SECTION 305 The Objects that an Animal May Go Out Wearing on Shabbos (1-38)

סימן שה בַּמֶּה בְּהֵמָה יוֹצֵאת בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ל"ח סְעִיפִים:

1 It was already explained in sec. 246[:7]1 that a person is commanded by Scriptural Law to have his animals rest [on Shabbos]. If a person’s animal carries an object out to the public domain, even if it does so on its own initiative, [the owner] violates a positive Scriptural commandment. There are, however, certain articles which an animal generally goes out [wearing] during the week even when it is not carrying a burden.2 These articles are considered as ornaments for it, and it is permitted for the animal to go out to the public domain [wearing] them on Shabbos.

These articles include any gear that guards against the animal bolting while walking in the public domain,3 e.g., a bridle and the like, as will be explained.4 Even if it is possible to secure [the animal] with a slightly lesser safeguard, when it is not possible to secure [the animal] with a much lesser piece of equipment,5 it is permitted for [the animal] to go out to the public domain [on Shabbos wearing] with [more secure gear]. Although it is ordinary practice for [the animal] to go out [wearing less secure gear] during the week as well, [this is] nevertheless [permitted. The rationale is that] people at large do not precisely measure [the strength of] the equipment they use to secure [their animals] and do not lessen it [to the bare minimum. Hence,] even this extra [measure of] safeguarding is considered an ornament. [The rationale is that the animal] often goes out like this during the week, even when it is not carrying a burden. If, however, it can be sufficiently secured with a far lesser safeguard, and thus the equipment used is excessive, [the stronger restraint] is considered a burden for the animal, because it is not common for [the animal] to go out during the week with such excessive restraining equipment.

Needless to say, [the animal] may not go out with any equipment that will not secure it, even though that equipment is sufficient to secure another animal. Since it is not sufficient to guard this animal, it is not the practice for this animal to ever go out wearing such equipment, and it is considered as an absolute burden for it.3

א כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"וא,1 שֶׁאָדם מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאִם בְּהֶמְתּוֹ הוֹצִיאָה אֵיזֶה דָבָר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אַף שֶׁיָּצָאת מֵאֵלֶיהָב – עָבַר הוּאג עַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.ד

אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִקְצָת דְּבָרִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַבְּהֵמָה לָצֵאת בָּהֶם בְּחֹל אַף כְּשֶׁאֵינָהּ נוֹשֵׂאת מַשּׂוֹי,2 וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ חֲשׁוּבִים לָהּ תַּכְשִׁיט,ה וּמֻתָּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בָּהֶם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵם: כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה מִשְׁתַּמֶּרֶת עַל יָדוֹו שֶׁלֹּא תִבְרַח כְּשֶׁהוֹלֶכֶת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,3 כְּגוֹן רֶסֶן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,ז,4 וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁמְרָהּ בִּשְׁמִירָה פְּחוּתָה מִזּוֹ הַרְבֵּה.5 וְאַף שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁמְרָהּ בִּשְׁמִירָה פְּחוּתָה מִזּוֹ מְעַט – מֻתָּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בִּשְׁמִירָה זוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּן דַּרְכָּהּ בְּחֹל לָצֵאת אַף בִּשְׁמִירָה זוֹ, וְאַף שֶׁהִיא יְתֵרָה לָהּ קְצָת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף בִּפְחוּתָה מִזּוֹ דַּי לָהּ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין דֶּרֶךְ הָעוֹלָם לְכַוֵּן הַשְּׁמִירָה וּלְצַמְצְמָהּ,ח אִם כֵּן אַף שְׁמִירָה זוֹ שֶׁהִיא יְתֵרָה קְצָת – הִיא תַּכְשִׁיט לָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדַּרְכָּהּ לָצֵאת כָּךְ בְּחֹל פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת אַף כְּשֶׁאֵינָהּ נוֹשֵׂאת מַשּׂוֹי.

אֲבָל אִם דַּי לָהּ בִּשְׁמִירָה פְּחוּתָה מִזּוֹ הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת שְׁמִירָה זוֹ יְתֵרָה הַרְבֵּה – הֲרֵי הִיא מַשּׂוֹי לָהּ,ט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ בְּחֹל לָצֵאת בִּשְׁמִירָה יְתֵרָה הַרְבֵּה.

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא תֵצֵא בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִשְׁמֶרֶת בּוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹתוֹ דָבָר דַּי לִשְׁמוֹר בּוֹ בְּהֵמָה אַחֶרֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ דַי לִשְׁמוֹר בּוֹ בְּהֵמָה זוֹ – אֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּהֵמָה זוֹ לְעוֹלָם לָצֵאת בְּדָבָר זֶה, וַהֲרֵי הוּא לָהּ מַשּׂוֹי גָּמוּר:י,3

2 Therefore, a naakah, a large, white female camel, may go with a chatam,3i.e., an iron nose-ring that is inserted into its nose after its nose has been pierced. It may not, however, go out wearing a halter;3 since [the camel] cannot be secured with it, [the halter] is considered as a burden for [the camel].

Donkeys from Luv,6 and so too our horses, may go out with a halter or with a prumbia, an iron bridle.3 Although a halter is sufficient for [these animals], an iron bridle is not considered as a very excessive safeguard. Instead, it is only slightly more than necessary and it is very common for them [to go out with such a restraint]. Nevertheless, they should not go out [wearing] both of them – both a halter and an iron bit – only with one.7

However, a mule, a [male] camel, and a donkey may go out [wearing] a halter, but not an iron bridle,3 because an iron bridle is considered a very excessive safeguard for them, and it is not common for them [to go out wearing one]. (An ox may not go out wearing a halter, as will be explained.)8

ב לְפִיכָךְ, הַנָּאקָה,יא וְהִיא גַמְלָא נְקֵבָה גְּדוֹלָה וּלְבָנָה,יב יוֹצֵאת בַּחֲטָם,3 וְהוּא טַבַּעַת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁנּוֹקְבִין חָטְמָהּ וּמַכְנִיסִין לָהּ הַטַּבַּעַת,יג אֲבָל אֵינָהּ יוֹצֵאת בְּאַפְסָר,3 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִשְׁמֶרֶת בּוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא מַשּׂוֹי לָהּ.יד

וְהַלּוּבְדְּקִים,טו וְהוּא חֲמוֹר הַבָּא מִן לוּב,טז,6 וְכֵן הַסּוּס שֶׁלָּנוּיז – יוֹצְאִים בֵּין בְּאַפְסָר (פֵּרוּשׁ קְבִישְׁטְר"וּיח), בֵּין בִּפְרֻמְבְּיָא (פֵּרוּשׁ פְרִי"גיט), וְהוּא רֶסֶן שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל.כ,3 וְאַף שֶׁהָאַפְסָר דַּי לָהֶם – אֵין הַפְּרֻמְבְּיָא לָהֶם שְׁמִירָה יְתֵרָה הַרְבֵּה אֶלָּא יְתֵרָה קְצָת, וְדַרְכָּם בְּכָךְ פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת.כא וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יֵצְאוּ בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד, בְּאַפְסָר וּבִפְרֻמְבְּיָא, אֶלָּא בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן.כב,7

אֲבָל הַפֶּרֶד וְהַגָּמָל וְהַחֲמוֹר יוֹצְאִין בְּאַפְסָרכג אֲבָל לֹא בִּפְרֻמְבְּיָא,כד,3 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַפְּרֻמְבְּיָא לָהֶם שְׁמִירָה יְתֵרָה הַרְבֵּה, וְאֵין דַּרְכָּם בְּכָךְ (אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹר לֹא יֵצֵא בְּאַפְסָר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרכה,8):

3 Whenever an animal [is permitted to] go out wearing a halter, it is not necessary to lead it by the halter. Instead, it is permitted to wind the halter’s rope around [the animal’s] neck9 as an adornment, and it may go out [in that manner]. This adornment is ordinary practice for it, for even during the week, the [rope of the] halter is frequently wound around [its neck] as an adornment.

To what does the above apply? To a means of adornment similar to [a halter] or the like that are commonly [put on the animal] by all [people]. When, however, a means of adornment is commonly used only by certain people, an animal may not go out [with such an adornment], as will be explained.10

There are authorities who maintain that it is forbidden [for an animal to go out wearing] even a means of adornment that is universally employed, because the concept of adornment does not exist with regard to an animal.11 Our Sages only permitted winding the rope of the halter [around an animal’s neck] when it is wound somewhat loosely so that [the animal’s owner] can insert his hand speedily between the windings and [the animal’s] neck, [enabling the owner] to draw [the animal after him] when it seeks to slip away from him. [This is permitted because an animal] frequently goes out in this manner during the week.12

(With regard to actual practice, one should follow the stringency of the second opinion in a public domain. In a karmelis, which was instituted by Rabbinic decree, one may follow the leniency of the first opinion.) (Nevertheless, since this is a matter which is not at all necessary,13 it is preferable to follow the stringency of the second opinion in all places.)

ג וְכָל בְּהֵמָה הַיּוֹצֵאת בְּאַפְסָר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְמָשְׁכָהּ בְּאַפְסָר, אֶלָּא מֻתָּר לִכְרוֹךְ חֶבֶל הָאַפְסָר סְבִיב צַוָּארָהּכו,9 לְנוֹי וְתֵצֵא בּוֹ, שֶׁנּוֹי זֶה דַּרְכָּהּ הוּא, שֶׁכֵּן רְגִילוּת בְּחֹל לִכְרוֹךְ הָאַפְסָר לְנוֹי.כז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּנוֹי כָּזֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל בַּכֹּל,כח אֲבָל נוֹי שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִין בּוֹ אֶלָּא מִקְצָת אֲנָשִׁים – לֹא תֵצֵא בּוֹ,כט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.ל,10

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלא שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נוֹי הָרָגִיל בַּכֹּל – אָסוּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין נוֹי לִבְהֵמָה,11 וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ לִכְרוֹךְ חֶבֶל הָאַפְסָר סְבִיב צַוָּארָהּ אֶלָּא בְּרִפְיוֹןלב קְצָת, שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהַכְנִיס יָדוֹ בִּמְהֵרָה בֵּין הַכְּרִיכָה לְצַוָּארָהּ כְּדֵי לְמָשְׁכָהּ כְּשֶׁתִּרְצֶה לְהִשָּׁמֵט מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁבְּעִנְיָן זֶה הוּא רְגִילוּת לָצֵאת בְּחֹל.12

(וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כִּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.לג אֲבָל בְּכַרְמְלִית שֶׁהִיא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהלד).

(וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ כְּלָל13 – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר בְּכָל מָקוֹם כִּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה):

4 It is permitted to move a halter or a bridle and place it on an animal that will go out [wearing] it. [Such gear] is designated to be used by an animal. Hence, it is not forbidden to be moved.14 [The person] may not, however, lean on [the animal’s] head or body while placing [this gear] on it, as will be explained.15

ד מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הָאַפְסָר אוֹ הָרֶסֶן וְלִתְּנוֹ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה הַיּוֹצְאָה בּוֹ, וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוּכָן הוּא לִבְהֵמָה,לה,14 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁעֵן עַל רֹאשָׁהּ אוֹ גוּפָהּ כְּשֶׁנּוֹתְנוֹ עָלֶיהָ,לו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:לז,15

5 Tying a rope to a horse’s mouth constitutes a burden, because it will not be secured in this manner, since [the rope] will slip out of [the horse’s] mouth. This does not resemble a halter, which is tied to [the animal’s] head.

ה אִם קָשַׁר חֶבֶל בְּפִי הַסּוּס – הֲרֵי זֶה מַשּׂוֹי, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּמֵּר בּוֹ,לח שֶׁהוּא נִשְׁמָט מִפִּיו, וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְאַפְסָר שֶׁהוּא קָשׁוּר בְּרֹאשׁוֹ:לט

6 It is permitted to use safeguarding equipment [that would ordinarily be considered] excessive [to take out] any animal that exhibits bad behavior. Even though other animals of the same species do not require that [degree of] protective [equipment], and it is a burden for them, it is not [considered] a burden for [an animal that is difficult to control] since [this equipment] is required for [this animal], and it is in this manner that [the animal] is taken out even during the week.9 [Moreover,] it is even permitted for [the animal] to go out with two pieces of safeguarding equipment, e.g., both a halter and a bridle together, if that is what it requires. Every situation should be judged according to its particulars.

