SECTION 302 The Laws Governing Cleaning and Folding Garments on Shabbos (1-25)

סימן שב דִּינֵי נִקּוּי וְקִפּוּל הַבְּגָדִים בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ"ה סְעִיפִים:

1 A person who shakes off dew that settled on a new black garment is liable [for the performance of a forbidden labor],1 because this makes the garment attractive; it has the same effect as laundering. This applies [only] if he is particular about [this factor] and would not wear [the garment] without [first] shaking [the dew off.] If, however, he is not particular [about the dew]2 and would not refrain from wearing it even if he did not shake it out, this enhancement of the garment is not considered as equivalent to laundering for him. [Hence,] it is permitted for him to shake it out before he puts it on. Moreover, if it is white, red, or another color, or it is not new, shaking it out does not have the same effect as laundering. Therefore, he is permitted to shake it out even if he is particular not to wear it without shaking it out.

Until when is a garment considered new? As long as it has not been worn to a great extent, and it appears new.

אהַמְנַעֵר טַלִּית חֲדָשָׁה שְׁחוֹרָהֹא מִן הַטַּל שֶׁעָלֶיהָֹב – חַיָּב,1 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּעוּרָהּ מִן הַטַּל הוּא מְיַפֶּה וּמוֹעִיל לָהּ כְּמוֹ כִּבּוּס.ג וְהוּא שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עָלֶיהָֹד שֶׁלֹּא לְלָבְשָׁהּ בְּלֹא נִעוּר,ה אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלֶיהָ,2 שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה מְנַעֲרָהּ לֹא הָיָה נִמְנָע מִלְּלָבְשָׁהּ – אֵין יִפּוּי זֶה חָשׁוּב אֶצְלוֹ כְּכִבּוּס,ו וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לְנַעֲרָהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּלְבָּשֶׁנָּה.

אֲבָל אִם הִיא לְבָנָה אוֹ אֲדֻמָּה אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינֵי צִבְעוֹנִים אוֹ שֶׁאֵינָהּ חֲדָשָׁה – אֵין הַנִּעוּר יָפֶה לָהּ כְּמוֹ כִּבּוּס,ז וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְנַעֲרָהּ אַף אִם מַקְפִּיד עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא לְלָבְשָׁהּ בְּלֹא נִעוּר.ח

וְעַד אֵימָתַי נִקְרֵאת חֲדָשָׁה? כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהּ כָּל כָּךְ אֶלָּא עֲדַיִן הִיא בְּחִדּוּשָׁה:ט

2 With regard to what does the above apply? With regard to dew. If, however, (much) rain3 fell on a garment – and surely, if [the garment] fell into water – [then it does not matter] whether [the garment] was white, black, or another color; since it absorbed water, it is forbidden to shake it. [The rationale is that] whenever water is absorbed into a garment, water will inevitably be squeezed out when it is shaken out. [This is specifically speaking about] a new garment, in which instance it can be assumed that [the owner] will be very particular about shaking it out immediately, because [otherwise] it will shrink from the water.44

If, however, he is not particular [about shaking it out], it is permitted for him to shake it out. ([The rationale is that] even if water will be squeezed out of it, he does not intend to do so and [when a labor forbidden on Shabbos is performed] unintentionally, [the act] is permitted.5 When, however, he is particular about shaking out [the wet garment], or when it is almost a certainty that the water will be squeezed out when he shakes it, [squeezing the water out is considered] an inevitable consequence (p’sik raishah vilo yamus) [and as such, one would be liable].)6

There is an authority who forbids [shaking out water] even when the garment is old and [its owner] is not particular concerning it. It is desirable to give weight to his words [and follow his stringency].

בבַּמֶּהדְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּטַל, אֲבָל אִם יָרְדוּ גְשָׁמִיםֹי (הַרְבֵּהיא)3 עַל שׁוּם בֶּגֶד, בֵּין לָבָן בֵּין שָׁחוֹר וּשְׁאָר מִינֵי צִבְעוֹנִין,יב וְכָל שֶׁכֵּןיג אִם נָפַל בְּמַיִם, הוֹאִיל וְנִבְלְעוּ בּוֹ מַיִם – אָסוּר לְנַעֲרוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ כָּל בֶּגֶד בָּלוּעַ מִמַּיִם כְּשֶׁמְּנַעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ נִסְחָטִין מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם.

וְהוּא שֶׁהַבֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ,יד שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם הוּא מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו בְּיוֹתֵר לְנַעֲרוֹ מִיָּד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְקַצֵּר בְּמַיִם,4 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו – מֻתָּר לְנַעֲרוֹטו (שֶׁאַף אִם יִסְחוֹט מִמֶּנּוּ הַמַּיִם – הֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן מֻתָּר.טז, 5 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהוּא מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו לְנַעֲרוֹ – אֲזַי הוּא כִּפְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת,יז, 6 שֶׁקָּרוֹב לְוַדַּאי שֶׁיִּסָּחֲטוּ הַמַּיִם מִמֶּנּוּ בְּנִעוּרוֹיח).

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹסֵריט אַף אִם הוּא בֶּגֶד יָשָׁן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו. וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו:

3 There is an authority who maintains that it is forbidden to shake off earth or dust from a new black garment1 if one is particular not to wear it without shaking it off, because [doing so] resembles laundering. The dust mars the appearance [of the garment] and shaking it off is [comparable to] laundering it. It is desirable to give weight to his words [and follow his stringency].

It is, however, permitted to shake off feathers from a garment, because feathers do not adhere to a garment like dust or earth. Thus, removing [feathers] does not resemble laundering at all.

(Removing the feathers is not prohibited because one is moving an article that is muktzeh,7 since it can be assumed that the feathers were previously in a pillow or a cushion and fell onto the garment from them. Hence, [the feathers] are fit to be returned to [the pillow or cushion] so that one can lie on them. Therefore, [the feathers] are not muktzeh at all.8 By contrast, on Shabbos, it is forbidden to move [feathers] that are whole and are not fit to be used for a pillow or a cushion until [the down] is removed from their center shaft, for [while the center shaft is present,] they are firm and are not fit to lie upon,9 as will be stated in sec. 499[:7] with regard to festivals.) Whether it is permitted to remove feathers with a brush made from small wooden sticks will be explained in sec. 337[:3].10 Similarly, if flax seeds11 or cooked food is found on [a person’s] garment, he may peel it off.12

ג יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרֹכ שֶׁאָסוּר לְנַעֵר בֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ וְשָׁחוֹרכא מִן הֶעָפָר אוֹ הָאָבָק שֶׁעָלָיו1 אִם מַקְפִּיד שֶׁלֹּא לְלָבְשׁוֹ בְּלֹא נִעוּר, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהוּא כְּכִבּוּס, שֶׁהָאָבָק מְקַלְקֵל מַרְאִיתוֹ וְנִעוּרוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ הוּא כִּבּוּס.כב וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו.כג

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהָסִיר הַנּוֹצוֹת מִן הַבֶּגֶד,כד שֶׁאֵין הַנּוֹצָה דְּבוּקָה בַּבֶּגֶד כְּמוֹ הָאָבָק וְהֶעָפָר, וְאֵין הֲסָרָתָהּ דּוֹמָה כְּלָל לְכִבּוּס.כה

(וְאֵין אִסּוּר בַּהֲסָרַת הַנּוֹצוֹת מִשּׁוּם טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה,כו, 7 לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם כְּבָר הָיוּ בְּכַר אוֹ בְּכֶסֶת וְנָפְלוּ מֵהֶן עַל הַבֶּגֶד, וַהֲרֵי הֵן רְאוּיוֹת לְהַחֲזִירָן לָהֶןכז וְלִשְׁכַּב עֲלֵיהֶן, וּלְכָךְ אֵינָן מֻקְצוֹת כְּלָל.8 אֲבָל נוֹצוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיוֹת לְכַר וְכֶסֶת עַד שֶׁיִּמְרוֹט אוֹתָן מִקָּנִים שֶׁלָּהֶןכח שֶׁהֵם קָשִׁים וְאֵינָם רְאוּיִים לִשְׁכַּב עֲלֵיהֶן9 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"טכט לְעִנְיַן יוֹם טוֹב).

