. 336[:15].)43

יב דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְלָאכָה וְאֵינוֹ אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת32 – מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁם מִקְצָת חֹלִי,סז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כּוֹלֵל אֶת כָּל הַגּוּף וְלֹא סַכָּנַת אֵבֶר.סח, 33 אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָהסט, 34 – אוֹמֵרע יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָכְרִי לַעֲלוֹת בָּאִילָן בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָהעא כְּדֵי לְהָבִיא מִשָּׁם שׁוֹפָר לִתְקוֹעַ בּוֹ.עב, 35 אוֹ לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁיָּבִיא לוֹ חַמִּין בְּשַׁבָּת מֵחָצֵר לְחָצֵר שֶׁאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם עֵרוּב (אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית, עַיֵּן בְּמַה שֶּׁיִּתְבָּאֵר סִמָּן שכ"העג), כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיץ בָּהֶם הַמִּצְטַעֵר.עד

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעה שֶׁהוּא הַדִּין בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּת, כְּגוֹן לְטַלְטֵל עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי סְחוֹרָה מֻקְצָה הַנִּפְסֶדֶת עַל יְדֵי גְשָׁמִיםעו, 36 (וַאֲפִלּוּ לַהֲבִיאָהּ לַבַּיִת דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵרעז). וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹלעח, 37 (וְהוּא הַדִּין לְצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שַׁיָּךְ שָׁם הֶפְסֵדעט, 38).

וְכָל זֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל, אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּשַׁנֶּה בַּעֲשִׂיָּתוֹ מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר39 – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּמְקוֹם צַעַר,40 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ח.פ, 41 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפא שֶׁהוּא הַדִּין בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד.42 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹלפב, 37 (עַיֵּן סִמָּן של"ופג, 43):

13 On Shabbos, a person is forbidden to make verbal calculations44 [of figures. This is] a decree [instituted by our Sages] lest one write. [This restriction applies] both to calculations related to future events and as well as those related to the past, but which are still relevant for the person’s knowledge, for example, [to say,] “I spent such and such an amount as wages for workers for this-and-this building,” when he still owes workers for their wages and he must know how much he already paid them in order to calculate how much he still owes them. [This applies] even if [the person] does not owe [his workers] anything according to [his own] reckoning. Nonetheless, since [before making the calculations], he was in doubt whether or not he owed any [money to] them, these calculations are necessary for him, and there are grounds for a decree lest he write down [these sums] as a reminder.

If, however, [the person] knows that he does not owe [the workers] anything, this is a calculation for which he has no need at all and it is permitted to be made on Shabbos.45Similarly, one may calculate how many seah46 of grain he possessed in a given year, how many dinarim47 he spent on his son’s wedding, and the like. These are considered as equivalent to idle conversation. One who calculates them on Shabbos is the same as one who calculates them during the week. [They are permitted,] provided he does not indulge in [such calculations] excessively, just as one should not excessively indulge in idle conversation on Shabbos, as stated above.48

יג אָסוּר לְאָדָם לַחְשׁוֹב חֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹתָיופד בְּפִיופה בְּשַׁבָּת,44 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִכְתּוֹב,פו בֵּין חֶשְׁבּוֹן הֶעָתִיד לִהְיוֹת, בֵּין חֶשְׁבּוֹן שֶׁעָבַר כְּבָר, אֶלָּא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ עֲדַיִן לֵידַע אוֹתוֹ, כְּגוֹן כָּךְ וְכָךְ הוֹצֵאתִי עַל בִּנְיָן פְּלוֹנִי לִשְׂכַר הַפּוֹעֲלִים, וַעֲדַיִן נִשְׁאָר בְּיָדוֹ מִשְּׂכַר הַפּוֹעֲלִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לֵידַע מַה שֶּׁנָּתַן לָהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדַע מַה שֶּׁמַּגִּיעַ לָהֶם עֲדַיִן,פז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹןפח לֹא יַגִּיעַ לָהֶם כְּלוּם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַכְשָׁו קֹדֶם הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן זֶה מִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ שֶׁמָּא מַגִּיעַ לָהֶם כְּלוּם – הֲרֵי זֶה חֶשְׁבּוֹן הַצָּרִיךְ לוֹ,פט וְיֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יִכְתְּבֶנּוּ לְזִכָּרוֹן.

אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁאֵין מַגִּיעַ לָהֶם כְּלוּם מִמֶּנּוּ – הֲרֵי זֶה חֶשְׁבּוֹן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ כְּלָל, וּמֻתָּר לְחַשְּׁבוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.צ, 45 וְכֵן כַּמָּה סְאִים46 תְּבוּאָה הָיָה לָנוּ בְּשָׁנָה פְּלוֹנִית, כַּמָּה דִינָרִים47 הוֹצִיא בְּחַתְנוּת בְּנוֹ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָאֵלּוּ, שֶׁהֵם בִּכְלַל שִׂיחָה בְּטֵלָה, הַמְחַשֵּׁב אוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת – כִּמְחַשֵּׁב אוֹתָם בְּחֹל,צא וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַרְבֶּה בָּהֶם, שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּשִׂיחָה בְּטֵלָה בְּשַׁבָּת,צב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:צג, 48

14 One may ask a worker,49 “Does it look like you will be able to stand near me this evening?”50 even though [the worker] understands from his words that [the employer] needs to hire him that evening for work. [The rationale is that] only an explicit statement is forbidden, as [indicated by] the phrase1 [enjoining one to refrain from] “speaking about [mundane matters].” Speech is forbidden; thought, i.e., what [the worker] understands from one’s speech is permitted.44 Nevertheless, one should not say, “Be prepared to be near me this evening,”51 for that is tantamount to explicitly stating that [the employer] wants to hire [the worker].

יד מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְפוֹעֵל49 "הֲנִרְאֶה בְּעֵינֶיךָ שֶׁתּוּכַל לַעֲמוֹד עִמִּי לָעֶרֶב"?צד, 50 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ כָּךְ מֵבִין שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ לָעֶרֶב לְשָׂכְרוֹ לִמְלָאכָה,צה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱסַר אֶלָּא דִּבּוּר מְפֹרָשׁ,צו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרצז, 1 "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר", דִּבּוּר – אָסוּר,צח הִרְהוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ מַה שֶּׁמֵּבִין מִתּוֹךְ דְּבָרָיו – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר.צט, 44

אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר "הֱיֵה נָכוֹן עִמִּי לָעֶרֶב",ק, 51 שֶׁזֶּהוּ כִּמְדַבֵּר בְּפֵרוּשׁקא שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְשָׂכְרוֹ:

15 The prohibition against speaking about one’s own concerns on Shabbos applies only to concerns that are forbidden to be dealt with on Shabbos, and there is no way to find a halachic convention that would enable one to deal with them on Shabbos in a permitted manner, even if the prohibition is merely Rabbinic in origin.52 For example, [it is forbidden] to tell another person – or to say about oneself – that he should bring produce that is muktzeh into his house on the following day.53 [This applies] even if the produce that is muktzeh is within the Shabbos limits and even if the town has an eruv. Nevertheless, there is absolutely no halachic convention that would allow him to move an article that is muktzeh on Shabbos in a permitted manner (when he [is moving it] for the sake of that article,54 as stated in sec. 276[:10]).55 If, however, one can find a halachic convention that would [theoretically] enable him to perform the task that he wants to perform on Saturday night in a permitted manner on Shabbos, he is allowed to state his [intent] or to instruct another person on Shabbos to perform this task after Shabbos. (He must, however, be careful not to mention hiring [the other person], as stated in sec. 306[:4].)56 [This leniency applies] even when at the time [the person voices his desire], that halachic convention does not exist. For example, a person may tell another person, “I am traveling to this-and-this city tomorrow. Come with me.” [The rationale is that, theoretically,] there is a factor that would allow [him to make the journey] on Shabbos [i.e.,] if there was a chain of huts [between the two places].57 [Hence, his statement is permitted] even though, presently, there are no huts.

(The underlying principle is that the essence of the prohibition against speaking about one’s concerns [on Shabbos]is that one is occupying himself on Shabbos with matters that are forbidden on that day. [For that reason,] only involvement with articles [or activities] for which the prohibition involves the physical substance of the entity [or the nature of the activity] is forbidden.58 When, by contrast, the prohibition [against an entity or activity] is dependent on another factor and were it not for that factor, the entity [or activity] would be permitted, one may occupy himself with speaking about [that entity or activity] on Shabbos, [e.g., planning to] perform the activity after Shabbos.59[The rationale is that the person] is not involved with the factor that causes the prohibition, but rather with those entities which, in and of themselves, would be permitted [on Shabbos], were it not for the [accompanying] factor that causes [these entities] to be prohibited.