ו כָּל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁעֲסָקֶיהָ רָעִים – מֻתָּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בִּשְׁמִירָה יְתֵרָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּנוֹת מִינָהּ צְרִיכוֹת לְאוֹתָהּ שְׁמִירָה וּמַשּׂוֹי הוּא לָהֶן – אֵינָהּ מַשּׂוֹי לָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לְכָךְמ וְדַרְכָּהּ בְּכָךְ בְּחֹל.9 וּמֻתָּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא אֲפִלּוּ בב' מִינֵי שְׁמִירוֹת, כְּגוֹן אַפְסָר וְרֶסֶן יַחַד, אִם הִיא צְרִיכָה לְכָךְ, וְהַכֹּל לְפִי הָעִנְיָן:מא

7 All animals that wear collars may go out to the public domain [wearing] these collars.3 Examples would be hunting dogs or small animals that wear something resembling a bracelet around their necks16 to which a ring is attached. A strap with which the animal is led is inserted in that ring. One may lead the animal as he does during the week. It is also permitted to [loosely] wind the strap around [the animals’] necks,9 as explained above.17

ז בַּעֲלֵי הַשֵּׁיר,מב כְּגוֹן כְּלָבִים שֶׁל צַיָּדִים וְחַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹתמג שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם כְּמִין אֶצְעָדָה סְבִיב צַוָּארָהּ16 וְטַבַּעַת קָבוּעַ בָּהּ וּמַכְנִיסִין רְצוּעָה בַּטַּבַּעַת וּמוֹשְׁכִין אוֹתָהּ בָּהּמד – מֻתָּר שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ בְּשֵׁיר זֶה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.3 וְיָכוֹל לְמָשְׁכָן בּוֹמה כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל. וּמֻתָּר גַּם כֵּן לִכְרוֹךְ הָרְצוּעָה סְבִיב צַוָּארָן,מו,9 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:מז,17

8 Rams may go out livuvim, i.e., with a leather strap tied below their male organs so they will not mount females.18 Since it is common for [rams] to go out in this manner during the week, [the strap] is considered as a garment for them.

Ewes may go out shechuzos, i.e., with their tails tied upwards on their backs, so that males will mount them.18 [Ewes] may [also] go out kevulos, i.e., with their tails tied downward so that males will not mount them.19 And [ewes] may go out kevunos, i.e., with a cloth tied around them to protect their wool so that it will be clean.20

Goats may go out tziruros, i.e., when a cloth is tied around the ends of their udders. When does the above apply? When the cloth is tied there so that their udders will shrink and cease producing milk,19 for then the cloth will be securely tightened. If, however, [the cloth] was tied [around the ends of the udders] to keep the milk in [the goats’] udders so that it will not drip to the ground, people generally do not take care that [the cloth will] be close-fitting. [Hence,] it is forbidden to let [the animals] go out this way on Shabbos. [This is] a decree [enacted] lest the cloth fall from their udders and [the owner] forget [that it is Shabbos] and bring [the cloth] home by hand.21

ח אֵילִים יוֹצְאִים לְבוּבִים,מח וְהוּא עוֹר שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִים לָהֶם תַּחַת זַכְרוּתָם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלוּ עַל הַנְּקֵבוֹת,מט,18 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לָצֵאת כָּךְ בְּחֹל, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַלְבּוּשׁ לָהֶם.נ וְהָרְחֵלוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת שְׁחוּזוֹת,נא וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין אַלְיָתָן כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה עַל גַּבָּן, כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן הַזְּכָרִים.נב,18 וְיוֹצְאוֹת כְּבוּלוֹת,נג וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין אַלְיָתָן כְּבוּלוֹת לְמַטָּה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן הַזְּכָרִים.נד,19 וְיוֹצְאוֹת כְּבוּנוֹת,נה וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין בֶּגֶד סְבִיבָן לִשְׁמוֹר הַצֶּמֶר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נָקִי.נו,20

וְהָעִזִּים יוֹצְאוֹת צְרוּרוֹת,נז וְהוּא שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין מַטְלִית עַל רָאשֵׁי דַדֵּיהֶן.נח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁקּוֹשְׁרָם שָׁם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְטַמְּקוּ דַדֵּיהֶן וְלֹא יֵחָלְבוּ,נט,19 שֶׁאָז דֶּרֶךְ לִהְיוֹת הַקֶּשֶׁר מְהֻדָּק יָפֶה.ס אֲבָל אִם קְשָׁרָם שָׁם כְּדֵי לִשְׁמוֹר חֲלָבָם בְּדַדֵּיהֶן שֶׁלֹּא יְטַפְטֵף מֵהֶן לָאָרֶץ,סא שֶׁאָז אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהַקְפִּיד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְהֻדָּק יָפֶה – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָן לָצֵאת כָּךְ בְּשַׁבָּת, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תִּפּוֹל הַמַּטְלִית מֵעַל דַּדֵּיהֶן וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנָּה בְּיָדוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ:סב,21

9 A donkey commonly goes out with a saddle blanket even when it is not carrying a burden, because, by nature, donkeys feel cold. Indeed, they feel cold even in the hottest part of the summer, so a saddle blanket is provided to warm them. If the saddle blanket was tied to the donkey on Friday, it is permitted for [the donkey] to go out [while wearing the blanket] on Shabbos, since [the saddle blanket] is considered [the donkey’s] garment.19

If, however, [the saddle blanket] was not tied to [the donkey, the donkey] should not go out [while wearing] it. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest [the blanket] fall off [the donkey] and [the owner] bring it [home] by hand.22 On Shabbos itself, it is impossible to tie23 [the blanket around the donkey], because one must come very close to [the donkey] and lean on it somewhat in order to tie it. Thus, he will be making use of an animal, and that is forbidden24 for the reason to be explained.15

ט הַחֲמוֹר דַּרְכּוֹ לָצֵאת בְּמַרְדַּעַת אַף כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹשֵׂא מַשּׂוֹי,סג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטֶּבַע הַחֲמוֹר הוּא קַר, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּתְקוּפַת תַּמּוּז קַר לוֹ, וְלָכֵן נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו מַרְדַּעַת לְחַמְּמוֹ,סד וְאִם קָשַׁר לוֹ הַמַּרְדַּעַתסה מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתסו – מֻתָּר שֶׁיֵּצֵא בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁמַּלְבּוּשׁוֹ הִיא.סז,19 אֲבָל אִם אֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה לוֹ – לֹא יֵצֵא בָּהּ,סח גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תִּפּוֹל מֵעָלָיו וִיבִיאֶנָּה בְּיָדוֹ.סט,22 וּבְשַׁבָּת אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקָשְׁרָהּ לוֹ,23 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁקּוֹשֵׁר צָרִיךְ לְהִתְקָרֵב אֵלָיו וְלִשָּׁעֵן עָלָיו קְצָת, וְנִמְצָא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּבַעֲלֵי חַיִּים,ע וְזֶה אָסוּר,24 מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:עא,15

10 A donkey should not, however, go out [wearing] a saddle25 even though it was strapped to [the donkey] on Friday, because the saddle does not warm [the donkey]. It is not common for [a donkey] to go out [wearing] one unless it is carrying a burden. Other animals should not go out even [wearing] only a saddle blanket, because it is not common for them to go out with one unless they are carrying a burden since they do not need to warm themselves as a donkey does.26

י אֲבָל לֹא יֵצֵא הַחֲמוֹר בְּאֻכָּף25 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּשׁוּר לוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,עב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין הָאֻכָּף מְחַמֵּם אוֹתוֹ,עג וְאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לָצֵאת בּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נוֹשֵׂא מַשּׂוֹי.עד

וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּהֵמוֹת אַף בְּמַרְדַּעַת לֹא יֵצְאוּ,עה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּן בְּכָךְ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נוֹשְׂאוֹת מַשּׂוֹי, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכוֹת לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּמוֹ הַחֲמוֹר:עו,26

11 It is permitted to place a saddle blanket on a donkey27 in a courtyard25 because of the cold, provided [the donkey] does not go out28 wearing [the blanket], since it is forbidden to tie one to [the donkey on Shabbos].29

It is forbidden to place a saddle blanket on a horse or any other animal in all situations, even in a courtyard, because it appears that one is trying to load [the animal] with a burden. Moreover, doing so involves exerting oneself for no purpose, because the animal is not pained by the cold. True, it would feel pleasure from the warmth of the saddle blanket. Nevertheless, [our Sages] did not permit one to exert himself for the pleasure of an animal,30 only [to prevent] its pain,25 like [that of] donkeys that suffer pain from the cold even during the hottest days of the summer. [A similar leniency applies even] for a horse during times of severe cold, when we see that it is suffering discomfort [because of the cold]. In the summer as well, if there are numerous flies that cause a horse discomfort, the laws applying to a donkey apply to it [as well,] and it is permitted to place a saddle blanket on it.

It is, however, forbidden to place a saddle on a donkey because it does not warm it. Needless to say, this applies to a horse or other animals since they do not require warmth at all.

When there is a saddle or a saddle blanket on an animal [on Shabbos], it is forbidden to remove it,25 regardless of whether the animal is a donkey, a horse, or another animal, because it involves exerting oneself needlessly. Even when a donkey comes from a journey on which it wearied itself and it is necessary to remove the saddle to cool it off, [the owner] should not remove it by hand.31 Even though [the donkey] suffers some discomfort from the warmth of the burden of the saddle, nevertheless, it will cool off naturally when it rests, because a donkey is by nature cold even during the hottest part of the summer.32

If [the owner] wishes to enable the donkey to cool off immediately, he should release the rope with which the saddle is fastened from under the donkey, and then lead the donkey to and fro in the courtyard until the saddle falls off of its own accord.33

יא מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מַרְדַּעַת עַל הַחֲמוֹרעז,27 בְּחָצֵרעח,25 מִפְּנֵי הַצִּנָּה,עט וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא28 בָּהּ,פ כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָסוּר לְקָשְׁרָהּ לוֹ.פא,29

אֲבָל עַל הַסּוּספב וּשְׁאָר הַבְּהֵמוֹתפג – אָסוּר לִתֵּן מַרְדַּעַת כָּלל אֲפִלּוּ בְּחָצֵר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לְהַטְעִינוֹ מַשּׂוֹי,פד וְגַם הוּא טֹרַח שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ,פה כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ צַעַר מֵהַצִּנָּה.פו וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תַּעֲנוּג מֵחִמּוּם הַמַּרְדַּעַת – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לִטְרוֹחַ בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל תַּעֲנוּג הַבְּהֵמָה30 אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל צַעֲרָהּ,פז,25 כְּמוֹ הַחֲמוֹר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ צַעַר מִצִּנָּה אֲפִלּוּ בִּתְקוּפַת תַּמּוּז,פח וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהַקֹּר גָּדוֹל, וְאָנוּ רוֹאִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ צַעַר לְהַסּוּס.

וְכֵן בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה אִם הַזְּבוּבִים רַבִּים וּמְצַעֲרִים לְהַסּוּס – דִּינוֹ כַּחֲמוֹר, וּמֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ עָלָיו מַרְדַּעַת.פט

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ אֻכָּף עַל גַּבֵּי הַחֲמוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחַמְּמוֹ, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר עַל גַּבֵּי סוּסצ וּשְׁאָר בְּהֵמוֹת,צא שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכוֹת חִמּוּם כְּלָל.

