SECTION 306 Articles Which Are Permitted To Be Spoken about on Shabbos (1-29)

סימן שו בְּאֵיזֶה חֲפָצִים מֻתָּר לְדַבֵּר בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ"ט סְעִיפִים:

1 [It is written:]1 “And you shall honor it [by] refraining from following your [ordinary] ways, pursuing your concerns, and speaking about [mundane matters].” Our Sages expound2 [on the phrase] “pursuing your concerns,” [explaining it to mean] that it is forbidden to tend to one’s [mundane] affairs [on Shabbos] even when tending to them does not involve the performance of any [forbidden] labor, neither [an activity prohibited by] Scriptural Law nor a shvus3prohibited by Rabbinic Law. Instead, one is performing a permitted act, even merely walking, but his act or stroll is intended to enable him to perform an activity after Shabbos that is forbidden to be performed on Shabbos, whether by Scriptural or Rabbinic Law.4 [He is] performing an act on Shabbos – not merely thinking – in preparation for an activity forbidden on Shabbos that will be performed after Shabbos.For example, he takes a stroll through his field [on Shabbos] to see what needs to be done for it after Shabbos, e.g., hoeing, weeding, or other activities that are forbidden on Shabbos.5Alternatively, he goes to the entrance of [his] town and waits there until nightfall so that he can go to a bathhouse located outside the town [immediately after Shabbos].6 Walking there [on Shabbos] is thus intended for a concern forbidden on Shabbos.7

א "וְכִבַּדְתּוֹא מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר",ב, 1 "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ" – דָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:ג, 2 חֲפָצֶיךָ אֲסוּרִים לְבַקְּשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה בּוֹ שׁוּם מְלָאכָה,ד לֹא שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וְלֹא שְׁבוּת3 מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אֵיזֶה מַעֲשֶׂה הַמֻּתָּר, אֲפִלּוּ הֲלִיכָה בִּלְבַדָּהּ, וּמַעֲשֶׂה זֶה אוֹ הִלּוּךְ זֶה הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּתה אֵיזֶה דָבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין מִן הַתּוֹרָה בֵּין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ו, 4 שֶׁנִּמְצָא מַזְמִין עַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּתז בְּפֹעַל מַמָּשׁ, לֹא בְּהִרְהוּר לְבָד,ח לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּהַלֵּךְ בְּשָׂדֵהוּ לִרְאוֹת מַה הִיא צְרִיכָהט אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּתי מֵעִדּוּר וְנִכּוּשׁ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִדְּבָרִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת,5 אוֹ שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לְפֶתַח הַמְּדִינָה וְיוֹשֵׁב שָׁם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ כְּדֵי לְמַהֵר לָצֵאת בַּלַּיְלָה לַמֶּרְחָץיא שֶׁחוּץ לָעִיר,יב, 6 שֶׁהֲרֵי הִלּוּךְ זֶה הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל חֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת: יג, 7

2 When does the above apply? When it is apparent that one has forbidden activities in mind, as for example, a person who walks in his field. What is he looking for there if not to see what [his field] needs? Similarly, when one goes to the entrance of the town, it is apparent that he wants to get closer to the bathhouse that is nearby. For it was the common practice in the [Talmudic] era for their bathhouses to be located [outside the towns] near the town’s entrance. Another [forbidden activity is] walking around in a town to find a horse, a ship, or a wagon to rent after Shabbos in order to depart on a journey if it is apparent that this is his intent.

If, however, it is not apparent that the person’s intent is for forbidden concerns, but rather [he could have been focused on] permitted concerns, his act is permitted.8 For this reason, it is permitted to go outside a town, [but] within its Shabbos limits, and wait there until nightfall so that he will be able to pick produce and herbs [growing in] his garden or a decaying structure that is within the Shabbos limits and bring them home. [In this instance,] it is not apparent that he is going there to pick produce. For if he is a Torah scholar, an observer might well say that he was [unintentionally] drawn there as a result of his intense focus on his studies.9 And if he is a common person, it could be said that perhaps he lost his donkey,10 and he went to search for it, and he continued his search until he reached the place where his produce [was growing]. At that time, he changed his mind and decided to stay there until nightfall to pick [his produce] and bring it home at night. Nevertheless, [it is permitted for him to go,] because [it could appear] that he was not going for the sake of picking [the produce], which is forbidden on Shabbos, but in order to bring back his donkey, which is permitted on Shabbos.11Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

ב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנִּכָּר הַדָּבָר יד שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לַחֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים, כְּגוֹן זֶה שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בְּשָׂדֵהוּ, שֶׁמַּה מְּבַקֵּשׁ שָׁם אִם לֹא לִרְאוֹת מַה הִיא צְרִיכָה.טו וְכֵן הַהוֹלֵךְ עַל פֶּתַח הַמְּדִינָה נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן כְּדֵי לְהִתְקָרֵב בַּמֶּרְחָץ הַסָּמוּךְ לַמְּדִינָה,טז שֶׁכֵּן הָיָה בִּימֵיהֶם שֶׁהַמֶּרְחֲצָאוֹת הָיוּ סְמוּכִים לְפֶתַח הַמְּדִינָה.יז וְכֵן אִם מְטַיֵּל בָּעִיר כְּדֵי לִמְצוֹא סוּס אוֹ סְפִינָה אוֹ קָרוֹן יח לְשָׂכְרָם אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת לָצֵאת בָּהֶם לַדֶּרֶךְ, וְהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנִּכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ.יט

אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לַחֲפָצִים הָאֲסוּרִים אֶלָּא לַחֲפָצִים הַמֻּתָּרִים – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר.8 לְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לְהַלֵּךְ חוּץ לָעִיר תּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וּלְהִתְעַכֵּב שָׁם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ כְּדֵי לִתְלוֹשׁ פֵּרוֹת וַעֲשָׂבִים מִגִּנָּתוֹ וְחֻרְבָּתוֹ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וְלַהֲבִיאָם לְבֵיתוֹ, שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לְשָׁם בִּשְׁבִיל תְּלִישַׁת הַפֵּרוֹת,כ כִּי הָרוֹאֶה יֹאמַר שֶׁמָּא מֵחֲמַת טִרְדַּת עִיּוּנוֹ בְּלִמּוּדוֹ נִמְשַׁךְ וְהָלַךְ עַד כֹּה אִם הוּא תַּלְמִיד חָכָם,9 וְאִם הוּא עַם הָאָרֶץ יֹאמַר עָלָיו שֶׁמָּא חֲמוֹרוֹ נֶאֱבַד לוֹ כא, 10 וּמְהַלֵּךְ לְבַקְּשׁוֹ וְנִמְשַׁךְ בְּבַקָּשָׁתוֹ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹם הַפֵּרוֹת, וְאָז נִמְלַךְ לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עֲלֵיהֶם לְתָלְשָׁם וְלַהֲבִיאָם לְבֵיתוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה, אֲבָל הִלּוּכוֹ לֹא הָיָה בִּשְׁבִיל הַתְּלִישָׁה הָאֲסוּרָה בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל הֲבָאַת הַחֲמוֹר הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בְּשַׁבָּת,כב, 11 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:

3 It is, however, forbidden to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbos limits,12 i.e., to walk on Shabbos to the end (or [even] the middle) of one’s Shabbos limits and wait there until nightfall so that he can save time by continuing his journey from that point. (Since he resumes traveling from there on Saturday night, it is apparent that the primary reason for his going there [was to continue his journey on Saturday night]. Had he gone there [on Shabbos] for another purpose without intending to proceed farther, [then he would not have continued,] for most likely, a new factor did not [suddenly] arise that motivated him to change his mind) (and continue traveling).

When does the above apply? When [the person] waits there for a purpose that may in no way be accomplished in a permitted manner on Shabbos. Examples of this would be: he needs to go beyond the Shabbos limits to hire workers13 or to pick produce that is attached to the ground,13 or to bring produce that is muktzeh from there, for there is absolutely no way these activities may be accomplished in a permitted manner on Shabbos. One may, however, wait until nightfall at the end of his Shabbos limits so that on Saturday night, he can bring back his animal that [wandered] outside the Shabbos limits.14 [The rationale is that] bringing back an animal is an activity that is permitted on Shabbos.15[True,] on Shabbos, one may not bring [the animal] back from outside the Shabbos limits. Nevertheless, there is a [halachic convention] that would allow [the owner] to bring the animal back from outside the Shabbos limits. For example, if there is [a string of] sheds,16 i.e., huts for guards, each one within seventy cubits and four handbreadths of the other, in such a situation, [the person] may proceed even several parsaos17 on Shabbos, because they are all considered as [part of] one extended town, as will be explained in sec. 398[:7, 9].18 Even though, [in fact,] at present there are no such sheds, [the owner of the animal is granted this leniency].19

Similarly, it is permitted to wait at the Shabbos limits until nightfall to bring in produce that has already been detached and which is not muktzeh, for in this instance as well, there is a [halachic convention] that allows one to bring it from there – i.e., [in an instance where] there were partitions enclosing the path from the location of the produce until his house.20 Even though, in fact, there are no partitions, [the owner of the animal is granted this leniency]. (The rationale [for this leniency] is explained in sec. 307[:15].)21

When, however, the produce is muktzeh,22 it is impossible to bring it even when there are partitions, because it is forbidden to move [such produce]. Similarly, it is forbidden to wait until nightfall close to the Shabbos limits to bring back an animal that cannot walk on its own, for example, a small lamb that must be carried on one’s shoulders. [Such an animal] cannot be brought back on Shabbos even if there are partitions, because it is muktzeh and it is forbidden to move [the animal].23

It is, however, permitted to wait until nightfall [close to the Shabbos limits] to guard such an animal, or [to guard] produce that is muktzeh, or even [to guard] produce that is attached to the ground, that are outside the Shabbos limits,24 because guarding [articles] that are muktzeh or attached [to the ground] is permitted on Shabbos.25[Moreover,] if the person intended only to watch [the produce] when he went [close to the Shabbos]limits to wait until nightfall, and afterwards, changed his mind and decided to bring it home on Saturday night, he is permitted [to do so].