For this reason, [there is room for leniency] with regard to [speaking about going] beyond the Shabbos limits, since when there is a chain of huts, it is permitted [to go to this place despite its distance]. There is no intrinsic prohibition in walking [there on Shabbos], for it is permitted to walk [there on Shabbos] when there is a chain of huts.60 The prohibition against walking [there only] stems from the lack of dwellings on the road. [Hence, leniency is granted, because the person] is only speaking about [the general aspect of] walking there; he is not speaking about walking when there is a lack of dwellings. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.)61

[Nevertheless,] license is only granted when using wording like “I am going; come with me.” One may not, however, use wording that indicates that [the person] will be traveling in a wagon, for [that activity is intrinsically forbidden on Shabbos];62 a chain of huts would not cause it to be permitted.

טו לֹא אָסְרוּ לְדַבֵּר בַּחֲפָצָיו בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא בַּחֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים לַעֲשׂוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַמְצִיא צַד הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין הָאִסּוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קב, 52 כְּגוֹן לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ לוֹמַר עַל עַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁיָּבִיא לְמָחָר פֵּרוֹת הַמֻּקְצִיםקג, 53 לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם הַיּוֹם בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם,קד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת,קה מִכָּל מָקוֹם טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה אֵין צַד הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת (כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְגוּף הַמֻּקְצֶה,קו, 54 עַיֵּן סִמָּן רע"וקז, 55).

אֲבָל אִם יוּכַל לְהַמְצִיא צַד הֶתֵּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה עַצְמָהּ שֶׁרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לוֹמַר בְּשַׁבָּת עַל עַצְמוֹקח אוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹקט שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂנָּה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת (רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַזְכִּיר לוֹ לְשׁוֹן שְׂכִירוּת,קי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"וקיא, 56), אֲפִלּוּ אִם עַכְשָׁו אֵין שָׁם אוֹתוֹ צַד הֶתֵּר.קיב כֵּיצַד? אוֹמֵר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ "לִכְרָךְ פְּלוֹנִי אֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ לְמָחָר,קיג לֵךְ עִמִּי",קיד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהַמְצִיא צַד הֶתֵּר בְּשַׁבָּת אִלּוּ הָיָה שָׁם בֻּרְגָּנִיןקטו, 57 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין שָׁם בֻּרְגָּנִין.

(מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעִנְיַן אִסּוּר דִּבּוּר בַּחֲפָצָיו הוּא מַה שֶּׁמִּתְעַסֵּק בְּשַׁבָּת בִּדְבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים הַיּוֹם, וְלֹא נֶאֱסַר אֶלָּא לְהִתְעַסֵּק בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁאִסּוּרָם נִתְלֶה בְּגוּפָם,58 אֲבָל דְּבָרִים שֶׁאִסּוּרָם נִתְלֶה בְּדָבָר אַחֵר וְאִלּוּלֵי אוֹתוֹ דָבָר הָיוּ דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ בְּעַצְמָם מֻתָּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶם בְּדִבּוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָם אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת,59 שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אֵינוֹ מִתְעַסֵּק בְּאוֹתוֹ דָבָר הַגּוֹרֵם לָהֶם הָאִסּוּר, אֶלָּא בְּאוֹתָם דְּבָרִים שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶם הֶתֵּר מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָם אִלּוּלֵי אוֹתוֹ דָבָר הַגּוֹרֵם לָהֶם הָאִסּוּר.קטז לְפִיכָךְ, גַּבֵּי אִסּוּר חוּץ לַתְּחוּם כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ צַד הֶתֵּר עַל יְדֵי בֻּרְגָּנִין – נִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין הָאִסּוּר בְּהִלּוּךְ מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹתוֹ הִלּוּךְ עַצְמוֹ מֻתָּר כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בֻּרְגָּנִין,60 אֶלָּא הָאִסּוּר בְּהִלּוּךְ הוּא מֵחֲמַת מְנִיעַת הַדִּיּוּרִין עַל הַדֶּרֶךְ, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְלֹא שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ בִּמְנִיעַת הַדִּיּוּרִין, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה[)].61

וְאֵין הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא בְּלָשׁוֹן זֶה: "אֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ, לֵךְ עִמִּי", אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר בְלָשׁוֹן שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעוֹ הֲלִיכָה בְּקָרוֹן (שֶׁקּוֹרִין בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז פָארִי"ן),62 שֶׁהֲרֵי לְזֶה אֵין בֻּרְגָּנִין מוֹעִילִים:קיז

16 All the above applies when a person declares his [intent] to himself or tells another person to perform [such an activity] after Shabbos. It is, however, forbidden to tell a non-Jew to perform [that activity] on Shabbos even if there might be a halachic convention that would [theoretically] allow [the activity] to be performed by a Jew, since presently the factors enabling that convention do not actually exist. If, however, there actually exist factors that would enable the halachic convention on which basis a Jew could perform – [on Shabbos], in a permitted manner – the same activity the non-Jew is performing in a prohibited manner, there are authorities who permit [a Jew] to tell the non-Jew [to perform the activity] using non-specific wording, so that he does not specifically indicate that [the non-Jew] should perform [the activity] in a forbidden manner. The non-Jew may then perform [the activity] in a forbidden manner on his own initiative, as stated in sec. 276[:9].63

If, however, there is no permitted manner in which the Jew could perform the activity that the non-Jew performs on his behalf, [it is forbidden to tell the non-Jew to do so. This restriction applies] even though there is a factor and a way the Jew can achieve the same objective that the non-Jew is performing for him, without performing the forbidden labor which the non-Jew has to perform to achieve [that objective] for the Jew. For example, one tells a non-Jew to bring him water to drink from the river. Although the Jew could himself walk to the river to drink there, that is not sufficient to permit instructions to be given to a non-Jew [to bring him water], as will be explained in sec. 325[:16].64

טז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמְּדַבֵּר עַל עַצְמוֹ אוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, אֲבָל לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר אַף אִם יוּכַל לְהַמְצִיא צַד הֶתֵּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ,קיח כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין שָׁם אוֹתוֹ צַד הֶתֵּר.

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם צַד הֶתֵּר בֶּאֱמֶת שֶׁיּוּכַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּהֶתֵּר אוֹתוֹ דָבָר עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה בְּאִסּוּר – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקיט לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי סְתָם בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁאֵין מֻזְכָּר בּוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּאִסּוּר וְהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּאִסּוּר,קכ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ו.קכא, 63

אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם צַד הֶתֵּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתוֹ דָבָר עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ צַד וְדֶרֶךְ שֶׁיּוּכַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְהַגִּיעַ לְאוֹתוֹ דָבָר שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ בְּלִי שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אֶת הַמְּלָאכָה שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּאוֹתוֹ דָבָר עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי לְהָבִיא לוֹ מַיִם לִשְׁתּוֹת מִן הַנָּהָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוּכַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֵילֵךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ לְנָהָר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת שָׁם – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם לְהַתִּיר הָאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה:קכב, 64

17 It is permitted to tell another person, “Guard my produce that is found within your Shabbos limits and I will guard your produce that is within my Shabbos limits.”65 Although [the person] is forbidden to go to guard his own produce that is in the other person’s Shabbos limits,66 there is no prohibition in making this statement, since the other person is permitted [to go there and guard it]. Moreover, [the person making the statement] would also be permitted [to go there if there were a chain of] huts [between the end of his Shabbos limits and his produce].67

יז מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ "שְׁמוֹר לִי פֵּרוֹתַי שֶׁבִּתְחוּמְךָ, וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמֹר לְךָ פֵּרוֹתֶיךָ שֶׁבִּתְחוּמִי".קכג, 65 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ וְלִשְׁמוֹר פֵּרוֹתָיו שֶׁבִּתְחוּם חֲבֵרוֹ66 – אֵין אִסּוּר בַּאֲמִירָתוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלַּחֲבֵרוֹ מֻתָּר הוּא,קכד וְגַם לוֹ יֵשׁ הֶתֵּר עַל יְדֵי בֻּרְגָּנִין:קכה, 67

18 One who [seeks to] borrow an article68 from another person on Shabbos should not say “lend me…,” but rather, “let me borrow.…”69 [The rationale is that] a person who provides a loan to another person may not demand its return in less than 30 days,70 because a loan is given to the borrower to use as he desires. The very same article that was lent out need not be returned; it suffices to repay [the lender] with an identical article. Nor does one take out a loan to repay it immediately, but only after a significant period of time. Thus, our Sages assessed that an unconditional loan is given for a period of 30 days. As such, [when a loan is given on Shabbos,] there is reason for concern that the lender will write in his notebook, “I lent such-and-such to so-and-so,” so that he will not forget to demand payment after 30 days.