וּבְהֵמָה שֶׁהָיָה עָלֶיהָ אֻכָּף אוֹ מַרְדַּעַת – אָסוּר לַהֲסִירָן מֵעָלֶיהָ,צב,25 בֵּין שֶׁהִיא חֲמוֹר אוֹ סוּס אוֹ מִשְּׁאָר בְּהֵמוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּהוּ טֹרַח שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ.צג וַאֲפִלּוּ אֻכָּף שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי חֲמוֹר שֶׁבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וְנִתְיַגֵּעַ וְצָרִיךְ לַהֲסִירוֹ מֵעָלָיו לְצַנְּנוֹ – לֹא יִטְּלֶנּוּ מֵעָלָיו בְּיָדוֹ,צד,31 שֶׁאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ קְצָת צַעַר מֵחִמּוּם הַמַּשּׂוֹי שֶׁל הָאֻכָּף,צה מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵאֵלָיו יִצְטַנֵּן כְּשֶׁיָּנוּחַ,צו שֶׁהַחֲמוֹר טִבְעוֹ קַר, שֶׁאַף בִּתְקוּפַת תַּמּוּז32 קַר לוֹ,צז אֶלָּא אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לְצַנְּנוֹ מִיָּד – מַתִּיר מִתַּחְתָּיו אֶת הַחֶבֶל שֶׁהָאֻכָּף קָשׁוּר בּוֹ,צח וּמוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא אֶת הַחֲמוֹר בְּחָצֵר עַד שֶׁיִּפּוֹל הָאֻכָּף מֵאֵלָיו:צט,33

12 A traskel, a basket full of barley, may not be hung around a donkey’s neck.25 [Such a basket] would be hung around an animal’s neck so that it could lower its head into it and eat. Doing so merely provides pleasure for the animal, because it need not bend its neck to the ground [in order to eat], and it is forbidden [for a person] to exert himself on Shabbos for the pleasure of an animal. Nevertheless, it is permitted to hang a traskel around the neck of calves and ponies [when they are] in a courtyard, because their necks are short and it pains them to bend down and eat from the ground. They should not, however, go out34 [to a public domain or a karmelis wearing such a basket], because it is a burden for them.31

יב אֵין תּוֹלִין לַחֲמוֹר טְרַסְקָל,ק וְהוּא סַל מָלֵא שְׂעוֹרִים שֶׁתּוֹלִין לִבְהֵמָה בְּצַוָּארָהּ,25 וְנוֹתֵן פִּיהָ לְתוֹכוֹ וְאוֹכֶלֶת, וְתַעֲנוּג בְּעָלְמָא הוּא, שֶׁלֹּא תִצְטָרֵךְ לָשׁוּחַ צַוָּארָהּ לָאָרֶץ,קא וְאָסוּר לִטְרוֹחַ בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל תַּעֲנוּג הַבְּהֵמָה.קב

אֲבָל עֲגָלִים וּסְיָחִים שֶׁצַּוָּארָן קָצֵר וּמִצְטַעֲרִים לָשׁוּחַ לֶאֱכוֹל מֵעַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע – מֻתָּר לִתְלוֹת לָהֶן טְרַסְקָל בְּצַוָּארָן בְּחָצֵר,קג אֲבָל לֹא יֵצְאוּ34 בּוֹ,קד שֶׁמַּשּׂוֹי הוּא לָהֶן:קה,33

13 A horse may not go out with a foxtail hung between its eyes31 to prevent the evil eye from affecting it, nor with a scarlet thread hung between its eyes,31 which is placed there as an adornment. [The rationale is that] this adornment is not universally employed; only some people do so.35

Goats may not go out with pouches tied over their udders31 so that they will not be scratched by thorns.36 [It is necessary to protect goats in this manner because] their udders bulge. [This is] a decree lest the pouch fall and [the goatherd] bring it back by hand. [It was enacted] because there is no way to tie the pouch thoroughly with a well-fastened knot.

A cow may not go out with a muzzle fastened over its mouth,31 [which assures] that it will not pasture in fields belonging to others. [Since the muzzle is not used to secure] the cow itself, it is considered a burden. No animal may go out with shoes that are placed on its hoofs37 so that it will not be injured.31 [This is] a decree [instituted] lest [the shoes] fall off [the animal’s] hoofs and [the cowherd] bring them in by hand.

[An animal] may, however, go out with a bandage over its wound and kaskasim – two boards that are fastened around its broken bone31 so that [the fragments of the bone] will not move from side to side until [the bone heals and the fragments] become joined. [A female animal] may go out with a placenta that hangs from her [body],31 i.e., a portion of the placenta emerged and it is hanging from her [body].

יג לֹא יֵצֵא הַסּוּס33 בִּזְנַב שׁוּעָלקו שֶׁתּוֹלִין בֵּין עֵינָיו33 שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁלוֹט בּוֹ עַיִן הָרָע,קז וְלֹא בִּזְהוֹרִית שֶׁבֵּין עֵינָיוקח,33 שֶׁעוֹשִׂים לוֹ לְנוֹי,קט שֶׁנּוֹי זֶה אֵינוֹ רָגִיל בַּכֹּל, אֶלָּא מִקְצָת אֲנָשִׁים עוֹשִׂים כֵּן.קי,35

וְלֹא יֵצְאוּ עִזִּים בְּכִיס שֶׁבְּדַדֵּיהֶן,קיא,33 שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִים אוֹתוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְסָרְטוּ דַדֵּיהֶן בְּקוֹצִיםקיב,36 שֶׁהָיוּ דַדֵּיהֶן גַּסִּים,קיג גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל הַכִּיס וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִקְשׁוֹר יָפֶה כִּיס זֶה בְּקֶשֶׁר מְהֻדָּק.קיד

וְלֹא תֵצֵא פָּרָה בַּחֲסוֹם שֶׁבְּפִיהָ,קטו,33 שֶׁחוֹסְמִין פִּיהָ שֶׁלֹּא תִרְעֶה בִּשְׂדוֹת אֲחֵרִים,קטז שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שְׁמִירַת גּוּפָהּ – הֲרֵי זֶה מַשּׂוֹי.קיז

וְלֹא תֵצֵא כָּל בְּהֵמָה בְּסַנְדָּל שֶׁנּוֹעֲלִים בְּרַגְלֶיהָ37 שֶׁלֹּא תִנָּגֵף,קיח,33 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל מֵרַגְלֶיהָ וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ.קיט

אֲבָל יוֹצֵאת בְּאֶגֶד שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה וּבְקַשְׂקַשִּׂים שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַשֶּׁבֶר,קכ וְהֵם שְׁנֵי לוּחוֹת שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִים סְבִיב עֶצֶם הַנִּשְׁבָּר33 שֶׁלֹּא יָנוּד אָנֶה וָאָנָה עַד שֶׁיִּתְחַבֵּר,קכא וְיוֹצֵאת בְּשִׁלְיָא הַמְדֻלְדֶּלֶת בָּהּקכב,33 שֶׁיָּצְתָה מִקְצָתָהּ וּתְלוּיָה בָּהּ:קכג

14 It is permitted for domesticated animals – dogs, cats, and fowl – to go about in a courtyard with a bell hanging from their necks, provided it was stuffed with wool or fragments of cloth so that the clapper will not clang and emit musical tones as bells do.38 They may not, by contrast, go out to the public domain with [a bell], not even in a town with an eruv, because of the impression that might be created, i.e., it appears that they are being taken to the market to be sold. For [in the Talmudic era,] it was common practice to hang a bell from an animal to make it attractive to prospective purchasers.

[This restriction] applies whether the bell was hung around its neck or woven into its garments. (For example, higher quality horses would be covered with garments so that they would not become filthy [and bells would be woven into their garments]. These garments are not considered as a burden [for the animal] because this was common practice [even during the week], as stated above39 with regard to ewes [that go out] kevunos.)

In a courtyard, by contrast, [it is permitted because] there are no observers who would harbor such suspicions. True, all activities forbidden by our Sages because of the impression that might be created are also forbidden even in one’s most private chambers. Nevertheless, in this instance, even if the person would perform this action in a public place, he would not be suspected of violating a Scriptural commandment, only the prohibition against commercial activity, which is a Rabbinic decree.40 [Hence, the Sages] did not rule that stringently and forbid [this act] even in a place where there are no observers. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

(Portions of the text are not extant.41 See Magen Avraham [205:6];42 Eliya Zuta [205:4]; Mordechai, [Shabbos, sec. 335]; Darchei Moshe, [Orach Chayim 205:2]; analysis is necessary with regard to the statements of Sefer Ha­Terumah, [sec. 237].)43

יד זוּג הַתָּלוּי בְּצַוַּאר בְּהֵמָה,קכד אוֹ כְּלָבִים וַחֲתוּלִים וְעוֹפוֹתקכה אִם פּוֹקְקוֹקכו בְּצֶמֶר אוֹ בְּמוֹכִין, שֶׁלֹּא יְקַשְׁקֵשׁ הָעִנְבָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ,קכז וְלֹא יַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁירקכח כְּדֶרֶךְ הַזּוּגִין – מֻתָּר שֶׁתְּטַיֵּל בְּזוּג זֶה בְּחָצֵר.קכט,38

אֲבָל לֹא תֵצֵא בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קל אֲפִלּוּ הִיא עִיר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת,קלא בֵּין אִם הוּא בְּצַוָּארָהּ בֵּין אִם הוּא אָרוּגקלב בִּכְסוּתָהּקלג (פֵּרוּשׁ כְּגוֹן סוּסִים מְעֻלִּיםקלד שֶׁמְּכַסִּים אוֹתָם בִּכְסוּת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטָּנְפוּקלה וְאֵין כְּסוּת זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה מַשּׂוֹי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדַּרְכָּם בְּכָךְ, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקלו,39 בִּרְחֵלוֹת הַכְּבוּנוֹת), מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן,קלז שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ מוֹלִיכָהּ לַשּׁוּק לִמְכּוֹר, שֶׁאָז הוּא דֶרֶךְ לִתְלוֹת לְהַזּוּג לְנָאוֹתָהּ בִּפְנֵי הַקּוֹנִים,קלח אֲבָל בְּחָצֵר אֵין שָׁם רוֹאִים שֶׁיַּחְשְׁדוּהוּ.קלט וְאַף שֶׁכָּל דָבָר שֶׁאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן אָסְרוּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַדְרֵי חֲדָרִים,קמ מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן שֶׁאַף אִם יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן בִּמְקוֹם רוֹאִים לֹא יַחְשְׁדוּהוּ בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּאִסּוּר מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקמא,40 – לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ כָּל כָּךְ לֶאֱסוֹר אַף בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין רוֹאִים.קמב וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.

(חָסֵר כַּאן.41 עַיֵּן מָגֵן אַבְרָהָםקמג,42 וְאֵלִיָּה זוּטָאקמד וּמָרְדְּכַיקמה וְדַרְכֵי מֹשֶׁה,קמו וְצָרִיךְ עִיּוּן בְּסֵפֶר הַתְּרוּמָהקמז,43):

15 An animal may not go out with an [identifying] seal, whether it [hangs] around its neck or from its clothing.44 [This] decree [was enacted] lest [its cord] become severed, [the seal] fall off, and one carry [the seal] by hand. [The restriction applies] even if [the seal] is woven into the animal’s garments,45 because our Sages did not make distinctions [in their decrees].

טו לֹא תֵצֵא בְּהֵמָה בְּחוֹתָם, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא בְּצַוָּארָהּ בֵּין שֶׁהוּא בִּכְסוּתָה,קמח,44 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפָּסֵק וְיִפּוֹל וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ,קמט וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא אָרוּג בִּכְסוּתָהּ,45 שֶׁלֹּא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים:קנ

16 A camel may not go out with a metuteles, i.e., an article similar to a small cushion filled with cloth remnants46 that is placed under its tail so that the strap [that holds the load] will not chafe its flesh. [This is] a decree [enacted] lest [the cushion] fall off and one carry it by hand. [This restriction is applied] even when [the cushion] is tied to its tail, because there is concern that it might slip off and fall. [License is granted] only when [the cushion] is tied to both its tail and hump; since it is tied in both places, there is no concern that it will fall off.46

Similarly, if [the cushion] is tied to [the camel’s] placenta,47 [the camel] may go out [wearing the cushion].46 In such a situation, the animal will surely not try to detach it so that it will fall, because doing so will cause it pain.