ג אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עַל הַתְּחוּם,כג, 12 דְּהַיְנוּ לֵילֵךְ בְּשַׁבָּת עַד סוֹף הַתְּחוּם כד (אוֹ אֶמְצָעוֹ כה) וּלְהִתְעַכֵּב שָׁם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ, כְּדֵי לְמַהֵר דַּרְכּוֹ לֵילֵךְ מִשָּׁם וּלְהָלְאָה (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ מִשָּׁם וּלְהָלְאָה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁעִקַּר הִלּוּכוֹ הָיָה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, שֶׁאִם הָיָה הִלּוּכוֹ לְשָׁם בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר אַחֵר וְלֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ אָז שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ מִשָּׁם וּלְהָלְאָה – מִן הַסְּתָם לֹא נוֹלַד לוֹ שָׁם דָּבָר חָדָשׁ שֶׁנִּמְלַךְ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ) (לֵילֵךְ מִשָּׁם וּלְהָלְאָה).

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁמַּחְשִׁיךְ שָׁם בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין צַד הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,כו כְּגוֹן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לֵילֵךְ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם לִשְׂכּוֹר פּוֹעֲלִים,כז, 12 אוֹ לִתְלוֹשׁ פֵּרוֹת הַמְּחֻבָּרִים,כח, 13 אוֹ לְהָבִיא מִשָּׁם פֵּרוֹת הַמֻּקְצִים,כט שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם צַד הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם לִשְׂכּוֹר פּוֹעֲלִים בְּשַׁבָּת, אוֹ לִתְלוֹשׁ פֵּרוֹת, אוֹ לְטַלְטֵל פֵּרוֹת הַמֻּקְצִים.ל

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עַל הַתְּחוּם לְהָבִיא בְּהֶמְתּוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם לא בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,14 שֶׁהֲבָאַת הַבְּהֵמָה הִיא דָבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת.לב, 15 וְאַף שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לַהֲבִיאָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ צַד הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל לַהֲבִיאָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם,לג כְּגוֹן אִם הָיוּ שָׁם בֻּרְגָּנִין,לד, 16 דְּהַיְנוּ סֻכּוֹת שׁוֹמְרִים, שֶׁכָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן מֻבְלַעַת בְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְעִים אַמָּה וְד' טְפָחִים שֶׁל חֲבֶרְתָּהּ, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה פַּרְסָאוֹת17 בְּשַׁבָּת,לה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכֻּלָּן נֶחְשָׁבוֹת כְּעִיר אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה,לו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ח,לז, 18 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין שָׁם בֻּרְגָּנִין.19

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עַל הַתְּחוּם לְהָבִיא מִשָּׁם פֵּרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין שֶׁאֵינָם מֻקְצִים, שֶׁיֵּשׁ גַּם כֵּן צַד הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם לַהֲבִיאָם מִשָּׁם בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן אִם הָיוּ שָׁם מְחִצּוֹת לח מַקִּיפוֹת אֶת הַדֶּרֶךְ מִמְּקוֹם הַפֵּרוֹת עַד בֵּיתוֹ,20 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין שָׁם מְחִצּוֹת (וְהַטַּעַם יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז לט, 21).

אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת הַמֻּקְצִים22 אִי אֶפְשָׁר לַהֲבִיאָם אַף עַל יְדֵי מְחִצּוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם אֲסוּרִים בְּטִלְטוּל.מ וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עַל הַתְּחוּם לְהָבִיא מִשָּׁם בְּהֵמָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לֵילֵךְ בְּרַגְלֶיהָ, כְּגוֹן טָלֶה קָטָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְנָשְׂאוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַהֲבִיאוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל יְדֵי מְחִצּוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה וְאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל.מא, 23

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַחְשִׁיךְ כְּדֵי לִשְׁמוֹר אוֹתוֹ אוֹ פֵּרוֹת הַמֻּקְצִים אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הַמְּחֻבָּרִים שֶׁהֵם חוּץ לַתְּחוּם,מב, 24 שֶׁשְּׁמִירַת הַמֻּקְצֶה וְהַמְּחֻבָּר הוּא דָבָר הַמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת.מג, 25 וְאִם כְּשֶׁהָלַךְ לְהַחְשִׁיךְ לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל לְשָׁמְרָם בִּלְבָד, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לְתָלְשָׁם וְלַהֲבִיאָם לְבֵיתוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר: מד

Fig. 6: A string of sheds extending from a city — (a) The city; (b) A string of sheds; (c) 70.66 cubits; (d) The beginning of the Shabbos limits
Fig. 6: A string of sheds extending from a city — (a) The city; (b) A string of sheds; (c) 70.66 cubits; (d) The beginning of the Shabbos limits

4 [On Shabbos,] it is forbidden to buy or to sell [any object].26 So too [is it forbidden] to rent [any object] from [its owner] or [for an owner] to hire27 out [an object] on Shabbos. This is a decree [instituted] lest one write.28 It applies whether one sells or rents out merely verbally or one [actually] transfers the object to the other person [on Shabbos].

([The prohibition applies even when one does not mention the price of the sale or the rental to [the purchaser or the renter. It is forbidden] even when [the owner] makes no mention of money at all, but uses wording implying purchase or rental.

Even if one must obtain food for Shabbos, he should not say “Sell me [this-and-this],” but “Give me…,” as will be explained in sec. 323[:1].29 It is even forbidden to purchase30 [objects] on Shabbos using a non-Jew as an intermediary, as will be stated in sec. 517[:6-7]31 and sec. 325[:16].

ד אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת אוֹ לִמְכּוֹר מה, 26 וְכֵן לִשְׂכּוֹר מו אוֹ לְהַשְׂכִּיר מז, 27 בְּשַׁבָּת, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִכְתּוֹב,מח, 28 בֵּין שֶׁמּוֹכֵר מט אוֹ שֶׁמַּשְׂכִּיר בְּפֶה בִּלְבָד, בֵּין שֶׁמּוֹסֵר לוֹ נ הַיּוֹם אֶת הַחֵפֶץ.

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קוֹצֵץ עִמּוֹ דְּמֵי הַמִּקָּח וְהַשְּׂכִירוּת, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם דָּמִים כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ לְשׁוֹן מְכִירָה אוֹ שְׂכִירוּת.נא וַאֲפִלּוּ צָרִיךְ לִקַּח מַאֲכָלִים לְשַׁבָּת – לֹא יֹאמַר "מְכוֹר לִי", אֶלָּא "תֵּן לִי", כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ג.נב, 29 וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת30 בְּשַׁבָּת,נג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקי"ז נד, 31 וְשכ"ה נה עַיֵּן שָׁם):

5 Instructing a non-Jew to perform [a forbidden task] on Shabbos is [forbidden] as a shvus3 by Rabbinic decree, even if one gave [the non-Jew] these instructions before Shabbos.32 When, however, one tells [a non-Jew] or another Jew on Shabbos to perform a task for him the following day, it is not [forbidden] as a shvus. It is, however, prohibited as part of [the injunction to refrain from] “pursuing your concerns.”33

There is no difference between these two prohibitions except [with regard to having a non-Jew perform a task] that is required for the sake of a mitzvah. [On Shabbos,] it is forbidden to have a forbidden labor performed by a non-Jew even for the sake of a mitzvah,34 even when he was given instructions before Shabbos. Similarly, all other actions [that were prohibited as] shvusim were not permitted [to be performed] for the sake of a mitzvah,35 only a shvus of a shvus [was permitted],36as will be explained in the latter source.37

When, by contrast, the forbidden labor is to be performed on Saturday night, i.e., at a time when it is permitted, [the only issue involved is that] instructions were given on Shabbos. [Giving those instructions is prohibited because the person] is occupied on Shabbos with a matter that is forbidden on that day and [this prohibition] was relaxed for the sake of a mitzvah.

Similarly, waiting until nightfall close to the Shabbos limits for the sake of a mitzvah was permitted. [The rationale is that doing so] is prohibited only because one prepares himself on Shabbos for an activity that is forbidden on that day, and this preparation was permitted for the sake of a mitzvah.38 [Our Sages39 derived this concept from the phrase cited above, “pursuing] your concerns” – “your concerns” are forbidden; the concerns of Heaven40 are permitted.

ה אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הִיא שְׁבוּת3 מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים נו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת,נז, 32 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹמְרִים לוֹ אוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ מְלָאכָה לְמָחָר – אֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת, אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ",נח, 33 וְאֵין הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין אִסּוּר זֶה לְאִסּוּר זֶה אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן צָרְכֵי מִצְוָה, שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,נט, 34 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת.ס וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,סא, 35 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת,36 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.סב, 37

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת שֶׁהוּא זְמַן הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵין בַּאֲמִירָה זוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמִּתְעַסֵּק בְּשַׁבָּת בְּדָבָר הָאָסוּר הַיּוֹם עֵסֶק זֶה – הִתִּירוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.סג וְכֵן לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עַל הַתְּחוּם, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמַּזְמִין אֶת עַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר הַיּוֹם סד – הַזְמָנָה זוֹ הִתִּירוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,סה, 38 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר סו "חֶפְצְךָ", חֲפָצֶיךָ – אֲסוּרִים, חֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם40 – מֻתָּרִים:סז, 39

6 Therefore, one may wait close to the Shabbos limits until nightfall in order to [proceed] beyond the Shabbos limits [after Shabbos] to tend to the needs of a bride or a deceased person,41 for example, [to procure] a coffin and shrouds and bring them to the town. One may [also] tell a friend to wait close to the Shabbos limits until nightfall to perform these tasks and bring these [articles] to him. He may tell [his friend], “Go to this-and-this place tomorrow.42 If you do not [find the items] in that place, go to that-and-that place.”41 [This is permitted since a mitzvah43 is involved,] even though it would be forbidden to speak to [someone] using such language for one’s personal concerns, because such wording demonstrates that he is sending him to acquire an article, which is an action forbidden on Shabbos.44

He may also explicitly tell him, “Purchase it for a maneh.45If you don’t find it for a maneh, purchase it [even] for 200.”41 (True, when one purchases types of food from a storekeeper on Shabbos, it is forbidden to mention money at all to him, because when one mentions money, [it is considered] a commercial transaction in the complete sense. When, by contrast, one does not mention money, it does not appear as a commercial transaction, merely that one is borrowing [from the store owner], as will be explained in sec. 323[:1]. If so, when on Shabbos, one sends another person to purchase articles on Saturday night, if he were to mention money, he would be sending him to perform a commercial transaction in the complete sense, which is forbidden on Shabbos. By contrast, if he were not to mention money, it would not appear that he is sending [the person] to perform a commercial transaction in the complete sense, but rather to borrow. Nevertheless, in this instance, mentioning the money [is permitted, since it] is for the sake of a mitzvah, because if he did not mention [a specific sum] to the person [he is sending, that person] would not know how much money to offer, and it is possible that he would return empty-handed if the price rose. Since he is mentioning money for an acquisition that will [only] take place after Shabbos, license was granted to him.)