When, by contrast, one allows another person to borrow an article, he may immediately demand its return, for a borrowed article must be returned as is. Thus, there is no concern that [the lender] will forget, and hence, no concern that [the lender] will record [the debt].

Even when one borrows jugs of wine or jugs of oil from another person, or a woman borrows loaves [of bread] from another woman – in which instance the exact same article is not going to be returned71 – nevertheless, since the term “borrowing” is used [when taking it, the borrower] has granted license [for the giver] to demand its prompt return [in kind], as is true regarding other borrowed articles.

Just as [with regard to borrowing articles], one should not [use the expression] “lend,” but rather, [“allow me to] borrow,” so too, [with regard to giving them back], one should only use the expression “return.”

In [many] other languages, where there is no distinction between the terms “lend me” and “allow me to borrow,” one should not mention borrowing, but rather say “give me,” and he may also then conclude “and I will [then] return it to you.”

יח הַשּׁוֹאֵל דָּבָר68 מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ "הַלְוֵני"קכו אֶלָּא "הַשְׁאִילֵנִי",קכז, 69 שֶׁהַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְתָבְעוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם,קכח, 70 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַהַלְוָאָה לְהוֹצָאָה נִתְּנָה, וְאֵין חוֹזֶרֶת בְּעֵין,קכט אֶלָּא פּוֹרֵעַ לוֹ בְּדָבָר אַחֵר כְּמוֹתָהּ, וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִלְווֹת כְּדֵי לִפְרוֹעַ לְאַלְתַּר אֶלָּא לְאַחַר זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה,קל וְשִׁעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים סְתָם הַלְוָאָה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם, וְאִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִכְתּוֹב הַמִּלְוֶה עַל פִּנְקָסוֹ כָּךְ וְכָךְ הִלְוֵיתִי לִפְלוֹנִי, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכַּחקלא לְתָבְעוֹ בְּסוֹף שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. אֲבָל הַמַּשְׁאִיל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ יָכוֹל לְתָבְעוֹ מִיָּד,קלב שֶׁהַשְּׁאֵלָה הִיא חוֹזֶרֶת בְּעֵין,קלג וְאִם כֵּן אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְשִׁכְחָה, וּלְכָךְ אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לִכְתּוֹב.קלד

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שׁוֹאֵל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ כַּדֵּי יַיִן וְכַדֵּי שֶׁמֶן, וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה מֵחֲבֶרְתָּהּ כִּכָּרוֹת,קלה שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹזְרִים בְּעֵין,71 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ לְשׁוֹן שְׁאֵלָה – הֲרֵי נוֹתֵן לוֹ רְשׁוּת שֶׁיּוּכַל לִתְבּוֹעַ מִמֶּנּוּ לְאַלְתַּר כְּדִין הַשְּׁאֵלָה.קלו

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין לֹוִין בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא בִּלְשׁוֹן שְׁאֵלָה – כָּךְ אֵין פּוֹרְעִין אֶלָּא בִּלְשׁוֹן חֲזָרָה.קלז

בִּלְשׁוֹן לַעַז שֶׁאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין "הַלְוֵנִי" לְ"הַשְׁאִילֵנִי" – לֹא יֹאמַר לְשׁוֹן שְׁאֵלָה, אֶלָּא יֹאמַר "תֵּן לִי",קלח וְיָכוֹל לְסַיֵּם גַּם כֵּן "וְאַחֲזִיר וְאֶתֵּן לָךְ":קלט

19 In a place where the custom is that even payment for an unconditional loan may be demanded immediately, one may say “lend me.”

יט בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים שֶׁסְּתָם הַלְוָאָה יָכוֹל לְתָבְעוֹ לְאַלְתַּר – רַשַּׁאי לוֹמַר "הַלְוֵנִי":קמ

20 [A borrower] may provide a lender with security when he borrows an item from him on Shabbos and [the lender] does not trust him [to return it].72 [The borrower] should, however, leave [the article] without saying anything; [the lender] should not tell [the borrower], “here is [the item you left as] security,” since this is conduct befitting a weekday.73

When does the above apply? When one borrows various types of food and/or drink that are necessary for Shabbos.74Therefore, [our Sages] permitted [the borrower] to leave [an item as] security when the lender does not trust him. It is, however, forbidden to leave any security when one is not [borrowing] for the sake of Shabbos, (because it is comparable to carrying out a kinyan, a formal act of acquisition, on Shabbos. See sec. 306[:4].)75

כ הַשּׁוֹאֵל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵין הַלָּה מַאֲמִינוֹ72 – יָכוֹל לְהַנִּיחַ מַשְׁכּוֹן אֶצְלוֹ,קמא וְיַנִּיחֶנּוּ בִּסְתָם, וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ "הֵילָךְ מַשְׁכּוֹן", שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חֹל.קמב, 73

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּשׁוֹאֵל מִינֵי מַאֲכָל וּמַשְׁקֶה שֶׁהֵם צֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת,74 לָכֵן הִתִּירוּ לְהַנִּיחַ מַשְׁכּוֹןקמג כְּשֶׁאֵין הַלָּה מַאֲמִינוֹ, אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ מַשְׁכּוֹן כְּלָלקמד (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְמַקְנֶה קִנְיָן בְּשַׁבָּת,קמה עַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"וקמו, 75):

21 On Shabbos, it is forbidden to read ordinary documents, i.e., documents [recording] a debt or a sale, records of security, account sheets, and other such [records of] activities that are prohibited to be performed on Shabbos76because [of the restriction against] “pursuing your [mundane] concerns.”77Even to peruse them without reading them [aloud] is prohibited. [Our Sages’] statement:78 “Speech is forbidden; thought is permitted” applies only when it is not evident that one is thinking of forbidden concerns. In this instance, by contrast, when it is evident to everyone that he is thinking about the forbidden concerns that are mentioned in the documents, [perusing them] is included in the scope of the prohibition against “pursuing your concerns.” [It is comparable] to one who strolls in his field [on Shabbos] to see [which tasks] need to be performed for it. Even though strolling in the field is permitted in and of itself, and thinking of his field’s needs is also permitted, still, [strolling in a field to see what it needs] is forbidden because [of the restriction implied by] the phrase,1 “pursuing your concerns” since it is evident to all that he is strolling there for this purpose, as stated in sec. 306[:1-2].

כא שִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת,קמז דְּהַיְנוּ שִׁטְרֵי חוֹבוֹתקמח וּמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּרקמט וּמַשְׁכָּנוֹתקנ וְחֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹת,קנא וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מֵחֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּתקנב, 76 – אָסוּר לִקְרוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ".קנג, 77 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בָּהֶם בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה אָסוּר.קנד

וְלֹא אָמְרוּ78 שֶׁדִּבּוּר אָסוּר הִרְהוּר מֻתָּר,קנה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁמְּהַרְהֵר בַּחֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים, אֲבָל כַּאן שֶׁנִּכָּר לַכֹּל שֶׁמְּהַרְהֵר בַּחֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים הַכְּתוּבִים בַּשְּׁטָר – הֲרֵי זֶה בִּכְלַל אִסּוּר "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁבִּכְלַל זֶה הַמְטַיֵּל בְּשָׂדֵהוּ לִרְאוֹת מַה הִיא צְרִיכָה, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַטִּיּוּל בַּשָּׂדֶה דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר הוּא מִצַּד עַצְמוֹ, וְגַם הַהִרְהוּר בְּצָרְכֵי שָׂדֵהוּ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר הוּא, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכָּר לַכֹּל שֶׁמְּטַיֵּל שָׁם בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ – אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם1 "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ו:קנו

22 [Our Sages] enacted a decree [forbidding] reading [aloud] any writing on Shabbos,79even when it does not [mention] any forbidden concerns.80 Just looking over [written material], without reading it [aloud], is also forbidden. [This is] a decree, [instituted] lest one read [aloud] or look over ordinary documents. Accordingly, if one invites guests [for Shabbos] and prepares different delicacies, and on Friday writes down the names of the guests that he invited so that he will not forget to request their presence on Shabbos,or he writes down the names of the delicacies he prepared for them, it is forbidden for him to read this note [aloud].81 It is even forbidden to look it over without reading it [aloud].