וְאִם מֻתָּר לַהֲסִירָם עַל יְדֵי מַכְבֶּדֶת הָעֲשׂוּיָה מִקֵּסָמִים – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ז.ל, 10

וְכֵן אִם יָשַׁב לוֹ זֶרַע פִּשְׁתָּן11 אוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל עַל כְּסוּתוֹ – מֻתָּר לְקַלְּפוֹ:לא, 12

4 One who tears [a cloth] with the intent to resew it in the manner explained in sec. 278[:2]13 is liable. This is one of the [39] categories of [forbidden] labors.14 For in the [construction of the] Sanctuary, if a worm fell on one of the curtains and made a small round hole in it, for it to be resewn, [the curtain] would have to be torn above and below the hole so that the sewing would not create folds.15 When one tears [a cloth] without the intent to resew it, he is exempt, but it is forbidden to do so by Rabbinic decree. Accordingly, a person whose garments catch onto thorns should separate them carefully16 and patiently, so that they do not tear [the garments]. If they do tear, it is of no consequence, for this is not his intent. [Their tearing] is not considered as an inevitable consequence, because it is possible that [the garments] will not tear since he is separating [the thorns from the garments] patiently.

A nut may be cracked open while in a piece of cloth without concern that [the cloth] might tear,17 as will be explained in sec. 508:3.18

ד הַקּוֹרֵעַ עַל מְנָת לַחֲזוֹר וְלִתְפּוֹר עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"חלב, 13 – חַיָּב, שֶׁהוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,לג, 14 שֶׁכֵּן בַּמִּשְׁכָּן יְרִיעָה שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ תּוֹלַעַתלד וּמְנַקֵּב בָּהּ נֶקֶב קָטָן וְעָגֹל, וּכְדֵי לְתָפְרוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹעַ לְמַעְלָה וּלְמַטָּה אֶת הַנֶּקֶב, שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא הַתְּפִירָה עֲשׂוּיָה קְמָטִים קְמָטִים.לה, 15 וְהַקּוֹרֵעַ שֶׁלֹּא עַל מְנָת לַחֲזוֹר וְלִתְפּוֹר – פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.לו

לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁנִּסְתַּבְּכוּ בְּגָדָיו בְּקוֹצִים – מַפְרִישָׁן בְּצִנְעָה,16 וּמִתְמַהְמֵהַּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרְעוּ.לז וְאִם נִקְרְעוּ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, וְאֵין כַּאן פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְמַהְמֵהַּ הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרְעוּ.

וּמֻתָּר לִפְצוֹעַ אֶת הָאֱגוֹז בְּמַטְלִית וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא תִקָּרַע,לח, 17 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ח:לט, 18

5 It is the habit of craftsmen who fashion metal utensils to strike [the surface] of the utensil [lightly] with a hammer after having completed fashioning it, [since] striking it in this [manner will] straighten any irregularity. Striking it in this [manner thus] represents the completion of the fashioning of the utensil.

[Doing so] is considered a primary category of [forbidden] labor, because it was performed [when fashioning] the implements of the Sanctuary.19 Whenever one performs any act that completes the fashioning of a utensil and makes its [final] adjustment, that concluding act is considered as a [forbidden] labor and it is [categorized as] a derivative of “striking with a hammer” (makeh bepatish) that was performed in [the construction of] the Sanctuary.20

[To cite] an example: A person who makes a design on a utensil on which a design is usually made [is liable for makeh bepatish. Moreover,] even if one only makes a portion of the design, he has performed a portion of the task that completes the fashioning of the utensil and hence is liable.21 True, making the design itself is not considered [forbidden] labor.22 Nevertheless, [making the design] is considered as the performance of a [forbidden] labor since it is through this act that the utensil is now completed and its final adjustment made. Similarly, if one improves a utensil,23 [making] this improvement is considered as [performing the forbidden] labor [of makeh bepatish] and one is liable [for doing so]. Needless to say, one who fashions a utensil from the outset is liable for makeh bepatish even if [the utensil is made] in a manner in which there is no issue of building, as will be explained in sec. 314[:2, 17] and sec. 322.24

ה דֶּרֶךְ הָאוּמָנִים הָעוֹשִׂים כְּלֵי מַתֶּכֶת לְהַכּוֹת בַּפַּטִּישׁ עַל הַכְּלִי אַחַר שֶׁנִּגְמַרֹמ כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁווֹת עַקְמִימוּתוֹ בְּהַכָּאָה זוֹ,מא וְהַכָּאָה זוֹ הִיא גְמַר מְלֶאכֶת הַכְּלִי, וְהוּא אַב מְלָאכָהמב שֶׁהָיְתָה בִּכְלֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן.מג, 19

וְכָל הָעוֹשֶׂה שׁוּם דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא גְמַר עֲשִׂיַּת הַכְּלִי וְתִקּוּנוֹ – הֲרֵי גְמַר זֶה נֶחְשָׁב לִמְלָאכָה, וְהוּא תּוֹלְדַת "מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ" שֶׁהָיָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן,מד, 20 כְּגוֹן הַצָּר צוּרָה בִּכְלִי הָעוֹמֵד לְצַיְּרוֹ,מה אֲפִלּוּ לֹא צִיֵּר אֶלָּא מִקְצָת הַצּוּרָה – הֲרֵי עָשָׂה מִקְצָת גְּמַר הַכְּלִי וְחַיָּב,מו, 21 שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַצִּיּוּר מִצַּד עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב מְלָאכָה,מז, 22 מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַכְשָׁו שֶׁהַכְּלִי נִגְמָר וְנִתְקָּן עַל יָדוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא נֶחְשָׁב לִמְלָאכָה.מח

וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה אֵיזֶה תִּקּוּן לִכְלִי23 – הֲרֵי תִּקּוּן זֶה נֶחְשָׁב לִמְלָאכָה וְחַיָּב.מט

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּלִי מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ, שֶׁחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם "מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ", אַף אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה,נ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"דנא וְסִמָּן שכ"ב:נב, 24

6 Therefore, a person [is liable if he] removes gnarled threads or other protrusions from the surface of a garment, e.g., the gnarled threads that remain on woolen garments after they have been woven. The same law applies to straw or thin slivers of wood that were unintentionally woven into garments. One who removes them after the weaving is completed is liable for makeh bepatish.

[This law applies] provided the person is particular about them,25 i.e., he removes them intentionally, to improve the appearance of the garment. This improvement is considered as the completion of the garment and its enhancement, because he is particular about them. He is exempt,26 however, if he is not particular about them and removes them without thinking.27 He is, however, forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law.

ו לְפִיכָךְ, הַלּוֹקֵט יַבֶּלֶת שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַבְּגָדִים, כְּגוֹן אֵלּוּ הַיַּבַּלוֹת שֶׁבִּכְלֵי צֶמֶר הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּהֶם מִן הָאֲרִיגָה,נג וְכֵן קַשִּׁין וְקֵסָמִים דַּקִּין שֶׁנֶּאֶרְגוּ בַּבֶּגֶד שֶׁלֹּא בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן,נד הַנּוֹטֵל אוֹתָם לְאַחַר הָאֲרִיגָה – חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם "מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ" אִם הוּא מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם,נה, 25 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא מְסִירֵם בְּכַוָּנָה כְּדֵי לְיַפּוֹת הַבֶּגֶד,נו שֶׁיִּפּוּי זֶה הוּא חָשׁוּב גְּמַר עֲשִׂיַּת הַבֶּגֶד וְתִקּוּנוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם.