He should not, however, mention the [maximum] cost of the purchase, i.e., he should not tell the person he is sending a price that he may not exceed,41 because such a statement is made solely to save himself money, and that is not necessary for [the fulfillment of] the mitzvah. Similarly, he should not make an accounting of money, i.e., to tell him, “Go to so-and-so, to whom I owe this-and-this amount, and purchase what is required for this mitzvah from him. Then, I will owe him this-and-this amount.” (For calculating this sum is not necessary for the mitzvah.)

ו לְפִיכָךְ, מַחְשִׁיכִין עַל הַתְּחוּם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם צָרְכֵי כַלָּה אוֹ צָרְכֵי מֵת,41 דְּהַיְנוּ אָרוֹן וְתַכְרִיכִים וְלַהֲבִיאָם לָעִיר,סח וְיָכוֹל לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיַּחְשִׁיךְ עַל הַתְּחוּם לַעֲשׂוֹת דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ וְלַהֲבִיאָם לוֹ, וְיָכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ לֵךְ לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי לְמָחָר42 וְאִם לֹא [תִמְצָא] בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי לֵךְ לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי,סט, 41, 43 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלִּדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת אָסוּר לוֹמַר לוֹ בְּלָשׁוֹן זֶה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלָּשׁוֹן זֶה מוֹכִיחַ שֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחוֹ לִקְנוֹת אֵיזֶה חֵפֶץ,ע שֶׁהוּא דָבָר הָאָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת,עא, 44 וְיָכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ גַּם כֵּן בְּפֵרוּשׁ: קַח בְּמָנֶה45, וְאִם לֹא [תִמְצָא] בְּמָנֶה – קַח בְּמָאתַיִם.עב, 41

(שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַלּוֹקֵחַ מִינֵי מַאֲכָל מֵחֶנְוָנִי בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְהַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם דָּמִים כְּלָל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּיר שֵׁם דָּמִים – הֲרֵי זֶה מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר גָּמוּר, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם דָּמִים אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר אֶלָּא כִּשְׁאֵלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ג,עג וְאִם כֵּן גַּם כְּשֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לִקְנוֹת בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת אִם מַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם דָּמִים – הֲרֵי הוּא מְשַׁלְּחוֹ לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר גָּמוּר הָאָסוּר לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה מַזְכִּיר שֵׁם דָּמִים – אֲזַי לֹא הָיָה נִרְאֶה שֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחוֹ לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר גָּמוּר, אֶלָּא לִשְׁאֵלָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַזְכָּרַת דָּמִים כַּאן הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, שֶׁאִם לֹא יַזְכִּיר לוֹ לֹא יֵדַע כַּמָּה דָמִים לִפְסוֹק, וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיַּחֲזוֹר רֵיקָם אִם יְיַקְּרוּ הַשַּׁעַר וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמַּזְכִּיר לוֹ הַדָּמִים לְקִנְיָן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ).

אֲבָל לֹא יַזְכִּיר לוֹ סְכוּם מִקָּח, כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ סַךְ יָדוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו,עד, 41 לְפִי שֶׁאֲמִירָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא הַצָּלַת מָמוֹנוֹ וְאֵין בָּהּ צֹרֶךְ לְמִצְוָה.עה וְכֵן לֹא יַזְכִּיר לוֹ סַךְ דָּמִים, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ: לֵךְ לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לוֹ כָּךְ וְכָךְ, וְקַח מִמֶּנּוּ צָרְכֵי הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת, וְאֶהְיֶה חַיָּב לוֹ סַךְ הַכֹּל כָּךְ וְכָךְ עו (שֶׁצֵּרוּף סַך זֶה אֵין בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ לְמִצְוָה):

7 (All the above applies when one sends the other person to make the purchase on Saturday night. If, however, the opportunity presents itself for him to purchase [the item] on Shabbos itself, and it is impossible for him to acquire [the item] by promising payment at a later date without mentioning an explicit purchase price, he is forbidden to purchase the article. [This stringency applies] even in a situation where it will be impossible to find the article necessary for a mitzvah [afterwards; it is available only] on Shabbos. For on Shabbos itself, license was only granted to purchase an article necessary for a mitzvah in the same manner that one may purchase articles for permissible matters,46 i.e., [only] when payment will be made later, with no mention made of: money, a specific measure, the total number [of articles], or the sum of money [owed], as will be explained in sec. 323[:1]. If even one of these requirements is not met, [making the purchase is forbidden] as a shvus in the complete sense like all [other] shvusim that were not permitted for the sake of a mitzvah, except [when the act was performed] by a non-Jew, as will be stated in sec. 307[:12].)

ז (וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחוֹ שֶׁיִּקְנֶה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, אֲבָל אִם נִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ לִקְנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ בְּהַקָּפָה בְּלִי שֶׁיִּקְצוֹץ לוֹ דְּמֵי הַמִּקָּח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצוֹא חֵפֶץ זֶה לְצֹרֶךְ הַמִּצְוָה אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד – אָסוּר לִקְנוֹתוֹ,עז שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ לֹא הִתִּירוּ לִקְנוֹת אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה עח אֶלָּא בְּדֶרֶךְ הַמֻּתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת,עט, 46 דְּהַיְנוּ בְּהַקָּפָה, בְּלִי הַזְכָּרַת שֵׁם דָּמִים, וְלֹא שֵׁם מִדָּה, וְלֹא סְכוּם מִנְיָן, וְלֹא סְכוּם דָּמִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ג,פ וְאִם חָסֵר אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ – הֲרֵי זֶה שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר פא כִּשְׁאָר הַשְּׁבוּתִים, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּם לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז פב):

8 It is forbidden to hire oneself out [as a worker] on Shabbos,47even for a permitted task. [This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest one engage in commercial activity.

What is implied? For example, one hires a worker to guard his crops or another entity, paying him for every day [he works], and [the worker] also guards the crops on Shabbos. [In such circumstances, guarding the crops] is permitted on Shabbos, even if the produce is still attached to the ground.48 [In the above situation, the employer] should not pay [the worker] his wages for the Shabbos day independently; should he do so, [the worker] is forbidden to accept payment.49 Therefore, [the watchman] is not liable if [the guarded objects] are stolen or lost on Shabbos even though a paid watchman is liable [for such losses].50 The rationale is that, on Shabbos, he is not a paid watchman, but rather an unpaid one.

If [the employer] hired him on a weekly, monthly, or yearly basis, [the employer] should not deduct [the worker’s] wages for the Shabbasos, for [the worker] is forbidden to take payment for the Shabbos day only when [each day’s wages are calculated] separately. He may, however, accept [payment for Shabbos] when it is [calculated together with the wages for the] other days. [The worker] should not tell his employer, “Pay me for Shabbos,” but rather, “Give me [my] monthly wage,” “…weekly wage,” “…wage for ten days,” or the like, in a manner so that Shabbos is included together with the weekdays.51

ח אֵין מִשְׂתַּכְּרִין בְּשַׁבָּת פג, 47 אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר הַמֻּתָּר,פד גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר.פה כֵּיצַד? כְּגוֹן הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַפּוֹעֵל לִשְׁמוֹר לוֹ זְרָעִים אוֹ דָּבָר אַחֵר פו וּמְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ בְּעַד כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם,פז וְהוּא מְשַׁמְּרֵם גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁזֶּהוּ דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר לִשְׁמוֹר אֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוֹת הַמְּחֻבָּרִים פח, 48 – לֹא יִתֵּן לוֹ שָׂכָר בְּעַד יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת פט בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְאִם נָתַן לוֹ – אָסוּר לוֹ לְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ.צ, 49 לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין אַחֲרָיוּתָם עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת צא מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה צב שֶׁשּׁוֹמֵר שָׂכָר חַיָּב בָּהֶם,צג, 50 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵר בְּשָׂכָר אֶלָּא בְּחִנָּם.

וְאִם שְׂכָרוֹ לְשָׁבוּעַ אוֹ לְחֹדֶשׁ אוֹ לְשָׁנָה – לֹא יְנַכֶּה לוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת,צד שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לִטּוֹל שְׂכַר יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִטְּלוֹ בְּהַבְלָעָה עִם שְׁאָר הַיָּמִים.צה וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּת, אֶלָּא תֵּן לִי שְׂכַר הַחֹדֶשׁ אוֹ שָׁבוּעַ אוֹ עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים צו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת מֻבְלָע בַּחֹל:51

9 Even though [the employer] hired [the worker] for a month, [the arrangement is forbidden] if he stipulated that he would pay [the worker] such-and-such an amount for each day. Even though at the end of the month, [the employer] pays [the worker] the wage for the Shabbasos in one sum together with the wages for the other days, this is of no consequence. [The rationale is that] including payment for Shabbos together with that of the other days [only] at the time of payment is not considered as including Shabbos together with the other days. Instead, the wage for Shabbos must be included together with that of the other days at the time [the worker] watches the article, i.e., [the employer] should [initially] stipulate that he will pay [the worker] this-and-this amount for guarding [the object] the entire month. [In the instance where daily payment was stipulated,] by contrast, the [employer] became liable to pay [the worker] his wages for each day that he guarded at the end of that day.52 For if he wanted to, [the worker] may cease [guarding the object] for him [at any time].53 [Indeed,] this is why [the worker] stipulated [that the employer should calculate] his wages on a daily basis – so that he could cease working any day he wanted.

As such, his wages for Shabbos are an independent entity. True, [the worker] wants to complete the month guarding the article and, [at present,] he has no intention of stopping in the middle of the month. Nevertheless, since [the option is the worker’s] – were he to desire to cease [working] in the middle of the month, [the employer] would not pay him for the entire month, but would calculate [his daily wage] for each day of the month for which he was hired – his wage for Shabbos isan independent entity. The same laws apply when one rents out a room to a friend and makes such a stipulation with him.