Reading the names is forbidden82 even if the names were not written down, [but merely] engraved on a tablet or notepad,83 lest a person err and also take license [to read] ordinary documents, because tablets and notepads may be confused with a document.84 If, however, the names were engraved on the wall, it is permitted to read them [aloud] on Shabbos, because [writing] engraved on a wall will not be confused with a document.85 [The above applies] provided the letters are engraved into [the wall]. If, however, [the letters] project from [the wall], it is forbidden [to read them aloud] or even to look them over. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one remove [the names of] some of the guests when he sees that he did not prepare enough to provide for the needs of all of them.79 He will regret that he invited more guests than [he is] capable [of hosting], and will scratch out and remove their names that project from the wall so that the attendant will not invite them. When, by contrast, the engraving is sunk [into the wall], it is not easy to blot out. [Thus, while thinking of doing so,] he will remember that it is Shabbos and will not erase [their names]. It is forbidden [to read writing] that projects from a wall,79 even when the names are positioned very high at the top of the wall where [one] cannot reach to erase them, because our Sages did not make any distinction in their decree between [writing that is] high [up] and [writing that is] low, as stated in sec. 275[:2].86

Needless to say, as [an extension of] the decree against reading ordinary documents,79 it is forbidden to read writing that a person wrote on a wall [with ink or the like], because writing on a wall can be confused with writing in a document.87

כב וְגָזְרוּ עַל כָּל כְּתָב,79 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מֵחֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים שֶׁלֹּא לִקְרוֹת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,קנז, 80 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה אָסוּר,קנח גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָאקנט אוֹ יְעַיֵּן בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ, מִי שֶׁזִּמֵּן אוֹרְחִים וְהֵכִין לָהֶם מִינֵי מְגָדִים וְכָתַב בִּכְתָב מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֶת שְׁמוֹת הָאוֹרְחִים שֶׁזִּמֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכַּח לְקָרְאָם אֵלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת, אוֹ שֶׁכָּתַב שְׁמוֹת הַמִּינִים שֶׁהֵכִין לָהֶם – אָסוּר לִקְרוֹת בִּכְתָב זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת.קס, 81 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה אָסוּר.קסא

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַשֵּׁמוֹת חֲקוּקִים בַּטַּבְלָא אוֹ פִּנְקָס וְלֹא כְתוּבִים83 – אָסוּר,קסב, 82 שֶׁמָּא יִטְעוּ לְהַתִּיר אַף בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, שֶׁהַטַּבְלָא וּפִנְקָס מִתְחַלְּפִים בִּשְׁטָר.קסג, 84

אֲבָל אִם חֲקוּקִים בַּכֹּתֶל – מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת,קסד שֶׁחֲקִיקַת הַכֹּתֶל אֵינָהּ מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בִּשְׁטָר.קסה, 85 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ חֲקוּקִים חֲקִיקָה שׁוֹקַעַת,קסו אֲבָל אִם הֵם בּוֹלְטִין – אָסוּרקסז אֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בָּהֶם,קסח גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְחוֹקקסט מִן הָאוֹרְחִים, שֶׁיִּרְאֶה שֶׁלֹּא הֵכִין לָהֶם כָּל צָרְכָּם79 וְיִתְחָרֵט שֶׁזִּמֵּן אוֹרְחִים יוֹתֵר מִן הָרָאוּי,קע וְיִגְרוֹד וְיַעֲבִיר שְׁמוֹתָם הַבּוֹלְטִים מִן הַכֹּתֶל, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָאֵם הַשַּׁמָּשׁ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן חֲקִיקָה שׁוֹקַעַת שֶׁאֵינָהּ נוֹחָה לִמְחוֹק, וּבְתוֹךְ כָּךְ יִזְכּוֹר שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְלֹא יִמְחוֹק.קעא

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם חֲקִיקָה הַבּוֹלֶטֶת הוּא גָבוֹהַּ הַרְבֵּה בְּרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ שָׁם לִמְחוֹק – אָסוּר,קעב, 79 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים בִּגְזֵרָתָם בֵּין גָּבוֹהַּ לְנָמוּךְ,קעג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ער"ה.קעד, 86

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם כָּתַב בִּכְתָב עַל רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל, שֶׁאָסוּר גַּם מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת,קעה, 79 שֶׁהַכְּתִיבָה שֶׁבַּכֹּתֶל מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בִּכְתִיבָה שֶׁבִּשְׁטָר:קעו, 87

23 In the present age, the custom is that an attendant summons [the guests] to the meal [reading] from [a page] on which are written the names of those invited. There are those who have justified the custom, [explaining] that [calling out the names of guests from a written page] is customary only for a feast associated with a mitzvah. And [when an activity is carried out] for the sake of a mitzvah, it is not appropriate to institute a decree [as a safeguard] lest one read ordinary documents. [The rationale is that] the prohibition against reading ordinary documents only results from [the restriction against] “pursuing your concerns,”88 and the prohibition against “pursuing your concerns” does not apply with regard to activities associated with a mitzvah. For it is permitted to speak about actions forbidden on Shabbos which are “the concerns of Heaven.”89 A decree was not instituted [restricting the discussing of] “the concerns of Heaven” lest one err and permit ordinary concerns. If so, a decree should certainly not be instituted with regard to a mitzvah that involves a permitted activity lest one read ordinary documents and violate the prohibition against “pursuing your concerns.”

Nor should a prohibition be instituted as a decree [as a safeguard] lest one erase [the names. The rationale is that] such a decree90 is relevant only with regard to the host, for he may erase names and reduce the number of guests called [to the meal]. The attendant, by contrast, may not reduce [their number. Thus,] he should not be forbidden [to read from a list] as a decree lest he read ordinary documents, unless [he was inviting people] to a feast that is not associated with a mitzvah.

([According to this understanding,] our Sages’ prohibition against calling on guests from a written list applies only to the host himself. It is a decree [instituted] lest one [come to] erase. This decree was instituted even with regard to offering hospitality to guests,91 even though it is a great mitzvah.92 [Nevertheless,] the prohibition against [reading names] engraved on a tablet or notepad, [which was instituted as] a decree lest one read ordinary documents, applies only with regard to guests who are not from another city. For instance, a person invited a group of friends from his town for a social repast that is not associated with a mitzvah. See sec. 333[:6].)93

כג עַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ שֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ קוֹרֵא לַסְּעֻדָּה מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּתָב שֶׁכְּתוּבִים בּוֹ שְׁמוֹת הַמְזֻמָּנִים לַסְּעֻדָּה. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמֵּד זְכוּת עַל הַמִּנְהָג,קעז לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִין כָּךְ אֶלָּא בִּסְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה, וּלְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה אֵין לִגְזוֹר מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִסּוּר הַקְּרִיאָה בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ",קעח, 88 וְאִסּוּר "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ" לֹא שַׁיָּךְ בִּדְבַר מִצְוָה, שֶׁחֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם הָאֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹתָם – מֻתָּר לְדַבֵּר בָּם,קעט, 89 וְלֹא גָזְרוּ בְּחֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם שֶׁמָּא יִטְעוּ לְהַתִּיר גַּם חֶפְצֵי הֶדְיוֹט, אִם כֵּן כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאֵין לִגְזוֹר בִּדְבַר מִצְוָה בַּחֲפָצִים הַמֻּתָּרִים שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת וְיַעֲבוֹר עַל אִסּוּר "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ".

וְאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר כַּאן מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְחוֹק,90 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּה לֹא שַׁיָּךְ לִגְזוֹר אֶלָּא בְּבַעַל הַסְּעֻדָּה עַצְמוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ לִמְחוֹק וְלִגְרוֹעַ מִנְיַן הַקְּרוּאִים, אֲבָל הַשַּׁמָּשׁ אֵין בְּיָדוֹ לִגְרוֹעַ, וְאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר בּוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹתקפ אִם אֵינָהּ סְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה.