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם וְאֵינוֹ מְסִירֵם אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ מִתְעַסֵּק בְּעָלְמָא26 – פָּטוּר,27 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:נז

7 [There is a question regarding] the preliminary stitches that tailors make: i.e., when [tailors] begin sewing a garment, they attach the upper portion of the garment with the material they sew under it28 with threads. After [tailors] complete sewing the garment, they remove these threads from the garment.29 There is an unresolved question30 whether a person who removes these threads on Shabbos is liable for makeh bepatish if he is particular about [not wearing the garment without removing these threads]31 and whether it is forbidden according to Rabbinic decree if he is not particular about [leaving the threads in]. One should be stringent [in this regard].

ז שְׁלָל שֶׁעוֹשִׂים הַחַיָּטִים, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת תְּפִירָתָם מְחַבְּרִים בְּחוּטִין אֶת עֶלְיוֹנוּת הַבֶּגֶד עִם מַה שֶּׁתּוֹפְרִים תַּחְתָּיו, וְאַחַר גְּמַר תְּפִירָתָם מוֹצִיא חוּטִין אֵלּוּ מִן הַבֶּגֶד29 – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק30 אִם הַמּוֹצִיאָם בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מַכֶּה בַּפַּטִּישׁ אִם מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם,נח, 31 וְאִם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם.נט וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר:

8 It is permitted to fold clothes before wearing them to smooth out their wrinkles32 and thus cause them to appear attractive when one wears them, provided he wears them that day. Similarly, after one wears clothes and removes them, he may fold them if he intends to wear them again that day.33 Thus, he is folding them for the sake of Shabbos.34 If, however, he does not intend to wear them again until Saturday night,35 he is forbidden to fold them on Shabbos (for the reason to be explained).36

Therefore, it is forbidden to fold the tallis worn for the mitzvah [of prayer]37 that one removes on Shabbos morning [after prayer] in those communities where it is not customary to wrap oneself in it again for the Afternoon Service.

ח מֻתָּר לְקַפֵּל הַבְּגָדִים קֹדֶם לְבִישָׁתָםֹס כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְפַּשְּׁטוּ מִקְּמָטֵיהֶם32 וְיִהְיוּ מְהֻדָּרִים עָלָיו כְּשֶׁיַּלְבִּישֵׁם, וְהוּא שֶׁיַּלְבִּישֵׁם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם.סא וְכֵן אַחַר שֶׁלְּבָשָׁם וּפְשָׁטָם מֵעָלָיו – יוּכַל לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַפְּלָםסב אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְלָבְשָׁם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,33 שֶׁנִּמְצָא קִפּוּל זֶה הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת.33

אֲבָל אִם אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְלָבְשׁוֹ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת34 – אָסוּר לְקַפְּלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת (מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרסג, 36). וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְקַפֵּל הַטַּלִּית שֶׁל מִצְוָהסד, 37 שֶׁפּוֹשְׁטִין בְּשַׁבָּת שַׁחֲרִיתסה בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין חוֹזְרִין וּמִתְעַטְּפִין בָּהֶם בְּמִנְחָה:סו

9 Even for the sake of Shabbos, license was granted only for one person to fold [a garment].32 Two people38 should not fold one garment [together], because when two people fold a garment, they straighten its creases (by hand when folding it) and it resembles improving articles on Shabbos. (When, by contrast, only one person folds a garment, the creases straighten of their own accord, as it were.)

Moreover, even when one person folds a garment, license was granted only for new garments,39 but not for older ones. [The rationale is that] folding older garments improves them more than [folding] newer ones, because the newer ones are inherently firm and do not quickly crease. Moreover, even for new garments, license was granted only for white ones, but not for colored ones, because folding colored garments improves them more [than it does white ones]. Furthermore, even for white garments, license was granted only when the person does not have another folded garment into which to change that day. In such an instance, license was granted to him [to fold it] for the sake of the honor of Shabbos – so that he not go about in creased clothes [on that holy day]. If, however, he has another folded garment, he is forbidden to fold the one [he removes], because, at least to a certain extent, it appears that he is improving an article on Shabbos.

There is an authority who maintains that in all instances it is permitted to fold a garment in a different manner than the way it was originally folded. [License is granted] even (for:

a) the sake of [wearing it] the following day);

b) when two people are folding it;

c) [folding] an older garment;

d) [folding] colored [garments];

e) [folding a garment] and the person has another [folded] garment into which to change.40

[The rationale is that in this instance], the fold will not last. Thus the article has not been improved at all. His understanding appears [valid].41

ט לֹא הִתִּירוּ לְקַפֵּל אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא בְּאָדָם אֶחָד,31 אֲבָל שְׁנַיִם38 לֹא יְקַפְּלוּ בֶּגֶד אֶחָד,סז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁשְּׁנַיִם מְקַפְּלִים הֵן מַפְשִׁיטִים קְמָטָיו (בִּידֵיהֶם בְּקִפּוּלָם), וְנִרְאִין כִּמְתַקְּנִין כֵּלִים בְּשַׁבָּתסח (מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁאֶחָד מְקַפֵּל מִתְפַּשְּׁטִים הַקְּמָטִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶן).

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאָדָם אֶחָד לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא בִּבְגָדִים חֲדָשִׁים,סט, 39 אֲבָל לֹא בִּישָׁנִים, שֶׁהַיְשָׁנִים קִפּוּלָם מְתַקְּנָם יוֹתֵר מִן הַחֲדָשִׁים, שֶׁהַחֲדָשִׁים קָשִׁים מֵאֲלֵיהֶן וְאֵין מְמַהֲרִין לִקְמוֹט.ע

וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּחֲדָשִׁים לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא בִּלְבָנִים, אֲבָל לֹא בִּצְבוּעִים,עא שֶׁהַצְּבוּעִים קִפּוּלָם מְתַקְּנָם יוֹתֵר.עב

וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּלְבָנִים לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ בֶּגֶד אַחֵר מְקֻפָּל לְהַחֲלִיף הַיּוֹם,עג שֶׁאָז הִתִּירוּ לוֹ מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד שַׁבָּתעד שֶׁלֹּא יֵלֵךְ בִּבְגָדִים מְקֻמָּטִים, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בֶּגֶד אַחֵר מְקֻפָּלעה – אָסוּר לְקַפֵּל אֶת זֶה, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁעַל כָּל פָּנִים נִרְאֶה קְצָת כִּמְתַקֵּן כְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת.עו

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרעז שֶׁלְּקַפֵּל שֶׁלֹּא כְּסֵדֶר קִפּוּלוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן – מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אַף (לְצֹרֶךְ מָחָרעח), וּבִשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם, וְהוּא בֶּגֶד יָשָׁן וְצָבוּעַ, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחֲלִיף,40 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לְקִפּוּל זֶה שׁוּם קִיּוּם, וְאֵין כַּאן שׁוּם תִּקּוּן כְּלִי כְּלָל.עט וְנִרְאִין דְּבָרָיו:פ, 41

10A bed should not be made on Shabbos for Saturday night42 even though there is time remaining during the day for the person to sleep on it on Shabbos itself. Nevertheless, since he does not intend to sleep on it until Saturday night, he is preparing for a weekday on Shabbos.43This is forbidden by Rabbinic decree.44

Nevertheless, if the bed is located in a room in which the person dwells45 and it is degrading and undignified for the bed to remain unmade, it is permitted to make [the bed], for [in such an instance, making the bed] is considered as acting for the sake of Shabbos and in its honor.