Similar laws apply with regard to those who lend money to non-Jews with interest, [charging] such-and-such [an amount] per week. The loan must be made in such a manner that if the loan will be repaid in the middle of the week, the [full] amount of interest [stipulated] for the entire week must be paid; alternatively, the loan must be made in such a manner that the debt may not be repaid at all during that week. For if the borrowers could repay the debt in the middle of the week and [the lender] had to calculate [the interest] for each of the days of the week that passed with [the non-Jewish borrowers, the interest to be paid for the Shabbasos would then be an independent entity]. Even if the amount due for the Shabbos of the [final] week would be deducted, that would not rectify the situation, unless [the creditor] would [also] deduct [the interest paid] for all the past Shabbasos. [The rationale is that] every week, [the non-Jews] could have paid the debt in the middle of the week had they so desired. Then it would have been necessary to calculate [the interest due for] every day of the week individually. Thus, the interest for each day [– including the Shabbasos –] is considered as an independent entity. Therefore, even if the entire week passed without [the non-Jews] repaying him, [the Jewish lender] is not permitted to take the entire amount of interest. Instead, he must deduct payment for every Shabbos, since each day is considered as an independent entity.54

ט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ לְחֹדֶשׁ, אִם הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ כָּךְ וְכָךְ בְּעַד כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ בְּסוֹף הַחֹדֶשׁ שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת בְּהַבְלָעָה עִם שְׁאָר הַיָּמִים – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם,צז שֶׁלֹּא נִקְרָא הַבְלָעָה מַה שֶּׁמַּבְלִיעַ לוֹ יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת בִּשְׁעַת פֵּרָעוֹן, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהָיָה שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּת מֻבְלָע בִּשְׂכַר שְׁאָר הַיָּמִים בִּשְׁעַת הַשְּׁמִירָה, דְּהַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ כָּךְ וְכָךְ בְּעַד שְׁמִירַת כָּל הַחֹדֶשׁ, אֲבָל זֶה כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם שֶׁשָּׁמַר נִתְחַיֵּב לוֹ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְשַׁלֵּם בְּסוֹף הַיּוֹם צח הַשָּׂכָר שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם,52 שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לֹא יִשְׁמוֹר לוֹ עוֹד,53 שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ בְּעַד כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהַפְסִיק בְּאֵיזֶה יוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, וְאִם כֵּן שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּת הוּא בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִגְמוֹר שְׁמִירַת כָּל הַחֹדֶשׁ וְאֵין בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְהַפְסִיק בְּאֶמְצַע הַחֹדֶשׁ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה לְהַפְסִיק בְּאֶמְצַע הַחֹדֶשׁ לֹא הָיָה מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ בְּעַד כָּל הַחֹדֶשׁ, אֶלָּא הָיָה מְחַשֵּׁב עִמּוֹ יוֹם יוֹם מִימֵי הַחֹדֶשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׂכַּר לוֹ, נִמְצָא שֶׁשְּׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּת הוּא בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.צט

וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּמַשְׂכִּיר חֶדֶר לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ כָּךְ.ק

וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּמַלְוֵי בְּרִבִּית לְנָכְרִים בְּעַד כָּךְ וְכָךְ לְשָׁבוּעַ – צְרִיכִים לְהַלְווֹת בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יִפְרְעוּ הַחוֹב בְּאֶמְצַע הַשָּׁבוּעַ יִפְרְעוּ הָרִבִּית בְּעַד כָּל הַשָּׁבוּעַ, אוֹ לֹא יִפְרְעוּ כְּלָל הַחוֹב בְּתוֹךְ שָׁבוּעַ זֶה,קא שֶׁאִם יוּכְלוּ לִפְרוֹעַ בְּאֶמְצַע הַשָּׁבוּעַ וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לְחַשֵּׁב עִמָּהֶם הַיָּמִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ מִשָּׁבוּעַ זֶה, אַף אִם יְנַכֶּה לָהֶם כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁעָבַר מִשָּׁבוּעַ זֶה – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יְנַכֶּה לָהֶם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת שֶׁעָבְרוּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּכָל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ אִם הָיוּ רוֹצִים הָיוּ פּוֹרְעִים בְּאֶמְצַע הַשָּׁבוּעַ, וְהָיָה צָרִיךְ לַחְשׁוֹב עִמָּהֶם יוֹם יוֹם מִימוֹת הַחֹל, נִמְצָא שֶׁרִבִּית זוֹ הִיא נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לְכָל יוֹם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף אִם עָבַר כָּל הַשָּׁבוּעַ וְלֹא פְרָעוֹ לוֹ – אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לִטּוֹל כָּל הָרִבִּית, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְנַכּוֹת כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם הוּא נֶחְשָׁב בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ:54

10 Similar laws apply with regard to the fines imposed on a person, [e.g.,] such-and-such an amount for each day as a penalty for continuing to violate an injunction of our Sages, as will be explained in Even HaEzer, sec. 76,55 or [for continuing to violate] the injunctions of the town officials.56 Even though [the person] remains in violation for several weeks, he is not required to pay [the fine for] the Shabbasos. [The rationale is that the person] could have ceased [his defiance]57 in the middle of any given week.58

If, by contrast, the fine [was assessed against him by] deducting a certain sum each day from a debt owed to him by others, a deduction is made for the Shabbasos as well. [The rationale is that] the penalty assessed against a person does not appear as payment for Shabbos except when something of substance is taken from him, but not when a deduction is made from a debt that is owed him.59

י וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל קְנָסוֹת שֶׁקּוֹנְסִים לְאָדָם כָּךְ וְכָךְ בְּעַד כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם שֶׁעוֹבֵר עַל תַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים,קב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּאֶבֶן הָעֶזֶר סִמָּן ע"ו,קג, 55 אוֹ עַל תַּקָּנַת טוּבֵי הָעִיר,קד, 56 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבְרוּ עָלָיו כַּמָּה שָׁבוּעוֹת – אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם בְּעַד הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל לַחֲזוֹר בּוֹ 57 בְּאֶמְצַע כָּל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ.58

אֲבָל אִם הַקְּנָס הוּא לְנַכּוֹת לוֹ מֵהַחוֹב שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עַל אֲחֵרִים בְּעַד כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם כָּךְ וְכָךְ – מְנַכִּין לוֹ גַּם בְּעַד הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת,קה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַקְּנָס שֶׁנּוֹטְלִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּשְׂכַר נְטִילַת שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנּוֹטְלִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֵיזֶה דָבָר שֶׁהוּא בְּעֵין, אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁמְּנַכִּין לוֹ מֵחוֹב שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ:59

11 It is forbidden to hire a chazan to lead the services on Shabbos or on festivals, even though he was hired before the commencement of these days.60 [The rationale is that] it is forbidden for [the chazan] to receive payment for [working on] Shabbos or a festival. The same law applies regarding one who sounds the shofar on Rosh HaShanah.61

There are authorities who permit [this, explaining] that a decree against Shabbos earnings was not imposed when a mitzvah is involved.62 [The rationale is that the matter is far removed from a Scriptural transgression, since Shabbos earnings themselves] are forbidden only as a decree [enacted as a safeguard] lest one hire someone on Shabbos, which itself is forbidden only as a decree, [as a precaution] lest one write. The custom is to rule leniently and permit this. Nevertheless, even though license was granted for the sake of the mitzvah, all authorities agree that the person will never see a sign of blessing from these earnings, since they are Shabbos earnings.63

If a person was hired for a year, a month, or a week64 to lead the services during weekdays as well, and thus he is being paid for the Shabbasos and the weekdays together, the Shabbos wages are considered as being paid in combination [with his weekday wages], and are permitted according to all authorities.

יא אָסוּר לִשְׂכּוֹר חַזָּן לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּשַׁבָּת קו אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב קז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׂכָרוּהוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קח, 60 שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לִטּוֹל שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב, וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׂכַר הַתּוֹקֵעַ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה.קט, 61

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין,קי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת,קיא, 62 שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת שְׂכִירוּת בְּשַׁבָּת,קיב שֶׁהִיא עַצְמָהּ אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִכְתּוֹב.קיג וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל.קיד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה סִמַּן בְּרָכָה מִשָּׂכָר זֶה לְעוֹלָם,קטו הוֹאִיל וְהוּא שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּת,63 אַף שֶׁהִתִּירוּהוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.קטז

וְאִם הוּא מֻשְׂכָּר לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לְחֹדֶשׁ קיז אוֹ לְשָׁבוּעַ קיח, 64 שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל גַּם בְּחֹל וּמְשַׁלְּמִין לוֹ בְּעַד הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת וְהַחֹל בְּבַת אַחַת קיט – הֲרֵי זֶה שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת בְּהַבְלָעָה, וּמֻתָּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל: קכ

12 It is permitted to oversee communal concerns on Shabbos,65 even to go to tartiyos,66 non-Jewish communal meeting halls, where people congregate for public meetings. Similarly, one may go to the ruling authorities to oversee communal concerns. There is no prohibition due to the restriction against “pursuing your concerns and speaking about [mundane matters],” because the needs of the community at large are similar to “the concerns of Heaven.”67

Nevertheless, all that was permitted was overseeing [communal needs] and occupying oneself with these matters alone, and not with matters that are forbidden with regard to one’s private interests due to the restriction against “pursuing your concerns and speaking about [mundane matters].” By contrast, any action forbidden as a shvus in a complete sense was not permitted for the sake of communal needs, just as it was not permitted for the sake of a mitzvah, as stated above.68

יב מֻתָּר לְפַקֵּחַ עַל עִסְקֵי רַבִּים בְּשַׁבָּת,קכא, 65 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֵילֵךְ לְטַרְטִיאוֹת,קכב, 66 דְּהַיְנוּ מִינֵי טְרַקְלִין שֶׁל נָכְרִים קכג שֶׁשָּׁם נֶאֶסְפוּ לְבֵית הַוַּעַד,קכד וְכֵן לֵילֵךְ לַשִּׁלְטוֹן לְפַקֵּחַ עַל עִסְקֵי רַבִּים,קכה וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר", שֶׁצָּרְכֵי רַבִּים הֵם כְּמוֹ חֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם.קכו, 67

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא לְפַקֵּחַ וּלְהִתְעַסֵּק בִּדְבָרִים בִּלְבָד, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָסוּר בְּצָרְכֵי יָחִיד אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם "מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר", אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לְצָרְכֵי רַבִּים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,קכז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל:קכח, 68