טז לֹא יֵצֵא הַגָּמָל בִּמְטֻלְטֶלֶת,קנא וְהוּא כְּמוֹ כַּר קָטָן מָלֵא מוֹכִין46 שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין תַּחַת זְנָבוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תַשְׁחִית הָרְצוּעָה אֶת הַבָּשָׂר,קנב גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל מֵעָלָיו וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ.קנג וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא קָשׁוּר לוֹ בִּזְנָבוֹקנד – חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִשָּׁמֵט וְיִפּוֹל,קנה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָשׁוּר לוֹ בִּזְנָבוֹ וּבַחֲטוֹטַרְתּוֹ,קנו שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּשׁוּר בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם – אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיִּפּוֹל.קנז,46 וְכֵן אִם קָשׁוּר בְּשִׁלְיָתָהּ47 – יוֹצְאָה בּוֹ,קנח,46 שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא תְנַתְּחֶנּוּ שֶׁיִּפּוֹל מֵעָלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיִּכְאַב לָהּ אִם תְּנַתְּחֶנּוּ:קנט

17 A camel may not go out neither akud, nor ragul.46 This also applies to all other animals.

What is meant by akud? That one of its forefeet is tied to one of its hind feet. [What is meant by] ragul? That one of its legs is bent upward and tied there so that it can only walk on three legs46 so that it will be unable to flee.48 ([This is] a decree lest the rope fall off its legs and [its driver] bring it by hand.)

יז לֹא יֵצֵא הַגָּמָל עָקוּד וְלֹא רָגוּל,46 וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּהֵמוֹת.קס וְאֵיזֶהוּ עָקוּד? שֶׁקּוֹשֵׁר יָדוֹ אַחַת עִם רַגְלוֹ וְרָגוּל שֶׁכּוֹפֵף רַגְלוֹ אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְקוֹשְׁרָהּ שָׁם,קסא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵלֵךְ אֶלָּא עַל ג' רַגְלַיִם,קסב,46 שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לִבְרוֹחַקסג,48 (גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל הַחֶבֶל מֵעַל רַגְלָיו וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ):

18 One may not tie camels to each other and then take hold of the halter of the first and lead all of them in this manner. [This restriction applies] even if only two [camels are tied together. Moreover,] even if [the camels] were tied to each other on Friday, one may not lead them in this manner on Shabbos. [The prohibition applies] even in a town with an eruv because it appears that one is leading [the camels] to the marketplace to sell. It is, however, permitted to hold [the ropes of] the halters of several camels in one’s hand [and lead them]. The same applies to all other animals. (See Yoreh Deah, sec. 297.)49

יח לֹא יִקְשׁוֹר גְּמַלִּים זֶה בְּזֶהקסד וְהוּא תּוֹפֵס בְּיָדוֹ אַפְסָר הָרִאשׁוֹן וְכֻלָּם נִמְשָׁכִים עַל יָדוֹ,קסה וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם,קסו וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ קְשׁוּרִים זֶה בְּזֶה מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – לֹא יִמְשְׁכֵם כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּתקסז אֲפִלּוּ הִיא עִיר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת,קסח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ מוֹלִיכֵם לַשּׁוּק לִמְכּוֹר.קסט אֲבָל אִם תּוֹפֵס כַּמָּה אַפְסָרֵי גְמַלִּים בְּיָדוֹ – מֻתָּר,קע וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּהֵמוֹתקעא (וְעַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רצ"זקעב):49

19 When a person takes an animal out and leads it by the rope [attached to] its halter, he must be careful that the end of the rope does not protrude a handbreadth50 below his hand.46 [Were the rope to so protrude,] it would appear as if he was carrying a rope the length of a handbreadth in his hand, for it is not apparent that it is from the animal’s halter. Nevertheless, if only one handbreadth of the rope protrudes from his hand, the person has not violated a prohibition; [there is a prohibition] only when it protrudes two handbreadths. Nonetheless, in practice, one should be stringent [and be careful that] the rope does not even protrude a handbreadth from his hand.

The rope between him and the animal must be a handbreadth or more above the ground. Thus, he must take care not to leave too much of the rope between him and the animal so that it will not sag in the middle until it is a handbreadth above the ground.51 Doing so demonstrates that he is [using the rope] to lead the animal. If he does not do so, it does not appear that he is holding in his hand the end of [the rope attached to] the halter, but rather another rope. If the rope is very long, he should wind it [loosely] around [the animal’s] neck, as explained above.52

יט הַמּוֹצִיא בְּהֵמָה וּמוֹשְׁכָהּ בְּחֶבֶל הָאַפְסָר – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא רֹאשׁ הַחֶבֶל מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ טֶפַח50 לְמַטָּה,קעג,46 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא חֶבֶל טֶפַח זֶה בְּיָדוֹ וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה שֶׁהוּא מֵהָאַפְסָר שֶׁעַל הַבְּהֵמָה.קעד וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוֹצִיא טֶפַח אֶחָד מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ – לֹא עָשָׂה אִסּוּר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוֹצִיא ב' טְפָחִים.

אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּעִנְיַן מַעֲשֶׂה צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא אֲפִלּוּ טֶפַח אֶחָד מִיָּדוֹקעה. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁהַחֶבֶל שֶׁבֵּין יָדוֹ לַבְּהֵמָה יִהְיֶה גָבוֹהַּ מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח אוֹ יוֹתֵר, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַנִּיחַ הַרְבֵּה מִן הַחֶבֶל בֵּין יָדוֹ לַבְּהֵמָה,קעו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכְבִּיד כָּל כָּךְ בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ בְּטֶפַח הַסָּמוּךְ לָאָרֶץקעז,51 כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא נִרְאֵית הַבְּהֵמָה נִמְשֶׁכֶת בּוֹ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן אֵין נִרְאֶה שֶׁאוֹחֵז רֹאשׁ הָאַפְסָר בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא חֶבֶל אַחֵר.קעח וְאִם הַחֶבֶל אָרֹךְ הַרְבֵּה – יִכְרוֹךְ אוֹתוֹ סְבִיב צַוָּארָהּ,קעט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קפ,52

20 A [wounded] donkey may not go out [wearing] a “ladder” on its neck, i.e., boards that are tied around its neck51 so that [the donkey] will not scratch its wound with its teeth.53 These boards are more valuable than the kaskasim that are placed around a broken bone,54 and if they fall off, [the person] will desire to save them and [may well] carry them by hand. Therefore, [a donkey] may not go out [wearing] them. Nor may [a donkey] go out with a strap on its leg,51 i.e., a thick straw ring that is tied around the leg of an animal whose strides are short and [when it walks], its legs strike against each other. This shield is made as protection for it so that [the legs] will not strike one another.51

Chickens may not go out [wearing] the strands that are tied to their legs [for identification], i.e., so that they not be mistaken for other55 chickens.51 Nor may they go out [wearing] a short strap that ties their two legs together so that they cannot lift their legs and set [rocks or the like] in flight, [causing them to] break utensils.51

Rams may not go out with a wagonette attached below their tails.51 This is made for them so that their fatty tails will not be wounded by rocks or hard terrain when [their tails] are dragged on the ground. Goats may not go out with [slivers of] a known type of wood that are placed in their nostrils to make them sneeze so that the worms in their heads will fall out.51 In all these instances, [the rationale for the stringency is that] there is concern that [the article] will fall and the person will bring it back by hand.

A calf may not go out [wearing] a small yoke that is placed around its neck51 so that it will be habituated to bend its head when it grows older, nor with a muzzle that is placed over the calf’s mouth so that it will not nurse from [its mother] when it is pasturing. (Since these are not intended for securing [the calf] itself, they are considered as burdens for it.)

A cow may not go out [wearing] the skin of an animal that has needle-sharp barbs [e.g., the quills of a porcupine,] tied to its udders51 so that crawling animals will not nurse from it. Nor may [a cow] go out with a strap that is tied between its horns,56 whether it is tied to secure it, i.e., to grasp it and drag it when it seeks to flee or it was dyed and tied there as an adornment, because this type of adornment is not commonly [employed for the animal] by all [people]; hence, [the strap] is considered a burden. The cow does not need [this measure to] secure it at all, because cows do not usually flee. This rule also applies to an ox. Therefore, neither an ox nor a cow may go out with a rope around their necks, because it is a burden for them.57 Calves, however, may [go out with a rope around their necks] because they easily become rebellious and must be secured. It is common for them to go out [wearing] a halter at times.

כ לֹא יֵצֵא הַחֲמוֹר בְּסֻלָּם שֶׁבְּצַוָּארוֹ,קפא וְהֵם לוּחוֹת שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִים סְבִיב צַוָּארוֹ51 שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לְחַכֵּךְ מַכָּתוֹקפב בְּשִׁנָּיו,53 וְלוּחוֹת אֵלּוּ חֲשׁוּבִים יוֹתֵר מִקַּשְׂקַשִּׂים שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַשֶּׁבֶר,54 וְאִם יִפְּלוּ מֵעָלָיו יָחוּס עֲלֵיהֶם וִיבִיאֵם בְּיָדוֹ,קפג לָכֵן לֹא יֵצֵא בָּהֶם.קפד

וְכֵן לֹא יֵצֵא בִּרְצוּעָה שֶׁבְּרַגְלוֹ,קפה,51 וְהוּא כְּמִין טַבַּעַת עָבָה שֶׁעוֹשִׂים מִקַּשׁ וְקוֹשְׁרִים בְּרַגְלֵי הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁפְּסִיעוֹתֶיהָ קְצָרוֹת וּמַכָּה רַגְלֶיהָ זוֹ בְּזוֹ, וְעוֹשִׂים לָהּ זֶה לְהָגֵן שֶׁלֹּא תַכֶּה זוֹ בְּזוֹ.קפו,51

וְאֵין הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים יוֹצְאִים בְּחוּטִין שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִים בְּרַגְלֵיהֶםקפז שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַלְּפוּ55 בַּאֲחֵרִים,קפח,51 וְלֹא בִּרְצוּעָהקפט קְצָרָה שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִים בָּהּ שְׁתֵּי רַגְלֵיהֶם יַחַד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יוּכְלוּ לְהָרִים רַגְלֵיהֶם לְהַתִּיזקצ שֶׁלֹּא יְשַׁבְּרוּ אֶת הַכֵּלִים,קצא,51 וְאֵין הָאֵילִים יוֹצְאִים בַּעֲגָלָה קְטַנָּה שֶׁתַּחַת אַלְיוֹתֵיהֶם,קצב,51 שֶׁעוֹשִׂים לָהֶם כֵּן שֶׁלֹּא תִלְקֶה הָאַלְיָה בִּסְלָעִים וּטְרָשִׁיםקצג כְּשֶׁתְּהֵא נִגְרֶרֶת בָּאָרֶץ,קצד וְאֵין הָעִזִּים יוֹצְאִים בְּעֵץ יָדוּעַ שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים בְּחָטְמֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַטְּשׁוּ וְיִפְּלוּ הַתּוֹלָעִים שֶׁבְּרָאשֵׁיהֶן,קצה,51 שֶׁבְּכָל אֵלּוּ יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִפְּלוּ וִיבִיאֵם בְּיָדוֹ.קצו

וְלֹא יֵצֵא הָעֵגֶל בְּעֹל קָטָן שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים עַל צַוָּארוֹקצז,51 שֶׁיְּהֵא לָמוּד לָכֹף רֹאשׁוֹ לִכְשֶׁיִּגְדַּל,קצח וְלֹא בִּזְמָם שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים בְּפִיו שֶׁל עֵגֶל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִינַק מֵהַפָּרָה כְּשֶׁהִיא בְּמִרְעֶהקצט (שֶׁכֵּיון שֶׁאֵינוֹ לִשְׁמִירַת גּוּפוֹ – מַשּׂוֹי הוּא לוֹר).