Beds, even ten or more, may be made on Friday night for the sake of the Shabbos day, so that if one will need to sleep on one of them, he will be able to.46 Nevertheless, it is preferable to make them on Friday. (See sec. 262:1.)47

י אֵין מַצִּיעִין הַמִּטָּה מִשַּׁבָּת לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,פא, 42 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לִישַׁן עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לִישַׁן עָלֶיהָ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּתפב – הֲרֵי הוּא מֵכִין מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל,43 וְאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.פג, 44

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הַמִּטָּה עוֹמֶדֶת בַּחֶדֶר שֶׁדָּר שָׁם45 וְיֵשׁ בִּזָּיוֹן וְדָבָר מְגֻנֶּה הוּא אִם תַּעֲמוֹד כָּךְ בְּלֹא הַצָּעָה – מֻתָּר לְהַצִּיעָהּ, שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַם כֵּן לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת וְלִכְבוֹדוֹ.פד

וּמַצִּיעִין מִלֵּיל שַׁבָּת לְשַׁבָּת,פה אֲפִלּוּ עֶשֶׂר מִטּוֹת וְיוֹתֵר, שֶׁאִם יִצְטָרֵךְ לִישַׁן בְּאַחַת מֵהֶן – יִישַׁן.פו, 46 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב יוֹתֵר לְהַצִּיעָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתפז (עַיֵּן סִמָּן רס"בפח, 47):

11 A machbeish, an implement with which clothes are pressed after being laundered,48 is comprised of two panels, one on top of the other. The clothes [are placed] between [the two panels]. There are poles with holes through them affixed [in a vertical position] in each of the four corners of the lower panel. Corresponding to them are holes in the four corners of the upper panel. The poles are inserted into the holes of the upper panel and then the upper panel is lowered onto the clothes to press them. Afterwards, pegs are inserted into the holes in the poles so that the upper panel will not rise upward. It is permitted to open this press on Shabbos, i.e., to remove the pegs from the poles and open [the panels] to take the garments for the sake of [wearing them on] Shabbos.49

To what does the above apply? To a press of ordinary householders. In contrast, it is forbidden to disassemble a launderer’s press,48 for it is firmly assembled, and disassembling it resembles tearing down [a structure]. Even if such a press was already disassembled on Friday, it is forbidden to pull out a garment from it to wear it on Shabbos. [This is] a decree lest one disassemble [the press] on Shabbos.

יאמַכְבֵּשׁ,פט וְהוּא כְּלִי שֶׁכּוֹבְשִׁין בּוֹ הַבְּגָדִים אַחַר הַכְּבִיסָה,צ, 48 וְהֵן שְׁתֵּי לוּחוֹת זֶה עַל זֶה וְהַבְּגָדִים בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְעַמּוּדִים מְנֻקָּבִים קְבוּעִים בְּאַרְבַּע זָוִיּוֹת שֶׁל לוּחַ הַתַּחְתּוֹן, וּכְנֶגְדָּם יֵשׁ נְקָבִים בַּלּוּחַ הָעֶלְיוֹן בְּאַרְבַּע זָוִיּוֹתָיו, וְתוֹחֲבִין הָעַמּוּדִים בְּנִקְבֵי הָעֶלְיוֹן, וּמוֹרִידִין הָעֶלְיוֹן לְמַטָּה עַל הַבְּגָדִים לְכָבְשָׁן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ תּוֹחֲבִין יְתֵדוֹת בְּנִקְבֵי הָעַמּוּדִים שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלֶה הָעֶלְיוֹן לְמַעְלָהצא – מֻתָּר לְהַתִּיר מַכְבֵּשׁ זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת, דְּהַיְנוּ לִטּוֹל הַיְתֵדוֹת מֵהָעַמּוּדִים וּלְפָתְחוֹ לִטּוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ הַבְּגָדִים לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת.צב, 49

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמַכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים, אֲבָל מַכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל כּוֹבְסִים – אָסוּר לְהַתִּירוֹ,צג, 48 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא תָּחוּב בְּחָזְקָה וְהַתָּרָתוֹ דּוֹמָה לִסְתִירָהצד. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה מֻתָּר כְּבָר מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לִשְׁמוֹט מִמֶּנּוּ בְּגָדָיו לְלָבְשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת,צה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְהַתִּירוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת:צו

12 An undershirt stiffens after being laundered and it is rubbed between one’s hands to soften it. Moreover, its whiteness becomes more pronounced and brighter when it is rubbed in this manner. Nevertheless, it is permitted to rub it on Shabbos.50[The person] does not appear as one who is whitening [his garment], because it is well known that his intent is to soften [the garment] and not to make its whiteness more pronounced and brighter.50 [The rationale is that] a person is not that particular about making the whiteness of an undershirt more pronounced and brighter, since it is a garment that is worn underneath [the outer garments].

In contrast, it is forbidden to rub between one’s hands a head-kerchief, which is an outer garment – and one about which individuals are very particular that its whiteness be more pronounced and brighter. [This is forbidden] because it appears that he seeks to make its whiteness more pronounced and brighter. Thus, it resembles whitening.

There are authorities who maintain that license was granted only with regard to an undershirt made of wool or silk. It is, however, forbidden to rub a linen undershirt, and similarly, other linen articles even lightly by hand to soften them, because softening them constitutes whitening them. It is proper to give weight to their words [and act stringently] since it involves a matter that is not all that necessary.51 [Nevertheless,] the custom of people at large is to be lenient and rub [linen garments] by hand to soften them. (However, they are careful [not] to soften them with a utensil designated for this purpose.)

יב חָלוּקצז לְאַחַר כְּבִיסָה הוּא מִתְקַשֶּׁה, וּמְשַׁפְשְׁפִים אוֹתוֹ בְּיָדַיִם לְרַכְּכוֹ, וְאַף הַלִּבּוּן שֶׁלּוֹ מַצְהִיל יוֹתֵר עַל יְדֵי שִׁפְשׁוּף זֶהצח – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת50 וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּמְלַבֵּן, לְפִי שֶׁהַדָּבָר יָדוּעַצט שֶׁכַּוָּנָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לְרַכְּכוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַצְהִיל הַלִּבּוּן,50 שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְפִּיד כָּל כָּךְ עַל לִבּוּנוֹ וְצִהוּלוֹ שֶׁל חָלוּק שֶׁהוּא בֶּגֶד תַּחְתּוֹן.ק

אֲבָל הַסּוּדָר שֶׁהוּא בֶּגֶד עֶלְיוֹן וְאָדָם מַקְפִּיד יוֹתֵר עַל לִבּוּנוֹ וְצִהוּלוֹ – אָסוּר לְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ בְּיָדַיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַצְהִיל הַלִּבּוּן, וַהֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹמֶה לִמְלַבֵּן.קא

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקב שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ אַף בְּחָלוּק אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא שֶׁל צֶמֶר אוֹ שֶׁל מֶשִׁי, אֲבָל שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן, וְכֵן כָּל שְׁאָר כְּלֵי פִשְׁתָּן – אָסוּר לְשַׁפְשְׁפָם אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט בְּיָדַיִם כְּדֵי לְרַכְּכָם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרִכּוּכָם זֶהוּ לִבּוּנָם. וְנָכוֹן לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ.קג, 51

וּמִנְהַג הָעוֹלָם לְהָקֵל לְשַׁפְשְׁפָם בְּיָדַיִם לְרַכְּכָםקד (אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּזְהָרִין לְרַכֵּךְ בִּכְלִי הַמְּיֻחָד לְכָךְ):

13 It is forbidden to make folds in the collar of a garment with stays that are designed for that purpose. Similarly, on Shabbos, festivals, and even on Chol HaMoed, it is forbidden to make folds that women make in their sleeves,52 as will be explained in sec. 519[:9] and sec. 541.53

יג אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת קְמָטִים בַּעֲנָק שֶׁבְּצַוָּאר שֶׁקּוֹרִין (קַאלְנֶע"ר) בְּעֵצִים הַמְּיֻחָדִים לְכָךְ.קה וְכֵן הַקְּמָטִים שֶׁעוֹשׂוֹת הַנָּשִׁים בְּבָתֵּי זְרוֹעוֹתֵיהֶם52 – אֲסוּרוֹת לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקי"טקו וְתקמ"א:קז, 53

14 It is permitted to clean mud off one’s foot or one’s shoe by scraping it] against a wall,54 but not on the ground. [This is] a decree lest one intentionally seek to level the surface [of the ground].55 [The rationale is that] it is common for a person to look for a hole [in the ground] to clean his feet there, because mud will be cleaned off very effectively there. Since he is occupied with cleaning off [mud], there is room for concern that he will forget that it is Shabbos and have the intent to [fill a hole and] level the surface [of the ground] when cleaning off [the mud].