(וְלֹא אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לִמְנוֹת הָאוֹרְחִים מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּתָב אֶלָּא לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת בְּעַצְמוֹ, מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְחוֹק, שֶׁגְּזֵרָה זוֹ גָּזְרוּ אַף בִּמְקוֹם הַכְנָסַת אוֹרְחִיםקפא, 91 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה גְדוֹלָה,קפב, 92 וְלֹא אָסְרוּ בַּחֲקוּקִים עַל הַטַּבְלָא וּפִנְקָס מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת אֶלָּא בְּאוֹרְחִים שֶׁאֵינָן מֵעִיר אַחֶרֶת, אֶלָּא שֶׁזִּמֵּן אֵלָיו אֲחֻזַּת מֵרֵעֵהוּ מִבְּנֵי עִירוֹ לִסְעֻדַּת מְרֵעוּת שֶׁאֵינוֹ סְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה, עַיֵּן סִמָּן של"גקפג, 93):

24 Similarly, the custom that [the synagogue] attendant would [publicly] read communal decisions or bans of ostracism94 from a written note should not be forbidden [as a safeguard] lest one read ordinary documents, because these involve the needs of people at large, and the needs of people at large are considered by law like matters associated with a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 306[:12].95 (Similarly, the custom of publicly recalling the souls [of the departed,96 reading their names] from a written note is considered as a matter associated with a mitzvah, since [relatives make] pledges to charity because the souls [of their loved ones] were mentioned.97 See sec. 306[:14-15].)

כד וְכֵן מַה שֶּׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ קוֹרֵא הַסְכָּמוֹת אוֹ חֲרָמוֹת94 מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּתָב – אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם צָרְכֵי רַבִּים,קפד וְצָרְכֵי רַבִּים דִּינָם כִּדְבַר מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ו.קפה, 95

(וְכֵן מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַזְכִּיר נְשָׁמוֹת96 מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּתָבקפו הוּא כִּדְבַר מִצְוָה, שֶׁנּוֹדְרִין לִצְדָקָה בְּעַד הַזְכָּרַת נִשְׁמָתָם,97 עַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"וקפז):

25 It is forbidden to read [aloud] letters exchanging friendly greetings or even to look them over without reading them [aloud. This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard against reading] ordinary documents. (Needless to say, [this prohibition] applies regarding letters that relate to one’s concerns, even concerns permitted on Shabbos. There are grounds to forbid [reading such letters, lest one also read] those involving forbidden concerns.)

There are authorities who permit [one to] read a letter that is sent to him when he does not know its contents, for perhaps [the letter] contains a matter that is necessary for [the recipient’s] personal well-being.98 [Thus, the letter] does not resemble ordinary documents that do not involve matters necessary for one’s personal well-being, but only his financial concerns. One may rely on their words and rule leniently [since the matter concerns] a Rabbinic decree. Nevertheless, one should not read [these letters] aloud, but rather look them over without reading them aloud. [The rationale is that] there is an authority who rules leniently [and permits] looking over writing that all authorities agree is forbidden to read, as long as one does not read it aloud.

כה אִגְּרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁאֵלַת שָׁלוֹם – אָסוּר לִקְרוֹתָן,קפח וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בָּהֶם בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה,קפט גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם שִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת.קצ

(וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּאִגְּרוֹת הַשְּׁלוּחוֹת לִמְצוֹא חֵפֶץ,קצא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מֵחֲפָצִים הַמֻּתָּרִים לַעֲשׂוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת,קצב שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִגְזוֹר בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם חֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִיםקצג).

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקצד לִקְרוֹת אִגֶּרֶת הַשְּׁלוּחָה לוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מַה כָּתוּב בָּהּ,קצה כִּי שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ בָּהּ דָּבָר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ לְגוּפוֹ,קצו, 98 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם צֹרֶךְ הַגּוּףקצז אֶלָּא צֹרֶךְ מָמוֹנוֹ. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.קצח

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יִקְרָא בָּהּ בְּפִיו, אֶלָּא יְעַיֵּן בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה,קצט כִּי יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמֵּקֵלר בְּעִיּוּן בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה אַף בִּכְתָבִים הָאֲסוּרִים לִקְרוֹתָם לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:

26 A person is permitted to carry a letter99 on Shabbos;it is not considered as muktzeh. True, it is not fit to be used for its primary purpose – to be read – for example, [when] he knows that it does not involve his personal needs, in which instance, it is forbidden for him even to look it over.100 Nevertheless, it is fit to be used for another purpose, e.g., [he can use the letter] to wrap around the opening of a flask101 or the like. Even if this [letter] was brought to [the person on Shabbos] from beyond [his] Shabbos limits, it is not considered as muktzeh, as will be explained in sec. 515[:14].102 Even the person for whom [the letter] was brought from beyond the Shabbos limits may benefit from it on Shabbos and [may use the letter] for its primary purpose – to read it – if he does not know what is written in it. It does not resemble other articles that are brought from outside the Shabbos limits that the person on whose behalf they were brought is forbidden to benefit from until Saturday night. [The rationale is that the prohibition against using such articles] is a decree lest one tell a non-Jew to bring [them] for him from beyond the Shabbos limits.103 It is not relevant [to enact such a safeguard] regarding a letter.104 Moreover, this letter was not brought at all for the sake of the recipient. [Instead,] the sender sent it for his own purpose and not [necessarily] for [the benefit of] the recipient.

(Even if it was sent for the sake [of the Jewish recipient], nevertheless, the non-Jew bringing it on Shabbos from outside the Shabbos limitsintends to [fulfill] the mission with which he was charged by the sender and [does not have] the recipient [in mind. This situation] does not resemble [one in which] a Jew sent produce to a friend on Friday via a non-Jew, and [the non-Jew] was delayed and brought [the produce] on Shabbos, in which instance, it is forbidden for [the recipient to eat the fruit on Shabbos], as [evident from] sec. 515[:22].105 [The rationale for this prohibition is that] the non-Jew thinks that the Jew for whom he is bringing the produce will partake of it on Shabbos; [indeed,] it is for this reason that [the non-Jew] is bringing [the produce] to [the Jew]. Hence, his intent in bringing it from outside the Shabbos limits is for [the recipient’s] personal well-being. For that reason, even though the non-Jew has his own self-interest in mind – [i.e., he desires] to receive his wage – [the produce] is forbidden [to be eaten on Shabbos], as will be explained in sec. 515[:21].106 This is not the case with regard to a letter, since the recipient’s personal well-being does not benefit on Shabbos from the actual substance of the letter. [Thus,] when bringing it from outside the Shabbos limits, the non-Jew’s intent is solely to carry out the desire of the Jew who sent it, or for his own sake – to receive his wage – and not for the sake of the recipient.)107

כו מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הָאִגֶּרֶת בְּשַׁבָּת,רא, 99 וְאֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה אַף אִם אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה בְּשַׁבָּת לְעִקַּר הֲנָאָתָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ לִקְרוֹתָהּ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ צֹרֶךְ הַגּוּף שֶׁאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בָּהּ,רב, 100 מִכָּל מָקוֹם רְאוּיָה הִיא לַהֲנָאָה אַחֶרֶת, כְּגוֹן לָצוּר עַל פִּי צְלוֹחִיתורג, 101ֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה. וְאַף אִם הוּבְאָה מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה,רד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקט"ו.רה, 102

וְאַף זֶה שֶׁהוּבְאָה אֵלָיו מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה אֲפִלּוּ בְּעִקַּר הֲנָאָתָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ לִקְרוֹתָהּ אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מַה כָּתוּב בָּהּ.רו וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לִשְׁאָר דָּבָר הַבָּא מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם שֶׁאָסוּר לְזֶה שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, שֶׁהַטַּעַם הוּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיָּבִיא לוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם,רז, 103 אֲבָל בְּאִגֶּרֶת לֹא שַׁיָּךְ לוֹמַר כֵּן,רח, 104 וְעוֹד שֶׁאִגֶּרֶת זוֹ לֹא הוּבְאָה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ שְׁלָחָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל אוֹתוֹ שֶׁשְּׁלוּחָה אֵלָיו.רט

(וְאַף אִם שְׁלָחָהּ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם נָכְרִי הַמְּבִיאָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם מִתְכַּוֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ, וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל מִי שֶׁשְּׁלוּחָה אֵלָיו. וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁשִּׁגֵּר פֵּרוֹת לַחֲבֵרוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי וְנִתְעַכֵּב וֶהֱבִיאָם בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֲסוּרִים לְמִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּלְּחוּ אֵלָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקט"ו,רי, 105 לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל זֶה שֶׁמּוֹלִיךְ אֵלָיו הוּא יֹאכַל בְּשַׁבָּת פֵּרוֹת הַלָּלוּ וּלְכָךְ הוּא מוֹלִיכֵם לוֹ, אִם כֵּן הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּהֲבָאָתוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם בִּשְׁבִיל הֲנָאַת גּוּפוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, וּמִטַּעַם זֶה אַף אִם הַנָּכְרִי מִתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ לְקַבֵּל שְׂכָרוֹ – אָסוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקט"ו.ריא, 106 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּאִגֶּרֶת, שֶׁאֵין גּוּפוֹ שֶׁל זֶה שֶׁהִיא שְׁלוּחָה אֵלָיו נֶהֱנֶה בְּשַׁבָּת מִגּוּף הָאִגֶּרֶת, וְאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּהֲבָאָתוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֶלָּא לְמַלֹּאת רְצוֹן הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הַשּׁוֹלְחוֹ, אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל טוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ לְקַבֵּל שְׂכָרוֹ, וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה שֶׁשְּׁלוּחָה אֵלָיו):107

27 It is customary not to take a letter from the hand of a non-Jew who delivers it on Shabbos. Instead, [the non-Jew] should be told to leave [the letter] on the ground or on a table.108 [The rationale is that] there is concern that before the non-Jew will stand still to rest, the Jew will take the letter from his hand. Thus, the Jew will be considered to have placed [the letter] down, which is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law109 even in the present era when, according to some authorities, there is no concept of a public domain,110 as will be explained in sec. 325[:2, 16].

כז נָהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְקַבֵּל הָאִגֶּרֶת מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי הַמְּבִיאָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים לוֹ שֶׁיַּנִּיחֶנָּה עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֻּׁלְחָן,108 כִּי חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא טֶרֶם שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד הַנָּכְרִי לָפוּשׁ יִטּוֹל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הָאִגֶּרֶת מִיָּדוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עָשָׂה הַנָּחָה,ריב וְאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים109 אַף בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,ריג, 110 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה:ריד

28 Whenever a piece of writing that is forbidden to be read on Shabbos is important to a person and he would be careful not to [use it as] wrapping for the opening of a flask or the like, it is forbidden to move [the piece of writing on Shabbos].111 [The rationale is that the writing is muktzeh, since] it is unfit for any purpose on Shabbos. Therefore, there are authorities who forbid moving a valid bill of divorce which is ready to be used for that purpose, as will be explained in Even HaEzer, sec. 136;112 consult that source. An invalid bill of divorce (get) or one that had already been used to divorce a woman113 may be moved, because one would not object to using such a document to wrap around the opening of a flask.

כח כָּל כְּתָב שֶׁאָסוּר לְעַיֵּן בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם הוּא חָשׁוּב בְּעֵינָיו וּמַקְפִּיד לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לָצוּר עַל פִּי צְלוֹחִיתוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ,רטו, 111 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם בְּשַׁבָּת.רטז

לְפִיכָךְ, יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםריז לְטַלְטֵל גֵּט כָּשֵׁר הָעוֹמֵד לְגָרֵשׁ בּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּאֶבֶן הָעֶזֶר סִמָּן קל"ו,ריח, 112 עַיֵּן שָׁם. אֲבָל גֵּט פָּסוּל,ריט אוֹ גֵט שֶׁכְּבָר גֵּרֵשׁ בּוֹ אֶת הָאִשָּׁהרכ – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין מַקְפִּידִים עָלָיו לָצוּר עַל פִּי צְלוֹחִיתוֹ:113

29 When a wall or drapes contain pictures of unusual animals or images of historic human feats – for example, the battle between David and Golias114 – and below them there is a written115 description of the particular animal or event, it is forbidden to read this description [aloud] on Shabbos.116[This is] a decree lest one read ordinary documents. It is even forbidden to look at [the caption] without reading it [aloud].

כט כֹּתֶל אוֹ וִילוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ צוּרוֹת חַיּוֹת מְשֻׁנּוֹת אוֹ דְּיוֹקְנָאוֹת שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם מִמַּעֲשִׂים שֶׁהָיוּ, כְּגוֹן מִלְחֶמֶת דָּוִד וְגָלְיָת,114 וְכָתוּב115 תַּחְתֵּיהֶם זוֹ צוּרַת חַיָּה פְּלוֹנִית וְזֶה דְּיוֹקָן פְּלוֹנִי – אָסוּר לִקְרוֹת כְּתָב זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת,רכא, 116 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָא בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת.רכב וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בָּהֶם בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה אָסוּר:רכג

30 Similarly, books describing battles (and historical chronicles of non-Jewish kings) and similarly, prose and parables of ordinary wisdom, e.g., the Book of Imanuel117 and, needless to say, romantic literature, is forbidden to be read [aloud] on Shabbos or even perused without being read [aloud. This is] a decree [enacted as a safeguard against reading] ordinary documents. Moreover, even during the week, reading [such literature] is forbidden because [of the charge to avoid being in] “the company of jesters.”9 [This restriction applies] even if [the books] are written in the holy tongue.

With regard to romantic literature, even when written in the holy tongue, [one transgresses] a further prohibition – it arouses a person’s evil inclination. One who composes such [literature], one who copies it, and needless to say, one who prints it, are among “those who cause people at large to sin.”118 By contrast, historical literature from which ethical insights and the fear of Heaven can be derived – for example, the Book of Josephus,119 and the like, is permitted to be read, even on Shabbos, even if [the work] is written in foreign languages.120 (Nevertheless, it is not appropriate for people to excessively indulge in [reading such literature].)

ל וְכֵן סִפְרֵי מִלְחָמוֹתרכד (וְדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים שֶׁל מַלְכֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם), וְכֵן מְלִיצוֹת וּמְשָׁלִים שֶׁל שִׂיחַת חֻלִּין,רכה כְּגוֹן סֵפֶר עִמָּנוּאֵל,רכו, 117 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר דִּבְרֵי חֵשֶׁקרכז – אָסוּר לִקְרוֹתָן בְּשַׁבָּת, וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעַיֵּן בָּהֶם בְּלֹא קְרִיאָה,רכח גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם שִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת.רכט וְאַף בְּחֹל אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם "מוֹשַׁב לֵצִים"רל, 9 אַף אִם כְּתוּבִים בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ.רלא

וּבְדִבְרֵי חֵשֶׁק יֵשׁ עוֹד אִסּוּר אֲפִלּוּ כְּתוּבִים בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ,רלב שֶׁמְּגָרֶה יֵצֶר הָרָע בְּעַצְמוֹ. וּמִי שֶׁחִבְּרָן, וּמִי שֶׁהֶעְתִּיקָן, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הַמַּדְפִּיסָן – הֵם בִּכְלַל מַחֲטִיאֵי הָרַבִּים.רלג, 118

אֲבָל אוֹתָן סִפְרֵי דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶם עִנְיְנֵי מוּסָר וְיִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם, כְּגוֹן סֵפֶר יוֹסִיפוּןרלד, 119 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ – מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹתָם אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ כְּתוּבִים בְּלַעַז.רלה, 120

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין רָאוּי לִבְנֵי אָדָם לְהַרְבּוֹת בָּהֶם):

31 There are authorities who maintain that on Shabbos or on a festival, it is forbidden to study anything other than words of Torah and [texts that lead to] the fear of G‑d.121 Even [reading] books122 of [secular] wisdom is forbidden, because whenever a book does not have any association with holiness, it is appropriate to [forbid its use because of] the decree against reading ordinary documents. Accordingly, [such books] are forbidden even to be moved [on Shabbos].123

There are, [however,] authorities who permit all books of wisdom and medical knowledge [to be read on Shabbos. The rationale is that] works of wisdom will not be confused with ordinary documents and [such works] should not be forbidden because of them. It is customary to follow this leniency. According to this reasoning, it is permitted to look at a device used by astronomers (called an astrolabe).124 [Such an instrument] may be turned about and moved just like it is permitted to move books of wisdom according to this reasoning. For what difference is there between an imprint made by an iron stylus on copper discs and writing in books? One should not forbid [the use of such devices] because a person might take apart the discs and then reassemble them, [an act] that resembles building a utensil. [The rationale is that] since these discs are held together loosely, [assembling them] is not considered as building, as will be explained in sec. 313[:21].125

לא יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרלו שֶׁאָסוּר לִלְמוֹד בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם טוֹב רַק בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה וְיִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם,121 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּסִפְרֵי122 חָכְמוֹת אָסוּר, שֶׁכָּל סֵפֶר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סְרַךְ קְדֻשֶּׁהרלז – יֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר מִשּׁוּם שִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, וּלְפִי זֶה אֲפִלּוּ לְטַלְטְלָם אָסוּר.רלח, 123

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיםרלט בְּכָל סִפְרֵי חָכְמוֹת וְסִפְרֵי רְפוּאוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדְּבַר חָכְמָה אֵינוֹ מִתְחַלֵּף בְּשִׁטְרֵי הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, וְאֵין לִגְזוֹר עַל זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה. וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין לְהָקֵל.

וּלְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ מֻתָּר לְהַבִּיט בְּשַׁבָּת בִּכְלִי שֶׁל הַחוֹזִים בַּכּוֹכָבִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אַצְטְרְלוֹ"ב)רמ, 124 וּלְהַפְּכוֹ וּלְטַלְטְלוֹ,רמא כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל סִפְרֵי הַחָכְמָה לְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ, דְּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין כָּתוּב וְרָשׁוּם בְּעֵט בַּרְזֶל בְּלוּחוֹת נְחֹשֶׁת לְכָתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר.רמב וְאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יְסַלֵּק הַלּוּחוֹת וְיַחֲזִירֵן וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּבוֹנֶה כְּלִי, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לוּחוֹת אֵלּוּ לִהְיוֹת רְפוּיִין – אֵין בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה,רמג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ג:רמד, 125

32 There are authorities who permit asking a demon about certain matters during the week,126 for example, to inform one about a theft or like matters. [Their rationale is that] this is permitted, since the demon does not perform an act [on the person’s behalf]; it only informs [the person] of a matter unknown to him, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 179.127 Even according to these authorities, it is nevertheless forbidden to make such inquiries from [a demon] on Shabbos, because [of the restriction implied by] the phrase1 “speaking about [mundane matters],” unless one asks about a matter necessary for medical treatment. In such an instance, it is permitted to inquire from [a demon] in the same manner as it is permitted during the week, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah in that source.128 Similarly, all different types of incantations that provide healing129 may be recited on Shabbos just as [they may be recited] during the week. [The restriction implied by] the phrase1 “speaking about [mundane matters]” does not apply to them.

לב אֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִשְׁאוֹל מִן הַשֵּׁד בְּחֹל, כְּגוֹן לְהַגִּיד עַל הַגְּנֵבָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִיןרמה, 126 לִשְׁאוֹל מִן הַשֵּׁד הוֹאִיל וְאֵין הַשֵּׁד עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּגִּיד לוֹ דָּבָר הַנֶּעְלָם מִמֶּנּוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קע"טרמו, 127 – אָסוּר לִשְׁאוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם1 "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר". אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא שׁוֹאֵל מִמֶּנּוּ דָּבָר לְצֹרֶךְ רְפוּאָה, שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לִשְׁאוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָל עִנְיָן שֶׁמֻּתָּר בְּחֹל,רמז וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה שָׁםרמח, 128

וְכֵן כָּל מִינֵי לְחָשִׁים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם רְפוּאָה – מֻתָּר לְלָחֳשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ בְּחֹל,129 וְאֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם1 "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר":רמט

33 If surging floodwaters are destroying one’s property130 or wine barrels are in the process of being ruined and [their wine] is about to [spill and thus] become worthless, it is permitted to call a non-Jew to that place, even though [the property owner] knows that the non-Jew will surely rectify the situation by performing a labor absolutely [forbidden by Scriptural Law.131 The Jewish owner] should, however, be careful not to instruct [the non-Jew and not even] hint [that he should] rectify [the situation].132 It is, however, permitted to say in his presence, “Anyone who saves [my property] from this loss will not forfeit payment for his efforts.” Just as when a fire [breaks out] it is permitted to say in the presence of non-Jews, “Whoever extinguishes [this fire] will not suffer a loss,”133 similarly, license [to make such statements] was granted in all situations of loss. There are authorities who maintain that such license was granted only in the case of fire. [Nevertheless,] one who rules leniently according to the first opinion in an instance of significant damages will not suffer any [spiritual] loss.

לג אִם בָּאוּ מַיִם שׁוֹטְפִים וּמַפְסִידִים נְכָסָיו,130 אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְרוֹעֲעוּ חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן וְהוֹלֵךְ לְאִבּוּד – מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹת נָכְרִי לְשָׁם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יְתַקֵּן הַנָּכְרִי מֵעַצְמוֹ אֶת הַהֶפְסֵדרנ בִּמְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה.רנא, 131 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר לוֹ שׁוּם רֶמֶז צִוּוּי לְתַקֵּן,רנב, 132 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו "כָּל הַמַּצִּיל הֶפְסֵד זֶה אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיד שְׂכַר טָרְחוֹ", שֶׁכְּמוֹ שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בִּדְלֵקָה לוֹמַר בִּפְנֵי נָכְרִים "כָּל הַמְכַבֶּה אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיד"רנג, 133 – כָּךְ הִתִּירוּ בְּכָל הֶפְסֵד.רנד

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרנה שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא בִּדְלֵקָה לְבָד.

וְהַמֵּקֵל כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בְּכָל הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה – לֹא הִפְסִיד:רנו

34 When a Jew tells a non-Jew to perform a forbidden labor for him on Shabbos, it is permitted for [the Jew] to benefit from that activity [on Saturday night] after waiting the amount of time necessary to perform that activity,134 provided the matter is not public knowledge, as will be explained in sec. 325[:21]135 with regard to an activity performed by a non-Jew on his own initiative for the sake of a Jew. (Consult that source; there are authorities who differ.)136

לד יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאָמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהּ לָעֶרֶב לְאַחַר שֶׁהִמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה,רנז, 134 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר שֶׁל פַּרְהֶסְיָא,רנח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"הרנט, 135 לְעִנְיַן נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל (עַיֵּן שָׁם שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִים):136

35 [Our Sages] prohibited instructing a non-Jew [to perform a forbidden activity on Shabbos] only when he does so for the sake of a Jew.137 It is, however, permitted to tell [a non-Jew] to perform a [forbidden] labor for his own sake or for the sake of another non-Jew. [This license applies] even when a Jew will benefit from [his actions]. For example, one may tell a non-Jew, “Put out the fire in your [house,” even though] his intent is that the fire will not spread from the non-Jew’s house to the Jew’s house, or the like.

Even if a non-Jew performs a [forbidden] labor for his own sake with utensils and articles belonging to a Jew, [the Jew] is not obligated to admonish him when he sees him [doing so].138

When does the above apply? When the non-Jew acts on his own initiative. It is, however, forbidden for a Jew to tell [a non-Jew], “Take these tools…,” or “[Take] this article and perform your work with it on Shabbos.” [This is prohibited] even when [the Jew] transfers full ownership of the article which [will be used to perform] the forbidden labor to [the non-Jew].139 For example, he tells [the non-Jew], “Take this meat and cook it on Shabbos for your own purposes.” [This stringency applies] even if [the Jew] is not responsible for supplying [the non-Jew] with food, and thus [the Jew] does not profit at all from this statement;140 on the contrary, he suffers a loss. Nevertheless, since he instructs [the non-Jew] to perform a [forbidden] labor with [the Jew’s] own property, [the non-Jew] appears as [the Jew’s] agent, even if the non-Jew intends to perform the activity [entirely] for his own benefit.141

לה לֹא אָסְרוּ אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל,137 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹרס אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ נָכְרִי אַחֵר. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מַגִּיעַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הֲנָאָה מִזֶּה,רסא כְּגוֹן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי "כַּבֵּה דְלֵקָתְךָ",רסב וְכַוָּנָתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲבוֹר הַדְּלֵקָה מִבֵּית הַנָּכְרִי לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה הַמְּלָאכָה לְצָרְכּוֹ בְּכֵלִים וַחֲפָצִים שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בּוֹ כְּשֶׁרוֹאֵהוּ.רסג, 138