וְלֹא תֵצֵא פָּרָה בְּעוֹררא שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁנִּימָיו חַדִּין כְּמַחַט,רב וְקוֹשְׁרִים עוֹרוֹ בְּדַדֵּי הַבְּהֵמָהרג,51 שֶׁלֹּא יִינְקוּהָ שְׁרָצִים.רד וְלֹא בִּרְצוּעָה שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִים לָהּ בֵּין קַרְנֶיהָ,רה,56 בֵּין שֶׁקְּשָׁרָהּ לְשִׁמּוּר,רו דְּהַיְנוּ לְאָחֳזָהּ וּלְמָשְׁכָהּ בָּהּרז כְּשֶׁתִּרְצֶה לִבְרוֹחַ, בֵּין שֶׁצְּבָעָהּ וּקְשָׁרָהּ לָהּ לְנוֹי,רח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנּוֹי זֶה אֵינוֹ רָגִיל בַּכֹּל, וַהֲרֵי הוּא מַשּׂוֹי,רט וְשִׁמּוּר אֵין הַפָּרָה צְרִיכָה כְּלָל, שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לִבְרוֹחַרי. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּשׁוֹר.ריא

וְָכֵן לֹא יֵצְאוּ שׁוֹר וּפָרָה בְּחֶבֶל שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָם, שֶׁמַּשּׂוֹי הוּא לָהֶם,57 אֲבָל עֲגָלִים מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם מוֹרְדִים בְּקַלריב וּצְרִיכִים שְׁמִירָה, וְדַרְכָּם לָצֵאת בְּאַפְסָר לִפְעָמִים:

21 An animal may go out [wearing] an amulet whose reliability has been proven,58 but not with an amulet whose reliability has yet to be proven for an animal even though it has been proven for a human. [The rationale is that] a person has a mazal, an angel59 that intercedes for him Above. This mazal assists him so that the amulet will be effective for him. Animals, however, do not [have such a mazal].60

כא הַבְּהֵמָה יוֹצְאָה בְּקָמֵיעַ שֶׁהוּא מֻמְחֶה,ריג,58 אֲבָל לֹא בְּקָמֵיעַ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַחֶה עֲדַיִןריד לִבְהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְמַחֶה לְאָדָם,רטו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָאָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ מַזָּלרטז וּמַלְאָךְ 59 הַמֵּלִיץ עָלָיוריז לְמַעְלָה, וּמַזָּלוֹ מְסַיֵּעַ לוֹ שֶׁיּוֹעִיל לוֹ הַקָּמֵיעַ הַזֶּה, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן לִבְהֵמָה:ריח,60

22 In all instances, when an animal is forbidden to go out to the public domain [wearing] a particular type of article because it is considered as a burden for it, all authorities agree that the Sages also prohibited [an animal] going out to a karmelis with that type of article. [This restriction applies] even though [the article] is taken out in an abnormal manner. This was explained in sec. 303[:23] with regard to a woman taking out [articles].61

[The following principles apply] with regard to all articles that are considered as ornaments [for an animal] since it commonly goes out [wearing] them during the week, but which are forbidden for [the animal] to go out [wearing] on Shabbos, according to Rabbinic Law, because of a decree [enacted] lest [the ornaments] fall off and [the owner] bring them [by hand]: According to the authorities cited in the above source62 who grant license for a person to go out to a karmelis [wearing such] ornaments, [an animal] is permitted to go out [to a karmelis wearing such articles]. However, the authorities mentioned in the above source62 who prohibit [a person going out to a karmelis wearing such ornaments] also rule that an animal may not [go out in this manner]. It was already explained in that source that every person should act stringently with regard to his own conduct [following the ruling of] the authorities who forbid [doing so].

Nevertheless, all authorities agree that an animal may go out to a courtyard63 [wearing] (even an article that is forbidden to [be worn by it] when it goes out [to the public domain]) according to Scriptural Law. All authorities – even those who forbid a person from going out even to a courtyard [wearing forbidden articles] because of a decree [enacted] lest he forget and go out to the public domain [wearing such an article], as stated there – agree that [our Sages] did not rule so stringently with regard to an animal and did not [enact] such a decree.

כב כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בוֹ הַבְּהֵמָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַשּׂוֹי לָהּ – אָסוּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בּוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםריט לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, אַף שֶׁהִיא הוֹצָאָה שֶׁלֹּא כְדַרְכָּהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"גרכ בִּיצִיאַת הָאִשָּׁה.61

וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט לָהּ לְפִי שֶׁדַּרְכָּהּ לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּחֹל אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל וִיבִיאֶנּוּ – מֻתָּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בּוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית לְהַמַּתִּירִין 62 כֵּן בְּתַכְשִׁיטֵי אָדָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, אֲבָל לְהָאוֹסְרִים שָׁם 62 הוּא הַדִּין שֶׁאָסוּר גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה, וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר שָׁםרכא שֶׁכָּל אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִים.

אֲבָל לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל מֻתָּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא הַבְּהֵמָה בְּחָצֵר 63 (אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאָסוּר שֶׁתֵּצֵא בּוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה),רכב שֶׁאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹסְרִים בְּאָדָם אַף בְּחָצֵר מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֵצֵא בוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּבְהֶמְתּוֹ לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ לִגְזוֹר כָּל כָּךְרכג לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:

23 One may not ride on an animal [on Shabbos],64 nor may one hang on to it,65 nor lean on it,66 because it is forbidden to make use of an animal in any manner.67 [The rationale is that] our Sages included making use of an animal in any way in their decree against riding, which they forbade lest one cut off a branch from a tree connected [to the earth]68 to direct the animal he is riding.69

It is even forbidden to make use of the sides of an animal, e.g., to rub a child against the side of an animal’s back to give [the child] pleasure or to use [the animal’s] side for support. It is, however, permitted to make use of “the sides of its sides,” e.g., when something else is placed on the side of [the animal’s] back or [placed] on the side of other portions of its body, [a person may then] make use of the sides of that entity. It is, however, forbidden to perform a function [directly] on top of the entity that is placed on the side of the animal, because that is considered as actually making use of [the animal’s] side.

Accordingly, when an animal is drawing a wagon inside [a town’s] Shabbos limits,70 it is forbidden to enter the wagon even though a non-Jew is leading the animal.71 [The rationale is that] the staves of the wagon are [connected to] the sides of the animal, and the staves and the wagon are [deemed] a single entity. One who enters the wagon is thus using an entity placed on the sides of the animal, and license was granted only to use the sides [of an entity attached to the sides of an animal]. It is also forbidden to sit on the board that juts out from the back of the wagon72 because the wagon, everything attached to it, and everything that juts out from it is considered as a single entity, and it is forbidden to perform a function [directly] on top of an entity [that is placed on the side of the animal. It is] only permitted [to use] the sides [of that entity].

It is, however, permitted on Shabbos to ride on a boat that is led by animals that walk on the riverbank.73 Since [the animals] are walking far from [the boat], it is considered as if [the person in the boat] is [merely] using “the sides of [the animal’s] sides.”74 Moreover, when one is traveling on a boat, there is no concern that he will break off a branch of a tree [with which] to drive the animals, as there is when one is riding in a wagon, as stated in sec. 248[:11].75

כג אֵין רוֹכְבִים עַל גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה,רכד,64 וְלֹא נִתְלִים עָלֶיהָ,רכה,65 וְלֹא נִשְׁעָנִים עָלֶיהָ,רכו,66 שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בְּבַעֲלֵי חַיִּים כָּל עִקָּר,רכז,67 שֶׁכָּלְלוּ חֲכָמִים כָּל שִׁמּוּשׁ בְּבַעֲלֵי חַיִּים בִּכְלַל גְּזֵרַת הָרְכִיבָה,רכח שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לַחְתּוֹךְ זְמוֹרָהרכט מֵאִילָן הַמְּחֻבָּררל,68 כְּדֵי לְהַנְהִיג בָּהּ הַבְּהֵמָהרלא שֶׁרוֹכֵב עָלֶיהָ.רלב,69

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּצִדֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ,רלג כְּגוֹן לְשַׁפְשֵׁף הַתִּינוֹק בְּצִדֵּי גַבָּהּרלד כְּדֵי לְשַׁעְשְׁעוֹ,רלה וְכֵן לְהִסָּמֵךְ לְצִדָּהּ.רלו אֲבָל צִדֵּי צְדָדִין,רלז כְּגוֹן שֶׁדָּבָר אַחֵררלח מֻנָּח עַל צִדֵּי גַבָּהּ אוֹ עַל שְׁאָר צְדָדֶיהָרלט וְהוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּצִדֵּי אוֹתוֹ דָבָררמ – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עַל גַּבֵּי אוֹתוֹ דָבָר הַמֻּנָּח עַל צִדָּהּ,רמא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עַל צִדָּהּ מַמָּשׁ.

לְפִיכָךְ, קָרוֹן שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה מוֹלִיכָה אוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּםרמב,70 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּכְרִי מַנְהִיג הַבְּהֵמָה – אָסוּר לִכָּנֵס לַקָּרוֹן,רמג,71 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיְּדוֹת הַקָּרוֹן הֵן עַל צִדֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה, וְהַיָּדוֹת עִם גּוּף הַקָּרוֹן הַכֹּל דָּבָר אֶחָד, וְהַנִּכְנָס לַקָּרוֹן – הֲרֵי זֶה מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּדָבָר הַמֻּנָּח עַל צִדֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּצִדֵּי אוֹתוֹ דָבָר.רמד וְגַם עַל הַדַּף הַיּוֹצֵא מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַקָּרוֹן אָסוּר לֵישֵׁב,72 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַקָּרוֹן עִם כָּל הַמְּחֻבָּר בּוֹ וְיוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ הַכֹּל נֶחְשָׁב לְדָבָר אֶחָד,רמה וְאָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עַל גַּבֶּיהָ אֶלָּא בְּצִדֵּיהֶם.

אֲבָל סְפִינָה שֶׁמּוֹלִיכוֹת אוֹתָהּ בְּהֵמוֹת הַהוֹלְכוֹת בִּשְׂפַת הַנָּהר73 – מֻתָּר לֵילֵךְ בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת,רמו שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַבְּהֵמוֹת הוֹלְכוֹת רָחוֹק מִמֶּנָּה – הֲרֵי הוּא צִדֵּי צְדָדִים.רמז,74 וְגַם אֵין לָחוּשׁ בְּהוֹלֵךְ בִּסְפִינָה שֶׁמָּא יַחְתּוֹךְ זְמוֹרָה לְהַנְהִיג הַבְּהֵמוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ בְּיוֹשֵׁב בְּקָרוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ח:רמח,75

24 When a person mounts an animal on Shabbos, he must immediately dismount. [This applies] even to one who ascended the animal in willful violation [of the Sages’ prohibition]. It would have been appropriate to penalize him and [require] him to remain seated upon [the animal] the entire Shabbos and not dismount until the evening, just as [the Sages] penalized one who climbs on a tree on Shabbos.76Nevertheless, because of the discomfort suffered by the animal, [the Sages] did not wish to enact a decree concerning this.77

Similarly, it is permitted to remove a burden from an animal [on Shabbos] because of the discomfort suffered by the animal.78 Even if the burden is muktzeh and forbidden to be moved, [it may be removed indirectly. The person] should slip his head under the burden, and shift it to one side, and [let] it fall down on its own accord.78 [This is permitted] because the prohibition against moving an article that is muktzeh applies only when one moves it with his hands, as will be explained in sec. 311[:15]. One is not permitted to leave the burden on [an animal] until Saturday night out of consideration for the suffering experienced by the animal. ([What to do] if causing the burden to fall off the animal will cause a loss is explained in sec. 266[:23-26].)