13 Similarly, it is permitted to arrange the engagement of a child,69 because this is a matter associated with a mitzvah.70 Similarly, one may secure the agreement of a tutor71 to teach [a youth] Torah or even to teach him a trade. [The latter] is also a mitzvah, because if [the youth] will not have a trade from which he can earn his livelihood, he will [ultimately] steal from people at large.72

It is, however, forbidden to [actually] hire a teacher (on Shabbos or even) to mention a sum of money, for this is a shvus in a complete sense and was not permitted for the sake of a mitzvah.73

יג וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְשַׁדֵּךְ הַתִּינוֹק לֵאָרֵס,קכט, 69 שֶׁדִּבּוּר שֶׁל מִצְוָה הוּא.קל, 70 וְכֵן לְדַבֵּר עִם הַמְלַמֵּד אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִשָּׂכֵר קלא, 71 לְלַמְּדוֹ סֵפֶר, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְלַמְּדוֹ אוּמָנוּת,קלב שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַם כֵּן מִצְוָה, שֶׁאִם לֹא תְהֵא לוֹ אוּמָנוּת לְפַרְנֵס עַצְמוֹ – יְלַסְטֵם אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת.קלג, 72

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִשְׂכּוֹר הַמְלַמֵּד קלד (בְּשַׁבָּת, וַאֲפִלּוּ קלה) לְהַזְכִּיר לוֹ סְכוּם מָעוֹת (אָסוּר), שֶׁזֶּהוּ שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה:קלו, 73

14 Similarly, it is permitted to pledge [money for] charity to the poor,74 for this is speech that concerns a mitzvah. [Making such a pledge] does not resemble committing oneself to an erech donation,75 saying, “I commit myself [to donate] my erech [to the treasury of the Beis HaMikdash],” or “I commit myself [to donate] the erech of so-and-so to the treasury of the Beis HaMikdash,” which is forbidden as a shvus in the complete sense, as will be explained in sec. 339[:6]. The distinction can be explained as follows: When one makes a commitment to the Beis HaMikdash’s treasury according to the age of the person on whose behalf he is making the erech commitment as prescribed by the Torah,75 it is as if the donor is purchasing the person by giving his worth to the treasury of the Beis HaMikdash. Thus, it is comparable to a commercial transaction. This is not the case regarding a pledge to charity.

As will be explained in the above source, [our Sages] forbade consecrating an article to the Beis HaMikdash’s treasury, because by consecrating a specific article, one is transferring it from his own domain to the domain of the treasury of the Beis HaMikdash with this statement.76 Thus, it resembles a commercial transaction. By contrast, when one makes a pledge to give something77 for charitable purposes, nothing has left his domain because of his statement.

Based on the above, on Shabbos, it is forbidden to consecrate any specific article to a synagogue, e.g., a Torah scroll, or a crown or a breastplate for a Torah scroll. Common practice, however, is not [to accept this restriction]. There are authorities who have justified [the people’s conduct, explaining] that the prohibition applied only to consecrating an article to the Altar or the treasury of the Beis HaMikdash. In that instance, the article leaves the person’s domain entirely and [enters] the domain of the Beis HaMikdash’s treasury. [From that point on, the donor] no longer has any right to [the item] or any part [of the item that was pledged]. Thus, [making such a pledge] resembles a commercial transaction. When, by contrast, a person consecrates an article to a synagogue, he has a part in it and a right to it – as do all the inhabitants of a town who have a right to the articles consecrated to a synagogue – [with regards to] when it is necessary to sell [the article he donated]78 as stated in sec. 153.79 Thus, this does not resemble a commercial transaction, where the article leaves the seller’s domain entirely and enters the purchaser’s domain.

Nevertheless, it is desirable to be careful when one [desires to] consecrate an article to a synagogue on Shabbos. He should consecrate it verbally80 [beforehand] on Friday. [This is acceptable] even if he does so while alone.81 Afterwards, even if he brings it to the synagogue on Shabbos, he is only publicizing the consecration that he enacted on Friday. This is permitted according to all authorities.

יד וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִפְסוֹק צְדָקָה לַעֲנִיִּים,קלז, 74 שֶׁדִּבּוּר שֶׁל מִצְוָה הוּא.קלח וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְמַעֲרִיךְ 75, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאוֹמֵר "עֶרְכִּי עָלַי" אוֹ "עֶרֶךְ אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עָלַי" לְגָבוֹהַּ, שֶׁאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ט,קלט לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁנּוֹתֵן לְגָבוֹהַּ כְּפִי עֶרֶךְ שָׁנִים שֶׁל הַנֶּעֱרָךְ כַּכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה 75 – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּקוֹנֶה אֶת הַנֶּעֱרָךְ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנּוֹתֵן עֶרְכּוֹ לְגָבוֹהַּ, וְדוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּפְסִיקַת צְדָקָה.קמ

וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לְהַקְדִּישׁ שׁוּם חֵפֶץ לְגָבוֹהַּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּקְדִּישׁ חֵפֶץ יָדוּעַ – הֲרֵי הוּא מוֹצִיאוֹ בַּאֲמִירָה זוֹ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ לִרְשׁוּת גָּבוֹהַּ,76 וְדוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמְּחַיֵּב עַצְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתֵּן אֵיזֶה דָבָר לְגָבוֹהַּ77 – עֲדַיִן לֹא יָצָא שׁוּם דָּבָר מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי אֲמִירָה זוֹ.קמא

וּלְפִי זֶה, אָסוּר לְהַקְדִּישׁ בְּשַׁבָּת לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שׁוּם חֵפֶץ יָדוּעַ, כְּגוֹן סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, אוֹ עֲטָרָה, אוֹ טַס לְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה.קמב וְלֹא נָהֲגוּ כֵּן.קמג

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמֵּד עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת,קמד שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לְהַקְדִּישׁ חֵפֶץ לְמִזְבֵּחַ אוֹ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הַחֵפֶץ יוֹצֵא לְגַמְרֵי מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ לִרְשׁוּת גָּבוֹהַּ, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עוֹד שׁוּם זְכוּת וְחֵלֶק בּוֹ, וְדוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמַּקְדִּישׁ חֵפֶץ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – יֵשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק וּזְכוּת בּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ כָּל אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם זְכוּת בְּהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת שֶׁל בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְמָכְרָם כְּשֶׁיִּצְטָרְכוּ,78 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קנ"ג,קמה, 79 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר שֶׁיּוֹצֵא הַמִּקָּח לְגַמְרֵי מֵרְשׁוּת מוֹכֵר לִרְשׁוּת לוֹקֵחַ.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁמַּקְדִּישׁ חֵפֶץ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁיַּקְדִּישֶׁנּוּ בְּפִיו קמו מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת 80 אֲפִלּוּ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמו,81ֹ וְאָז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת מְבִיאוֹ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מְפַרְסֵם הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,קמז וְזֶה מֻתָּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:

15 There are authorities who maintain that in places where it is customary to recite a Mi SheBeirach prayer82 on behalf of the reader of the Torah83 and [that person] pledges to charity or to the chazan,84he is forbidden to pledge a specific amount that he will give. Instead, without making a specific commitment, he should say to [the gabbai], “Recite a Mi SheBeirach on my behalf.” The common practice, however, is to rule leniently in this instance, because it is permitted to pledge to charity on Shabbos.

Nevertheless, those who are accustomed to pledging [on Shabbos] to give a specific amount (of money [to the bridegroom]) after the conclusion of a Shabbos on which a bridegroom delivered a Torah lecture85 are not acting in a desirable manner. For license was only granted to obligate oneself to charity or to other mitzvos of that nature, but to pledge for [one’s] personal needs is forbidden because [of the charge to refrain from] “speaking about [mundane matters].”86

Similarly, those who are accustomed to giving articles to a bridegroom who delivers a sermon are not acting in a desirable manner, because it is forbidden to give anything to a friend as a present on Shabbos and on festivals, with the exception of food and drink that are necessary for that day, as will be explained in sec. 323[:1]87 and sec. 517[:1.88 Indeed,] even consecrating something to the treasury of the Beis HaMikdash was forbidden by our Sages, and the consecration [of an object] is similar to a present, because [a present] also departs entirely from [the giver’s] domain and [enters] the recipient’s domain.

Even if one gives another person a room, and [the recipient] wishes to formally acquire it89 so that the giver cannot renege – and hence, he seeks to close the door [of the room], because that [action] constitutes a chazakah90[which is one of the ways a room may be acquired] – he is forbidden to close it on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to perform any formal act of acquisition whatsoever on Shabbos,because this resembles commercial activity. Needless to say, [it is forbidden to perform] a kinyan sudar,91since it can be assumed that [such an act] will be recorded [in a document]92 and it might be written on Shabbos. (See sec. 339, where [the discussion of] these laws is completed.)

טו יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים קמח שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר לְקוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה83 "מִי שֶׁבֵּרַךְ" 82 וְהוּא נוֹדֵר לִצְדָקָה אוֹ לְחַזָּן 84 – אָסוּר לוֹ לִפְסוֹק כַּמָּה יִתֵּן, אֶלָּא יֹאמַר לוֹ סְתָם "עֲשֵׂה לִי מִי שֶׁבֵּרַךְ".קמט

וְהַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל בְּזֶה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִפְסוֹק צְדָקָה בְּשַׁבָּת.קנ

אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִים קְצָת כְּשֶׁהֶחָתָן דּוֹרֵשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת 85 שֶׁהֵם מְחַיְּבִים עַצְמָם לִתֵּן כָּךְ וְכָךְ (מָעוֹת) אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת – לֹא יָפֶה הֵם עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ לְחַיֵּב עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא לִצְדָקָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ מִשְּׁאָר מִצְוֹת, אֲבָל לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת – אָסוּר קנא מִשּׁוּם "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר".קנב, 86

וְכֵן הַנּוֹהֲגִים לִתֵּן כֵּלִים בְּמַתָּנָה לְחָתָן הַדּוֹרֵשׁ – לֹא יָפֶה הֵם עוֹשִׂים,קנג שֶׁאָסוּר לִתֵּן שׁוּם דָּבָר בְּמַתָּנָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב,קנד אֶלָּא מִינֵי מַאֲכָל וּמַשְׁקֶה שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹם,קנה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ג קנו, 87 וְתקי"ז,קנז, 88 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ לְהַקְדִּישׁ לְגָבוֹהַּ אָסְרוּ, וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ דּוֹמֶה לְמַתָּנָה שֶׁיּוֹצְאָה גַּם כֵּן לְגַמְרֵי מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ לִרְשׁוּת חֲבֵרוֹ.קנח

וַאֲפִלּוּ נָתַן לוֹ חֶדֶר וְרוֹצֶה לִקְנוֹתוֹ 89 עַל יְדֵי סְגִירַת הַדֶּלֶת, שֶׁהִיא נִקְרֵאת חֲזָקָה קנט, 90 לְעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לַחֲזוֹר בּוֹ הַנּוֹתֵןקס – אָסוּר לְסָגְרָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֵין קוֹנִין קִנְיָן בְּשַׁבָּת בְּשׁוּם דֶּרֶךְ מִדַּרְכֵי הַהַקְנָאָה,קסא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר.קסב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר קסג בְּקִנְיַן סוּדָר קסד, 91 שֶׁסְּתָמוֹ עוֹמֵד לִכְתִיבָה,קסה, 92 וְשֶׁמָּא יִכְתּוֹב בְּשַׁבָּת.קסו

(וְעַיֵּן סִמָּן של"ט תַּשְׁלוּם הֲלָכוֹת אֵלּוּ):

16 It would have been appropriate to prohibit the custom of announcing in the synagogue that whoever donates the most will receive [select] mitzvos93 because [this resembles] commercial activity, which is a shvus in the complete sense, and that prohibition was not released even for the sake of a mitzvah.94 With difficulty, it is possible to justify the custom, explaining that there is no concept of buying or selling with regard to a mitzvah;those concepts only apply to articles that are sold.95 [On Shabbos,] it is, however, forbidden to purchase places in the synagogue96 or houses belonging to charitable [trusts.

Despite the justification mentioned above,] the correct [manner] is that which was followed by certain men known for their good deeds:97 [When certain mitzvos were auctionedoff in the synagogue, all the bidders] would give to charity whatever sum they bid, even though the mitzvah was ultimately purchased by another person. In such an instance, [the bid] does not at all resemble commercial activity, but rather a pledge to charity. It is permitted even to purchase places [in the synagogue] and houses from charitable [trusts at auction] in this manner. Any G‑d-fearing person should be careful in this regard.

טז מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַכְרִיז מִצְוֹת בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת מִי שֶׁיִּתֵּן יוֹתֵר הוּא יִזְכֶּה בָּהֶן 93 – הָיָה רָאוּי לֶאֱסוֹר מִשּׁוּם מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר,קסז שֶׁהוּא שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר וְלֹא הֻתַּר לִדְבַר מִצְוָה.קסח, 94 אֶלָּא שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְיַשֵּׁב הַמִּנְהָג בְּדֹחַק וְלוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין שַׁיָּךְ מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר בִּדְבַר מִצְוָה, כִּי אִם בְּחֵפֶץ הַנִּקְנֶה.95 אֲבָל אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת מְקוֹמוֹת בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת 96 אוֹ בָּתִּים שֶׁל צְדָקָה.קסט

וְהַנָּכוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין מִקְצָת אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה,קע, 97 שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁהוֹצִיא בְּפִיו לִתֵּן – נוֹתֵן לִצְדָקָה אֲפִלּוּ קָנָה חֲבֵרוֹ הַמִּצְוָה, שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה כְּלָל לְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר אֶלָּא לִפְסִיקַת צְדָקָה. וּבְדֶרֶךְ זֶה מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לִקְנוֹת מְקוֹמוֹת וּבָתִּים מֵהַצְּדָקָה. וְכָל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יִזָּהֵר בְּזֶה:קעא

17 The custom of selling esrogim after the mitzvah was completed98 is governed by the same laws as [selling] places in the synagogue (i.e., it is only permitted in the abovementioned manner).99 While [the esrogim are being used to fulfill the] mitzvah, by contrast, they are purchased only with the intent to fulfill one’s obligation with them; having done so, they are then returned. [During that time,] they are governed by the laws regarding the auctioning of the mitzvos. [The rationale is that] one is not purchasing the physical substance of the esrog, but merely [the right to perform] the mitzvah with it. Even on the first day [of Sukkos], when one must own the very substance of the esrog,100 [there are grounds for leniency]. Since [the person] purchases it conditionally, with the intent to return it, [in essence,] he is purchasing it merely for the sake of [fulfilling] its mitzvah.

It is, however, forbidden to purchase an esrog or a shofar in a complete sense101on the festival, even if it is impossible for him to fulfill the mitzvah in any other way. [The rationale is that making a purchase is forbidden as] a shvus in a complete sense, [and such a prohibition] is not superseded by a positive commandment, as will be explained in sec. 586[:22-23]102 and sec. 655.103

יז מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִים לִמְכּוֹר הָאֶתְרוֹגִים אַחַר גְּמַר מִצְוָתָן 98 – דִּינָם כִּמְקוֹמוֹת בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת קעב (שֶׁאֵין הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא בְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר קעג).99 אֲבָל בִּזְמַן מִצְוָתָן שֶׁאֵין קוֹנִים אוֹתָם אֶלָּא לָצֵאת בָּהֶם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן וּלְהַחֲזִירָם – הֲרֵי דִינָם כְּהַכְרָזַת הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל, שֶׁאֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה גּוּף הָאֶתְרוֹג אֶלָּא מִצְוָתוֹ בִּלְבָד. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת גּוּפוֹ שֶׁל אֶתְרוֹג,קעד, 100 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁקּוֹנֶה אוֹתוֹ עַל מְנָת לְהַחֲזִירוֹ קעה – נִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא מִצְוָתוֹ בִּלְבָד.קעו

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת לְגַמְרֵי 101 אֶת הָאֶתְרוֹג אוֹ הַשּׁוֹפָר בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אֲפִלּוּ אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר, שֶׁאֵין דּוֹחִין שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר מִפְּנֵי מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקפ"ו קעז, 102 וְתרנ"ה:קעח, 103

18 It is forbidden to measure any entity on Shabbos,104whether by hand or with a measuring rope, because it is a mundane activity105 and thus demeaning to the [honor of] Shabbos. One may, [however,] measure for the sake of a mitzvah,106 e.g., measuring to ascertain whether a mikveh contains [the requisite] 40 seah107 or measuring an opening to see if it is the size of a handbreadth [by a handbreadth,] in which instance, it would draw out the impurity from a room in which there is a corpse to an adjoining room.108 [This is permitted on Shabbos] even though the kohanim could leave that room and go to another [location where there is no impurity].109 Nevertheless, this does not appear as mundane activity since the person is calculating a measure associated with Torah Law.110

It is permitted to measure the belt of a person who is suffering from a headache and recite an incantation over it, as women are accustomed to doing. [The rationale is that] it is a measurement associated with a mitzvah.111 There is no prohibition involved in reciting the incantation, as will be explained in sec. 307[:32].112

יח אָסוּר לִמְדּוֹד שׁוּם דָּבָר בְּשַׁבָּת,קעט, 104 בֵּין בְּיָד בֵּין בְּחֶבֶל,קפ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֵׂה חֹל 105 וְזִלְזוּל שַׁבָּת.קפא וּמֻתָּר לִמְדּוֹד מְדִידָה שֶׁל מִצְוָה,קפב, 106 כְּגוֹן לִמְדּוֹד אִם יֵשׁ בְּמִקְוֶה מ' סְאָה,קפג, 107 אוֹ לִמְדּוֹד הַחוֹר אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח לְהָבִיא הַטֻּמְאָה מֵהַחֶדֶר שֶׁהַמֵּת בּוֹ לְהַחֶדֶר הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ,108 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים הַכֹּהֲנִים לָצֵאת מִמֶּנּוּ לְבַיִת אַחֵר,109 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מוֹדֵד שִׁעוּרֵי תוֹרָה – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמַעֲשֵׂה חֹל. קפד, 110

וּמֻתָּר לִמְדּוֹד הָאֵזוֹר שֶׁל מִי שֶׁכּוֹאֵב לוֹ רֹאשׁוֹ וְלִלְחוֹשׁ עַל הַמְּדִידָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגוֹת הַנָּשִׁים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מְדִידָה שֶׁל מִצְוָה,קפה, 111 וּמִשּׁוּם הַלַּחַשׁ אֵין אִסּוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז: קפו, 112

19 Even when the measurement involves one’s personal concerns, it is forbidden to measure only when one intends to measure for a specific purpose. It is permitted, however, to measure for no purpose whatsoever, but merely as a casual activity.113

יט אַף לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת אֵין אִסּוּר לִמְדּוֹד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִמְדּוֹד לְאֵיזֶה צֹרֶךְ, אֲבָל אִם מוֹדֵד שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ כְּלָל אֶלָּא כְּמִתְעַסֵּק בְּעָלְמָא – מֻתָּר: קפז, 113

20 [The laws that apply when] a person takes an oath to repay a debt to a friend, [for example,] on the 7th of Nissan – and the 7th of Nissan falls on Shabbos –will be explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 73.114

כ מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע לִפְרוֹעַ חוֹבוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּז' בְּנִיסָן וְחָל ז' בְּנִיסָן בְּשַׁבָּת קפח – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִמָּן ע"ג: קפט, 114

21 It is permitted to think about one’s business affairs [on Shabbos],115 even how to perform labors after Shabbos that are absolutely forbidden on Shabbos,116for [our Sages] forbade only speech, [as reflected by the prooftext1 that mentions] “speaking about [mundane matters].” [Implied is that] speech is forbidden; thought is permitted.117

Nevertheless, if thinking about [his business concerns will cause him] anxiety or even a trace of worry, it is forbidden. [Indeed,] it is an expression of Shabbos pleasure not to think about one’s business concerns at all, but rather to consider all of his work as having been completed.118 This is [hinted at by] the verse:119 “Six days shall you labor and you shall perform all your work.” Now, [the verse cannot be understood literally because] there is no way a person can perform all his work in one week. [Instead, the intent is that] every Shabbos, a person should consider all of his work as having been completed. There is no greater pleasure than this.

כא מֻתָּר לְהַרְהֵר בַּעֲסָקָיו קצ, 115 אֲפִלּוּ הֵיאַךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת,קצא, 116 שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא דִּבּוּר לְבָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר קצב, 1 "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר", דִּבּוּר – אָסוּר, הִרְהוּר – מֻתָּר.קצג, 117

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הַהִרְהוּר טִרְדַּת הַלֵּב אוֹ נִדְנוּד דְּאָגָה – אָסוּר קצד וּמִשּׁוּם עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת מִצְוָה שֶׁלֹּא לְהַרְהֵר כְּלָל בַּעֲסָקָיו,קצה אֶלָּא יְהֵא בְעֵינָיו כְּאִלּוּ כָּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ עֲשׂוּיָה,קצו, 118 וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב קצז, 119 "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל מְלַאכְתֶּךָ", וְאֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּשָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד,קצח אֶלָּא יִרְאֶה אָדָם בְּכָל שַׁבָּת כְּאִלּוּ כָּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ עֲשׂוּיָה,קצט וְאֵין לְךָ עֹנֶג גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה:ר

22 Even on Friday,120 it is forbidden to tell a non-Jew to go beyond the Shabbos limits on Shabbos to notify the relatives of a deceased person so that they should come to eulogize him.121 [The rationale is that] no prohibition may be suspended to enable a eulogy, [as reflected by the law] prohibiting using flutes brought [on Shabbos] from beyond the Shabbos boundaries for a funeral service122even if a non-Jew brings them on his own initiative, as will be explained in sec. 325[:22].

If, however, the illness of a person who is ailing takes a severe turn for the worse, and he fears that he may die and [therefore] requests that his relatives [be notified so they will come to see him while he is still alive], it is permitted to even hire a non-Jewish123 runner to run several parsaos124on Shabbos so that the relatives [of the dying person] will be able to leave on Saturday night. Although [the Sages generally] did not permit hiring [a non-Jew] on Shabbos even for the sake of a mitzvah, in this instance, it is permitted so as to prevent the sick person from suffering anguish should his desires not be heeded.125

כב אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי רא אֲפִלּוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת רב, 120 שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם בְּשַׁבָּת אַחֲרֵי קְרוֹבֵי הַמֵּת שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ לְהַסְפִּידו,121 שֶׁאֵין דּוֹחִין שׁוּם אִסּוּר מִפְּנֵי הֶסְפֵּדוֹ,רג שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ רד אִם הֵבִיא הַנָּכְרִי מֵעַצְמוֹ חֲלִילִין לְמֵת לְהַסְפִּידוֹ בָּהֶם מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם – אָסוּר לְהַסְפִּידוֹ בָּהֶם,122 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה.רה

אֲבָל חוֹלֶה שֶׁהִכְבִּיד עָלָיו חָלְיוֹ וְיָרֵא פֶּן יָמוּת וּמְבַקֵּשׁ שֶׁיִּשְׁלְחוּ אַחַר קְרוֹבָיו – מֻתָּר רו אֲפִלּוּ לִשְׂכּוֹר נָכְרִי 123 רָץ רז שֶׁיָּרוּץ אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה פַּרְסָאוֹת רח, 124 בְּשַׁבָּת לְהָבִיא קְרוֹבָיו בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, שֶׁאַף שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ שְׂכִירוּת בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה רט – כַּאן הִתִּירוּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִטָּרֵף דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו אִם לֹא יַעֲשׂוּ רְצוֹנוֹ: 125

23 Whether it is permitted on Shabbos to exchange security a non-Jew gave [for a loan] for other security will be explained in sec. 325:5.126

כג לְהַחֲלִיף מַשְׁכּוֹן לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה: רי, 126

24 When a person purchases a house or a field from a non-Jew in Eretz Yisrael, it is permitted to tell a non-Jew to compose the deed of purchase on Shabbos127if the non-Jew is departing on a journey on Shabbos. [The Jewish buyer] may take [the deed of sale] to the secular courts to be validated.128 [The rationale is that] giving instructions to a non-Jew on Shabbos is forbidden only according to Rabbinic decree. Although our Sages applied this restrictive decree with regard to other mitzvos,129they did not do so with regard to the settlement of Eretz Yisrael.130

כד הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּיִת אוֹ שָׂדֶה בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַנָּכְרִי – מֻתָּר לוֹ לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לִכְתּוֹב לוֹ שְׁטַר מְכִירָה בְּשַׁבָּת ריא, 127 אִם הַנָּכְרִי הוֹלֵךְ לְדַרְכּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,ריב וּמַעֲלֵהוּ בְּעַרְכָּאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם לַחְתּוֹם לוֹ,ריג, 128 שֶׁאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וּמִשּׁוּם יִשּׁוּב אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא גָזְרוּ,ריד, 130 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגָּזְרוּ בִּשְׁאָר מִצְוֹת: רטו, 129

25 When a person loses an object,131 it is permitted to announce on Shabbos132 that anyone who has knowledge of it should come forth and relate [what he knows[. Even if the lost object may not be carried on Shabbos, [the above leniency is granted] because the return of a lost object is a mitzvah.133 Thus, making a statement that informs a person who has knowledge about it to return it is considered as “the concerns of Heaven,” which are permitted on Shabbos.

(It is customary to also announce [the discovery of] an object lost by a non-Jew as an expression of “the paths of peace,” for we are commanded by Rabbinic decree to conduct our relations with [non-Jews] according to “the paths of peace.”134 This also is similar to a mitzvah,135 as will be explained in sec. 325[:4].)

כה מִי שֶׁאָבְדָה לוֹ אֲבֵדָה 131 – מֻתָּר שֶׁיַּכְרִיזוּ בְּשַׁבָּת 132 שֶׁמִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ בָּהּ יָבֹא וְיַגִּיד, וַאֲפִלּוּ הָאֲבֵדָה הִיא דָבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,רטז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֲשָׁבַת אֲבֵדָה מִצְוָה,133 וְלוֹמַר לְמִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ מִמֶּנָּה שֶׁיְּשִׁיבֶנָּה – אֲמִירָה זוֹ מֵחֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת.ריז

(וְנָהֲגוּ לְהַכְרִיז גַּם עַל אֲבֵדַת נָכְרִי מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם,ריח שֶׁאָנוּ מְצֻוִּין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהִתְנַהֵג עִמָּהֶם בְּדַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם,ריט, 134 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּעֵין מִצְוָה,135 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה רכ):

26 Whether it is permitted to issue a ban of ostracism, or isolation, or to release such bans136 on Shabbos, will be explained in sec. 341[:3].

כו אִם מֻתָּר לְהַחֲרִים אוֹ לְנַדּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ לְהַתִּיר הַנִּדּוּי וְהַחֵרֶם – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"א: 136

27 On Shabbos, it is forbidden to make an announcement regarding land that is being sold, [saying], “Anyone who has a claim to it should come and state his claim. If not, he will forfeit his claim.” [The rationale is that] saying, “If not, he will forfeit his claim,” resembles rendering a judgment, and judgments are not rendered on Shabbos.137

Even simply announcing, “Anyone who has a claim to [this land] should come and state his claim” – in which instance, [making the announcement] does not resemble rendering a judgment even where there is a local ordinance that a claim is forfeited if it is not registered [after an announcement is made]138 – is nonetheless forbidden, because of the prohibition against “speaking about [mundane matters].”

Nevertheless, in a locale where it is customary to be lenient and announce [a sale] without making stipulations [about forfeiture], an admonishment should not be issued, because it is possible to say that the matter resembles the needs of the people at large, which may be spoken about on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] any subject that involves the betterment of society and arises frequently is considered as [resembling] the needs of the people at large because of the frequency of its occurrence. For this reason, [the adjudication of] civil cases is considered as the needs of the people at large with regard to Chol HaMoed,139as will be explained in sec. 545.140 Court cases are not adjudicated on Shabbos,because [conducting them] is [forbidden] as a shvus in a complete sense, as will be explained in sec. 339[:3], and a shvus in a complete sense is never superseded because of the needs of the people at large. Only license to speak [about such matters is granted], as explained above.141 Nevertheless, in a place where there is no [established] custom, [announcements regarding the sale of property] should not [be made on Shabbos] as an initial preference.

כז אָסוּר לְהַכְרִיז בְּשַׁבָּת עַל קַרְקַע הַנִּמְכֶּרֶת, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ זְכוּת עָלֶיהָ יָבֹא וְיַגִּיד וְאִם לָאו יֹאבַד זְכוּתוֹ,רכא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁאוֹמֵר "וְאִם לָאו יֹאבַד זְכוּתוֹ", הוּא כְּדָן אֶת הַדִּין,רכב וְאֵין דָּנִין בְּשַׁבָּת.רכג, 137

וְאַף אִם מַכְרִיז סְתָם "כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ זְכוּת יָבֹא וְיַגִּיד", שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּדָן אֶת הַדִּין, אַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ תַּקָּנָה רכד בְּעִיר שֶׁאִם לֹא יַגִּיד בָּטֵל זְכוּתוֹ 138 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר".

אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל לְהַכְרִיז סְתָם – אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם,רכה כִּי יֵשׁ מָקוֹם לוֹמַר שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּצָרְכֵי רַבִּים שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְדַבֵּר בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא תִּקּוּן הַמְּדִינָה וְהוּא מִזְדַּמֵּן תָּדִיר נִקְרָא צֹרֶךְ רַבִּים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מִזְדַּמֵּן תָּדִיר.רכו וּמִטַּעַם זֶה נִקְרְאוּ הַדִּינִין צָרְכֵי רַבִּים לְעִנְיַן חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,רכז, 139 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקמ"ה.רכח, 140 וּמַה שֶּׁאֵין דָּנִין בְּשַׁבָּת, הוּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהוּא שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ט.רכט וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר לְצָרְכֵי רַבִּים אֶלָּא הַדִּבּוּר בִּלְבָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רל, 141 אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג זֶה – אֵין לִנְהוֹג כֵּן לְכַתְּחִלָּה: רלא

28 On Shabbos, it is forbidden to announce the identity of wine sellers if wine is easily available in that place, for there is no need associated with a mitzvah in making this announcement. [Indeed,] it is forbidden to do so as part of the restriction against “speaking about [mundane matters].” In places where wine is not that easily available, it is permitted to make such announcements on Shabbos, because it is necessary for a mitzvah – to enable the purchase142 of wine for Kiddush and to honor the day.143 One may not, however, mention its cost, for that is forbidden144 even for the sake of a mitzvah,145 unless one makes the announcement before the recitation of Borchu [on Friday night].146

[In fact,] it is desirable to follow the custom of making such an announcement before the recitation of Borchu at all times.147 It is forbidden to make similar announcements about other beverages on Shabbos after the recitation of Borchu, even when the cost is not mentioned, for [beverages other than wine] are not necessary for the observance of a mitzvah. [Such] announcements may only be made before the recitation of Borchu.