There are other authorities who permit [cleaning off mud] even on the ground, because there is no concern that one will intentionally level the surface [of the ground], and if that should occur as a matter of course as a result of his cleaning off [the mud], it is of no consequence, because when a labor is performed unintentionally, the act is permitted.56 [Conversely,] there are authorities who forbid [cleaning one’s shoes] even on a wall of a building, because it appears that one is adding to the building.57

With regard to actual practice, [the rule is]: In matters of Rabbinic Law, the more lenient opinion is followed. [Thus,] according to the letter of the law, it is permitted to clean off [mud] both on the ground and the surface of a stone or brick wall. As an initial preference, however, it is preferable to clean off [the mud] on a wooden beam or wall, in which instance, it is permitted [to clean off the mud] according to all [authorities]. Similarly, it is permitted [to clean one’s shoes with] an earthenware shard that is permitted to be moved,58 as will be explained in sec. 308[:29].59 If none of these alternatives are available, it is preferable to clean off [the mud] on a wall, even on the surface of a wall of stone or brick, rather than to clean it off on the ground, because there are more authorities who permit cleaning off [the mud] on the surface of a wall of stone or brick than those who forbid doing so.

יד טִיט שֶׁעַל רַגְלוֹקח אוֹ עַל מִנְעָלוֹקט – מְקַנְּחוֹ בְּכֹתֶל, אֲבָל לֹא בַּקַּרְקַע,53 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַשְׁוֶה גּוּמוֹת שֶׁבַּקַּרְקַעקי בְּכַוָּנָה,קיא, 55 לְפִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אָדָם לְחַזֵּר אַחַר מְקוֹם גּוּמָא לְקַנֵּחַ בּוֹ רַגְלָיו שֶׁהַטִּיט מִתְקַנֵּחַ שָׁם הֵיטֵב, וּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהוּא עָסוּק לְקַנֵּחַ – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁקיב שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּתקיג וִיכַוֵּן לְהַשְׁווֹת הַגּוּמוֹת בְּקִנּוּחוֹ.

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקיד אַף בַּקַּרְקַע, שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁיַּשְׁוֶה גוּמוֹת בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן,קטו וְאִם הֻשְׁווּ הַגּוּמוֹת מֵאֲלֵיהֶן עַל יְדֵי קִנּוּחוֹ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם שֶׁדָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן מֻתָּר.קטז, 56

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןקיז אַף בְּכֹתֶל שֶׁל חוֹמָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּמוֹסִיף עַל הַבִּנְיָן.קיח, 57

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל,קיט וּמֻתָּר לְקַנֵּחַ מִן הַדִּין בֵּין בַּקַּרְקַע בֵּין בְּכֹתֶל שֶׁל חוֹמָה,קכ אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לְקַנֵּחַ בַּקּוֹרָה אוֹ בְּכֹתֶל שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,קכא וְכֵן בַּחֲתִיכַת חֶרֶס הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בְּטִלְטוּל,קכב, 58 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח.קכג, 59

וְאִם אֵין לְפָנָיו אֶחָד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ – יוֹתֵר טוֹב לְקַנֵּחַ בְּכֹתֶל אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל חוֹמָה מִלְּקַנֵּחַ בַּקַּרְקַע, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרַבּוּ הַמַּתִּירִין עַל הָאוֹסְרִין לְקַנֵּחַ בְּכֹתֶל שֶׁל חוֹמָה:

15 One who smoothes the hide [of an animal], i.e., he scrapes off [the animal’s] wool or hair from its hide until the surface of the hide is smooth, is liable.60 It is one of the primary categories of forbidden labor, because [when constructing] the Sanctuary, the hides of the tachashim61and the rams that were dyed scarlet62 were smoothed.

For this reason, a sandal or a shoe, whether new or old, should not be scraped even with the back of a knife and, needless to say, not with its blade or with one’s fingernail, because this scrapes off some of the leather. That constitutes [the forbidden labor] of smoothing [a hide].63

טו הַמְמַחֵק אֶת הָעוֹר,קכד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְּגָרֵר אֶת הַצֶּמֶר אוֹ הַשֵּׂעָרקכה מֵעַל הָעוֹר עַד שֶׁיַּחֲלִיק פְּנֵי הָעוֹר – חַיָּב,קכו, 60 וְהוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת, שֶׁכֵּן הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין בַּמִּשְׁכָּן בְּעוֹרוֹת תְּחָשִׁים61 וְאֵילִים מְאָדָּמִים.קכז, 62

לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין מְגָרְדִין סַנְדָּל אוֹ מִנְעָל, בֵּין חָדָשׁ בֵּין יָשָׁן,קכח אֲפִלּוּ בְּגַב הַסַּכִּין,קכט וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַרקל בְּחֻדּוֹ אוֹ בְּצִפֹּרֶן,קלא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקּוֹלֵף אֶת הָעוֹר מְעַט, וַהֲרֵי זֶה מְמַחֵק:קלב, 63

16 Therefore, those people who are accustomed to cleaning their shoes on a metal bar affixed before the front entrance to the synagogue are not acting in a desirable manner, because that bar is sharp like the back of a knife.64 [Since this is the common practice, the bar] must be made so that it is thick and wide on top.65

טז לְפִיכָךְ, הַנּוֹהֲגִים לְקַנֵּחַ מִנְעֲלֵיהֶם בַּבַּרְזֶל הַקָּבוּעַ לִפְנֵי פֶּתַח בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת – לֹא יָפֶה הֵם עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא חַד כְּמוֹ גַּב הַסַּכִּין,קלג, 64 וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עָב וְרָחָב בְּרֹאשׁוֹ:קלד, 65

17 When there is mud on [a person’s] garments, he should not rub it from the outside (i.e., in the place where the mud is located), because he appears to be whitening [the garment]. Instead, he should rub [the mud] from the inside [of the garment].66

How [should he do this]? He takes hold of the garment from the inside (i.e., from the opposite side [of the garment] behind the place where the mud is located) and rubs there. In this manner, it is not so obvious that he is removing the mud so that it would appear that [the garment’s whiteness] becomes more pronounced. He may also scrape off the mud with his fingernail or with a knife,66 even with its blade, for there is no concern with regard to smoothing a garment.

To what does the above apply? To moist mud. There are authorities, however, who maintain that [different laws apply] to dry mud. It is even forbidden to rub it from the inside. Needless to say, [it is forbidden] to scrape off [dry mud. The rationale is that] rubbing or scraping dried mud will cause it to break into [many] thin fragments [of dirt]. Thus, it is comparable to a derivative [of the forbidden labor] of grinding, for [grinding involves] breaking a single entity into many thin entities.67 [Therefore, rubbing or scraping off the dried mud] is forbidden according to Rabbinic decree. It is not forbidden, however, according to Scriptural Law, because the person has no need for the entity which is crumbled and “ground.” [This ruling would apply] even according to the authorities who maintain that one is liable for performing a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah, a forbidden labor that a person performs for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the forbidden labor is performed.68 Nevertheless, since in this instance the person does not need the entity that he is crumbling, crumbling it in this manner is not considered as a derivative of grinding, because ordinarily, one grinds only when he needs the substance that he is grinding.69

יז טִיט שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי בִּגְדּוֹ – לֹא יְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ מִבַּחוּץ (דְּהַיְנוּ בִּמְקוֹם הַטִּיט), מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְלַבֵּן, אֶלָּא יְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ מִבִּפְנִים.קלה, 66 כֵּיצַד? לוֹקֵחַ הַבֶּגֶד מִבִּפְנִים (דְּהַיְנוּ בְּצַד הב' כְּנֶגֶד הַטִּיט) וּמְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ,קלו שֶׁאָז אֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁמַּעֲבִיר אֶת הַטִּיט שֶׁיְּהֵא נִרְאֶה כִּמְלַבֵּן.קלז וְיָכוֹל גַּם כֵּן לְגָרֵד הַטִּיט בְּצִפֹּרֶןקלח אוֹ בְּסַכִּיןקלט, 66 אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֻדּוֹ,קמ שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בְּבֶגֶד לִמְמַחֵק.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּטִיט לַח, אֲבָל בְּטִיט יָבֵשׁ – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקמא שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ מִבִּפְנִים אָסוּר, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְגָרְדוֹ,קמב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטִּיט הַיָּבֵשׁ מִתְפָּרֵר לְפֵרוּרִים דַּקִּים עַל יְדֵי שִׁפְשׁוּף אוֹ גְרִידָה, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּעֵין תּוֹלֶדֶת הַטּוֹחֵן, שֶׁמְּחַלֵּק גּוּף אֶחָד לְגוּפִים דַּקִּים הַרְבֵּה,קמג, 67 וְאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.קמד אֲבָל מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין אִסּוּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְגוּף דָּבָר הַמִּתְפָּרֵר וְנִטְחָן. וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ,קמה, 68 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְגוּף דָּבָר הַמִּתְפָּרֵר – אֵין פֵּרוּר זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת הַטּוֹחֵן, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִטְחוֹן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְגוּף דָּבָר הַנִּטְחָן:קמו, 69

18 When does the ruling [that scraping or rubbing off dried mud] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law apply? When there is actual substance of mud and small fragments [of earth] fall when one scrapes it. Thus, it resembles [the forbidden labor of] grinding. If, however, there is merely the appearance of mud and one is scraping there to nullify that appearance, this is not comparable to grinding and is permitted.70

Similarly, if a person’s clothes become slightly soiled, but there is no actual substance of filth,71 merely a noticeable trace, he may scrape there to remove that noticeable trace so that he will be able to pray in a state of cleanliness, even though it would be permitted to pray in this state without scraping off [this trace of filth], as implied by sec. 76[:4-5].72

יח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים? כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם מַמָּשׁוּת הַטִּיט, שֶׁכְּשֶׁמְּגָרְדוֹ נוֹפְלִים מִמֶּנּוּ פֵּרוּרִים זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְטוֹחֵן, אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא מַרְאֵה הַטִּיט וּמְגָרֵד שָׁם לְבַטֵּל הַמַּרְאֶה – אֵין זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְטוֹחֵן, וּמֻתָּר.70 וְכֵן מִי שֶׁבִּגְדּוֹ מְטֻנָּף קְצָת וְאֵין שָׁם מַמָּשׁוּת הַצּוֹאָה71 אֶלָּא הַמַּרְאֶה בִּלְבָד – יָכוֹל לְגָרֵד שָׁם לְהָסִיר הַמַּרְאֶה כְּדֵי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בִּנְקִיּוּת,קמז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל כָּךְ בְּלֹא גְרִידָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ע"ו:קמח, 72

19 When there is mud or filth71 on a shoe or sandal,73 it is permitted to dip74 it in water to remove it.75 Similarly, it is permitted to pour water over all leather articles that became soiled to remove the dirt76 or to dip [the articles] in water until [the dirt] is washed away. This is not considered as laundering, because merely dipping a leather article [into water] is not considered as laundering.77 It is, however, forbidden to rub one side of [the leather article] against the other after they become wet, for this is considered as actual laundering and is forbidden even for a leather [article] (according to Rabbinic Law.78 According to Scriptural Law, however, one is not liable even if he squeezes out [the water] afterwards.)

יט מִנְעָל אוֹ סַנְדָּל73 שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו טִיט אוֹ צוֹאָה71 – מֻתָּר לְשַׁכְשְׁכוֹ74 בְּמַיִם לְהַעֲבִירָן מֵעָלָיו.קמט, 75 וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל כְּלֵי עוֹר שֶׁנִּתְלַכְלְכוּ – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם לְהַעֲבִיר הַלִּכְלוּךְ,קנ, 76 אוֹ לְשַׁכְשְׁכוֹ בְּמַיִם עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבוֹר,קנא וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם כִּבּוּס, שֶׁאֵין כִּבּוּס בְּעוֹר בְּשִׁכְשׁוּךְ לְבַדּוֹ.77

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ צִדּוֹ זֶה עַל צִדּוֹ זֶה לְאַחַר שֶׁבָּאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם,קנב שֶׁזֶּהוּ כִּבּוּס גָּמוּר,קנג וְאָסוּר גַּם בְּעוֹר (מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,78 אֲבָל מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אַף אִם סְחָטוֹ אַחַר כָּךְקנד):

20[Different laws apply to] a [cloth] garment.79 If there is some filth, e.g., a drop of blood or saliva, and how much more so, mud or excrement on the garment,80 one is liable for pouring even the slightest amount of water (or any other liquid that will cleanse)81 on the soiled portion even if he did not dip [the soiled garment in water] at all. [The rationale is that] moistening a garment constitutes laundering.82

([Moreover, it is even forbidden to pour other liquids that do not cleanse83 but rather soil [a garment], on the dirty portion [of the garment] to remove [the dirt], for the reason to be explained.)84 Instead, one should wipe off the filth with a rag, taking care to wipe it lightly without pressing lest one squeeze out the filth absorbed in the garment. It is forbidden to squeeze it out according to Rabbinic Law, as will be explained in sec. 320[:21-23].85

כ אֲבָל בֶּגֶד79 שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו אֵיזֶה לִכְלוּךְ,קנה כְּגוֹן טִפַּת דָּםקנו אוֹ רֹק, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן טִיט אוֹ צוֹאָה,קנז, 80 אִם נָתַן עַל מָקוֹם הַמְלֻכְלָךְ מַיִםקנח (אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה הַמְלַבֵּןקנט, 81) אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּאקס – חַיָּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שִׁכְשֵׁךְ כְּלָל,קסא לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁרִיַּת בֶּגֶד זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ.קסב, 82

(וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים שֶׁאֵינָם מְלַבְּנִיםקסג, 83 אֶלָּא מְלַכְלְכִיםקסד – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לִתְּנָם עַל מְקוֹם הַלִּכְלוּךְ לְהַעֲבִירוֹ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרקסה, 84).

אֶלָּא יְקַנַּח הַלִּכְלוּךְ בִּסְמַרְטוּט,קסו וְיִזָּהֵר לְקַנֵּחַ בְּקַל, וְלֹא יִדְחוֹק, פֶּן יִסְחוֹטקסז לִכְלוּךְ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּבֶּגֶד,קסח שֶׁיֵּשׁ אִסּוּר בִּסְחִיטָתוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"כ:קסט, 85

21 [Different rules apply to] a garment that has no dirt or filth on it. Even though it lost the luster [of a freshly laundered garment] because one wore it or used it, we do not say that moistening it with water is equivalent to washing it, and [therefore] it is permitted to place a small amount of water on it. One may not pour a large amount of water on it lest he come to wring it out afterwards in order to squeeze out the water, unless it is a garment that he does not mind if it is wet and he would not wring it out even during the week, as explained in sec. 301[:59].

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that even when there is no filth on a garment, moistening it with water constitutes laundering it. [This applies] even if the garment has a bright shine [like a freshly laundered garment]. Therefore, it is forbidden to pour on [the garment] even the slightest amount of water or any other liquid that cleans, even when one does not intend to whiten it, because [its whitening] is an inevitable result. Weight should be given to their words and one should be stringent [because] a Scriptural prohibition is involved.86

(This is not considered a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah,68 because the person is satisfied that the garment is whitened even if he does not have that intent in mind; see sec. 278[:4].) According to this [view], it is forbidden to drink water that has worms in it by [filtering] it through a cloth on Shabbos.87[This restriction applies] even though only a small portion of the cloth – the portion where one places his mouth – becomes saturated with water.

There are, however, authorities who rule leniently even according to this [stricter] opinion,88 stating that we do not say “moistening a cloth with [water] is equivalent to laundering it” when only a small amount of water is used (and one does not intend to whiten [the cloth]. For this reason, it is permitted to drink water [while filtering it] with a cloth, since only a small portion [of the cloth] is moistened and the person does not intend to whiten [the cloth] at all. Those who follow this lenient approach should not be admonished, because [moistening a cloth] is permitted in all situations according to the first view. Nevertheless, every G‑d-fearing person should be stringent with regard to his own conduct, so as not to enter [a situation] where a doubt concerning a Scriptural prohibition [exists].)89

There is no difference with regard to the above between white garments or colored ones, because the prohibition against laundering also applies with regard to colored garments, as explained above,90 and [the prohibition applies with regard to all garments], whether they are of linen, wool, silk, or other fabrics.91

Nevertheless, all authorities agree that moistening a cloth that is not dirty is not considered as equivalent to laundering, unless it is performed in a manner that cleanses the garment. If, however, [one saturates a cloth] in a manner that soils, e.g., he dries himself with a sheet after bathing or he dries his hands with a cloth after washing them, even though there is a large amount of water on his body and his hands and it will saturate the sheet and the cloth [with which he dries his body or his hands], there is no concept of laundering. For he is not laundering [the cloth], he is dirtying it.

For this reason, license was granted for a person going to [perform] a mitzvah to cross through [a body of] water [while wearing] his clothes. It is not said that saturating [his clothes] is considered as laundering them, for in this [case] as well, he is soiling [his clothes] when he enters the water while he is wearing them. This is not the ordinary manner in which people clean [garments] at all.

[With regard to drying one’s hands,] there are authorities who are stringent [and require] that there not be a large amount of water on one’s hands [when drying them with a towel]. Instead, one should dry [his hands] forcefully against each other to remove water from them to whatever extent he can before wipings them with a cloth. It is desirable to give weight to their words with regard to [this] matter [since doing so] does not involve any loss. Nevertheless, the custom is to be lenient.92 [Indeed,] fundamentally, [the halachah follows this view].

For this reason, it is permitted to dry one’s hands with a cloth on which a young child urinated in order to nullify [the presence of] the urine with the water it will come into contact with as a result of drying one’s hands, as explained in sec. 77[:2].93 This is not an act of laundering, because one is soiling the cloth by drying his hands on it; this is not the ordinary manner in which people clean [garments]. One may not, however, [ritually] wash his hands over the urine [absorbed in the cloth] to nullify its [presence. The rationale is that] although the water that flows down from his hands is considered as drainage water,94 [pouring it over the cloth] is not considered as soiling it. Since the water is clear and fit to launder [a cloth], saturating [the cloth with this water] is considered as laundering it according to the latter opinion mentioned above. [According to that view,] saturating a cloth is considered as laundering it, even if there is no dirt or filth [on the cloth].95

If there is excrement or another filthy substance on the cloth, it is forbidden to remove [the filth], even by drying one’s hands [on the cloth]. Even though one is soiling [the cloth, as it were], he is removing even greater filth.96 With regard to urine, by contrast, one is not removing it from the garment by drying one’s hands on it; one is merely nullifying and purifying the garment from its presence in order that he will be able to pray.97

As an initial preference, it is desirable to be careful not to place a young child on one’s lap on Shabbos unless he is [placed] on a pillow.98

כאאֲבָל בֶּגֶד שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו לִכְלוּךְ וְטִנּוּף,קע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֻשְׁחַר מֵחֲמַת לְבִישָׁה אוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁקעא – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ שְׁרִיָּתוֹ זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ, וּמֻתָּר לִתֵּן עָלָיו מַיִם מוּעָטִים,קעב אֲבָל לֹא מְרֻבִּים, מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְסָחֳטוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ לְהוֹצִיא מֵימָיו,קעג אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בֶּגֶד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל מֵימָיו לְסָחֳטָם מִמֶּנּוּ אַף בְּחֹל,קעד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"א.קעה

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןקעו עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף בֶּגֶד שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו שׁוּם לִכְלוּךְ – שְׁרִיָּתוֹ זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ, אַף אִם לִבּוּנוֹ מַצְהִיל מְאֹד.קעז וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִתֵּן עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּאקעח מַיִם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה הַמְלַבֵּן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְלִבּוּן, דִּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ הוּא". (א) וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְהַחֲמִיר בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָהקעט, 86 (שֶׁאֵין זוֹ מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ,68 הוֹאִיל וּמַה שֶּׁהַבֶּגֶד מִתְלַבֵּן נוֹחַ הוּא לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, עַיֵּן סִמָּן רע"חקפ).

וּלְפִי זֶה, מַיִם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תּוֹלָעִים – אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתָם עַל יְדֵי מַפָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,87 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִשְׁרֶה בְּמַיִם אֶלָּא דָּבָר מוּעָט מֵהַמַּפָּה כְּדֵי הַנָּחַת פִּיו.קפא

אֲבָל יֵשׁ מְקִלִּיןקפב אַף לְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ88 בִּמְעַט מַיִם, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים שְׁרִיָּתוֹ בָּהֶם זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ (כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְלִבּוּנוֹ,קפג וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת הַמַּיִם עַל יְדֵי מַפָּה, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִשְׁרֶה אֶלָּא דָּבָר מוּעָט, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְלִבּוּן כְּלָל. וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיַד הַמְּקִלִּין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן. אֲבָל כָּל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִכְנוֹס לִסְפֵק אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָהקפד).89

וְאֵין חִלּוּק בְּכָל זֶה בֵּין בְּגָדִים לְבָנִים לִצְבוּעִים, שֶׁגַּם בִּצְבוּעִים שַׁיָּךְ אִסּוּר כִּבּוּסקפה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קפו, 90 בֵּין שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן בֵּין שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל צֶמֶר אוֹ מֶשִׁי אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינִים.קפז, 91

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלקפח אֵין אוֹמְרִים בְּבֶגֶד שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו לִכְלוּךְ שְׁרִיָּתוֹ בְּמַיִם זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּדֶרֶךְ נִקָּיוֹן, אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּדֶרֶךְ לִכְלוּךְ, כְּגוֹן הַמִּסְתַּפֵּג בְּסָדִין אַחַר הָרְחִיצָה,קפט וְכֵן הַמְנַגֵּב יָדָיו בְּמַפָּה אַחַר הַנְּטִילָה,קצ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ רֹב מַיִםקצא עַל גּוּפוֹ וְעַל יָדָיו וּמַטְפִּיחַ הַסָּדִין וְהַמַּפָּה – אֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם כִּבּוּס, שֶׁאֵינוֹ כִּבּוּס אֶלָּא לִכְלוּךְ.קצב

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה הִתִּירוּ לְהוֹלֵךְ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה לַעֲבוֹר בְּמַיִם בִּבְגָדָיו,קצג וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שְׁרִיָּתוֹ זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַם כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ לִכְלוּךְ כְּשֶׁמַּכְנִיסוֹ בְּמַיִם כְּשֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בָּהֶם, וְאֵינוֹ דֶּרֶךְ נִקָּיוֹן כְּלָל.קצד

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִיןקצה שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא רִבּוּי מַיִם עַל יָדָיו, אֶלָּא יְנַגְּבֵן בְּכֹחַ זוֹ בְּזוֹ לְהָסִיר מֵהֶם הַמַּיִם כְּפִי יְכָלְתּוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּקַנְּחוֹ בְּמַפָּה. וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ הֶפְסֵד כְּלָל.קצו אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל.92 וְכֵן עִקָּר.קצז

וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְנַגֵּב יָדָיו בְּבֶגֶד שֶׁהִטִּיל עָלָיו תִּינוֹק מֵי רַגְלַיִם כְּדֵי לְבַטֵּל אֶת מֵי רַגְלַיִם בְּהַמַּיִם שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ עֲלֵיהֶם מִנִּגּוּב יָדָיו, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ע"ז,קצח, 93 וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם כִּבּוּס, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לִכְלוּךְ עַל יְדֵי נִגּוּב יָדָיו וְלֹא דֶּרֶךְ נִקָּיוֹן.קצט

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִטּוֹל יָדָיו בְּמַיִם עַל הַמֵּי רַגְלַיִם כְּדֵי לְבַטְּלָם, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַיּוֹרְדִים מִיָּדָיו נִקְרָאִים שׁוֹפָכִיםר, 94 – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא דֶּרֶךְ לִכְלוּךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם צְלוּלִים וּרְאוּיִים לְכִבּוּס, וּשְׁרִיָּתָם זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסָם,רא לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה, שֶׁאוֹמְרִים שְׁרִיַּת בֶּגֶד זֶהוּ כִּבּוּסוֹ אַף כְּשֶׁאֵין עָלָיו שׁוּם לִכְלוּךְ וְטִנּוּף.רב, 95

וְאִם יֵשׁ עַל בִּגְדּוֹ צוֹאָה וּשְׁאָר דָּבָר מְטֻנָּף – אָסוּר לְהַעֲבִירוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נִגּוּב הַיָּדַיִם אַף שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לִכְלוּךְ,רג כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּעֲבִיר בְּזֶה לִכְלוּךְ יוֹתֵר גָּדוֹל,רד, 96 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּמֵי רַגְלַיִם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַעֲבִירֵם מֵהַבֶּגֶד עַל יְדֵי הַנִּגּוּב, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּבַטְּלֵם וּמְטַהֲרֵם כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל.רה, 97

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִקַּח תִּינוֹק בְּחֵיקוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם לֹא עַל כַּר:רו, 98

22 A person whose hands became soiled with mud may wipe them [clean] on the tail of a horse, the tail of a cow,99 or a coarse cloth used to hold thorns. He should not use a cloth that is [normally] used to clean his hands.100 [This restriction was imposed] lest, by following his ordinary weekday practice, he will come to launder the cloth.

כב מִי שֶׁנִּתְלַכְלְכוּ יָדָיו בְּטִיט – מְקַנְּחֵם בִּזְנַב הַסּוּס אוֹ בִּזְנַב הַפָּרָה,99 אוֹ בְּמַפָּה הַקָּשָׁה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לֶאֱחוֹז בָּהּ הַקּוֹצִים, אֲבָל לֹא בְּמַפָּה שֶׁמְּקַנְּחִים בָּהּ הַיָּדַיִם, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל, וְיָבֹא לְכַבֵּס הַמַּפָּה:רז, 100

23 When a cup previously held water, wine, or other liquids – even liquids that do not clean – it is forbidden to dry it with a cloth.101 [This restriction] applies even when one would not be particular about squeezing out the water [from the cloth].102 [The rationale is that] since the cup is narrow, it is impossible that some of the liquid that was absorbed in the cloth will not be squeezed out when drying [the cup].103 This involves at least a Rabbinic prohibition even when the liquids do not clean, as will be explained in sec. 320[:21].104

It is, however, permitted to wipe clean a bench and the like with a cloth that, even on a weekday, one would not be particular about squeezing out the water [absorbed in it] after wiping [the bench with it]. And it is permitted to dry one’s hands (and face) after washing even with a cloth with which he is particular [not to leave] wet, because our Sages did not issue a decree concerning this at all, as explained in sec. 301[:60]. (Note the rationale explained there.)105

כג כּוֹס שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ מַיִם אוֹ יַיִן אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָם מְלַבְּנִים – אָסוּר לְנַגְּבוֹ בְּמַפָּהרח, 101 אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל מֵימֶיהָ לְסָחֳטָם,רט, 102 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַכּוֹס צָר – אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִסְחוֹט קְצָת מִמַּה שֶּׁיִּבָּלַע בְּמַפָּה עַל יְ דֵי הַנִּגּוּב,רי, 103 וְיֵשׁ בְּזֶה אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, עַל כָּל פָּנִים, אַף בְּמַשְׁקִים שֶׁאֵינָם מְלַבְּנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"כ.ריא, 104

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְקַנֵּחַ הַסַּפְסָל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּבֶגֶד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל מֵימָיו לְסָחֳטוֹ אַחַר הַקִּנּוּחַ אַף בְּחֹל.ריב

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְנַגֵּב הַיָּדַיִם אַחַר הַנְּטִילָה אַף בְּבֶגֶד שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עַל מֵימָיו (וְכֵן פָּנָיו), מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ כְּלָל עַל זֶה,ריג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"אריד (עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַםרטו):105

Fig. 5: A Ship Pulled by Draft Animals
Fig. 5: A Ship Pulled by Draft Animals

24 One may not look at [oneself] in a metal mirror that is as sharp as a knife and is commonly used to remove the strands of hair that hang down from his head and beard when he sees them hanging loosely.106 There is reason for concern that perhaps he will forget that it is Shabbos and remove those hairs as he ordinarily does during the week. Even if [the mirror] is permanently affixed and attached to the wall, it is forbidden [to look at oneself in it], for our Sages did not make any distinctions when applying their decrees regarding a mirror for which such a concern applies at times.

Women are also forbidden to look [at themselves] in such a mirror, because it is their practice during the week to use it to remove white hairs from among black ones.107

כד אֵין מִסְתַּכְּלִין בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמַרְאָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת,רטז שֶׁהִיא חֲרִיפָה כְּאִזְמֵלריז וְדֶרֶךְ לְהָסִיר בָּהּ בְּחֹל אֶת הַנִּימִין הַמְדֻלְדָּלִין מֵרֹאשׁוֹ וּזְקָנוֹ כְּשֶׁרוֹאֶה בָּהּ שֶׁהֵן מְדֻלְדָּלִין,106 וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְיָסִיר בָּהּ הַנִּימִיןריח כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל. וְאַף אִם הוּא קָבוּעַ וּמְחֻבֶּרֶת בַּכֹּתֶל – אָסוּר,ריט שֶׁלֹּא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים בִּגְזֵרָתָם בְּמַרְאָה זוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ חֲשָׁשׁ זֶה לִפְעָמִים.רכ וְגַם הַנָּשִׁים אֲסוּרוֹת לְהִסְתַּכֵּל בְּמַרְאָה זוֹ,רכא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּרְכָּן בְּחֹל לְהַשִּׁיר בָּהּ שְׂעָרוֹת לְבָנוֹת מִתּוֹךְ הַשְּׁחוֹרוֹת:רכב, 107

25 It is, however, permitted to look at oneself in a mirror where such concerns do not exist,108 even if it is not permanently affixed, provided the prohibition, “A man should not clothe himself in the garments of a woman,”109 does not apply, in the manner explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 156.110

כה אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהִסְתַּכֵּל בְּמַרְאָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ חֲשָׁשׁ זֶה,108 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ קָבוּעַ,רכג אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם "לֹא יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה",רכד, 109 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קנ"ו:רכה, 110