כד מִי שֶׁעָלָה עַל גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ עָלָה בְּמֵזִידרמט שֶׁהָיָה רָאוּי לְקָנְסוֹ שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא יֵרֵד מִמֶּנָּה עַד לָעֶרֶברנ כְּמוֹ שֶׁקָּנְסוּ בְּעוֹלֶה עַל גַּבֵּי אִילָן בְּשַׁבָּתרנא,76 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מִשּׁוּם צַעַר הַבְּהֵמָה לֹא רָצוּ לִגְזוֹר עַל זֶה,77 וְצָרִיךְ לֵירֵד מִמֶּנָּה מִיָּד.רנב

וְכֵן פּוֹרְקִין הַמַּשּׂוֹי מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה,רנג מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים.רנד,78 וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַמַּשּׂוֹי דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה וְאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּלרנה – הֲרֵי זֶה מַכְנִיס רֹאשׁוֹ תַּחַת הַמַּשּׂוֹי וּמְסַלְּקוֹ לְצַד אַחֵר וְהוּא נוֹפֵל מֵאֵלָיו,רנו,78 שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה אֶלָּא בְּיָדָיו,רנז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א.רנח וְאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְהַנִּיחַ הַמַּשּׂוֹי עָלֶיהָ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים (וְאִם יַגִּיעַ לוֹ הֶפְסֵד אִם יִפּוֹל הַמַּשּׂוֹי – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ורנט):

25 When unloading [an animal’s] burden, one must be careful not to use the sides of the animal for support.79 ([This warning leads to the following stringency in a situation where] there are two sacks placed on [the sides of] a donkey: one on its right and one on its left. Each of the sacks has a strap at its opening. These two straps are tied together with the knot now lying on the donkey’s back and the sacks weighing down on its sides. It is impossible to untie the knot without lifting the sacks [at least] a bit. When lifting them, however, the sacks will be supported by the sides of the animal. [Hence,] it is forbidden to unload them from the donkey on Shabbos.)80

כה וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁפּוֹרֵק הַמַּשּׂוֹי שֶׁלֹּא יִסְמוֹךְ עַצְמוֹ לְצִדֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה.רס,79

(וְאִם ב' שַׂקִּין מֻנָּחִים עַל הַחֲמוֹר, אֶחָד מִימִינוֹ וְאֶחָד מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ, וּבְרֹאשׁ כָּל אֶחָד מֵהַשַּׂקִּין רְצוּעָה אַחַת וְקוֹשְׁרִים אוֹתָן שְׁתֵּי הָרְצוּעוֹת יַחַד, וְעַכְשָׁו מֻנָּח הַקֶּשֶׁר כְּנֶגֶד גַּבּוֹ שֶׁל הַחֲמוֹר וְהַשַּׂקִּין מַכְבִּידִין לְכַאן וּלְכַאן וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתִּיר הַקֶּשֶׁר אִם לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ הַשַּׂקִּין מְעַט, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁנִּסְמָכִים הַשַּׂקִּין עַל צִדֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה כְּשֶׁמַּגְבִּיהַּ אוֹתָם – אָסוּר לְפָרְקָם בְּשַׁבָּת מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹררסא):80

26 When an animal falls into an irrigation canal [on Shabbos], it should be sustained in that place until Saturday night if it is possible to supply it with its needs there.81 If the water is deep and it is impossible to supply [the animal] with its needs there, one should bring pillows and cushions and place them beneath [the animal]. If this [enables the animal] to climb up, this may be done to enable it to climb out.81 Although one is nullifying the possibility of using a utensil for its intended purpose82 – for when the cushions become soaked with water, they are not fit [to be used] for anything else that day (since one may not spread them out to dry, as stated in sec. 301[:56])83 – our Sages did not institute a decree in this instance because of the suffering the animal [endures]. For there is a Scriptural mandate to [prevent] an animal’s suffering.84

It is, however, forbidden to lift the animal up by hand if [the animal] was not able to ascend via the cushions, even if [the animal] will die there, because the animal is muktzeh and our Sages did not permit moving an article that is muktzeh even when an animal’s suffering is involved. [Although the Scriptural obligation to show consideration for the animal’s suffering is being ignored,] our Sages have the authority to uproot a Scriptural [command] in an instance where one remains passive and [merely] refrains from action.85

(Other authorities permit one to [help the animal] ascend by hand because of consideration for its suffering. One may rely on their words in the case of a significant loss.)86 (According to all authorities,) it is permitted to instruct a non-Jew to [help the animal] ascend.87

כו בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְאַמַּת הַמַּיִם, אִם יָכוֹל לִתֵּן לָהּ פַּרְנָסָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ – מְפַרְנְסִין אוֹתָהּרסב עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת.רסג,81 וְאִם הַמַּיִם עֲמֻקִּיםרסד שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְפַרְנְסָהּ שָׁםרסה – מֵבִיא כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ תַּחְתֶּיהָ,רסו וְאִם עָלְתָה – עָלְתָה.רסז,81 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,רסח,82 שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ הַכָּרִים בַּמַּיִםרסט שׁוּב אֵינָן רְאוּיִים לִכְלוּםער בּוֹ בַיּוֹם (שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁטְחָן לְנַגְּבָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ארעא,83) – לֹא גָזְרוּ חֲכָמִים עַל זֶה בִּמְקוֹם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים,ערב שֶׁצַּעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.רעג,84

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַעֲלוֹת הַבְּהֵמָה בְּיָדוֹעדר אִם לֹא עָלְתָה עַל גַּבֵּי הַכָּרִים, אֲפִלּוּ אִם תָּמוּת שָׁם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מֻקְצֶה, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה אַף בִּמְקוֹם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים,ערה שֶׁיֵּשׁ כֹּחַ בְּיַד חֲכָמִים לַעֲקוֹר דָּבָר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּ"שֵׁב וְאַל תַּעֲשֶׂה".רעו,85

(וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןרעז לְהַעֲלוֹתָהּ בְּיָדַיִם מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דַּעְתָּם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּהרעח,86).

אֲבָל (לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל) מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהַעֲלוֹתָהּ:רעט,87

27 Similarly, one may instruct [a non-Jew] to force-feed geese88 once during [the Shabbos] day [because of the obligation to prevent] the animals from suffering, for [these geese] are not able to eat [on their own]. If there are no non-Jews present, a Jew is allowed to force-feed [the geese]. Even though force-feeding [geese] is forbidden on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 324[:6], license was granted in consideration of the suffering they would experience [were they not fed]. Nevertheless, it is preferable that [they be fed] by a minor.89

כז וְכֵן מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ לְהַמְרוֹתרפ הָאַוָּזוֹת88 פַּעַם אַחַת בַּיּוֹם, מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלוֹת לֶאֱכוֹל.רפא וְאִם אֵין שָׁם נָכְרִי – מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַמְרוֹתָן,רפב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסְרוּ הַמְרָאָה בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ד,רפג מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים הִתִּירוּ. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי קָטָן:רפד,89

28 Threshing is one of the primary categories (avos) of forbidden labor.90 Anyone who extracts (mefareik) food or liquid from a place in which it was concealed, e.g., one who milks an animal, extracting the milk from its udder, performs a derivative of threshing,91 for one who threshes (dosh) is also extracting grain from its husks.92

One is only liable when he milks into an empty receptacle. By contrast, one who expresses milk into a receptacle that contains food is exempt.93 [The rationale is that] a liquid that enters food is considered as food. Thus, the milk [that was expressed] is not considered as a liquid, but rather as food. Now, the udders of the animal are also considered as food.94 Thus [when expressing milk into food], one is separating food from food.95 This is not included as [a forbidden derivative] of mefareik (extracting food or liquid from its source).

Nor is it comparable to threshing, in which one extracts kernels of grain which are food from the husks which are waste matter. For they are two different substances, and it is appropriate to say that the person is extracting one substance from the other that covers it. Similarly, [a person can be said to be mefareik] when he expresses milk into an empty container because the milk is a liquid and he is extracting it from an animal which [is considered as] food. [The udder and the milk] are two different entities that are connected to each other, and he is separating one entity from the other entity covering it [by expressing the milk].

When, however, the milk is [considered as] food,96 it is considered as a single entity together with the body of the animal from which it is being separated, [and the animal] is also considered as food. Thus, [expressing the milk into food] is comparable to taking [a] thick [piece of] food and cutting away [a portion of] food from it. This is not considered as extracting food from the place where it is hidden, because [the remaining food] is not considered to be a covering [for the food that was separated from it]. Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to milk [an animal on Shabbos] even [when the milk is expressed directly] into food. [The rationale is that] since the animal is not fit to be eaten on Shabbos because it is forbidden to slaughter [it on that day], it is not considered as food. Instead, it resembles waste matter, and one who extracts milk, which is food, from [an animal which is comparable to waste] performs an act similar to separating food from waste. On a festival, however, when [the animal] is fit to be eaten,97 it is permitted to express milk into food98 in the manner to be explained in sec. 505[:1, 3, et al.].

כח הַדָּשׁ הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,רפה,90 וְכָל הַמְפָרֵק אֹכֶלרפו אוֹ מַשְׁקֶהרפז מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְכַּסֶּה בּוֹ,רפח כְּגוֹן הַחוֹלֵב אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה,רפט שֶׁמְּפָרֵק הֶחָלָב מֵהַדַּד – הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת הַדָּשׁ,91 שֶׁהַדָּשׁ גַּם כֵּן מְפָרֵק הַתְּבוּאָה מֵהַשִּׁבֹּלֶת.רצ,92

וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁחוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רֵיקָן, אֲבָל אִם חוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֹכָלִין – פָּטוּר,רצא,93 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּשְׁקֶה הַבָּא לָאֹכֶל הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֹכֶל,רצב וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין שֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה עַל חָלָב זֶה אֶלָּא שֵׁם אֹכֶל, וְדַדֵּי הַבְּהֵמָה הֵם גַּם כֵּן אֹכֶל,רצג,94 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל,רצד,95 וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק.רצה

וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְדָשׁ, שֶׁמְּפָרֵק הַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁהִיא אֹכֶל מֵהַשִּׁבֹּלֶת שֶׁהִיא פְּסֹלֶת,רצו וְהֵם שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים חֲלוּקִים זֶה מִזֶּה, וְשַׁיָּךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמְּפָרֵק דָּבָר אֶחָד מִתּוֹךְ דָּבָר אַחֵר הַמְכַסֶּה עָלָיו. וְכֵן הַחוֹלֵב לִכְלִי רֵיקָן, שֶׁהֶחָלָב הוּא מַשְׁקֶה וּמְפָרְקוֹ מֵהַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִיא אֹכֶל, שֶׁהֵם שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים חֲלוּקִים זֶה מִזֶּה וּמְדֻבָּקִין זֶה בָּזֶה,רצז וִיפָרֵק אֶחָד מִתּוֹךְ חֲבֵרוֹ הַמְכַסֶּה עָלָיו, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁהֶחָלָב הוּא אֹכֶל96 – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ דָּבָר אֶחָד עִם גּוּף הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁנִּתְפָּרֵק מִמֶּנָּה שֶׁהוּא גַם כֵּן אֹכֶל, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּנוֹטֵל מַאֲכָל עָב וְחוֹקֵק מִתּוֹכָהּ מְעַט אֹכֶל,רחצ שֶׁאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק אֹכֶל מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְכַּסֶּה בּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין זֶה נֶחְשָׁב כִּסּוּי לָזֶה.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםרצט אָסוּר לַחֲלוֹב אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכָלִים, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה בְּשַׁבָּת מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר שְׁחִיטָה – אֵין שֵׁם אֹכֶל עָלֶיהָ, וַהֲרֵי הִיא כִּפְסֹלֶת, וְהַמְפָרֵק מִתּוֹכָהּ הֶחָלָב שֶׁהִיא אֹכֶל – הֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְדָשׁ, שֶׁמְּפָרֵק אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת.ש אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה97 – מֻתָּר לַחֲלוֹב לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכָלִין,שא,98 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ה:שב

29 It is permitted to instruct a non-Jew to milk an animal on Shabbos, because [the animal] suffers discomfort due to its abundance of milk.99 [Our Sages] did not issue a decree against giving instructions to a non-Jew [to perform a forbidden activity on Shabbos]100 in an instance where the suffering of an animal is involved because [preventing an animal’s suffering] is a Scriptural obligation.101

Nevertheless, the non-Jew must take the milk for himself, or the Jew must buy back the milk from him [even if only] for a minimal sum,102 so that it will not appear that the non-Jew is milking [the animal] for the sake of the Jew, but for his own sake. For [our Sages] only permitted giving instructions [to a non-Jew] because of the animal’s suffering, but not so that [the non-Jew] should perform [a forbidden activity solely]103 for the sake of a Jew. [The non-Jew may perform such an activity] only [if he is acting] for his own sake.