כח אָסוּר לְהַכְרִיז בְּשַׁבָּת אֵצֶל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ יַיִן לִמְכּוֹר רלב אִם הוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁהַיַּיִן מָצוּי בּוֹ הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁאֵין צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה בְּהַכְרָזָה זוֹ,רלג וְאָסוּר מִשּׁוּם "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר". אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הַיַּיִן מָצוּי כָּל כָּךְ – מֻתָּר לְהַכְרִיז עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁזֶּהוּ צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה לִקְנוֹת 142 יַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ רלד וְלִכְבוֹד הַיּוֹם.רלה, 143 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַזְכִּיר סְכוּם מָעוֹת,רלו שֶׁזֶּהוּ אָסוּר 144 אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.רלז, 145 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מַכְרִיז קֹדֶם "בָּרְכוּ".רלח, 146

וְטוֹב לִנְהוֹג כֵּן לְעוֹלָם לְהַכְרִיז קֹדֶם "בָּרְכוּ".רלט, 147 וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין אָסוּר לְהַכְרִיז כְּלָל רמ אַחַר "בָּרְכוּ" בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא סְכוּם מָעוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מַכְרִיז קֹדֶם "בָּרְכוּ":

29 When a person learns on Shabbos that non-Jews have taken his daughter148 from his home to remove her from the Jewish people, it is a mitzvah for him to set out on the road to try to save her. He may even go beyond twelve mil149 and may even perform actions that involve absolutely forbidden labors to save her. [This is permitted] even if it is doubtful that he will [actually] be able to save her, because this matter is equivalent to a threat to a person’s soul,150 for which one may desecrate the Shabbos even if there is only a slight chance that he will be able to save [the person’s life].151 For there is no greater threat to the soul152 than [the girl’s] being taken away from the Jewish people, [thus causing her to] desecrate Shabbasos for the remainder of her life. It is preferable to violate one Shabbos for [the girl’s] sake than for her to violate many Shabbasos. This is the rationale why Shabbos may be desecrated when there is a threat to [physical] life, for the Torah advises,153 “Violate one Shabbos [for the sake of a person who is ill] so that he will [be able to later] observe many Shabbasos.

(Therefore, even if the daughter is a minor – who is not yet obligated in the observance of the mitzvos – [the Shabbos]may be desecrated to save her, so that she will not desecrate many Shabbasos when she reaches adulthood. This is the rationale for why the Shabbos may be desecrated to save the [physical] lives of minors.)

[Indeed,] if [the girl’s father] does not want to desecrate the Shabbos to try to save her, he should be compelled to do so. [Moreover,] these laws apply154 if [the child who has been taken] is not one’s own daughter, but rather the daughter or the son of another person, even one who is not his relative. If one’s efforts [may succeed in accomplishing] this mitzvah, even if there is doubt whether he will [actually succeed in saving the child], he should be compelled to try to do whatever he can, including – if necessary – even performing labors that are absolutely forbidden [on Shabbos].

The principle:155 “A person is not told to transgress so that the other person will merit,” only applies when that person committed a misdeed, and as a result of his misdeed, [the person trying to save him from further transgression] is compelled [to transgress a mitzvah]. For example, a person attached a loaf of bread to [the side of] an oven156 on Shabbos and, before it began to bake, remembered [that it was forbidden to do so]. It is permitted for [the person] to remove [the loaf] from the oven so that he will not violate a more severe prohibition.157 Nevertheless, another person is forbidden to remove the loaf so that the person [who stuck the loaf to the side of the oven] will not violate the severe prohibition of baking bread on Shabbos. [The reason the bystander is forbidden to do so is] because the other person transgressed when he forgot and attached the loaf to the oven on Shabbos. In the instance [described above], by contrast, [the person whom] the non-Jews want to force to depart from the Jewish people did not transgress at all.158

If, however, [the non-Jews] do not desire to compel [the captured person] to depart from the Jewish people, but only to compel him to commit a single transgression – even the worship of false deities159 – and afterwards they will allow him to follow his faith, (neither he nor another person) may desecrate the Shabbos by violating a Scriptural prohibition to save him [from this transgression. The rationale is that the Scriptural] Shabbos [prohibitions] may be superseded only for the sake of a threat to life, but not to save one from committing a sin, [not even one] that is more severe [than desecrating the Shabbos]. However, it is permitted (even for others) to desecrate the Shabbos by committing a Rabbinic prohibition [to save the captured person], since [he] did not transgress.160 ([The above applies] even if [the non-Jews] do not seek to compel [the captured person] to worship false deities, but [only] to violate any other Scriptural prohibition. Nevertheless, [if he is being prevented from fulfilling] a positive commandment, [saving him] does not supersede [even the observance of] a shvus, as will be explained in sec. 586[:22].161

All the above applies with regard to [rescuing] one individual. With regard to saving many [people] from violating a transgression…. (The conclusion of this subsection is not extant.) (See the end of sec. 586;162 see also the comments of Turei Zahav [(gloss 2) to] sec. 655.163 Further analysis is required.)

כטמִי שֶׁנּוֹדַע לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ נָכְרִים אֶת בִּתּוֹ 148 מִבֵּיתוֹ לְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל – מִצְוָה לָשׂוּם לְדֶרֶךְ פְּעָמָיו לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל לְהַצָּלָתָהּ, וְיֵצֵא אֲפִלּוּ חוּץ לְי"ב מִיל,רמא, 149 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה לְהַצָּלָתָהּ,רמב וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם (א) הוּא סָפֵק אִם יַצִּילֶנָּה,רמג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעִנְיָן זֶה הוּא כְּפִקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ 150 שֶׁמְּחַלְּלִין הַשַּׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְפֵק הַצָּלָה,151 שֶׁאֵין לְךָ פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ יוֹתֵר מִזֶּה 152 שֶׁלֹּא תֵצֵא מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וּתְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּתוֹת כָּל יָמֶיהָ,רמד וּמוּטָב לְחַלֵּל עָלֶיהָ שַׁבָּת אַחַת מִשֶּׁתְּחַלֵּל הִיא שַׁבָּתוֹת הַרְבֵּה,רמה שֶׁמִּטַּעַם זֶה גַּם כֵּן מְחַלְּלִין שַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ, שֶׁאָמְרָה תוֹרָה רמו, 153 "חַלֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת אַחַת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמוֹר שַׁבָּתוֹת הַרְבֵּה".רמז

(וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף אִם הַבַּת הִיא קְטַנָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְחֻיֶּבֶת עֲדַיִן בְּמִצְוֹת – יְחַלֵּל עָלֶיהָ לְהַצִּילָהּ, שֶׁלֹּא תְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּתוֹת הַרְבֵּה כְּשֶׁתַּגְדִּיל,רמח שֶׁמִּטַּעַם זֶה מְחַלְּלִין שַׁבָּת לְפִקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ הַקְּטַנִּים רמט).

וְאִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל בְּהַצָּלָתָהּ בְּחִלּוּל שַׁבָּת – כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ.רנ וְהוּא הַדִּין 154 אִם אֵינָהּ בִּתּוֹ אֶלָּא בַּת אוֹ בֵּן אִישׁ אַחֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קְרוֹבוֹ,רנא וְיֵשׁ יְכֹלֶת בְּיָדוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל בְּמִצְוָה זוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק אִם יַצִּיל – כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר, אֲפִלּוּ בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת אִם יִצְטָרֵךְ לָהֶן.

וְלֹא אָמְרוּ 155 שֶׁ"אֵין אוֹמְרִים לְאָדָם חֲטֵא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה חֲבֵרְךָ",רנב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ פָּשַׁע בְּזֶה,רנג וְעַל יְדֵי פְּשִׁיעָתוֹ בָּא לוֹ הָאֹנֶס אַחַר כָּךְ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִדְבִּיק פַּת בַּתַּנּוּר 156 בְּשַׁבָּת וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּאָפֶה, שֶׁאַף שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לִרְדּוֹת מִן הַתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא הוּא לִידֵי אִסּוּר חָמוּר מִמֶּנּוּ רנד, 157 – אָסוּר לְאָדָם אַחֵר לִרְדּוֹתָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא חֲבֵרוֹ לִידֵי אִסּוּר חָמוּר שֶׁל אֲפִיַּת הַפַּת בְּשַׁבָּת,רנה כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ פָּשַׁע בְּמַה שֶּׁשָּׁכַח רנו וְהִדְבִּיק פַּת בַּתַּנּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל כַּאן זֶה שֶׁהַנָּכְרִים רוֹצִים לְאָנְסוֹ לָצֵאת מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל – לֹא פָשַׁע מְאוּמָה.רנז, 158

אֲבָל אִם אֵין רוֹצִים לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא שֶׁאוֹנְסִים אוֹתוֹ לַעֲבוֹר עֲבֵרָה אַחַת, אֲפִלּוּ לַעֲבוֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה,159 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַנִּיחוּהוּ לְהַחֲזִיק דָּתוֹ – אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלָיו שַׁבָּת בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל הַצָּלָתוֹ רנח (בֵּין הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ רנט בֵּין אֲחֵרִים), מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה שַׁבָּת לִדְחוֹת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַצָּלַת עֲבֵרָה חֲמוּרָה מִמֶּנָּה.רס אֲבָל לְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת בְּאִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מֻתָּר (אֲפִלּוּ לַאֲחֵרִים),רסא כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לֹא פָשַׁע.רסב,

(וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין רוֹצִים לְאָנְסוֹ לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אֶלָּא לַעֲבוֹר עַל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.רסג אֲבָל בִּשְׁבִיל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה אֵין דּוֹחִין שְׁבוּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקפ"ו רסד, 161).

וְכָל זֶה בְּיָחִיד, אֲבָל לְהַצִּיל רַבִּים מֵעֲבֵרָה רסה (חָסֵר).

(עַיֵּן סוֹף סִמָּן תקפ"ו 162 וְתרנ"ה בְּטוּרֵי זָהָב,רסו, 163 וְצָרִיךְ עִיּוּן בִּכְהַאי גַּוְנָא):