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן מֵעַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לוֹמַר לוֹ "טוֹל כֵּלִים אֵלּוּ אוֹ חֵפֶץ זֶה וַעֲשֵׂה בּוֹ מְלַאכְתְּךָ בְּשַׁבָּת".רסד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא מַקְנֶה לוֹ לְגַמְרֵי אֶת הַחֵפֶץ הַזֶּה שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בּוֹ,רסה, 139 כְּגוֹן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ "טוֹל בָּשָׂר זֶה וּבַשֵּׁל אוֹתוֹ לְצָרְכְּךָ בְּשַׁבָּת", וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין מְזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלָיו,רסו שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שׁוּם רֶוַח בַּאֲמִירָה זוֹ,רסז, 140 וְאַדְּרַבָּה מַפְסִיד הוּא,רסח אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּשֶׁלּוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ,רסט אַף שֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ לַהֲנָאַת עַצְמוֹ:ער, 141

36 When, on Shabbos, a non-Jew brings articles that are muktzeh to a Jew’s home to entrust them to him [for safekeeping, the non-Jew] may bring them to a private place in the Jew’s home to secure them there. [Moreover,] there is no prohibition in [the Jew’s] telling the non-Jew to bring the articles that are muktzeh to that place, for the non-Jew is moving the articles for his own sake, and it is permitted to tell a non-Jew, “Perform your tasks.”142 If, however, a non-Jew brings articles that are muktzeh and that belong to the Jew, [the Jew] is only permitted to instruct [the non-Jew] to carry them to [a place where they will be] secure if he [instructs the non-Jew to do so] while they are still in the non-Jew’s hands. While the non-Jew is holding them in his hand, the Jew may tell him to move them to any place the Jew desires. ([The rationale for this leniency is that] even if a Jew either willfully or unknowingly holds [an article that is] muktzeh in his hand, as long as it is still in his hand, he is permitted to take it to wherever he desires, as will be explained in sec. 308[:13].)143

לו נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲפָצִים שֶׁהֵם מֻקְצִים לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַפְקִידָם אֶצְלוֹ – יָכוֹל לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְמָקוֹם מֻצְנָע שֶׁבְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁיַּצְנִיעֵם שָׁמָּה.רעא וְאֵין אִסּוּר בְּזֶה בְּמַה שֶּׁאוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי לְטַלְטֵל הַמֻּקְצֶה עַד אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם, שֶׁהֲרֵי טִלְטוּל זֶה הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַנָּכְרִי, וּמֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי "עֲשֵׂה מְלַאכְתְּךָ".142

אֲבָל אִם הַחֲפָצִים הַמֻּקְצִים שֶׁהֵבִיא הַנָּכְרִי הֵם שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁיְּטַלְטְלֵם לְהַצְנִיעוֹ,ערב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַחֲפָצִים בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁכְּשֶׁנָּכְרִי תּוֹפֵס הַמֻּקְצֶה בְּיָדוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵלרעג (לְפִי שֶׁאַף יִשְׂרָאֵל הַתּוֹפֵס מֻקְצֶה בְּיָדוֹ בְּזָדוֹן אוֹ בִּשְׁגָגָה – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּעוֹדוֹ בְּיָדוֹ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"חעדר, 143):

37 [The following law applies when]on Shabbos, non-Jews bring wagonloads of grain that they owe to the Jew. The Jew [may] give [the non-Jews] the key to his storehouse; they [may] then bring the grain to the storehouse, and measure and count it there in [the Jew’s] presence. [In this case] no prohibition is involved, because the non-Jews are occupied in their own work.144 For the grain does not become the Jew’s until he makes an accounting with them after Shabbos. On Shabbos, the grain is merely like an entrusted article in his domain, and [the non-Jews] are measuring and counting an entrusted article that belongs to them.

If, however, [the non-Jews] bring grain that belongs to the Jew, it is forbidden for [the Jew] to tell [the non-Jews] to unload it from the wagons into his storehouse, even if it is not measured or counted. [The rationale is that] the Jew himself is forbidden to unload it [from the wagons] according to Rabbinic Law, as will be explained in sec. 333[:1, 5].145 Also,a Jew is forbidden to instruct a non-Jew to perform on his behalf any act that he himself is forbidden to perform on Shabbos even [if the act is forbidden merely] by Rabbinic Law.146([Moreover,] even if [the non-Jews] come to unload it into [the Jew’s] storehouse on their own initiative, [the Jew] must admonish them. Since the grain belongs to him, if he sees [the non-Jews’ actions] and remains silent, [it is considered as if] they are acting with his consent, as explained in sec. 252[:10].147

לז נָכְרִים הַמְּבִיאִים עֲגָלוֹת מְלֵאוֹת תְּבוּאָה בְּשַׁבָּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֵם חַיָּבִים לוֹ, וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹתֵן לָהֶם מַפְתֵּחַ אוֹצָרוֹ, וְהֵם נוֹשְׂאִים הַתְּבוּאָה לָאוֹצָר וּמוֹדְדִים וּמוֹנִים אוֹתָם שָׁם בִּפְנֵי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר, שֶׁהַנָּכְרִים בִּמְלֶאכֶת עַצְמָן הֵם עוֹסְקִים,144 כִּי אֵין הַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עַד אַחַר שֶׁיַּחְשׁוֹב עִמָּהֶם אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, וּבְשַׁבָּת אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא כְּפִקָּדוֹן אֶצְלוֹ, וְהֵם מוֹדְדִים וּמוֹנִים אֶת פִּקְדוֹנָם.ערה

אֲבָל אִם הֵבִיאוּ תְּבוּאָה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר לוֹמַר לָהֶם לְפַנּוֹתָהּ מֵהָעֲגָלוֹת לְתוֹךְ אוֹצָרוֹרעו אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא מְדִידָה וּמִנְיָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַצְמוֹ אָסוּר לוֹ לְפַנּוֹתָהּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ג,רעז, 145 וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.רעח, 146

(וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵם מֵעַצְמָם בָּאִים לְפַנּוֹת לְתוֹךְ אוֹצָרוֹ – צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁלּוֹ אִם יִרְאֶה וְיִשְׁתּוֹק – לְדַעְתּוֹ הֵם עוֹשִׂים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ברעט, 147):

38 [The following law applies when] non-Jews make cheese on Shabbos from milk that belongs to them, and a Jew observes the milking and the cheese-making process so that it will be permitted for a Jew to eat it,148 and after Shabbos [the Jew] will be able to purchase [the cheese] in order to eat it. Even though a Jew spends a month or two with [a given] herd, and when making [the cheese] the non-Jewish [owner] has the intent to sell it to him alone and not to non-Jews, this is permitted since, after all, the non-Jew is acting for his own benefit.149 There is no prohibition at all against the Jew standing by [and observing the non-Jew] work on Shabbos, (since the non-Jew is performing his own work). [The rationale is that] the cheese is not considered as belonging to the Jew at all until he purchases it from [the non-Jew] after Shabbos. (For this reason, it is permitted for [the Jew] to tell [the non-Jew] to make [the cheese] on Shabbos, because it is permitted [on Shabbos] to tell a non-Jew “perform your work” even though a Jew will benefit from this [afterwards], as explained above.)150

לח נָכְרִים הָעוֹשִׂים גְּבִינוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת מֵחָלָב שֶׁלָּהֶם, וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹאֶה אֶת הַחֲלִיבָה וְהַגִּבּוּן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְאָכְלָןרפ, 148 וְיוּכַל לִקְנוֹתָן אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת לַאֲכִילָה, אַף אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹמֵד בְּעֵדֶר חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ חָדְשַׁיִם וְהַנָּכְרִי מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָן בִּשְׁבִיל לְמָכְרָן לוֹ בִּלְבַדּוֹ וְלֹא לְנָכְרִים – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר, שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם הַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ,149 וְאֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל בְּמַה שֶּׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹמֵד עָלָיו בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת (כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי בִּמְלֶאכֶת עַצְמוֹ הוּא עוֹסֵק),רפא שֶׁעֲדַיִן אֵין שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִקְרָא כְּלָל עַל הַגְּבִינוֹתרפב עַד שֶׁיִּקְנֶה אוֹתָן מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת.

(וּלְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי "עֲשֵׂה מְלַאכְתְּךָ" אַף אִם מַגִּיעַ מִזֶּה רֶוַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵילרפג, 150):