[The rationale is that] when [a non-Jew] performs an activity for the sake of a Jew, he is actually considered as his agent.104 Thus, it is considered as if the Jew performed [the forbidden activity] himself, for a person’s agent is considered as his own self.105 True, [according to Scriptural Law] that statement only applies when one Jew acts as an agent on behalf of another Jew.105 Nevertheless, with regard to Shabbos, festivals, and the like, our Sages ruled stringently and considered even [the actions of] a non-Jew who serves as an agent for a Jew and performs an act on [the Jew’s] behalf as if [the act] was performed by the Jew106 himself.105 When, however, [the non-Jew] acts on his own behalf, [our Sages] were stringent only in that they forbade [a Jew] from instructing [the non-Jew],107 as will be explained in sec. 307[:35].108 And in this instance, [our Sages] permitted [giving such instructions to a non-Jew] because of the animal’s suffering.

כט מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַחֲלוֹב הַבְּהֵמָה בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מִצְטַעֶרֶת מֵרֹב הֶחָלָב,שג,99 וְלֹא גָזְרוּ עַל אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי100 בִּמְקוֹם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים שֶׁהוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.דש,101 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּטּוֹל הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָלָב לְעַצְמוֹ,שה אוֹ יַחֲזוֹר וְיִקְנֶה הֶחָלָב מֵהַנָּכְרִי בְּדָבָר מוּעָט,שו,102 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּחוֹלֵב לְצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא הָאֲמִירָה מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים, אֲבָל לֹא שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה103 בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ,שז שֶׁכְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי הוּא שְׁלוּחוֹ מַמָּשׁ,104 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ עָשָׂה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁשְּׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתו.ֹשח,105 וְאַף שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים כֵּן אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל,שט,105 מִכָּל מָקוֹם חֲכָמִים הֶחֱמִירוּ כֵּן גַּבֵּי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן106 אַף בְּנָכְרִי שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיְּהֵא נֶחְשָׁב כְּמוֹתוֹשי מַמָּשׁ כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.105 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ – לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת,107 וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסוֹף סִמָּן ש"ז,שיא,108 וְכַאן הִתִּירוּ מִשּׁוּם צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים:

30 When does the above apply? When [the Jew] instructs the non-Jew to milk [the animal]. However, it is permitted to take the milk from him without charge if the non-Jew milks the animal on his own initiative; there is no need to purchase it from [the non-Jew], not even for a minimal amount. ([The rationale is that] whenever a non-Jew acts on his own initiative, he certainly has his own benefit in mind, i.e., [he knows’ that he will [eventually] receive benefit from the Jew for doing this, as explained in sec. 252[:10].109 Thus, it is as if he is milking [the animal] for his own sake.)

ל בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? (א) כְּשֶׁאָמַר לְהַנָּכְרִי לַחֲלוֹב, אֲבָל אִם נָכְרִי חָלַב מֵעַצְמוֹ – מֻתָּר לִטּוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ הֶחָלָב בְּחִנָּם, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּשיב אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר מוּעָט (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל נָכְרִי הָעוֹשֶׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּוַדַּאי מִתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבָתוֹ שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה מֵהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב,שיג,109 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּחוֹלֵב לְעַצְמוֹ):

31 All the above applies with regard to a non-Jew who is not the Jew’s servant. However, when a servant or a maid-servant hired for a year or two [milks the animal], there is no need to purchase the milk from them even if [the Jew] instructed them to milk [the animal] on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] their intent in performing their work is for their own benefit, so that they receive their entire wage at the end of the year [for which they were hired]. And when they were originally hired, they were hired with this intent: to milk the animals whenever it was necessary to milk them.110

לא וְכָל זֶה בְּנָכְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עַבְדּוֹ, אֲבָל עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַשְּׂכוּרִים לוֹ לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לִשְׁנָתַיִם – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת מֵהֶם הֶחָלָב אַף אִם אָמַר לָהֶם לַחֲלוֹב בְּשַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם מִתְכַּוְּנִים בִּמְלַאכְתָּם לְטוֹבָתָם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַבְּלוּ כָּל שְׂכָרָם בְּסוֹף שְׁנָתָם, שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּשְׂכְּרוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה לְדַעַת כֵּן נִשְׂכְּרוּ, שֶׁיַּחְלְבוּ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַחֲלוֹב:שיד,110

32 All the above applies with regard to partaking of the milk on Saturday night; but on Shabbos itself, [the milk] is forbidden111 even to be moved. [This applies] even if a non-Jew milked [the animal] on his own initiative and even if the animal belonged to the non-Jew. [The rationale is that] our Sages issued a decree forbidding liquids that flow forth from fruits on Shabbos on their own accord112 or that [are expressed] by a non-Jew [to be used] until Saturday night, for the reason to be explained in sec. 320[:3] and sec. 325[:8]. Milk that was milked on Shabbos was also included in this decree,113for it is also a liquid that came into being on Shabbos. And since it is forbidden to be consumed [on that Shabbos], it is also forbidden to be moved because it is muktzeh, since it is not fit to be used for anything during that day.114

Even if [the non-Jew] expressed the milk into food, and thus the milk is not placed in the category of liquids115 and is not included in the decree against liquids that emerged [on Shabbos], it is nevertheless forbidden until the evening unless it was milked immediately upon the commencement of Shabbos. [The milk is prohibited if it was milked]afterwards, however, when the majority of the milk in [the animal’s] udder was possibly generated there on Shabbos. For the milk that was added on Shabbos is muktzeh because it is a new entity that came into being (nolad) on Shabbos since [the animal’s] blood would be transformed116 and become milk.117 Even when the person thought [of drinking the milk] while it was still day [on Friday], it is of no consequence since at that time [that milk] did not yet exist. It is not comparable to other entities that first come into existence (nolad)on Shabbos and are permitted because they already existed while it was still day [on Friday]; it is just that their [form] changed on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 308[:23].118

The reason license was granted on a festival to express an animal’s milk into food is that on a festival, an animal – and the milk it carries – is fit to be eaten. For if a person desired, he could slaughter [the animal] and also partake of the milk generated on the festival,119 because [the milk] is secondary to [the animal] and batel (auxiliary) to it. As such, even when the animal is milked while it is alive,120 there is no prohibition because it is deemed as nolad, since it is considered as food that is separated from food. For [the milk] and the animal’s body are considered as the same entity, because both of them are in the category of food. Thus, one type of food is being separated from another, and the laws of nolad do not apply even though [the milk] is a new entity. On Shabbos, by contrast, the animal is not fit to be eaten.121 Hence, the milk that is milked from it is considered as nolad in the full sense, because it first comes into the world on Shabbos.

לב וְכָל זֶה לֶאֱכוֹל הֶחָלָב לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, אֲבָל (ב)שטו בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ אָסוּרשטז אֲפִלּוּ לְטַלְטְלוֹ,שיז,111 אֲפִלּוּ חֲלָבָהּ הַנָּכְרִי מֵעַצְמוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא בֶּהֱמַת הַנָּכְרִי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגָּזְרוּ חֲכָמִיםשיח עַל מַשְׁקִים שֶׁזָּבוּ מֵהַפֵּרוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת מֵאֲלֵיהֶם112 אוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי לְאָסְרָם עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"כשיט וְשכ"ה,שכ וּבִכְלַל גְּזֵרָה זוֹ הוּא גַם כֵּן הֶחָלָב שֶׁנֶּחְלַב בְּשַׁבָּתשכא,113 שֶׁהוּא גַם כֵּן מַשְׁקֶה הַנּוֹלָד בְּשַׁבָּת, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה – אָסוּר גַּם כֵּן בְּטִלְטוּל, שֶׁמֻּקְצֶה הוּא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְבוֹ בַיּוֹם.שכב,114

וְאַף אִם חֲלָבָהּ לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכָלִיןשכג שֶׁאֵין עַל הֶחָלָב תּוֹרַת מַשְׁקֶה115 וְאֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל גְּזֵרַת מַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּשכד – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר עַד הָעֶרֶב, אִם לֹא נֶחְלַב מִיָּד בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא לְאַחַר זְמַן בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁרֹב הֶחָלָב שֶׁבְּדַד הוּא נוֹלַד שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הֶחָלָב שֶׁנִּתּוֹסֵף בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת הוּא מֻקְצֶה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ שֶׁנּוֹלַד בְּשַׁבָּת,שכה שֶׁדָּם נֶעְכָּר116 וְנַעֲשֶׂה חָלָב.שכו,117 וְאַף שֶׁהָיָה דַעְתּוֹ עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אָז עֲדַיִן בָּעוֹלָם. וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִשְׁאָר נוֹלָד בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁמֻּתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה כְּבָר בָּעוֹלָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,שכז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח.שכח,118

וּמַה שֶּׁהִתִּירוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב לַחֲלוֹב לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכָלִין, הוּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה רְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב עִם הֶחָלָב שֶׁבָּהּ, שֶׁאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה הָיָה שׁוֹחֲטָהּ וְאוֹכֵל גַּם הֶחָלָב שֶׁנִּתּוֹסֵף בָּהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב,שכט,119 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל אֵלֶיהָ וּבָטֵל אֶצְלָהּ,של אִם כֵּן גַּם כְּשֶׁנֶּחְלַב מִמֶּנָּה בְּחַיֶּיהָ120 – אֵינוֹ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּאֹכֶל הַנִּפְרָד מֵאֹכֶל, שֶׁהוּא עִם גּוּף הַבְּהֵמָה הֵם כְּמוֹ דָּבָר אֶחָד, שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל עֲלֵיהֶם, וַהֲרֵי זֶה אֹכֶל שֶׁנִּפְרָד מֵאֹכֶל, וְאֵין תּוֹרַת נוֹלָד עָלָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין הַבְּהֵמָה רְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה121 – הֲרֵי הֶחָלָב שֶׁנֶּחְלַב מִמֶּנָּה נִקְרָא נוֹלָד גָּמוּר, שֶׁנּוֹלַד בָּעוֹלָם בְּשַׁבָּת:

34 122 [The following laws apply to] cheese that maidservants make on Shabbos from milk belonging to a Jew. If they make [the cheese] in the Jew’s house, even when they do so on their own initiative without the Jew’s knowledge, they are certainly [making the cheese] for their own benefit, to find favor in the Jew’s eyes, as stated in sec. 304.123 Nevertheless, they should be admonished because of the impression that might be created; it might be said that they are acting with [the Jew’s] consent since they are making [the cheese] in his house, as explained in sec. 252[:5].124 Moreover, since [the maidservants] are using his milk, and he sees [what they are doing] but remains silent, they can understand [from his silent assent] that he desires this, and thus they are acting with his approval, as explained in that source.125

לד שלא,122 הַגְּבִינוֹת שֶׁעוֹשׂוֹת הַשְּׁפָחוֹתשלב בְּשַׁבָּת מֵחָלָב שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אִם עוֹשׂוֹת בְּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹשׂוֹת מֵעַצְמָן שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי מִתְכַּוְּנוֹת לְטוֹבַת עַצְמָן לִמְצוֹא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ד"ששלג,123 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָן,שלד מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן, שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁלְּדַעְתּוֹ הֵן עוֹשׂוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעוֹשׂוֹת בְּבֵיתוֹ, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב.שלה,124 וְעוֹד, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁעוֹשׂוֹת מֵחָלָב שֶׁלּוֹ וְהוּא רוֹאֶה וְשׁוֹתֵק לָהֶן – הֵן מְבִינוֹת שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ בְּכָךְ וּלְדַעְתּוֹ הֵן עוֹשׂוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:שלו,125

35 A person who has a young non-Jewish servant who rides on an animal when he leads it to a drinking spot is not required to prevent [the non-Jewish servant from doing so. The rationale is that he is not considered as a burden for the animal] because a living being “carries itself.”126 [Moreover,] even a person is only forbidden to take a living being out to the public domain according to Rabbinic Law,127 and our Sages did not issue such a decree with regard to an animal [carrying a human].128 One must, however, prevent [the servant] from putting any clothes that he [had] removed on [the animal]129 or [lading it with] anything else.

לה מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ נַעַר נָכְרִי וְרוֹכֵב עַל הַבְּהֵמָה כְּשֶׁמּוֹלִיכָהּ לְהַשְׁקוֹתָהּ – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְמָנְעוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַחַי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת עַצְמוֹ,שלז,126 וְאֵין אִסּוּר אַף לְאָדָם לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַחַי לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,שלח,127 וּבִבְהֶמְתּוֹ לֹא גָזְרוּ.שלט,128 אֲבָל צָרִיךְ לְמָנְעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ בְּגָדָיו שֶׁפְּשָׁטָם מֵעָלָיו129 וְלֹא שׁוּם דָּבָר:שמ

36 It is permitted to entrust a horse or donkey to a non-Jewish shepherd. There is no concern that he will perform [forbidden] labor with them on Shabbos130since he fears being apprehended as a thief if he uses [the animals to] perform work.131 This situation does not resemble that of [a Jew] who lends a non-Jew an animal to work with during the week and stipulates that [the animal] must rest on Shabbos. As explained in sec. 246[:7, such an arrangement] is forbidden because the non-Jew is not trusted in this regard. [The difference is that when the animal was lent out to perform work, the non-Jew did] not [fear that] he would be apprehended as a thief if he would perform work with it on Shabbos,since Shabbos was included in the period of time [the animal] was lent to him to perform work.132 By contrast, an animal is not at all entrusted to a shepherd to perform work even during the week, only to be pastured by him. Hence, [the shepherd fears that] he will be apprehended as a thief if he uses [the animal for work]. If the Jew sees or is made aware that [the shepherd] is performing work with [his animal] on Shabbos, he is obligated to admonish him.

לו מֻתָּר לִמְסוֹר סוּס אוֹ חֲמוֹר לְרוֹעֶה נָכְרִי,שמא וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בָּהֶם מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת,130 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵאשמב שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִתְפָּס כְּגַנָּב אִם יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם.131 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְמַשְׁאִיל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהּ מְלָאכָה בְּחֹל וּמַתְנֶה עִמּוֹ שֶׁתָּנוּחַ בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי נֶאֱמָן עַל כָּךְשמג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ו,שדמ לְפִי שֶׁשָּׁם אֵינוֹ נִתְפָּס כְּגַנָּב אִם יַעֲשֶׂה בָּהּ גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת הִיא בְּתוֹךְ מֶשֶׁךְ זְמַן שְׁאֵלָתוֹ שֶׁהִיא מְסוּרָה לוֹ לִמְלָאכָה,132 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן הָרוֹעֶה שֶׁאֵין הַבְּהֵמָה מְסוּרָה לוֹ כְּלָל לִמְלָאכָה אַף בְּחֹל אֶלָּא לִרְעוֹתָהּ בִּלְבָד – הֲרֵי הוּא נִתְפָּס כְּגַנָּב אִם יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ. וְאִם רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ אוֹ נוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בָּהּ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת – חַיָּב לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ:שמה

37 [The following laws apply when] the Shabbos place of a person’s animal is established133 bein hashmashos134 as the same place as that of his shepherd, and that place is outside the town’s Shabbos limits.135 [If] the animal wandered out of the shepherd’s Shabbos limits on Shabbos and entered the Shabbos limits of its owner, [the owner] is forbidden to bring [the animal] to his home by hand. [The rationale is that the animal] is only allowed [to walk] four cubits [in its present location],136 as is the law regarding a person who goes beyond the Shabbos limits of the “Shabbos place” he established bein hashmashos, as will be explained in sec. 396.137

[The owner] may, however, call to [his animal so that the animal will] follow him to his home.138 [This is permissible] since [the owner] is not leading [the animal] by hand; [the animal] is walking [home] of its own volition because he calls to it. He is not commanded to prevent it from doing so, because a person is not commanded to have his animal respect the Shabbos limits, as will be explained.139 Even if [the animal] went beyond [the owner’s] Shabbos limits and beyond its own Shabbos limits, [the owner] may call it to come to him. There is no concern that if [the owner] is permitted to do this, he will go out to [the animal even if it is] beyond his Shabbos limits to bring it home, because [the owner] does not panic regarding his animal138 to the extent that he will violate a prohibition for its sake, as will be explained in sec. 332[:3].140

לז מִי שֶׁקָּנְתָה בְהֶמְתּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה133 בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת134 אֵצֶל הָרוֹעֶה הַשּׁוֹבֵת חוּץ לִתְחוּם הָעִיר,135 וּבְשַׁבָּת יָצְאָה מִתְּחוּם הָרוֹעֶה לִתְחוּם שֶׁלּוֹ – אָסוּר לְהָבִיא בְּיָדוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ,שמו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ שָׁם אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת,שמז,136 כְּדִין אָדָם הַיּוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם שֶׁקָּנָה בּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ו.שמח,137 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹ לִקְרוֹתָהּ שֶׁתָּבֹא אַחֲרָיושמט עַד בֵּיתוֹ,138 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹלִיכָהּ בְּיָדַיִם אֶלָּא הִיא הוֹלֶכֶת מֵעַצְמָהּ עַל יְדֵי קְרִיאָתוֹ, וְאֵינֶנּוּ מֻזְהָר לְמָנְעָהּ מִזֶּה, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מֻזְהָר עַל אִסּוּרֵי תְּחוּמֵי בְהֶמְתּוֹ,שנ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.שנא,139

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יָצָאתָה חוּץ לִתְחוּם שֶׁלּוֹ וְחוּץ לִתְחוּם שֶׁלָּהּ – יָכוֹל לִקְרוֹתָהּ שֶׁתָּבֹא אֶצְלוֹ,שנב וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים אִם נַתִּיר לוֹ זֶה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לֵילֵךְ אֶצְלָהּ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם כְּדֵי לַהֲבִיאָהּ לְבֵיתוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בָּהוּל עַל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ138 כָּל כָּךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת אִסּוּר בִּשְׁבִילָהּ,שנג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ב:שנד,140

38 It is permitted to entrust one’s animal to a [non-Jewish] shepherd even on Shabbos [itself]. Although the Shabbos place of the animal was established bein hashmashos as the same as that of its Jewish owner, [i.e.,] 2000 cubits in every direction [of the owner], the fact that the shepherd will take it to pasture outside the Shabbos limits is of no consequence. [The rationale is that] a person is not commanded with regard to his animal’s Shabbos limits. Even if the shepherd will take it to pasture twelve mil [beyond the town’s perimeters] – which according to some authorities is established as one’s Shabbos limits by Scriptural Law141 – nevertheless, going beyond those limits is not considered as performing forbidden labor, but rather [as] an independent prohibition. And a person is commanded only that his animal will rest from performing labor, not from proceeding beyond its Shabbos limits. When it is mentioned that an animal’s Shabbos place is the same [as that of its owner], the intent is only that it is forbidden for any [Jewish] person to take [the animal] beyond its Shabbos limits by hand. [This restriction applies] even when the person himself is permitted to go [beyond those limits], e.g., because he placed an eruv techumim142there. Consequently, [a situation where] a non-Jew leads [an animal] beyond its Shabbos limits of his own initiative without the Jew giving him instructions [to do so] – even though the Jew entrusted the animal to him – [this case should be viewed] no more stringently than one in which [a Jewish owner] calls his animal and [the animal] follows him, which was permitted by our Sages.

There is an authority who forbids [a Jew] from entrusting [his animal] to [a non-Jewish shepherd] on Shabbos even if [the Jew] knows [the non-Jewish shepherd] will not lead [the animal] beyond twelve mil,143 rather only beyond 2000 cubits.144 It is desirable to give weight to his words [and follow his stringency].145

In a place where it is customary to be stringent and refrain from entrusting [an animal to a non-Jewish shepherd] even on a Friday, that custom should not be relaxed if it was enacted as a safeguard in order to make a “fence” [around the Shabbos prohibitions]. If, however, the custom was adopted in error, [i.e.,] the people thought that doing so is prohibited, it should be relaxed in the presence [of the inhabitants of the locale], and they are to be informed that doing so is entirely permitted.

Even when the [non-Jewish] shepherd will lead the animal from the Jew’s house on Shabbos itself, its Shabbos place was not established as in the Jew’s domain since the animal was entrusted to [the non-Jew] on Friday, as will be explained in sec. 397[:5]. Although its Shabbos place was established according to the place of the non-Jewish shepherd, nevertheless, [in essence] there is no [halachic]conception that the possessions of a non-Jew have a Shabbos place. It is only that [our Sages] decreed that [a Jew’s possessions in the domain] of non-Jewish owners [should be considered to have a Shabbos place there] so that we will be conscious [of the Shabbos place of the] Jew’s [possessions], as will be explained in sec. 401[:1.146 Hence,] one should not be so stringent as to decree [against] allowing a non-Jew to take [an animal] beyond [its] Shabbos limits on his own initiative even if the Jewish [owner] entrusts [the animal] to him, since many authorities permit this under all circumstances.

לח מֻתָּר לִמְסוֹר בְּהֵמָה לְרוֹעֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת קָנְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה שְׁבִיתָה אֵצֶל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעְלָהּ אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ וּבְשַׁבָּת יוֹלִיכֶנָּה הָרוֹעֶה לִרְעוֹת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מֻזְהָר עַל תְּחוּם בְּהֶמְתּוֹ.שנה

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יוֹלִיכֶנָּה חוּץ לְי"ב מִילשנו שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםשנז שֶׁתְּחוּם זֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה,141 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה, אֶלָּא הוּא אִסּוּר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְאֵין אָדָם מְצֻוֶּה אֶלָּא שֶׁתִּשְׁבּוֹת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ מֵעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה, וְלֹא מֵהֲלִיכָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם.שנח

וְלֹא קָנְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה שְׁבִיתָה אֶצְלוֹ אֶלָּא לְעִנְיָן שֶׁאָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לְהוֹלִיכָהּ בְּיָדַיִם חוּץ לִתְחוּם שֶׁלָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לֵילֵךְ שָׁם בְּעַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין142 שָׁם, אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁהַנָּכְרִי מוֹלִיכָהּ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּלֹא אֲמִירַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְסָרָהּ לוֹ – אֵין זֶה חָמוּר מִמַּה שֶּׁהוּא קוֹרֵא לָהּ וְהִיא בָּאָה אַחֲרָיו שֶׁהִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים.שנט

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹסֵרשס לְמָסְרָהּ לוֹשסא בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא יוֹלִיכֶנָּה חוּץ לְי"ב מִיל143 אֶלָּא חוּץ לְאַלְפַּיִם.144 וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו.שסב,145

וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לִמְסוֹר אַף בְּיוֹם ו', אִם נָהֲגוּ כֵּן כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת סְיָג וְגָדֵר – אֵין לְהַתִּיר לָהֶם. וְאִם נָהֲגוּ כֵּן מֵחֲמַת טָעוּת שֶׁהָיוּ סְבוּרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר – מַתִּירִים בִּפְנֵיהֶם, וּמוֹדִיעִים לָהֶם שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר גָּמוּר.שסג

וְאַף אִם הָרוֹעֶה מוֹלִיךְ הַבְּהֵמָה מִבֵּית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּסָרָהּ לוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – לֹא קָנְתָה שְׁבִיתָה כְּלָל אֵצֶל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ז.שסד וְאַף שֶׁקָּנְתָה שְׁבִיתָה כְּרַגְלֵי הָרוֹעֶה הַנָּכְרִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֶפְצֵי נָכְרִי אֵין קוֹנִין שְׁבִיתָה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל בְּעָלִים נָכְרִים מִשּׁוּם בְּעָלִים יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"אשסה,146 – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר כָּל כָּךְ לִגְזוֹר אַף כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי מוֹלִיכָהּ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מֵעַצְמוֹ אַף שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מוֹסְרָהּ לוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרַבִּים מַתִּירִים בְּכָל עִנְיָן: