SECTION 301 Articles Which One May Go Out [to the Public Domain] While Wearing and Those Which Are Forbidden [To Be Worn] (1-63)

סימן שא בְּאֵיזֶה כֵּלִים מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְאֵיזֶה מֵהֶם אֲסוּרִים וּבוֹ ס"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 The1 Torah made an undefined statement [with regard to Shabbos]:2 “Do not perform any melachah,” [literally, “work” or “labor”]. It did not, however, define the actions whose performance is called melachah and which actions are not called melachah.3 Logically, one would think that transferring an article from one domain to another4 would not at all be considered a melachah. However, the Torah [placed] the passage [forbidding labor on] Shabbos in direct proximity to [the description of] the work necessary [to construct] the Sanctuary to teach that the labors [necessary to build] the Sanctuary do not supersede the Shabbos [prohibitions]. From this, it is derived that any melachah that was considered important with regard to [the construction of] the Sanctuary is considered as a melachah with regard to the Shabbos [prohibitions].5 Now, taking out articles [from a private domain to a public domain[ was considered an important labor in the Sanctuary, as [indicated by] the verse:6 “No man and no woman shall perform any further melachah for the donations to the sacred [cause]. And the people ceased bringing.” It can be inferred that bringing [articles] from their homes – which were private domains – to Moshe, who was standing in the camp of the Levites – which was a public domain – is termed melachah [and hence is forbidden by Scriptural Law on Shabbos].

The number of melachos that [were performed to construct] the Sanctuary were 39 in total. They are called avos (“primary categories,” literally, “fathers”), melachos (“of forbidden labor”).7 There are also toldos (“derivatives,” literally, “offspring”), for according to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that not only those activities [necessary to construct] the Sanctuary are called melachos, but also, every activity resembling a melachah [necessary to construct] the Sanctuary is likewise termed a melachah. [As such,] they are also included in the prohibition, “Do not perform any melachah.” For example, bringing an article from the public domain to a private domain is a derivative [of the melachah] of bringing an article from the private domain to the public domain (for it is entirely identical to it).

Even an activity only partially resembling a melachah [that was necessary for the construction of] the Sanctuary is also considered a derivative, although it is not [entirely] identical to it. For example, grinding is a primary category of melachah, for [in the construction of the Sanctuary it was necessary] to grind the herbs used as dyes.8 One who cuts a vegetable into very thin pieces [performs] a derivative [of the labor] of grinding.9 For grinding involves taking a single entity and breaking it into many smaller entities, and anyone who performs a similar activity is [thus performing] a derivative of grinding. True, [the two activities] are not entirely alike, for grinding changes the nature of the first entity entirely, and this is not the case when one cuts [very thin pieces].10 Nevertheless, it is considered its derivative11 since there is a resemblance [between the two acts] – [both] transform a single entity into many [smaller] ones. Similar principles apply with regard to all other melachos.

(Based on this exposition, one will be able to understand the rationale for all those matters which are described as forbidden on Shabbos according to Scriptural Law, as will be explained, subject by subject, in its appropriate place.)

א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָהיז, 1 סְתָם2 "לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל מְלָאכָה", וְלֹא נִתְפָּרֵשׁ בָּהּ אֵיזֶה עֲשִׂיָּה נִקְרֵאת מְלָאכָה וְאֵיזֶה עֲשִׂיָּה אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת מְלָאכָה,יח, 3 וּמִצַּד הַסְּבָרָא שֶׁהַהוֹצָאָה וְהַהַכְנָסָה מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת4 אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת בְּשֵׁם מְלָאכָה כְּלָל,יט אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מִמַּה שֶּׁסָּמְכָה תּוֹרָה פָּרָשַׁת שַׁבָּת לִמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן כ לִלְמוֹד שֶׁאֵין מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת,כא מִכַּאן אָנוּ לוֹמְדִים שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁהָיְתָה חֲשׁוּבָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן נִקְרֵאת מְלָאכָה לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת,כב, 5 וְהַהוֹצָאָה הָיְתָה גַם כֵּן מְלָאכָה כג חֲשׁוּבָהכד בַּמִּשְׁכָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרכה, 6 "אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה אַל יַעֲשׂוּ עוֹד מְלָאכָה לִתְרוּמַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וַיִּכָּלֵא הָעָם מֵהָבִיא", הָא לָמַדְתָּכו שֶׁהַהֲבָאָה שֶׁהָיוּ מְבִיאִין מִבֵּיתָם שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֶל מֹשֶׁה הָעוֹמֵד בְּמַחֲנֵה לְוִיָּה שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים כז – נִקְרֵאת הֲבָאָה זוֹ מְלָאכָה. כח

וּמִנְיַן כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הֵן ל"ט, וְהֵן נִקְרָאוֹת "אֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת", כט, 7 שֶׁיֵּשׁ עוֹד תּוֹלָדוֹת, ל שֶׁלָּמְדוּ מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אוֹתָן הַמְּלָאכוֹת בִּלְבָד שֶׁהָיוּ בַּמִּשְׁכָּן נִקְרְאוּ מְלָאכוֹת, אֶלָּא כָּל מְלָאכָה הַדּוֹמָה לִמְלָאכָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הִיא נִקְרֵאת גַּם כֵּן בְּשֵׁם מְלָאכָה כְּמוֹתָהּ, לא וַהֲרֵי הִיא בִּכְלַל "לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל מְלָאכָה", כְּגוֹן הַכְנָסָה מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הִיא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַהוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לב (שֶׁהִיא דוֹמָה לָהּ מַמָּשׁ[)]. לג

וַאֲפִלּוּ כָּל מְלָאכָה הַדּוֹמָה בְּמִקְצָת לִמְלָאכָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן – הֲרֵי הִיא תּוֹלַדְתָּהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לָהּ מַמָּשׁ, לד כְּגוֹן הַטּוֹחֵן הוּא אַב מְלָאכָה לה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן בִּשְׁחִיקַת סַמְמָנֵי הַצֶּבַע, לו, 8 וְהַמְחַתֵּךְ הַיָּרָק דַּק דַּק הוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַטּוֹחֵן, לז, 9 שֶׁהַטּוֹחֵן לוֹקֵחַ גּוּף אֶחָד וּמְחַלְּקוֹ לְגוּפִים דַּקִּים הַרְבֵּה, וְכָל הָעוֹשֶׂה דָבָר הַדּוֹמֶה לָזֶה הִיא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַטּוֹחֵן, לח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לוֹ לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁהַטּוֹחֵן מְשַׁנֶּה אֶת גּוּף הָרִאשׁוֹן לְגַמְרֵי, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן הַמְחַתֵּךְ,10 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הוֹאִיל וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ בְּהֵעָשׂוֹתָהּ גּוּפִים רַבִּים מִגּוּף אֶחָד – הֲרֵי זוֹ תּוֹלַדְתּו. לט, 11 וְכֵן יֵשׁ בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת. מ

(וּמִתּוֹךְ הַצָּעָה זוֹ יִתְבָּאֵר לְךָ טַעַם כָּל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁאָמְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁהֵם אֲסוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּמְקוֹמוֹ מא):

2 According to Scriptural Law, all melachos are forbidden on Shabbos only when they are performed on Shabbos in the same manner as they are ordinarily performed during the week. If, by contrast, one performs such an activity in a different manner than it is usually performed during the week, i.e., he performs it [on Shabbos] in a manner that he would never perform it during the week, he is exempt according to Scriptural Law.12 Nevertheless, it is forbidden to perform [a melachah in an irregular manner] according to Rabbinic Law.13 [This is a safeguard] lest one perform [the activity] in the manner he does during the week.

What is implied? [One is exempt when] he transfers an article [from domain to domain] on the back of his hand, with his feet, in his mouth, being held by his underarms, in his shoe, or the like, i.e., in a manner unlike the way he usually transfers articles during the week. He is [therefore] exempt [according to Scriptural Law], but it is nevertheless forbidden to do so [according to Rabbinic Law].14 [Nonetheless,] one is liable15 [according to Scriptural Law] for transferring food in his mouth [from one domain to another], because it is also common to transfer it in this manner during the week.16

One is liable for transferring an article only when he takes it out [to the public domain] while carrying it as a burden.17 If, by contrast, he takes it out [to the public domain] while wearing it as a garment, he is exempt according to Scriptural Law. [This rule applies] even when he did not wear the article, but merely hung it on his garments as an ornament, or he hung it from one of his limbs as an ornament, even if this is the manner he transfers such articles during the week. In certain instances, it is permitted [to wear such articles] even according to Rabbinic Law. In other instances, there are articles that a woman is forbidden by Rabbinic decree [to transfer in this manner], but not a man, i.e., any ornament that a woman can easily remove and display its beauty to her friends, as women are wont to do.18 Then there are [ornaments] that are also forbidden for men [to transfer], i.e., any ornament that is insecurely fastened and could easily fall off by itself, as will be explained.19

ב כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת כֻּלָּן אֵינָן אֲסוּרִין בְּשַׁבָּת מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹתָן בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדַרְכָּן שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן בְּחֹל, אֲבָל אִם עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן בְּשִׁנּוּי מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּחֹל לְעוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹתָן כֵּן מְלָאכָה זוֹ – פָּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. מב, 12

אֲבָל אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מג, 13 שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ כְּדַרְכָּהּ בְּחֹל. מד כֵּיצַד? כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוֹצִיא חֵפֶץ לְאַחַר יָדוֹ, אוֹ בְּרַגְלָיו, אוֹ בְּפִיו,מה אוֹ בֵּין אַצִּילֵי יָדָיו, מו אוֹ בְּמִנְעָלוֹ, מז וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה שֶׁאֵינָן דֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיא כֵּן בְּחֹל – הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר .14

וְאוֹכְלִין שֶׁהוֹצִיאָן בְּפִיו – חַיָּב, מח, 15 שֶׁזֶּה גַם כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הוֹצָאָתָן בְּחֹל. מט, 16

וְכָל דָּבָר אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עָלָיו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוֹצִיאוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מַשּׂוֹי,17 אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיאָן דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ שֶׁלְּבָשׁוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא לְבָשׁוֹ אֶלָּא תְּלָאוֹ בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו לְתַכְשִׁיט, אוֹ שֶׁתְּלָאוֹ בְּאֶחֶד מֵאֵיבָרָיו לְתַכְשִׁיט, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ כֵּן בְּחֹל – פָּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. נ

וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם דְּבָרִים שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֲסוּרִים מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְאִשָּׁה וְלֹא לְאִישׁ, וְהֵם כָּל תַּכְשִׁיט שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לָהּ לְשָׁלְפָהּ מִמֶּנָּה לְהַרְאוֹת נוֹיָהּ לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ כְּדֶרֶךְ הַנָּשִׁים . נא, 18 וְיֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֲסוּרִים אַף לְאִישׁ, וְהֵם כָּל תַּכְשִׁיט שֶׁהוּא רָפוּי עָלָיו, שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּקַל לִפּוֹל מֵעָלָיו מֵאֵלָיו, נב, 19 וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

3 Whenever a person holds an article in his hand and takes it out [to the public domain], he is liable in all instances20 even though it is an ornament or a garment that he would normally wear or adorn himself with [by hanging it] from one of his limbs. Nevertheless, [he is liable because] at times it is also ordinary practice to go out while carrying it in his hand.21

There are articles that a person is liable for taking out [to the public domain] even if he did not hold them in his hand but hung them from his clothes or from one of his limbs, if at times [such articles] are taken out in this manner during the week. For example, a man is liable when he goes out [to the public domain] with a sword girded to his loins, or with a bow or shield or spear hanging from [his body in places] where at times [these articles] are hung during the week.22 [The rationale for his liability is that] he took them out in the weekday manner and they are neither garments nor ornaments. Were they considered to be ornaments, they would not be nullified in the Ultimate Future,23 [when,] as the verse states:24 “They will beat their swords into plowshares.”

However, if a person goes out [to the public domain] wearing armor, an iron helmet, or iron leg guards made for battle, he is exempt,25 since they are worn like a garment. Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, he is forbidden to do so, because it appears that he is going out to war on Shabbos.26

Similarly, a person is exempt if he goes out [to the public domain] wearing tefillin.27 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, he is forbidden to do so. [This rule applies] even in an instance where there is no prohibition in wearing them because of the prohibition against adding [to the Torah’s] commandments,28 e.g., [he wears them] without intending to fulfill the mitzvah of tefillin,29 as explained in sec. 29[:1] and sec. 31[:1]. It is nevertheless forbidden to go out [to the public domain wearing] them according to Rabbinic Law. This is a decree, [instituted as a safeguard] lest he need to enter a lavatory and remove them, forget [that it is Shabbos], and carry them in his hand four cubits in the public domain,30 or from the public domain to the private domain [in order] to store them away.

Similarly, a small person should not go out wearing a shoe that is larger than the measure of his feet, lest it fall off his foot. He might forget [that it is Shabbos] and carry it in his hand.31 He may, however, go out wearing an oversized shirt, because there is no concern that it will fall off him. By the same token, a person should not go out to the public domain wearing a shoe [only] on one foot with the other foot bare,22 lest people make jest of him for walking around with only one shoe. [There are grounds for concern that, as a result,] he will remove it from his foot and forget and carry it by hand. If, however, he has a wound on his other foot that prevents him from wearing a shoe, he may go out while wearing a shoe only on his unwounded foot.32 There is no concern that people will make jest of him, because his wound makes it obvious why he cannot wear a shoe on his [other] foot.

(Whether the prohibitions that have already been delineated and will be [further] delineated in this section also apply in a courtyard and in a home will be explained in sec. 303[:23].)33

ג וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאוֹחֲזוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ – חַיָּב עָלָיו בְּכָל עִנְיָן,20 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט אוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ נג שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְלָבְשׁוֹ אוֹ לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בּוֹ בְּאֶחָד מֵאֵיבָרָיו, מִכָּל מָקוֹם דֶּרֶךְ הוּא גַּם כֵּן לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּיָדוֹ לִפְעָמִים. נד, 21

וְיֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לֹא אֲחָזָן בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא תְּלָאָן נה בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו אוֹ בְּאֶחֶד מֵאֵיבָרָיו – חַיָּב עֲלֵיהֶם אִם דֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיאָן כֵּן בְּחֹל נו לִפְעָמִים, נז כְּגוֹן אִישׁ הַיּוֹצֵא בְּסַיִף נח הַחֲגוּרָה לוֹ בְּמָתְנָיו, נט אוֹ בְּקֶשֶׁת אוֹ בְּמָגֵן אוֹ בְּרֹמַח הַתְּלוּיִין עָלָיו בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִתְלוֹתָן שָׁם בְּחֹל לִפְעָמִים22 – הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוֹצִיאָן כְּדֶרֶךְ הוֹצָאָתָן בְּחֹל, ס וְהֵן אֵינָן לֹא מַלְבּוּשׁ וְלֹא תַּכְשִׁיט, סא שֶׁאִם הָיוּ תַּכְשִׁיט לֹא הָיוּ בְּטֵלִין לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא, סב, 23 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר סג, 24 "וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וְגוֹ'".

אֲבָל אִם יָצָא לָבוּשׁ בְּשִׁרְיוֹן,סד אוֹ בְּכוֹבַע שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל,סה אוֹ בְּאַנְפְּלָאוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת לְמִלְחָמָה,סו הוֹאִיל וְהֵן דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁסז – הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר,25 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּיוֹצֵא לְמִלְחָמָה בְּשַׁבָּת.סח, 26

וְכֵן אִם יָצָא לָבוּשׁ בִּתְפִלִּין – פָּטוּר,סט, 27 אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בִּלְבִישָׁתָן מִשּׁוּם "בַּל תּוֹסִיף",28 כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם מִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין,29 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן כ"ט וְל"א, ע מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לִכָּנֵס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא וִיסִירֵן מֵעָלָיועא וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֵן בְּיָדוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,עב, 30 אוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד כְּדֵי לְהַצְנִיעָן.עג

וְכֵן לֹא יֵצֵא אָדָם קָטָן בְּמִנְעָל שֶׁהוּא גָדוֹל מִמִּדַּת רַגְלָיו, שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ.עד, 31 אֲבָל יוֹצֵא הוּא בְּחָלוּק גָּדוֹל,עה שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִפּוֹל מֵעָלָיו.עו וְכֵן לֹא יֵצֵא אָדָם בְּמִנְעָל אֶחָד בְּרַגְלוֹעז אַחַת וְרַגְלוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית בְּלִי מִנְעָל,22 כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִשְׂחֲקוּ עָלָיו עַל שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בְּמִנְעָל אֶחָד וִיסִירֶנּוּ מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ.עח וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מַכָּה בְּרַגְלוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ מִנְעָל – מֻתָּר לוֹ לָצֵאת בְּמִנְעָל שֶׁבְּרַגְלוֹ הָאַחַת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ מַכָּה,עט, 32 שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׂחֲקוּ עָלָיו, לְפִי (ג) שֶׁמַּכָּתוֹ מוֹכַחַת עָלָיו שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ פ (וְכָל אִסּוּרִים שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ וְשֶׁיִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּסִמָּן זֶה, אִם אֲסוּרִים גַּם כֵּן בֶּחָצֵר וּבַבַּיִתפא – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"גפב):33

4 No one, neither a man nor a woman, should go out [to the public domain34] with a machat35 – neither one with a hole at its tip36 nor one without a hole at its tip – inserted into those parts of his clothes where they are not commonly inserted during the week. Even though this is not the ordinary manner in which [such] articles are transferred,37 it is, nevertheless, forbidden [to transfer them in this manner] by Rabbinic decree.

Even so, when a man goes out [to the public domain] with a needle stuck in his clothes in order to join their two edges, e.g., [to join] the openings of his shirt and the like, in those parts of his garment where a pin is commonly stuck during the week, he is liable for a sin-offering38 even though he did so in order to wear the garment. [The rationale is that] it is not common to insert a needle there, only a pin. Thus, the needle that he inserted there is considered as a burden for him even though he needs it to wear [the garment.39 The rationale is that] a person is not permitted to go out to the public domain with any of the articles that he needs if they are not ornaments or garments. (This is not considered carrying an article out in an abnormal manner,40 because there are times during the week when a person who wants to bring a needle to another location will insert a needle in his garment in [one of] the places where he would normally insert a pin, transferring it through the public domain to the location he desires.)41 It is therefore considered as taking it out in an ordinary manner and he is liable. How much more so does this apply if he does not insert [the needle] for the sake of wearing the garment, rather it is inserted into those sections of his garment where it is sometimes inserted during the week in order to transfer it to a given place.42

ד לֹא יֵצֵא34 אָדָם,פג בֵּין אִישׁ בֵּין אִשָּׁה,פד בְּמַחַט,35 בֵּין נְקוּבָה36 בֵּין שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה, הַתְּחוּבָה לוֹ בְּבִגְדּוֹ בְּאוֹתָן מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁבְּבִגְדּוֹ שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְעוֹלָם לְתָחֳבָהּ שָׁם בְּחֹל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין זֶה הוֹצָאָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ,פה, 37 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.

אֲבָל אִישׁ שֶׁיָּצָא בְּמַחַט הַנְּקוּבָה הַתְּחוּבָה לוֹ בְּבִגְדּוֹ לְחַבֵּר קְצוֹתָיו, כְּגוֹן (ד) מַפְתְּחֵי חֲלוּקוֹ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה מֵהַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁבְּבִגְדּוֹ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִתְחוֹב שָׁם מַחַט בְּחֹל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא לְצֹרֶךְ הַלְּבִישָׁה – חַיָּב חַטָּאת,פו, 38 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִתְחוֹב שָׁם מַחַט הַנְּקוּבָה אֶלָּא מַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה, וְזֶה שֶׁתָּחַב מַחַט נְקוּבָה – מַשּׂוֹי הוּא לוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לוֹ לִלְבִישָׁתוֹ,פז, 39 שֶׁאֵין אָדָם רַשַּׁאי לָצֵאת עִם כָּל חֲפָצִים הַצְּרִיכִים לוֹ כְּשֶׁאֵינָן לֹא תַּכְשִׁיט וְלֹא דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ.פח

(וְאֵין זוֹ נִקְרֵאת הוֹצָאָה שֶׁלֹּא כְדַרְכָּהּ,פט, 40 לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים בְּחֹל צ כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהוֹלִיךְ מַחַט הַנְּקוּבָה לְאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם תּוֹחֲבָהּ לִפְעָמִים בְּבִגְדּוֹ בְּהַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁתּוֹחֲבִין מַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה וּמוֹלִיכָהּ כָּךְ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים עַד הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץצא),41 וּלְפִיכָךְ הֲרֵי זוֹ הוֹצָאָה כְּדַרְכָּהּצב וְחַיָּב עָלֶיהָ. וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם אֵינָהּ תְּחוּבָה לוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתוֹ, רַק תְּחוּבָה בְּהַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁבְּבִגְדּוֹ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִתְחוֹב בָּהֶם מַחַט בְּחֹל לִפְעָמִים כְּשֶׁמּוֹלִיכָהּ לְאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם:צג, 42

5 However, [different laws apply] regarding a pin that is inserted into a person’s clothes. Even when it is inserted in one’s garment in places where pins are commonly inserted during the week, he is exempt [for taking it out to the public domain. The rationale is that] since this pin is commonly used in those portions of the garment for the sake of wearing [the garment],43 it is considered an extension44 of those portions [of the garment] and [therefore,] it is placed in the category of garments.45 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to go out wearing it. Since its thick head lacks a hole, it is categorized as an ornament. There is concern that the person will remove it from his garment to display its attractive quality to others and then forget [to put it back on] and carry it in his hand. Even if it is not placed in the category of an ornament at all,46 one may not rule leniently, for there are authorities who differ and maintain that a man who goes out [to the public domain] with a pin inserted into his garment for the sake of wearing [his garment] is liable.

(Even according to the first opinion, [a man] should not be allowed [to go out] with a pin that is not at all considered an ornament, except during those eras when men commonly insert pins in their clothes for the sake of wearing them. In such an instance, the pin is considered as an extension of their clothes, since it is common to use pins for the purpose of dressing. [Different rules apply] during eras when they are not [inserted] for such a purpose. He is liable if it is inserted on Shabbos in [his clothing in] a place where it is occasionally inserted during the week when he desires to transport it to another place.47 If not, he is exempt. It is, however, forbidden to do so according to Rabbinic Law, like any transfer [of an object] in a manner that would be [considered] irregular during the week.)

All the above applies with regard to a man. [Different laws apply] with regard to a woman [wearing] a pin or a needle, [as] will be explained in sec. 303[:11].

ה אֲבָל מַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה הַתְּחוּבָה בְּבִגְדּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִתְחוֹב בָּהֶם בְּחֹל – פָּטוּר,צד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּחַט זוֹ הוֹאִיל וְדַרְכָּהּ לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּאוֹתָן הַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁבַּבֶּגֶד לְצֹרֶךְ הַלְּבִישָׁה43 – הֲרֵי הִיא כְּבֵית יָד44 לְאוֹתָן מְקוֹמוֹת, וְתוֹרַת מַלְבּוּשׁ עָלֶיהָ.צה, 45

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרֹאשָׁהּ הָעָב שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב יֵשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת תַּכְשִׁיט,צו וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁלְפֶנּוּ מִבִּגְדּוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת נוֹיָהּ לַאֲחֵרִיםצז וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ. וְאַף אִם אֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת תַּכְשִׁיט כְּלָל46 – אֵין לְהָקֵל, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִים וְאוֹמְרִיםצח שֶׁאִישׁ הַיּוֹצֵא בְּמַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה הַתְּחוּבָה בְּבִגְדּוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַלְּבִישָׁהצט – הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב.

(וְאַף לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אֵין לְהַתִּיר בְּמַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ תּוֹרַת תַּכְשִׁיט כְּלָל אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הָאֲנָשִׁים לִתְחוֹב מַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה בְּבִגְדֵיהֶם לְצֹרֶךְ הַלְּבִישָׁה, שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית מַחַט זוֹ לָהֶם כְּבֵית יָד לְבִגְדֵיהֶם, הוֹאִיל וְדַרְכָּהּ לְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְצֹרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתָם. אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם בְּכָךְ, אִם הִיא תְּחוּבָה בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְתָחֳבָהּ בּוֹ בְּחֹל לִפְעָמִים כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהוֹלִיכָהּ לְאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם – חַיָּב,47 וְאִם לָאו – פָּטוּר, אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הוֹצָאָה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּה בְּחֹל ק).

וְכָל זֶה בְּאִישׁ, אֲבָל דִּין הָאִשָּׁה בְּמַחַט הַנְּקוּבָה וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ג:קא

6 A signet ring is considered as an ornament for a man,48 but not for a woman.49 [Conversely,] a ring without a seal is considered as jewelry for a woman,50 but not for a man.51 Therefore, a man is liable for going out to the public domain wearing a ring without a seal on his finger,52 since it is a burden for him. It is not considered as being transferred in an abnormal manner, because there are times when a woman gives her husband her ring that does not have a seal to bring to a jeweler to fix. He places it on his finger until he reaches the jeweler. Thus, at times, [wearing it] on his finger is considered as an ordinary way to take a ring without a seal out [to the public domain] even for a man. [Nevertheless,] he is liable for [taking] it [out] since it is not considered as jewelry for him. If, however, he goes out [to the public domain wearing] a ring that has a seal, which is considered as an ornament for him, he is exempt. It is, however, forbidden for him to do so according to Rabbinic Law. [This is] a decree [enacted] lest he take it off his finger to display its attractiveness to others, and then afterwards forget [to put it back on] and carry it in his hand [in the public domain].

There are other authorities [who differ and] maintain that [our Sages] enacted such a decree only for women, for they are boastful [about their jewelry] and are accustomed to display their attractive jewelry to one another. A man, by contrast, is not boastful53 [about jewelry] and this is not his habit. Therefore, he is permitted to go out with a ring that has a seal, for that is an ornament for him.54 The same [law] applies to other jewelry [that he wears] even if it is not attached to his garments55 and thus he can remove it and take it in his hands to display to others. We are not concerned about this [possibility], since this is not his ordinary habit. Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view.

When does the above56 apply? To jewelry that resembles a signet ring, i.e., jewelry fit for a man and not a woman, and similarly to all other types of jewelry that are appropriate for men, but not for women, i.e., [items] that women would not wear as jewelry at all. [Different laws apply,] however, to jewelry that is considered ornamental both for men and women, i.e., women also wear these types of jewelry as ornaments, for example, a pin according to the first opinion explained above,57 and other similar articles. [In that instance,] all authorities agree that they are forbidden to be worn even by men, so that a distinction not be made between men and women regarding a prohibition [that applies] to the same type of jewelry.58

(Therefore, even in the present era, when men also wear a ring without a seal as jewelry during the week and thus it is now considered as an ornament for them and not a burden, they are nevertheless forbidden to go out [to the public domain wearing such a ring] on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] it is also considered as jewelry for women.

According to this logic, [a man] should not go out to the public domain wearing even a ring with a seal, because in the present era, it has also become customary for women to wear such rings as ornaments and they are considered as jewelry both for men and women. Nevertheless, in the present era, both men and women have adopted a leniency with regard to all rings and they should not be admonished for following it, as will be explained in sec. 303[:23]. See the rationale [to be explained] there.)59

ו טַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם הִיא מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִישׁ48 וְלֹא מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִשָּׁה,49 וְטַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם הִיא מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִשָּׁה50 וְלֹא מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִישׁ.קב, 51 וּלְפִיכָךְ, הָאִישׁ שֶׁיָּצָא בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם שֶׁבְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ – חַיָּב,קג, 52 שֶׁמַּשּׂוֹי הוּא לוֹ,קד וְאֵין זוֹ הוֹצָאָה שֶׁלֹּא כְדַרְכָּהּ, לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים נוֹתֶנֶת אִשָּׁה לְבַעְלָהּ טַבַּעְתָּהּ שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם שֶׁיּוֹלִיכֶנָּה לָאוּמָן לְתַקְּנָהּ וְהוּא מֵשִׂים אוֹתָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ אֵצֶל אוּמָן,קה נִמְצָא שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הוֹצָאָה הִיאקו אַף לְאִישׁ לִפְעָמִים לְהוֹצִיא טַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ תַּכְשִׁיט לוֹ – חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ.קז

אֲבָל אִם יָצָא בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט לוֹ – פָּטוּר,קח אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁלְפֶנָּה מֵאֶצְבָּעוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת נוֹיָהּ לַאֲחֵרִיםקט וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנָּה בְּיָדוֹ.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקי שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ גְּזֵרָה זוֹ אֶלָּא בְּנָשִׁים, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן שַׁחֲצָנִיּוֹת וְדַרְכָּן בְּכָךְ לְהַרְאוֹת נוֹי תַּכְשִׁיטֵיהֶן זוֹ לְזוֹ, אֲבָל אִישׁ אֵינוֹ שַׁחַץקיא, 53 וְאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ בְּכָךְ, וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לוֹ לָצֵאת בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם שֶׁהִיא תַּכְשִׁיט לוֹ,54 וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר תַּכְשִׁיטָיו, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם מְחֻבָּרִים לִכְסוּתוֹקיב, 55 שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְשָׁלְפָםקיג וְלִטְּלָם בְּיָדוֹ לְהַרְאוֹתָם לַאֲחֵרִים – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְזֶה, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ בְּכָךְ. וְכֵן עִקָּר.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים56 אֲמוּרִים? בְּמִינֵי תַכְשִׁיטִין הַדּוֹמִין לְטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם שֶׁהִיא תַּכְשִׁיט לְאִישׁ וְלֹא לְאִשָּׁה, וְכֵן כָּל מִינֵי תַכְשִׁיטִין שֶׁהֵם תַּכְשִׁיטִין לְאִישׁ וְלֹא לְאִשָּׁה, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הָאִשָּׁה לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בָּהֶם כְּלָל, אֲבָל מִינֵי תַכְשִׁיטִים שֶׁהֵם תַּכְשִׁיט לְאִישׁ וּלְאִשָּׁה,קיד שֶׁגַּם הַנָּשִׁים דַּרְכָּן לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בְּתַכְשִׁיטִין הַלָּלוּ, כְּגוֹן מַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קטו, 57 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהּ – הֲרֵי הֵם אֲסוּרִים אַף לַאֲנָשִׁים לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לְחַלֵּק בְּאִסּוּר מִין תַּכְשִׁיט אֶחָד בֵּין אֲנָשִׁים לְנָשִׁים.קטז, 58

(וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בְּחֹל אַף בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם, וַהֲרֵי הוּא עַכְשָׁו לָהֶם תַּכְשִׁיט וְלֹא מַשּׂוֹי – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֲסוּרִים לָצֵאת בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט גַּם כֵּן לְנָשִׁים.קיז וּלְפִי זֶה אַף בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם אֵין לָצֵאת בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה, שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים נָהֲגוּ גַם כֵּן לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט אַף בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן חוֹתָם, וַהֲרֵי הֵן תַּכְשִׁיט לְאִישׁ וּלְאִשָּׁה. אֶלָּא שֶׁעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ הֶתֵּר אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים בְּכָל הַטַּבָּעוֹת, וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ג,קיח עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם[)]:59

7 A ring containing a smooth stone or even a stone on which letters are written, or [when letters are written] on the ring itself, is not considered [a ring with] a seal. For the term “seal” refers only to engraved letters or designs that, were [the seal] pressed against wax, a relief of the letters or the designs would be formed, or alternatively, letters or forms which project [from the ring] so that were [the seal] pressed against wax, an imprint of the letters or designs would be formed. The above are termed “seals” and it is permitted for a man to go out [to the public domain wearing] a ring with such a seal (if it is not common for women [as well] to wear [such rings] as jewelry).

[The above license is granted] provided the seal does not contain a relief of an entire human or other forms that are forbidden even during the week, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 141.60

ז טַבַּעַת שֶׁקָּבוּעַ בָּהּ אֶבֶן חֲלָקָה, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כְּתוּבִין בָּהּ אוֹתִיּוֹת עַל הָאֶבֶן אוֹ עַל הַטַּבַּעַת – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא חוֹתָם, שֶׁלֹּא נִקְרָא חוֹתָם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חֲקוּקִים בָּהּ אוֹתִיּוֹת אוֹ צוּרוֹת,קיט כְּדֵי שֶׁאִם יַחְתְּמוּהָ עַל הַשַּׁעֲוָה יִהְיוּ עַל הַשַּׁעֲוָה אוֹתִיּוֹת אוֹ צוּרוֹת בּוֹלְטוֹת,קכ וְכֵן אִם בּוֹלְטִין בָּהּ אוֹתִיּוֹת אוֹ צוּרוֹת שֶׁאִם יַחְתְּמֶנָּה עַל הַשַּׁעֲוָה יִהְיוּ עַל הַשַּׁעֲוָה אוֹתִיּוֹת אוֹ צוּרוֹת שׁוֹקְעוֹת, כָּל זֶה נִקְרָא חוֹתָם.קכא

וּמֻתָּר לְאִישׁ לָצֵאת בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם זֶה (אִם אֵין דֶּרֶךְ הַנָּשִׁים לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בָּהּ). וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בּוֹלֵט בַּחוֹתֶמֶת צוּרַת אָדָם שְׁלֵמָה, אוֹ שְׁאָר צוּרוֹת הָאֲסוּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל,קכב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קמ"א:קכג, 60

8 [Leniency is not granted when] an entity is commonly made to serve as both an ornament and an implement, for example, ornamental silver keys that resemble jewelry. Even though [such a key] was hung on a chain around one’s neck, from his belt, or from another place on his clothing solely as an ornament,61 it is forbidden to go out [to the public domain wearing] it,62 because an observer might say that he is taking it out to use as an implement and not as an ornament at all.

There are authorities who differ with this view and permit [one to go out wearing] silver keys. [The rationale is that] silver keys are fundamentally fashioned [to serve] as ornaments since it is not common to make [them for ordinary use]. Although [such keys] are also used [for a functional purpose], they are not considered as burdens and it is permitted to go out [to the public domain while wearing] them63 since they are primarily fashioned as ornaments. This is the custom in certain of these regions, provided:

a) there is no concern that [the ornament] will become unattached and fall to the ground;64 [the person might then] forget and pick it up and carry it in his hand;65 and

b) a woman cannot either remove it to display to her friends or she need not remove it, because she can display it to her friends while it is hanging in place. Were this not the case, it would be forbidden even for a man to go out [to the public domain while wearing such an item], because it is also an ornament for a woman.66 (See, however, sec. 303[:23, which states that] in the present era, it has become customary to be lenient with regard to jewelry.)67

However, if a key is made from iron or copper, even if one hangs it for ornamental purposes, like jewelry, he is forbidden to go out [to the public domain while wearing] it for the reason to be explained.68 Moreover, since a key is ordinarily made from iron or from copper, it is considered to have been made primarily for a functional purpose. [Hence,] it is considered as a burden, and it is forbidden to go out [while wearing] it even if it is firmly attached and permanently affixed to a belt or to other places in one’s garments.

[This prohibition applies] even when [the key] is so strongly affixed [in place] that it is impossible to remove [the key] without damaging the place to which it is affixed. [The rationale is that] since it is made to be used independently and is of no benefit whatsoever to the garment to which it is affixed, it is not considered as batel69 to that garment. Thus, it is as if he took the key out by itself, without the garment. Even though the garment is much more important than [the key], that is not sufficient reason for [the key] to be [considered] batel to the garment, because the key was neither made for the sake of the garment nor [worn] to enable the garment to function.70 This is comparable to going out [to the public domain wearing] a tallis to which tzitzis that are not halachically acceptable are attached. Such a person is liable for a sin-offering for this reason, as will be explained.71

Nevertheless, if the key is affixed to the end of the belt and is made to serve (as a buckle so that one can buckle the belt, there are authorities who permit [wearing it in the public domain. The rationale is that] in that instance, it serves the belt and is [thus] batel69 to it. [This rule applies] even if the key is only affixed there [for use] on Shabbos.) This is the accepted practice in these regions.72 If, however, [the key] is affixed in the midst of the belt, there is no room for license whatsoever,73 unless it is made of silver, in which instance, it is considered as having been fashioned primarily as an ornament.

Similar [laws apply with regard to] a silver sheath [for a dagger] which is commonly worn as an ornament. It is permitted to go out to the public domain while wearing it, provided the dagger is not [lodged] in it.74 Similarly,75 it is forbidden to go out wearing a case for eyeglasses [hanging around one’s neck]76 while the glasses are in it – even when the case is made of silver as an ornament. [The rationale is that] the dagger and the eyeglasses are not batel to the sheaf or the case even though [the latter] are made of silver, because the dagger and the glasses are of primary importance. [After all,] it is not said, “Let us make a dagger for the sheaf or glasses for the case.” Instead, [it is said,] “Let us make a sheaf for the dagger or a case for the glasses.”

ח דָּבָר הֶעָשׂוּי לְתַכְשִׁיט וְגַם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ, כְּגוֹן מַפְתֵּחוֹת נָאוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף כְּמִין תַּכְשִׁיט,קכד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתְּלָאָן בְּשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת שֶׁבְּצַוָּארוֹקכה אוֹ בַּחֲגוֹרָתוֹקכו אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁבִּבְגָדָיו כְּדֵי לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בָּהֶן בִּלְבָד61 – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן,62 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה יֹאמַר שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הוּא מוֹצִיאָןקכז וְלֹא כְּדֵי לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בּוֹ כְּלָל.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וּמַתִּירִין בְּמַפְתֵּחוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף,קכח שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מַפְתֵּחוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף – הֲרֵי עִקַּר עֲשִׂיָּתָן מִשּׁוּם תַּכְשִׁיט. וְאַף שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ גַּם כֵּן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקָּרוֹ לְתַכְשִׁיט עָשׂוּי לוֹ – אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב לוֹ כְּמַשּׂוֹי, וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ.קכט, 63 וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג בְּמִקְצָת מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.קל

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יִפְסוֹק וְיִפּוֹל לָאָרֶץ64 וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ,קלא, 65 וְגַם שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הָאִשָּׁה יְכוֹלָה לְשָׁלְפָהּ מִשָּׁם לְהַרְאוֹתָהּ לְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ,קלב אוֹ שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְשָׁלְפָהּ מִשָּׁם, שֶׁיְּכוֹלָה לְהַרְאוֹתוֹ בְּעוֹדוֹ תָּלוּי שָׁם, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן אַף לְאִישׁ אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט גַּם לְאִשָּׁהקלג, 66 (וְעַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"גקלד שֶׁעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל בְּתַכְשִׁיטִין).67

אֲבָל אִם הוּא שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל אוֹ שֶׁל נְחֹשֶׁת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתְּלָאוֹ שָׁם לְנוֹי כְּעֵין תַּכְשִׁיט – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ,קלה מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קלו, 68 וְעוֹד שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הוּא כֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִבַּרְזֶל וּנְחֹשֶׁת – הֲרֵי עִקָּרוֹ נַעֲשֵׂית לְתַשְׁמִישׁקלז וּמַשּׂוֹי הוּא,קלח וְאָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא מְחֻבָּר וְקָבוּעַ לְעוֹלָם בַּחֲגוֹרָהקלט אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת מִבְּגָדָיו, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא קָבוּעַ שָׁם בְּחֹזֶק כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַהֲסִירוֹ מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם בְּלִי קִלְקוּל הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא קָבוּעַ בּוֹ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי לְתַשְׁמִישׁ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ כְּלוּם לְאוֹתוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ שֶׁהוּא קָבוּעַ בּוֹ – אֵינוֹ בָטֵל69 לְגַבֵּי אוֹתוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ,קמ וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הוֹצִיאוֹ בִּלְבַדּוֹ בְּלִי אוֹתוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ.קמא וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּלְבּוּשׁ חָשׁוּב הַרְבֵּה מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵינֶנּוּ טָפֵל לַמַּלְבּוּשׁ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ,קמב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינֶנּוּ צֹרֶךְ הַמַּלְבּוּשׁ וְלֹא תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמַּלְבּוּשׁ,70 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ יוֹצֵא בְּטַלִּית שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְצֻיֶּצֶת כְּהִלְכָתָהּ שֶׁחַיָּב חַטָּאת מִטַּעַם זֶה,קמג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.קמד, 71

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא קָבוּעַקמה בְּרֹאשׁ הַחֲגוֹרָה וְעָשׂוּי (כְּעֵין זֶענְקִי"לקמו לַחֲגוֹר בּוֹקמז – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִים,קמח לְפִי שֶׁאָז הוּא מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְהַחֲגוֹרָה וּבָטֵל 69 אֶצְלָהּ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ שָׁם אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבָדקמט). וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בְּמִקְצָת מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.קנ, 72

אֲבָל אִם הוּא קָבוּעַ בְּאֶמְצַע הַחֲגוֹרָה – אֵין שׁוּם הֶתֵּר בָּעוֹלָם,קנא, 73 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא שֶׁל כֶּסֶף, שֶׁאָז עִקָּרוֹ נַעֲשֵׂית לְתַכְשִׁיט.קנב וְכֵן נְדָן שֶׁל כֶּסֶף שֶׁרְגִילִין לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט בּוֹ – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ.קנג

וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בָּהּ סַכִּין,קנד, 74 וְכֵן75 תִּיק שֶׁל בָּתֵּי עֵינַיִם (שֶׁקּוֹרִין בְּרִילִי"ן)76 אַף שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי מִכֶּסֶף לְתַכְשִׁיט – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ כְּשֶׁהַבָּתֵּי עֵינַיִם בְּתוֹכוֹ,קנה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַסַּכְּין וְהַבָּתֵּי עֵינַיִם בְּטֵלִים לְגַבֵּי הַנְּדָן וְהַתִּיק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל כֶּסֶף, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַסַּכִּין וְהַבָּתֵּי עֵינַיִם הֵם עִקָּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין אוֹמְרִים "נַעֲשֶׂה סַכִּין לִנְדָן וּבָתֵּי עֵינַיִם לְתִיק", אֶלָּא "נַעֲשֶׂה נְדָן לְסַכִּין וְתִיק לְבָתֵּי עֵינַיִם":קנו

9 A tailor should not go out [to the public domain] with a needle inserted into his clothing,77 even [when the needle is inserted] in an area [of the garment] where it is not common for anyone [other than a tailor] to ever insert a needle. For he, as well, only inserts it there as a sign – so that when he is seen everyone will identify him as a tailor.

Similarly, a carpenter who places a sliver of wood [behind] his ear as a sign, a comber of wool who places a string [around] his neck as a sign, or any other craftsman who places something [identifying] him with his profession as a sign, should not go out [to the public domain carrying these articles] on Shabbos. If, however, they do go out [carrying these articles], they are exempt, because this is not the ordinary manner in which these articles are carried, for other people do not carry these articles out in this manner. Moreover, this is not the manner in which even these craftsmen carry them, except during those [specific] times when they want to publicize that this is their profession; [even they] do not [do so] on other occasions.78

ט לֹא יֵצֵא הַחַיָּט בְּמַחַט הַתְּחוּבָה לוֹ בְּבִגְדּוֹ,קנז, 77 אֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹתָן מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ שְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם לִתְחוֹב בָּהֶם לְעוֹלָםקנח וְאַף הוּא אֵינוֹ תּוֹחֵב שָׁם אֶלָּא לְסִמָּן שֶׁיַּכִּירֶנּוּ כָּל רוֹאֵהוּ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּט.קנט וְכֵן הַנַּגָּר שֶׁנּוֹתֵן קִיסָם בְּאָזְנוֹקס לְסִמָּן, וְכֵן הַסּוֹרֵק שֶׁנּוֹתֵן מְשִׁיחָ[ה] בְּצַוָּארוֹקסא לְסִמָּן, וְכֵן כָּל שְׁאָר אוּמָנִים שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים דָּבָר מֵאוּמָנָתָם לְסִמָּן – לֹא יֵצְאוּ בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת.78

וְאִם יָצְאוּ – פְּטוּרִין,קסב שֶׁאֵין זוֹ הוֹצָאָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ,קסג כֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁאָר כָּל אָדָם אֵינָן מוֹצִיאִין כֵּן,קסד וְאַף הָאוּמָנִים אֵין דַּרְכָּם לְהוֹצִיא בְּעִנְיָן זֶה אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁרוֹצִים לְהַכְרִיז עַל עַצְמָם שֶׁהֵם אוּמָנִים וְלֹא בִּשְׁאָר פְּעָמִים:קסה

10 A zav79 should not go out [to the public domain] wearing his sack80 that is made to protect him from his discharge, so that his clothes will not become soiled. If he goes out [wearing] it, he is liable according to the authorities who maintain that one is liable for the performance of a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah, a forbidden labor performed for a purpose that does not involve the object with which the labor was performed.81 Nevertheless, according to the authorities who maintain that one is exempt for performing a melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah, as previously explained in section 278[:2-3], this person is also exempt. [The rationale is that] he has no need at all for the sack that he is transferring; he has no desire for it itself, only that it protect him from his discharge. Nevertheless, it is forbidden for him to do so by Rabbinic decree,82 as is true regarding any other melachah she’einah tzorichah legufah.83

Similarly, a menstruating woman who ties a cloth in front of her [vaginal area] so that her clothes will not become soiled by the blood of her discharge is forbidden to go out [to the public domain] wearing it, unless it is like a girdle that is fashioned like a garment, covering both her front and back, similar to underwear that is worn for the sake of modesty. If, however, it covers only from behind and its front is merely tied with straps, this is not the manner in which clothes are worn and [doing so] is forbidden.

When does the above apply? When her intent in wearing this garment is only to protect [her garments] from filth. In that instance, [the covering] is only considered as a garment when it is made in the form of an actual garment. If, however, [the woman’s] intent is to [also] protect her physical person from discomfort, i.e., that the blood not fall on her flesh, become dried out, and cause her discomfort,84 this cloth attains the status of an actual garment, similar to other garments that are fashioned to protect the body. Hence, a woman is permitted to go out [to the public domain while wearing] it, even though it is not [entirely] fashioned like an actual garment.85

י לֹא יֵצֵא הַזָּב79 בְּכִיסקסו, 80 שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה לְהַצִּילוֹ מִזִּיבָתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יְטַנֵּף בָּהּ בְּגָדָיו. וְאִם יָצָא – חַיָּב לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ,קסז, 81 אֲבָל לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ פָּטוּר עָלֶיהָ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"חקסח – אַף זֶה פָּטוּר,קסט לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לְגוּף הַכִּיס שֶׁמּוֹצִיאוֹ, וְאֵין לוֹ חֵפֶץ בְּגוּפוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁיַּצִּילֶנּוּ מִזִּיבָתוֹ,קע אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקעא, 82 כִּשְׁאָר מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ.83

וְכֵן אִשָּׁה נִדָּה הַמְקַשֶּׁרֶת בֶּגֶד לְפָנֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא תְלַכְלֵךְקעב בְּגָדֶיהָקעג בְּדַם נִדּוֹתָהּ – אֲסוּרָה לָצֵאת בּוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא סִינָר עָשׂוּי כְּעֵין מַלְבּוּשׁקעד מִלְּפָנֶיהָ וּמִלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ מִכְנָסַיִם שֶׁלּוֹבְשִׁים לִצְנִיעוּת. אֲבָל אִם הוּא מִלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ בִּלְבָד אֶלָּא שֶׁקּוֹשַׁרְתּוֹ בִּרְצוּעוֹת לְפָנֶיהָ – אֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, וְאָסוּר.קעה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֶּנֶת בְּבֶגֶד זֶה לְהַצִּיל מִטִּינוּף בִּלְבָד, שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב לְמַלְבּוּשׁקעו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשׂוּי כְּעֵין מַלְבּוּשׁ גָּמוּר, אֲבָל אִם מִתְכַּוֶּנֶת בּוֹ לְהַצִּיל גּוּפָהּ מִצַּעַר, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִפּוֹל הַדָּם עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ וְיִתְיַבֵּשׁ שָׁם וְנִמְצָא מְצַעֲרָהּקעז, 84 – הֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה בֶּגֶד זֶה מַלְבּוּשׁ גָּמוּרקעח כִּשְׁאָר מַלְבּוּשִׁים שֶׁהֵם עֲשׂוּיִים לַהֲגָנַת הַגּוּף, וּמֻתֶּרֶת לָצֵאת בּוֹ אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי כְּעֵין מַלְבּוּשׁ גָּמוּר:85

11 It is forbidden for a woman to place a cloth over her scarf [to prevent] the scarf from becoming soiled from rain. Since her intent is to prevent [the scarf] from being soiled, it is not considered as a garment. If, however, her intent is that the rain should not descend on her flesh and cause her discomfort, she is permitted to spread a cloth over her head, even though doing so will also protect the scarf from becoming soiled.

Moreover, even if her intent is only to protect [her clothes] from becoming soiled, when the cloth is not placed on her head alone, but rather she also robes the major portion of her body with it like a garment, even though it is a thick and coarse cloth and it is not appropriate for her – were it not for the rain, she would not wear it86 – she is permitted to go out [to the public domain] wearing it. This applies even if it is made of woven [goat’s] hair, an unfinished thick sheet, or a coarse covering (i.e., crude types of clothing).

Similar laws apply to a man. How much more so is it permitted for a man to wear a hat over the hat on his head as [protection] against the rain, since it is [being worn] as a garment, provided that it descends [and covers a large portion of] his head, as will be explained.87

יא אָסוּר לְאִשָּׁה לִתֵּן בֶּגֶד עַל צְעִיפָהּ מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים שֶׁלֹּא יְלַכְלְכוּ הַצָּעִיף,קעט שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֶּנֶת בּוֹ לְהַצִּיל מִטִּינוּף – אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב מַלְבּוּשׁ.קפ

אֲבָל אִם מִתְכַּוֶּנֶת שֶׁלֹּא יֵרְדוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים עַל בְּשָׂרָה וִיצַעֲרוּהָ – מֻתֶּרֶת לִפְרוֹס בֶּגֶד עַל רֹאשָׁהּקפא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה נִצּוֹל הַצָּעִיף גַּם כֵּן מִטִּינוּף.קפב וְאַף כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֶּנֶת בּוֹ לְהַצִּיל מִטִּינוּף בִּלְבָד, אִם אֵינוֹ מֻנָּח עַל רֹאשָׁהּ בִּלְבָד אֶלָּא הִיא מִתְעַטֶּפֶת בּוֹ גַּם כֵּןקפג רֹב גּוּפָהּקפד כְּדֶרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בֶּגֶד עָב וְגַס שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָהּ וְלֹא הָיְתָה מִתְעַטֶּפֶת בּוֹ בְּלֹא הַגְּשָׁמִים86 – מֻתֶּרֶת לָצֵאת בּוֹ,קפה אֲפִלּוּ הוּא שַׂק וִירִיעָה וַחֲמִילָהקפו (פֵּרוּשׁ מִינֵי בְּגָדִים גַּסִּים), וְכֵן בְּאִישׁ. וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְאִישׁ לִתֵּן כּוֹבַע עַל גַּבֵּי כּוֹבַע שֶׁעַל רֹאשׁוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עָמוֹק עַל רֹאשׁוֹ,קפז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:קפח, 87

12 An amputee whose leg was removed may not go out [to the public domain wearing] his prosthetic leg,88 i.e., a form of a leg was made and a small hollow was carved into it in which he could insert the stump of his leg. This prosthetic leg is not made for the sake of walking, because regardless, he requires a cane [in order to be able to walk] – and he is permitted to go out to the public domain with his cane, since he requires it for the sake of walking, as will be explained.89 Instead, the prosthetic leg is made so that he will not appear to be lacking a leg, merely as lame in his leg. Therefore, since [the prosthetic leg] is not worn to enable him to walk, (it is considered as a burden)90 and it is forbidden for him to go out wearing it.91

(True, it is permitted to go out [to the public domain] wearing anything that is in the category of a garment, even if one does not wear it for the purpose of walking, but for another purpose.92 As such, [seemingly,] this rule should also apply to this prosthetic leg which [serves as] this person’s shoe. Why, then, is he forbidden to go out [wearing] it even though he does not require it for walking, only for appearances’ sake so that he does not appear as lacking a leg? [In resolution:] This prosthetic leg is not placed in the category of a shoe at all since it is made of wood and a shoe must be made of leather, as will be explained in sec. 614[:3].

Even if this prosthetic leg is covered with leather, in which instance, it is placed in the category of a shoe,93 as will be explained in that source, the amputee should not go out [wearing] it. [The rationale is that] since it only has a place for the stump of his leg, there is concern that it might slip off and he would forget [to put it back on] and carry it by hand.94 [There is an exception: when] the leather that covers the prosthetic leg projects above it in a way that he could wear the additional portion around his leg and tie it there so that it could not slip off [the stump of his leg].)95

In contrast, one who is not an amputee is permitted to go out [to the public domain] wearing a wooden shoe (even if it is not covered with leather at all.96 Since his foot is inserted in it, we are not concerned that it may slip off his foot) even though he cannot tie [the wooden shoe] tightly around [his foot]. How much more so is it permitted to go out [wearing] footwear that are covered with leather and are called slippers, even though they can easily slip off one’s feet. Since the foot inserted into [the footwear] is enclosed by leather, there is no concern that it will slip off his foot entirely.

There are places where it is customary not to go out [to the public domain wearing such footwear] as an initial preference even though it is permissible according to law. If, however, one forgot and went out wearing them, he is not required to remove them from his feet while in the public domain.

יב אֵין הַקִּטֵּעַקפט שֶׁנִּקְטְעוּ רַגְלָיוקצ יוֹצֵא בְּקַב שֶׁלּוֹ,88 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה כְּמִין דְּפוּס שֶׁל רֶגֶל וְחוֹקֵק בּוֹ מְעַט לָשׂוּם רֹאשׁ שׁוֹקוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹ,קצא וְאֵין עוֹשֶׂה קַב זֶה כְּדֵי לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי עַל כָּל פָּנִים צָרִיךְ הוּא לְמַקְלוֹ,קצב וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לָצֵאת בְּמַקְלוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,קצג, 89 הוֹאִיל וְהוּא צֹרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ, אֶלָּא עֲשִׂיַּת קַב זֶה הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כַּחֲסַר רֶגֶל אֶלָּא נְכֵה רֶגֶל,קצד (ה) לְפִיכָךְ כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ צֹרֶךְ הִלּוּכוֹ – (הֲרֵי הוּא מַשּׂוֹיקצה, 90) וְאָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ.קצו, 91

(וְאַף שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו תּוֹרַת מַלְבּוּשׁ מֻתָּר לְלָבְשׁוֹ וְלָצֵאת בּוֹ אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְלָבְשׁוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתוֹ אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אַחֵר,קצז, 92 וְאִם כֵּן הוּא הַדִּין קַב זֶה שֶׁהוּא מִנְעָל שֶׁלּוֹ – לָמָּה לֹא יֵצֵא בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צֹרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתוֹ אֶלָּא לְהִתְחַפֵּשׂ בּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֵרָאֶה חֲסַר רֶגֶל? לְפִי שֶׁקַּב זֶה אֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת מִנְעָל כְּלָל, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא שֶׁל עֵץ, וְאֵין נִקְרָא מִנְעָל אֶלָּא שֶׁל עוֹר,קצח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תרי"ד.קצט

וְאַף אִם קַב זֶה מְחֻפֶּה עוֹר, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת מִנְעָל עָלָיו, ר, 93 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםרא – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יֵצֵא בּוֹ הַקִּטֵּעַ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא רֹאשׁ שׁוֹקוֹ – חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשָּׁמֵט מִמֶּנּוּ וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ,רב, 94 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עוֹר הַחוֹפֶה אֶת הַקַּב עוֹדֵף מִמֶּנּוּ גַּם כֵּן לְמַעְלָה מִן הַקַּב בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לִלְבּוֹשׁ עוֹדֵף זֶה עַל שׁוֹקוֹ וְלִקְשׁוֹר שָׁם עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לְהִשָּׁמֵט מִמֶּנּוּרג).95

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קִטֵּעַ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לָצֵאת בְּמִנְעָל שֶׁל עֵץרד (וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְחֻפֶּה עוֹר כְּלָל,רה, 96 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהָרֶגֶל נִכְנֶסֶת בּוֹ – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשָּׁמֵט מֵעַל רַגְלוֹרו), אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַדְּקוֹ בְּחֹזֶק סְבִיב רַגְלוֹ. וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לָצֵאת בְּמִינֵי מִנְעָלִים הַמְּחֻפִּים עוֹר שֶׁקּוֹרִין (פַּאנְטִינִי"שׁ), אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּט מֵהָרַגְלַיִם בִּמְהֵרָה,רז שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהָרֶגֶל נִכְנֶסֶת בְּעוֹר הַחוֹפֶה – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁיִּשָּׁמְטוּרח לְגַמְרֵי.

וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בָּהֶםרט לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר מִן הַדִּין.רי אֲבָל אִם שָׁכַח וְיָצָא בָּהֶם – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַהֲסִירָם מֵעַל רַגְלָיו בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:ריא

13 When both a person’s legs were amputated, he walks on his knees and the length of his thighs, and he fashions supports of leather or of wood along the length of his thighs, he is permitted to go out [to the public domain while wearing] them,97 for they are [like] an ornament for him.

[Different laws apply,] however, when the tendons of an amputee’s thighs and knees have dried out and withered and he is unable to walk on them at all. Instead, something similar to a low chair is made for him to sit on. When he [wishes to] go forward, he leans his hands on low handrests,98 propelling himself by lifting his body from the earth and lurching forward. He then rests on his posterior, to which his chair is fastened. Leather or wooden supports are made for the hanging ends of his [amputated] legs. [Usually, his legs are suspended in the air, but] at times, when the ground in front of him is elevated, when he supports himself with his arms and lifts himself up, he supports himself with [the ends of] his [amputated] legs as well.97 Most of the time, however, [his legs] are suspended in the air and do not touch the ground. He should not go out [to the public domain] with these supports on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] since [by and large, the supports] are suspended [in the air] and do not rest on the ground, there is room for concern that they might slip from his legs and [then] he will forget and carry them by hand. He may, however, go out with the chair [fastened to] his posterior and with the handrests upon his hands. Since he cannot go out without them, they are considered like his shoes, (for his entire body rests on them).99

Similarly, a lame person who cannot walk at all without a cane is permitted to go out [to the public domain] using one, even if it is not tied to his body. If, however, it is possible for him to walk somewhat without his cane and he takes it only to support himself so that he can walk more (better) without falling, it is forbidden for him to go out with [the cane] on Shabbos.100 [This prohibition applies] even [to] an elderly man who – because of his fear of falling, for he sways while he walks – leans on a cane when he goes outdoors because of his frailty, but walks without a cane at home. ([The rationale is that] since he walks at home without [the aid of] a cane, he does not need the cane to support his entire body and his full [ability to] walk [does not depend on the cane]. Instead, he uses it only as a support when he fears that he may fall. [Thus, the cane] is like a burden that he carries for the sake of his walking. It is not comparable to shoes, which support his entire body the entire time he walks. He is therefore permitted to go out [while wearing footwear] even if they are not in the halachic category of shoes – for example, wooden shoes that are not covered with leather.)101

Similar [laws apply to] a person who was ill and [just] recovered from his illness. If he can walk (somewhat) without a cane, it is forbidden for him to go out using it. If he cannot [walk at all without the cane], he is permitted [to go out using it]. Similarly, a blind person should not go out with a cane, because he can walk without it;102 he only takes it [out and uses it] to straighten and direct his steps. Needless to say, dignified people who customarily walk with an impressive cane in their hands are forbidden to go out [to the public domain or karmelis] carrying it on Shabbos. Indeed, it is forbidden to go out carrying one even on a festival.103 (See sec. 522[:1].)104

יג קִטֵּעַ בִּשְׁתֵּי רַגְלָיו וּמְהַלֵּךְ עַל אַרְכֻּבּוֹתָיו וְעַל אֹרֶךְ שׁוֹקָיו וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ סָמוֹכוֹת שֶׁל עוֹר אוֹ שֶׁל עֵץ לְאֹרֶךְ שׁוֹקָיו – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶם,ריב, 97 לְפִי שֶׁהֵם תַּכְשִׁיט שֶׁלּוֹ.ריג

אֲבָל קִטֵּעַ שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ וְכָוְצוּ גִּידֵי שׁוֹקָיו וְאַרְכֻּבּוֹתָיו וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָל אֶלָּא עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ כְּמִין כִּסֵּא נָמוּךְ וְיוֹשֵׁב עָלָיו, וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ נִסְמָךְ בְּיָדָיו עַל סַפְסָלִים98 קְטַנִּים וְעוֹקֵר גּוּפוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ וְנִדְחָף לְפָנָיו וְחוֹזֵר וְנָח עַל אֲחוֹרָיו וְהַכִּסֵּא קְשׁוּרָה לוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ סָמוֹכוֹת שֶׁל עוֹר אוֹ שֶׁל עֵץ לְרָאשֵׁי רַגְלָיו הַתְּלוּיִים, שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא נִשְׁעָן עַל יָדָיו וְעוֹקֵר עַצְמוֹ נִשְׁעָן גַּם עַל רַגְלָיו קְצָתריד לִפְעָמִים כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לְפָנָיו קַרְקַע גָּבוֹהַּ,רטו, 98 אֲבָל רֹב פְּעָמִים הֵן תְּלוּיִין בָּאֲוִיר וְאֵין נוֹגְעִין לָאָרֶץ – לֹא יֵצֵא בְּסָמוֹכוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם תְּלוּיִים וְאֵינָם מֻנָּחִים עַל הָאָרֶץ – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשָּׁמְטוּ מֵעַל רַגְלָיורטז וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ.99 אֲבָל בְּכִסֵּא שֶׁמֵּאֲחוֹרָיו וּבַסַּפְסָלִים שֶׁבְּיָדָיו – מֻתָּר לוֹ לָצֵאת,ריז שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לָלֶכֶת מִבִּלְעָדָםריח – הֲרֵי הֵם מִנְעָלָיוריט (שֶׁכָּל גּוּפוֹ נִסְמָךְ עֲלֵיהֶםרכ).

וְכֵן חִגֵּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ כְּלָל בְּלֹא מַקֵּל – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר לוֹ.רכא אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ קְצָת בְּלֹא מַקֵּל, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטְלוֹ אֶלָּא (ו) לְהַחֲזִיק אֶת עַצְמוֹרכב שֶׁיּוּכַל לָלֶכֶת (בְּטוֹב) יוֹתֵר וְלֹא יִפּוֹל.רכג, 100

וְכֵן זָקֵן הַהוֹלֵךְ בְּבֵיתוֹ בְּלֹא מַקֵּל, וּכְשֶׁיּוֹצֵא לַחוּץ נִשְׁעָן עַל מַקְלוֹ מֵחֲמַת תְּשׁוּשׁ כֹּחוֹ – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,רכד אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא זָקֵן כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁמְּנַעֲנֵעַ גּוּפוֹרכה וּמִתְיָרֵא פֶּן יִפּוֹלרכו (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בְּבֵיתוֹ בְּלֹא מַקֵּל, אִם כֵּן אֵין צָרִיךְ זֶה לְמַקֵּל שֶׁיִּסְמוֹךְ עָלָיו כָּל גּוּפוֹרכז וְכָל הֲלִיכָתוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּתְחַזֵּק בּוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵא לִפּוֹל – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַשּׂוֹי שֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא לְצֹרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְמִנְעָלִים שֶׁכָּל גּוּפוֹ נִסְמָךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּכָל הֲלִיכָתוֹ, וּלְכָךְ מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶם אַף אִם אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם שֵׁם מִנְעָל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻפֶּה עוֹררכח).101

וְכֵן חוֹלֶה שֶׁעָמַד מֵחָלְיוֹרכט. אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ (קְצָת) בְּלֹא מַקֵּל – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ, וְאִם לָאו – מֻתָּר.

וְכֵן סוּמָא לֹא יֵצֵא בְּמַקֵּל,רל שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ זוּלָתוֹ,רלא, 102 וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטְלוֹ אֶלָּא לְיַשֵּׁר וּלְתַקֵּן פְּסִיעוֹתָיו.רלב

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר (ז) הַחֲשׁוּבִים שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לֵילֵךְ בְּמַקֵּל חָשׁוּב שֶׁבְּיָדָם, שֶׁאֲסוּרִים לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.רלג וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֲסוּרִים לָצֵאת בּוֹ103 (עַיֵּן סִמָּן תקכ"ברלד):104

14 It is desirable to be meticulous and not go out [to the public domain] in the same manner as one goes out during the week, i.e., without wearing at least one [special] garment or ornament that will remind him that it is Shabbos and thus he will not come to desecrate it.105

יד טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא בְּחֹל בִּלְתִּי מַלְבּוּשׁ אוֹ תַּכְשִׁיט אֶחָד, שֶׁיִּזְכּוֹר עַל יָדוֹ שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת וְלֹא יָבֹא לְחַלְּלוֹ:רלה, 105

15 A person who is enfettered and whose legs are chained is permitted to go out to the [public domain while wearing these restraints]106 because they are like a garment for him. There is no concern that they will fall off his feet and he will bring them by hand because it is assumed that they are thoroughly fastened so that he will not flee.

טו מִי שֶׁאָסוּר וּכְבָלִים בְּרַגְלָיו – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶם,רלו, 106 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם לוֹ כְּמוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ,רלז וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִפְּלוּ מֵעַל רַגְלָיו וִיבִיאֵם בְּיָדוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם הֵם תְּקוּעִים הֵיטֵב שֶׁלֹּא יִבְרַח:רלח

16 One may not go out [to the public domain wearing] an ankatmin, i.e., a donkey costume worn by jesters, where it appears that he is riding [a donkey] when in fact he is carrying [the costume] and walking on his feet. Nor may one go out on stilts that have a resting place for one’s feet and are used to walk in mud, nor wearing a mask that has the image of a [menacing] countenance and is placed over the face to scare children.107 ([The rationale is that] all of these are burdens and are not considered as garments or ornaments.) If one goes out wearing them, he is exempt (because this is not an ordinary way for most people to transfer [articles]).

טז אֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּאַנְקַטְמִין,רלט וְהוּא כְּמִין חֲמוֹר שֶׁעוֹשִׂים הַלֵּיצָנִים וְנִרְאֶה כְּרוֹכֵב עָלָיו, וְהוּא נוֹשֵׂא וְהוֹלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו.רמ וְלֹא בִּקְשָׁרִים,רמא וְהֵם עֵצִים גְּבוֹהִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מוֹשָׁב לְכַף הָרֶגֶל וְהוֹלְכִין בָּהֶם בְּטִיט.רמב וְלֹא בְּפַרְמִי,רמג וְהֵם כְּעֵין צוּרוֹת פַּרְצוּף שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים עַל הַפָּנִים לְהַפְחִיד הַתִּינוֹקוֹתרמד, 107 (שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ מַשּׂוֹי הֵם, וְאֵינָם מַלְבּוּשִׁים וְתַכְשִׁיטִיןרמה).

וְאִם יָצָא בָּהֶם – פָּטוּררמו (שֶׁאֵין זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הוֹצָאָה לְרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָםרמז):

17 One may not go out [wearing] a chest, a basket, or a mat108 even [as protection] against rain, even when one wears them like a garment. [The rationale is that] since people never wear such articles, they are considered as burdens. One may, however, go out [wearing] woven goat’s hair, an unfinished thick sheet, or a coarse coat as garments.108 [The rationale is that] since it is common to go out with them when it is raining, they are still considered as garments even when it is not raining.109

יז אֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּתֵבָה אוֹ קֻפָּה אוֹ מַחֲצֶלֶת,רמח, 108 וַאֲפִלּוּ מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים,רמט אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁנִּתְלַבֵּשׁ בָּהֶם כְּמוֹ בְּמַלְבּוּשׁ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בָּהֶם לְעוֹלָם – הֲרֵי הֵן מַשּׂוֹי.רנ

אֲבָל יוֹצְאִין בְּשַׂק וִירִיעָה וַחֲמִילָהרנא דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ,רנב, 108 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לָצֵאת בָּהֶן בִּשְׁעַת הַגְּשָׁמִים, וְלָכֵן אַף שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַגְּשָׁמִיםרנג שֵׁם מַלְבּוּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם:109

18 It is permissible to go out [on Shabbos]with combed flax and carded wool that is placed over a wound on Shabbos so that the garments not irritate the wound, for they serve one like a garment.110 They must, however, be prepared for this purpose while it is still day [on Friday], so the prohibition against carrying articles that are muktzeh will not be infringed upon, as will be stated in sec. 308[:56].111

Similarly, it is permitted to wind a rag [as a bandage] around a wound on one’s arm or finger and go out to the public domain [wearing] it.112 (There is no concern about the impression that might be created, i.e., that others will say that he is intending to transfer the rag, and not that it is wrapped around his hand because of the wound.)113

יח יוֹצְאִין בְּפִשְׁתָּן סָרוּק וְצֶמֶר מְנֻפָּץ שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה בְּשַׁבָּתרנד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְסָרְטוּ הַבְּגָדִים אֶת הַמַּכָּה,רנה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם לוֹ כְּמוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ.רנו, 110 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁהוּכְנוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"[ח].רנז, 111

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִכְרוֹךְ סְמַרְטוּט עַל הַמַּכָּה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ אוֹ שֶׁבְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְלָצֵאת בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםרנח, 112 (וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיא הַסְּמַרְטוּט וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַמַּכָּה כְּרָכוֹ בְּיָדוֹרנט):113

19 Needless to say, it is permitted to go out with a sponge or thin strips of worn-out garments [placed over] a wound, because they heal it.114 They are, hence, considered as an ornament. Similar laws apply to garlic peels, onion [peels], grape leaves, and all other leaves that heal. However, one may not apply them initially to the wound on Shabbos even if he does not desire to go out to the public domain with them. [The rationale is that] our Sages decreed that all healing agents should not be applied initially on Shabbos. [This is a safeguard enacted] so that one will not crush [medicinal] herbs on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 328[:1, 30]. If, however, [one of these healing agents] had been placed on a wound on Friday and fell off on Shabbos, it is permitted to return it, as will be explained in that source. [Indeed, if it fell off in the public domain,] it may be returned even in the public domain, just as a person is permitted to return one of his garments that fell off his body in the public domain. Similarly, a bandage and the like that fell off one’s wound and did not reach the ground, but instead fell on a utensil115 – [hence] they are permitted to be returned to the wound, as will be explained in that source – may be returned [to the wound] even in the public domain.

יט וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לָצֵאת בִּסְפוֹגרס וַחֲתִיכוֹת בְּגָדִים דַּקִּים יְשָׁנִיםרסא שֶׁעַל הַמַּכָּה שֶׁהֵן מְרַפְּאִים אוֹתָהּ,114 וַהֲרֵי הֵן לוֹ כְּתַכְשִׁיט,רסב וְכֵן בִּקְלִפּוֹת שׁוּם וּבָצָלרסג וַעֲלֵי גְפָנִים וּשְׁאָר עָלִים הַמְרַפְּאִים.רסד

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְּנֵם עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לָצֵאת בָּהֶם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, לְפִי שֶׁגָּזְרוּ חֲכָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר הַמְרַפֵּא שֶׁלֹּא לִתְּנוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִשְׁחוֹק סַמָּנִים בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ח.רסה

אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עָלֶיהָ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנָפְלָה מֵעָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ עָלֶיהָ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,רסו כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר לִלְבּוֹשׁ מַלְבּוּשִׁים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מֵעָלָיו בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְכֵן רְטִיָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ שֶׁנָּפְלָה מִמַּכָּתָהּ וְלֹא הִגִּיעַ לָאָרֶץ, אֶלָּא נָפְלָה עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלִי,115 שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָן עַל גַּבֵּי מַכָּתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם – מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָן אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:רסז

20 One may wind a rag around a bandage or other articles placed on a wound and go out to the public domain wearing it. One may [even] untie it in the public domain and then retie it there. There is no concern that when he unties it by hand in the public domain he might forget and carry it by hand, for the reason to be explained in sec. 303[:22].116

It is, however, forbidden to tie a string or a band around the bandage or other entities that are on the wound. The rationale is that the string or band is somewhat important and is not considered as batel117 to the bandage118 – in contrast to the rags that are bound [around it] that are not important at all. Once he has no further need for [the rags] after he unties them from the bandage, he will cast them to the ground. Therefore, [the rags] are batel to the bandage.

כ מֻתָּר לֶאֱגוֹד סְמַרְטוּט עַל הָרְטִיָּה אוֹ עַל שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁעַל הַמַּכָּה וְלָצֵאת בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְיָכוֹל לְהַתִּירוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְלַחֲזוֹר וּלְקָשְׁרוֹ שָׁם,רסח וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים כְּשֶׁמַּתִּירוֹ בְּיָדוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ג.רסט, 116

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִכְרוֹךְ חוּט אוֹ מְשִׁיחָהער עַל גַּבֵּי הָרְטִיָּה אוֹ שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁעַל הַמַּכָּה,רעא לְפִי שֶׁהַחוּט אוֹ מְשִׁיחָה חֲשׁוּבִיםערב קְצָת וְאֵינָם בְּטֵלִים117 לְגַבֵּי רְטִיָּה118 כְּמוֹ אִגּוּד שֶׁל סְמַרְטוּט שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלָל, שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּתִּירוֹ מֵהָרְטִיָּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹ עוֹד הֲרֵי הוּא מַשְׁלִיכוֹ לָאָרֶץ, וּלְפִיכָךְ הוּא בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הָרְטִיָּה:רעג

21 Boys may go out [to the public domain] with golden bells woven or sewn into their clothing119 as ornamentation.120 If, however, [the bells] are not woven or sewn [into the garments], but rather hang from a knot or the like, they are forbidden to go out [wearing] them, even though they are young boys.121 [The rationale is that] it is common only for princes or the like, i.e., the children of the very wealthy, to go out wearing bells. For others, doing so is an expression of conceit. The children of the princes and the wealthy will make jest of the other children for acting conceitedly [and vainly conducting themselves] in a manner inappropriate for them. There is reason for concern that [when] the child’s father will hear that jest is being made of his child because of the bells, he will go out and remove the bells from him since they are neither woven nor sewn [into his garment. The father will] then forget and carry them by hand in the public domain.

Even when [the bells] are woven into their garments, boys should not go around with [such garments], not even in the house, unless the bells do not have clappers. If, however, the bells have clappers designed to make noise, it is forbidden to wear them on Shabbos, for it is forbidden to sound a bell that is made for a child to ring, as will be explained in sec. 338[:1] and sec. 339[:2].122 Even though in our case a minor is [wearing the bells] and we are not commanded to distance a minor from the violation of the Shabbos laws,123 it is, nevertheless, forbidden to give [the child] this garment onto which the bell is woven [to wear], for this is like handing him forbidden food to eat. See sec. 343[:5 where these concepts are discussed].

When, by contrast, [a bell] does not have a clapper, even an adult may go out [wearing] a garment on which the bell is woven or sewn.124 If he is a prince or the like, he may go out wearing it even if it is hanging around his neck.125 There is no concern that [the chain] will be severed, [the bell] will fall, and he will [pick it up and] carry it by hand, for it can be assumed that any silver or golden bell will be fastened durably to a chain, so that it will not be severed [and fall].

By contrast, no one is permitted to go out wearing bells made from any other metal, unless they are woven or sewn onto his garment. True, there is no reason for concern that princes and the like will make jest of him, because [wearing such inexpensive bells] carries no import and is not considered conceited behavior because it is the habit of [even] people at large to go out wearing them. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to go out with the bells [if they are not woven or sewn to the garments, for] there is reason for concern that they might become severed and fall off and then be carried by hand.

כא הַבָּנִים יוֹצְאִין בְּזַגִּיןעדר שֶׁל זָהָבערה הָאֲרוּגִיםרעו אוֹ תְּפוּרִיםרעז לָהֶם בִּכְסוּתָם119 לְנוֹי,רעח, 120 אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם אֲרוּגִיםרעט אוֹ תְּפוּרִים אֶלָּא תְּלוּיִין עַל יְדֵי קֶשֶׁר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶהרפ – אֲסוּרִים לָצֵאת בָּהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם בָּנִים קְטַנִּים,רפא, 121 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לָצֵאת בְּזַגִּין אֶלָּא בְּנֵי מְלָכִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי עֲשִׁירִים גְּדוֹלִים, וְלִשְׁאָר בָּנִים הֲרֵי הוּא יוּהֲרָא, וּבְנֵי מְלָכִים וְהָעֲשִׁירִים מְשַׂחֲקִים עֲלֵיהֶם עַל שֶׁמִּתְיַהֲרִים בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לָהֶם, וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁמַע אָבִיו שֶׁל זֶה הַהוֹלֵךְ בְּזַגִּין שֶׁמְּשַׂחֲקִים עָלָיו וְיֵלֵךְ וְיָסִיר הַזַּגִּין מִבְּנוֹ,רפב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן אֲרוּגִין וְלֹא תְּפוּרִים, וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.

וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁהֵם אֲרוּגִים בִּכְסוּתָם – לֹא יֵלְכוּ בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ בַּבַּיִת אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם עִנְבָּל, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם עִנְבָּל הֶעָשׂוּי לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל – אֲסוּרִים לְלָבְשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת,רפג שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל שֶׁל זוּג הֶעָשׂוּי לְקַשְׁקֵשׁ בּוֹ הַתִּינוֹק,רפד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"חרפה וְשל"ט.רפו, 122 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכַּאן עוֹשֶׂה זֹאת הַקָּטָן וְאֵין אָנוּ מְצֻוִּים לְהַפְרִישׁ הַקָּטָן מֵחִלּוּל שַׁבָּת,רפז, 123 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר לִתֵּן לוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ זֶה שֶׁהַזּוּג אָרוּג בּוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַאֲכִילוֹ אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם,רפח עַיֵּן סִמָּן שמ"ג.רפט

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵין בּוֹ עִנְבָּל – מֻתָּר אַף לְגָדוֹל לָצֵאת בִּכְסוּתוֹ שֶׁהַזּוּג אָרוּגרצ אוֹ תָּפוּר בּוֹ.124 וְאִם הוּא מִבְּנֵי מְלָכִים אוֹ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, אַף אִם תָּלוּי בְּצַוָּארוֹ – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ.125 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִפְסוֹק וְיִפּוֹל וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם כָּל זוּג שֶׁל כֶּסֶף אוֹ זָהָב תּוֹקְעִין אוֹתוֹ יָפֶה בְּשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת שֶׁלֹּא יִפְסוֹק.

אֲבָל זוּג שֶׁל שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתֶּכֶת – אֵין כָּל אָדָם רַשַּׁאי לָצֵאת בּוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אָרוּגרצא אוֹ תָּפוּר בִּכְסוּתוֹ, שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׂחֲקוּ עָלָיו בְּנֵי מְלָכִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין זֶה חָשׁוּב כְּלָל וְאֵין בּוֹ יוּהֲרָא, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ כָּל אָדָם לָצֵאת בּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִפְסוֹק וְיִפּוֹל וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ:רצב

22 The above applies to bells, which were commonly affixed as an ornament to all garments in [the Talmudic]era. To the garments of princes and the like were affixed silver or golden [bells], and to those of ordinary people, [bells made] of other metals. Therefore, our Sages did not desire to trouble [the people] to remove them on Friday from all the garments onto which they were woven or sewn, and [in this way] degrade the garments.126 It is, however, forbidden to go out [to the public domain wearing] an ornament that is not commonly attached to a garment, even if it was woven or sewn onto the garment. This is a decree enacted [to prevent one from going out wearing such an ornament] that was not woven or sewn [onto the garment].127 [Our Sages did not consider the decree excessive] since removing [the ornament] from the garment would not be degrading [it] at all, since [such ornaments] are not at all commonly attached to garments.

When does the above apply? [To ornaments made] from other types of metals. Silver or golden ornaments, by contrast, may be worn in all instances. They may even be hung from one’s neck. Since it can be assumed that, because of their value, they are fastened tightly so that they will not become separated and fall, there is no reason to issue a decree [as a safeguard] lest they not be attached thoroughly and thus they could be separated and fall. Therefore, license was granted to go out wearing a golden or silver key128 hanging from one’s garments even though it is not common to hang such articles [from one’s clothes]. Conversely, it was forbidden to hang keys made from other metals, as explained above,129 in addition to the rationale explained there.130

כב וְכָל זֶה בְּזוּג שֶׁהָיָה דֶרֶךְ בִּימֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ לְנוֹי לְכָל הַבְּגָדִים,רצג שֶׁל בְּנֵי מְלָכִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִכֶּסֶף וְזָהָב, וּשְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם מִשְּׁאָר מִינֵי מַתְּכוֹת,רצד וּלְכָךְ לֹא רָצוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַטְרִיחַ לְפָסְקוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִכָּל הַבְּגָדִים שֶׁהוּא אָרוּג אוֹ תָּפוּר בָּהֶם וּלְגַנּוֹת הַבְּגָדִים.רצה, 126

אֲבָל תַּכְשִׁיט שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִין לְחַבְּרוֹ בְּבֶגֶד – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹרצו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָרוּג וְתָפוּר בְּבֶגֶד, שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עָלָיו גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם אֵינוֹ אָרוּג וְתָפוּר,רצז, 127 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם גְּנַאי כְּלָל אִם יַפְסִיקֶנּוּ מֵהַבֶּגֶד, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין רְגִילוּת כְּלָל לְחַבְּרוֹ בְּבֶגֶד.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתֶּכֶת, אֲבָל שֶׁל כֶּסֶף אוֹ זָהָב – מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן,רחצ וַאֲפִלּוּ לִתְלוֹתוֹ בְּצַוָּארוֹ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם תּוֹקְעִין אוֹתוֹ יָפֶה שֶׁלֹּא יִפּוֹל וְיִפְסוֹק מֵחֲמַת שֶׁדָּמָיו יְקָרִיםרצט – אֵין לִגְזוֹר בּוֹ שֶׁמֹּא לֹא יְחַבְּרֶנּוּ יָפֶה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לִפָּסֵק וְלִפּוֹל. וְלָכֵן הִתִּירוּ לָצֵאת בְּמַפְתֵּחַ שֶׁל זָהָב אוֹ כֶּסֶף128 הַתְּלוּיִים בְּבִגְדּוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין רְגִילוּת לִתְלוֹתוֹ שָׁם, וְאָסְרוּ בְּמַפְתֵּחַ שֶׁל שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתְּכוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה, ש, 129 לְבַד מִטַּעַם הַמְבֹאָר שָׁם:130

23 All the above applies to an ornament which is [fundamentally] permitted to be [worn and] taken out [to the public domain even while not attached to the garment]; the necessity for it to be attached to the garment is only [a result of] a decree, lest it become detached and fall. If, however, one attached an article that is not made as an ornament, but rather for a functional purpose, it [remains] an entity that is forbidden to take out [to the public domain. The fact that the article] is attached to the garment is not cause for license to take it out. [Instead, the article] is considered as if it was unattached and separate from the garment. [The rationale is that] since [the article] has an independent functional purpose and does not serve the garment at all, it is not batel69 to that garment, even though the garment is far more important than [the article], as explained above.131

When does the above apply? When the article attached to the garment has some importance vis-à-vis the garment. If, however, it has no importance whatsoever in relation to the garment – for example, a handkerchief that is used to wipe one’s nose – it is considered batel vis-à-vis the garment, provided it is sewn onto [the garment] with [at least] two stitches. For two stitches are considered as binding [garments together] with regard to [the prohibition of] shaatnez.132(With regard to [the prohibition against sewing on] Shabbos, see sec. 340[:12].)133 If, however, [a handkerchief] is sewn to a belt, it is forbidden to go out [to the public domain wearing] it. [The rationale is that] when considered in relation to a belt, it is important, and not batel to it. Needless to say, [it is forbidden to go out] if [the handkerchief] is [merely] tied to the belt, even if it is tied to [the belt] with a permanent knot. Moreover, even if one wishes to tie this handkerchief [as a belt] over the other belt or under the other belt, it is not at all effective, because one may not go out with two belts one on top of the other, as will be explained.134

Thus, a person who wishes to carry a handkerchief with him has no way of doing so except by tying it to the end of the belt (on Friday) with a permanent knot.135 This makes it into one long belt.136 He should gird himself with it [the newly lengthened belt] in its entirety137 during the entire time he is walking in the street.

Similarly, it is forbidden to go out [wearing] patches that are tied to the straps of a hat so that one [can use them to] clean his eyes, because they do not become batel69 to the hat.

כג וְכָל זֶה בְּתַכְשִׁיט, שֶׁהוּא דָבָר הַמֻּתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְחֻבָּר לִכְסוּת אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִפָּסֵק וְיִפּוֹל, אֲבָל אִם חִבֵּר לִכְסוּתוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְתַכְשִׁיט אֶלָּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ, שֶׁהוּא דָבָר הָאָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ – אֵין חִבּוּרוֹ לִכְסוּת מַתִּירוֹ לָצֵאת בּוֹ, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּתָלוּשׁ וּמֻפְסָק מֵהַכְּסוּת, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ כְּלוּם לְאוֹתוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ, שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ בָטֵל69 לְגַבֵּי אוֹתוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁשא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּלְבּוּשׁ חָשׁוּב הַרְבֵּה מִמֶּנּוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.שב, 131

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁדָּבָר זֶה שֶׁחִבְּרוֹ לִכְסוּת הוּא חָשׁוּב קְצָת נֶגֶד הַכְּסוּת, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלָל נֶגֶד חֲשִׁיבוּת הַכְּסוּת, כְּגוֹן מִטְפַּחַת שֶׁמְּקַנְּחִין בּוֹ אֶת הָאַף (שֶׁקּוֹרִין פַאצֵילִי"שׁ) – הֲרֵי הִיא בְּטֵלָה לְגַבֵּי הַכְּסוּתשג אִם הִיא תְּפוּרָה לוֹ בְּב' תְּכִיפוֹת,דש שֶׁב' תְּכִיפוֹת חֲשׁוּבִין חִבּוּר לְעִנְיַן כִּלְאַיִםשה, 132 (וּלְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת, עַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"משו).133

אֲבָל אִם הִיא תְּפוּרָה לַחֲגוֹרָה – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּגֶד הַחֲגוֹרָה הִיא חֲשׁוּבָה וְאֵינָהּ בְּטֵלָה אֵלֶיהָ.שז וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם קְשׁוּרָה שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ בְּקֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא.שח וְאַף אִם רוֹצֶה לַחֲגוֹר שָׁם בְּמִטְפַּחַת זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַחֲגוֹרָה אוֹ תַּחְתֶּיהָ – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּב' חֲגוֹרוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ,שט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.שי, 134

וּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִשָּׂא עִמּוֹ מִטְפַּחַת זוֹ – אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִקְשְׁרֶנָּה בְּרֹאשׁ הַחֲגוֹרָהשיא (מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתשיב) בְּקֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא,שיג, 135 שֶׁאָז נַעֲשֵׂית כַּחֲגוֹרָה אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה,136 וְיַחְגּוֹר אֶת עַצְמוֹ בְּכֻלָּהּ137 כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בָּרְחוֹב.שיד

וְכֵן אָסוּר לָצֵאת בְּמַטְלִית שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין בִּפְתִילִין שֶׁל כּוֹבַע לְקַנֵּחַ בָּהּ עֵינָיו,שטו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּטֵלָה לְגַבֵּי הַכּוֹבַע:

24 It is permitted to go out on Shabbos wearing those yellow circular [patches] that the ruling kingdom decreed that all Jews must wear on their garments,138 for they are batel to the garment. [This ruling applies] even if they are not sewn onto the garment, but rather attached to it in a lesser way, through tying and the like.

כד אוֹתָן עִגּוּלִים יְרֻקִּים שֶׁגָּזְרָה מַלְכוּתשטז שֶׁכָּל יְהוּדִי יִשָּׂא אֶחָד מֵהֶם בִּכְסוּתוֹ – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת,שיז, 138 שֶׁהֵם בְּטֵלִים לְגַבֵּי הַכְּסוּת,שיח אַף אִם אֵינָם תְּפוּרִים בִּכְסוּת אֶלָּא מְחֻבָּרִים בָּהּ קְצָתשיט עַל יְדֵי קְשִׁירָהשכ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ:

25 One may go out [to the public domain wearing] herbs that are tied in knots and hung from one’s neck for therapeutic purposes.139 Since they are worn for healing, they are not considered as a burden for the person, but rather as an ornament. For this reason, it is permitted to go out wearing a reliable amulet,140 for it is considered as an ornament for a sick person – like one of his garments. One may not go out wearing an amulet that is not reliable,141 not even to a karmelis.142

What constitutes a reliable amulet? One that was made by an expert [amulet maker]143 even though the amulet itself has not proven its reliability.144 How much more so [is it considered a reliable amulet] if the amulet itself has proved its effectiveness, even though it was not made by an expert [amulet maker].

When is a person considered an expert [amulet maker]? When he has written one text145 on three [separate] scripts and [with them] healed three people,146 each script healing a different person. Such an individual is considered an expert with regard to this text. Whenever he writes it, it is permitted for someone to go out on Shabbos wearing [this amulet], even though it has yet to prove its efficacy, i.e., this fourth script has yet to heal anyone. [The above applies] even if the writer [of the amulet] does not know anything about medicine; [his lack of medical knowledge] is of no consequence.

If another person writes the fourth script – even though it is the same text as the first scripts, it is forbidden to go out [wearing] it. [The rationale is that] it was not written by an expert, for it is the mazal147 [of the writer] that causes [the healing].

Moreover, this expert is only considered as an expert with regard to this text, but not with regard to other mystical texts. Even if he writes many texts and each one of them proves effective many times, he is considered to be an expert only with regard to those texts that have already proven effective three times, but not with regard to other texts that have not yet proven effective three times.

כה מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בְּמִינֵי עֲשָׂבִים שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין אוֹתָם בִּקְשָׁרִים וְתוֹלִין אוֹתָם בְּצַוָּאר לִרְפוּאָה,שכא, 139 וְאֵינָם כְּמַשּׂוֹי לְאָדָם אֶלָּא כְּתַכְשִׁיט, הוֹאִיל וְהֵם לִרְפוּאָה.שכב

וּמִטַּעַם זֶהשכג מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בְּקָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה,שכד, 140 שֶׁתַּכְשִׁיט הוּא לְחוֹלֶה כְּאֶחָד מִמַּלְבּוּשָׁיו.שכה אֲבָל אֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּקָמֵיעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶהשכו, 141 אֲפִלּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית.שכז, 142

וְאֵיזֶהוּ קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה? כֹּל שֶׁעָשָׂהוּ אִישׁ מֻמְחֶה143 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקָּמֵיעַ עַצְמָהּ אֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה,שכח, 144 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם קָמֵיעַ עַצְמוֹ הוּא מֻמְחֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשָׂהוּ אִישׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה.שכט

כֵּיצַד נַעֲשֶׂה הָאִישׁ מֻמְחֶה? כְּגוֹן שֶׁכָּתַב לַחַשׁ אֶחָד145 בְּג' אִגְּרוֹת, וְרִפֵּא ג' בְּנֵי אָדָם,146 כָּל אִגֶּרֶת רִפָּאתָה אָדָם אֶחָד – נַעֲשָׂה אִישׁ הַכּוֹתֵב מֻמְחֶהשל לְלַחַשׁ זֶה.שלא וְכָל פַּעַם שֶׁיִּכְתְּבֶנּוּ מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקָּמֵיעַ עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה, שֶׁאִגֶּרֶת זוֹ הַד' לֹא רִפָּאתָה עֲדַיִן מֵעוֹלָם. וְאַף שֶׁהָאִישׁ אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ כְּלוּם בִּרְפוּאוֹת – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.שלב

וְאִם אָדָם אַחֵר כָּתַב אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ הָרְבִיעִית, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אוֹתוֹ לַחַשׁ עַצְמוֹ שֶׁבְּאִגְּרוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת – אָסוּר לָצֵאת,שלג הוֹאִיל וְלֹא כְתָבָהּ אִישׁ הַמֻּמְחֶה, שֶׁמַּזָּלו147ֹ גוֹרֵם. וְאַף הָאִישׁ הַמֻּמְחֶה לֹא נַעֲשָׂה מֻמְחֶה עַל יְדֵי כֵן אֶלָּא לְלַחַשׁ זֶה בִּלְבָד אֲבָל לֹא לִשְׁאָר לְחָשִׁים,שלד וְאַף אִם כָּתַב כַּמָּה מִינֵי לְחָשִׁים וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם הוֹעִילוּ כַּמָּה פְעָמִים – לֹא נַעֲשָׂה מֻמְחֶה אֶלָּא לִלְחָשִׁים אֵלּוּ שֶׁהוֹעִילוּ ג' פְּעָמִים, אֲבָל לֹא לִשְׁאָר לְחָשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא הוֹעִילוּ עֲדַיִן ג' פְּעָמִים:שלה

26 How is an amulet determined to be reliable even when it was not composed by an expert [amulet maker]? One textwas written on a single script and that script healed on three separate occasions.146 This script is then considered as a reliable amulet and it is permitted for any person to go out [wearing] it on Shabbos even though the person who wrote it is not yet considered an expert, for he wrote only one amulet. If [that person] would write this same text on another script, it would be forbidden to go out wearing that script on Shabbos as long as it had not healed on three occasions.

כו וְכֵיצַד נַעֲשֶׂה הַקָּמֵיעַ עַצְמוֹ מֻמְחֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֲשָׂאוֹ אִישׁ מֻמְחֶה? כְּגוֹן שֶׁכָּתַב לַחַשׁ אֶחָד בְּאִגֶּרֶת אַחַת, וְרִפָּאתָה אוֹתוֹ אִגֶּרֶת ג' פְּעָמִים,שלו, 146 שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה זוֹ הָאִגֶּרֶת מֻמְחֶה. וּמֻתָּר לְכָל אָדָם לָצֵאת בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאִישׁ אֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה עֲדַיִן, שֶׁלֹּא כָתַב אֶלָּא קָמֵיעַ אַחַת. וְאִם יִכְתּוֹב עוֹד לַחַשׁ זֶה בְּאִגֶּרֶת אַחֶרֶת – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בְּאוֹתָהּ אִגֶּרֶת בְּשַׁבָּתשלז כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא רִפָּאתָה ג' פְּעָמִים:

27 A person is not deemed an expert [amulet maker]148 until three of his scripts heal three different people, each script having [healed] a different person. If, however, he healed one person many times with many scripts employing the same text, he is not considered an expert with regard to this text.140 [The rationale is that] it is possible to ascribe the healing to the mazal of this infirm person, i.e., his mazal causes him to be healed with amulets. If, however, [the amulet maker] would write this same text for another person, it is possible that it will not be effective for him at all. [Hence,] he is forbidden to go out [wearing] it.

(Moreover, even the person who was already healed three times [by amulets made by this healer] is forbidden to go out wearing another script written by him, for he has not yet been established as an expert for all people.)

כז אֵין הָאִישׁ נַעֲשֶׂה מֻמְחֶה148 עַד שֶׁיְּרַפְּאוּ ג' אִגְּרוֹתָיו לְג' בְּנֵי אָדָם, כָּל אִגֶּרֶת לְאָדָם אֶחָד, אֲבָל אִם רִפֵּא לְאָדָם אֶחָד כַּמָּה פְעָמִים בְּכַמָּה אִגְּרוֹת שֶׁל לַחַשׁ אֶחָד – לֹא נַעֲשָׂה מֻמְחֶה לְלַחַשׁ זֶה,שלח, 140 שֶׁיֵּשׁ מָקוֹם לִתְלוֹת הָרְפוּאָה בְּמַזָּלוֹ שֶׁל הַחוֹלֶה, שֶׁמַּזָּלוֹ גּוֹרֵם לוֹשלט שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל רְפוּאָתוֹ מִקָּמֵיעוֹת, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁכּוֹתֵב לַחַשׁ זֶה לְאָדָם אַחֵר – אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יוֹעִיל לוֹ כְּלוּם וְאָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ.

(וְאַף אָדָם זֶה שֶׁנִּתְרַפֵּא כְּבָר ג' פְּעָמִים – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בְּאִגֶּרֶת אַחֵר שֶׁל אִישׁ זֶה, שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשׂה עֲדַיִן מֻמְחֶה לְכָל אָדָםשמ):

28 If, however, one script brought about healing three times, even for merely one person, this [particular] amulet is considered as reliable for any person. Any person is permitted to go out [wearing this amulet] on Shabbos, for it can be assumed that the healing can be attributed to the reliable amulet and not to the mazal of the person who is ill.

In contrast, when three different scripts heal one person [on three separate occasions], none of them are deemed as a reliable amulet. Hence, the healing must be attributed to the mazal of a person – either that of the healer who wrote the scripts or that of the ill person who was healed by the scripts. Accordingly, the healer is not established as an expert because of this act, because perhaps it was the mazal of the person who was ill that led [to the healing. When, in contrast, his scripts] healed three people, it can be assumed that the healing is dependent on the mazal of [the healer], since his [expertise] was established149 with three [different]people.

כח אֲבָל אִם אִגֶּרֶת אַחַת רִפָּאתָה ג' פְּעָמִים אֲפִלּוּ לְאָדָם אֶחָד – נַעֲשֵׂית קָמֵיעַ זוֹ מֻמְחֶה לְכָל אָדָם, שֶׁכָּל אָדָם מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם יֵשׁ לִתְלוֹת הָרְפוּאָה בְּקָמֵיעַ הַמֻּמְחֶה וְלֹא בְּמַזַּל הַחוֹלֶה,שמא מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁג' אִגְּרוֹת רִפְּאוּ אָדָם אֶחָד, שֶׁאָז לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית שׁוּם אַחַת מֵהֶן קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה, וְעַל כֵּן צָרִיךְ לִתְלוֹת הָרְפוּאָה בְּמַזַּל אָדָם, אוֹ בְּמַזַּל הָרוֹפֵא הַכּוֹתֵב אִגְּרוֹת, אוֹ בְּמַזַּל הַחוֹלֶה שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל הָרְפוּאָה מֵהָאִגְּרוֹת – אֲזַי לֹא נַעֲשָׂה הָרוֹפֵא מֻמְחֶה עַל יְדֵי כָךְ, כִּי שֶׁמָּא מַזַּל הַחוֹלֶה גּוֹרֵם,שמב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רִפֵּא לְג' בְּנֵי אָדָם, שֶׁאָז מִן הַסְּתָם הָרְפוּאָה תְּלוּיָה בְּמַזָּלוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻחְזַק149 בְּג' אֲנָשִׁים:

29 [It is possible for] a healer to lose his designation as an expert for a particulartext. For example, after he healed three people with one text,150 he then wrote three [additional] scripts containing this text for three other people without it having any positive effect. From this time onward, it is forbidden to go out [to the public domain on Shabbos wearing] any other scripts that he will write [in the future], or even [wearing] scripts that he wrote while he was still considered as an expert.

To what does this [prohibition] apply? To scripts [written by him] that only healed once or twice. If, however, a script of his already brought about healing three times, the amulet is deemed reliable in its own right. It remains permitted for all people to [go out to the public domain on Shabbos wearing it], even if the healer who wrote it has since lost his status as an expert.

When does the above [leniency] apply? When this amulet was affirmed as reliable before the healer was established as an expert or even if [the healer and the amulet] were both deemed expert and reliable at the same time. For example, [a healer] wrote two notes for two people. Each of the notes healed only one person, [and each person] only once or twice. Afterwards, he wrote a third script for one of them and it healed him on two separate occasions. Even so, the healer has not yet established himself as an expert, because he has not established a chazakah146[by healing] three people, nor is this third amulet considered reliable since it healed only twice. [If, however,] this third script heals a third time, [i.e., it heals] another person, the healer who wrote it is deemed an expert for this text,since he established a chazakah [for it] by healing three people. Similarly, this third amuletis deemed as a reliable amulet for all time, even if the healer later on loses his expert status.

If, however, the healer was deemed an expert before this script was deemed a reliable amulet – i.e., he already healed three people with three scripts before this third script healed a third [time], even though this script was one of the two [previous] scripts that caused the healer to be considered an expert – it is forbidden to go out [to the public domain with] this script after the healer loses his status as an expert, because it is possible that this script is not a reliable amulet in its own right. [True,] it healed on three occasions. [Perhaps, however,] that was because it was written by a healer whose expert status was already established to us by healing on three occasions with three different scripts. [Thus,] after the healer lost his expert status, it is possible that this script also lost its status as reliable.

כט וְאִם הָרוֹפֵא אִבֵּד אֶת הַמְחָאָתוֹ מִלַּחַשׁ זֶה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאַחַר שֶׁרִפֵּא ג' בְּנֵי אָדָם בְּלַחַשׁ אֶחָד150 כָּתַב עוֹד ג' אִגְּרוֹת מִלַּחַשׁ זֶהשמג לְג' בְּנֵי אָדָםשדמ וְלֹא הוֹעִילוּ כְּלוּם – מִכַּאן וְאֵילַךְ אָסוּר לָצֵאת בְּאִגְּרוֹתָיו שֶׁיִּכְתּוֹב עוֹד, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּאִגְּרוֹת שֶׁכָּתַב כְּבָר בְּעוֹדוֹ מֻמְחֶה.שמה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּאִגְּרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא רִפְּאוּ אֶלָּא פַּעַם אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם, אֲבָל אִגֶּרֶת שֶׁרִפָּאתָה כְּבָר ג' פְּעָמִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה מִצַּד עַצְמָהּ – מֻתָּר לְכָל אָדָם לָצֵאת בָּהּ לְעוֹלָם, אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁאִבֵּד הָרוֹפֵא שֶׁכְּתָבָהּ אֶת הַמְחָאָתוֹ.שמו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הָרוֹפֵא מֻמְחֶה, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם בָּאוּ ב' הַמְּחָאוֹת כְּאֶחָד,שמז כְּגוֹן שֶׁכָּתַב ב' אִגְּרוֹת לְב' בְּנֵי אָדָם, כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶם רִפְּאָה לְאָדָם אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְבַדּוֹ פַּעַם אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם, בִּלְבָד וְאַחַר כָּךְ כָּתַב אִגֶּרֶת שְׁלִישִׁית לְאֶחָד מֵהֶם וְרִפְּאָה אוֹתוֹ אָדָם ב' פְּעָמִים, וְאָז עֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשָׂה הָרוֹפֵא מֻמְחֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הֻחְזַק149 עֲדַיִן בְּג' אֲנָשִׁים, וְכֵן אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ הַשְּׁלִישִׁית אֵינָהּ קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה עֲדַיִן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא רִפְּאָה אֶלָּא ב' פְּעָמִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ רִפְּאָה אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ הַשְּׁלִישִׁית פַּעַם ג' לְאָדָם אַחֵרשמח – נַעֲשָׂה רוֹפֵא שֶׁכְּתָבָהּ מֻמְחֶה לְלַחַשׁ זֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻחְזַק בְּג' אֲנָשִׁים, וְגַם אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ הַשְּׁלִישִׁית נַעֲשֵׂית קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה לְעוֹלָם, אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁיֹּאבַד הָרוֹפֵא הַמְחָאָתוֹ.שמט

אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשָׂה הָרוֹפֵא מֻמְחֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁרִפֵּא כְּבָר ג' אֲנָשִׁים בְּג' אִגְּרוֹת קֹדֶם שֶׁרִפֵּא אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ פַּעַם ג', אַף אִם אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ הִיא מִשְּׁנֵי אִגְּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְחַזֵּק בָּהֶן הָרוֹפֵא לְמֻמְחֶה – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ אַחַר שֶׁאִבֵּד הָרוֹפֵא הַמְחָאָתוֹ,שנ כִּי שֶׁמָּא אֵין אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה מִצַּד עַצְמוֹ, וּמַה שֶּׁרִפְּאָה פַּעַם ג' הוּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁכְּתָבָהּ רוֹפֵא שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵר לָנוּ כְּבָר הַמְחָאָתוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁרִפֵּא כְּבָר ג' פְּעָמִים בְּג' אִגְּרוֹת, וְאִם כֵּן לְאַחַר שֶׁאִבֵּד הָרוֹפֵא הַמְחָאָתוֹ – שֶׁמָּא אָבְדָה גַם כֵּן הַמְחָאַת אִגֶּרֶת זוֹ:

30 Whenever it is permitted to go out [wearing] a reliable amulet, there is no difference whether it is a written script or it is made from herbs, or whether the person wearing it is dangerously ill or suffering from an illness that is not life-threatening.151 [Indeed,] even a person who has not fallen ill at all,151 is permitted to go out (to the public domain on Shabbos [wearing such an amulet]) if he is from a family in which epilepsy or other similar illnesses run and he is concerned and hangs an amulet [from his neck as a precaution against] falling sick because of his family’s [predisposition to this] illness.

[The following laws apply when] an amulet contains a written script that has various names of G‑d or verses from the holy texts: One may go out to the public domain [wearing] it on Shabbos if it is covered with leather and thus it is permitted to enter a latrine [while wearing] it. If, however, it is not covered with leather, it is forbidden to go out [to the public domain while wearing] it on Shabbos.152This is a decree, lest he need to enter a lavatory and remove it with his hand, forget [that it is Shabbos], and carry it in his hand in the public domain.

If he is dangerously ill and [fears that he will increase his risk] if he removes [the amulet] even temporarily, it is permitted for him to enter the latrine [wearing it] because of the danger to his life.153 Therefore,154 he is also permitted to go out to the public domain [wearing] it.

ל כָּל קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ – אֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אִם הוּא שֶׁל כְּתָב בֵּין אִם הוּא שֶׁל עִקָּרִין,שנא בֵּין אִם הוּא חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה,שנב, 151 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא אֲחָזוֹ עֲדַיִן שׁוּם חֹלִי כְּלָל,151 אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת נִכְפִּיןשנג וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן מִשְּׁאָר הַחֹלָאִיםשנד וְדוֹאֵג שֶׁלֹּא יֹאחֲזֶנּוּ חֹלִי מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹשנה וְתוֹלֶה בוֹ קָמֵיעַשנו – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ (בְּשַׁבָּת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים).

וְקָמֵיעַ שֶׁל כְּתָב שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַזְכָּרוֹת אוֹ פְּסוּקִים מִכִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אִם הוּא מְחֻפֶּה עוֹר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִכָּנֵס בּוֹ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְחֻפֶּה עוֹר – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,152 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא וִיסִירֶנּוּ מֵעָלָיו בְּיָדוֹ וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.שנז

וְאִם הוּא חוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָהשנח אִם יְסִירֶנּוּ מֵעָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי שָׁעָה – הֲרֵי מֻתָּר לוֹ לִכָּנֵס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא מִפְּנֵי פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ,שנט, 153 וְלָכֵן154 מֻתָּר לוֹ גַם כֵּן לָצֵאת בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:

31 One should not tie an amulet to a bracelet or a ring and go out with it to the public domain or a karmelis because of the impression that may be created,155 for it appears that he is wearing it as an ornament and is not intending [to wear it] for curative purposes at all. In fact, however, it is not at all an ornament if not for its [being worn for] curative purposes.156

When, however, [the amulet] is tied and hung around his neck and it is not tied with a permanent knot,157 he may untie it in the public domain and then retie it. There is no concern that when he unties [the amulet] by hand in the public domain, he will forget and carry it by hand, for the reason to be explained in sec. 303[:22].158

לא לֹא יִקְשׁוֹר הַקָּמֵיעַ בְּאֶצְעָדָה אוֹ בְּטַבַּעַת וְיֵצֵא בוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםשס אוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית, מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן,שסא, 155 שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ מִתְקַשֵּׁט בּוֹ בְּתוֹרַת תַּכְשִׁיט וְאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לִרְפוּאָה, וּבֶאֱמֶת אֵינוֹ תַכְשִׁיט כְּלָל אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת הָרְפוּאָה.שסב, 156 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהוּא קָשׁוּר וְתָלוּי בְּצַוָּארוֹ – יָכוֹל לְהַתִּירוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אִם אֵינוֹ קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא,שסג, 157 וְלַחֲזוֹר וּלְקָשְׁרוֹ,שסד וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין כְּשֶׁמַּתִּירוֹ בְּיָדוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ,שסה מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ג:שסו, 158

32 The word of a healer who claims that he is an expert amulet maker – i.e., [he states that] he already healed three people with three different scripts – may be accepted. Similarly, he is believed when he claims that one [particular] amulet healed three people and thus was deemed a reliable amulet, even though he personally was not yet deemed an expert.159

לב נֶאֱמָן הָרוֹפֵא לוֹמַר עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא מֻמְחֶה לְקָמֵיעוֹתשסז שֶׁכְּבָר רִפֵּא ג' אֲנָשִׁיםשסח בְּג' אִגְּרוֹת,שסט וְכֵן נֶאֱמָן לוֹמַר עַל קָמֵיעַ אַחַת שֶׁרִפֵּא וְשָׁנָה וְשִׁלֵּשׁ, וְנַעֲשָׂה קָמֵיעַ מֻמְחֶה,שע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה עֲדַיִן:שעא, 159

33 It is permitted to go out on Shabbos with: a) the egg of a species of grasshopper known as a chargol160 that is hung over one’s ear to relieve an earache; b) the tooth of a live fox that is hung on a person who sleeps excessively, so that he will awake from his sleepiness; c) the tooth of a dead fox that is hung on someone suffering from insomnia, so that he will be able to sleep; and/or d) a nail from a wooden beam on which someone was crucified that is used to heal a swelling that stems from a blow from [an] iron [implement]. (Even though all these heal through a segulah,161it is [nevertheless] permitted to go out [wearing any of them], whether during the week or on Shabbos. Doing so is not considered as following the ways of the Amorites,162 since it is evident that this is being done for the sake of healing. Similar [laws apply] with regard to any practice that is obviously being performed with the intent of bringing healing, even though we do not understand how healing is promoted by this practice. If, however, one performs a [similar] act which one cannot construe as being performed for the sake of healing, it is forbidden, since it is considered as “the ways of the Amorites,” concerning which the Torah cautioned:163 “Do not follow the statutes of the nation [that I am driving out before you].”

By contrast, all incantations164 are permitted for the sake of healing or to protect one from illness or harm.165 [This license applies] even when it is not known whether the incantation is effective. If, however, it is known that the incantation is not effective, its recitation is forbidden as an element of “the ways of the Amorites.” There is an authority who is concerned that any incantation [whose effectiveness] has not been proven and any amulet that has not been deemed as reliable is considered as “the ways of the Amorites.” Every meticulous person166 should show concern for this view (in a situation where there is no great need [for the incantation or the amulet]).167

לג מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בְּבֵיצַת הֶחָגָב שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ חַרְגּוֹלשעב, 160 שֶׁתּוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאָזְנוֹ לִכְאֵב הָאֹזֶן,שעג וּבְשֵׁן שֶׁל שׁוּעָלשעד חַי שֶׁתּוֹלִין לְמִי שֶׁיָּשֵׁן יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי שֶׁיָּקִיץ מִשֵּׁנָתוֹ, וּבְשֵׁן שֶׁל שׁוּעָל מֵת שֶׁתּוֹלִין לְמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִישַׁן שֶׁיִּישַׁן,שעה וּבְמַסְמֵר מֵעֵץ שֶׁצָּלְבוּ עָלָיושעו שֶׁמְּרַפְּאִים בּוֹ נֶפַח שֶׁל מַכַּת בַּרְזֶלשעז (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ רְפוּאָתָן בִּסְגֻלָּה161 – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן בֵּין בְּחֹל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּתשעח). וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי הָאֱמוֹרִי,שעט, 162 כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה. וְכֵן בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה וְנִכָּר בּוֹ שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִרְפוּאָה,שפ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ לָנוּ הֵיאַךְ בָּאָה הָרְפוּאָה עַל יְדֵי עֲשִׂיַּת דָּבָר זֶה.שפא

אֲבָל אִם עוֹשֶׂה אֵיזֶה מַעֲשֶׂה וְאֵין נִכָּר בּוֹ שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם רְפוּאָה – אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי הָאֱמוֹרִי,שפב שֶׁהִזְהִירָה הַתּוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶן "וְלֹא תֵלְכוּ בְּחֻקּוֹת הַגּוֹי וְגוֹ'".שפג, 163

אֲבָל כָּל לַחַשׁ164 מֻתָּר לִרְפוּאָה,שפד אוֹ לְהָגֵן שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא עָלָיו חֹלִישפה אוֹ נֶזֶק,שפו, 165 אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין יָדוּעַ אִם לַחַשׁ זֶה מוֹעִיל אוֹ לָאו. אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁלַּחַשׁ זֶה אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל – אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי הָאֱמוֹרִי.שפז

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ בְּכָל לַחַשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָדוּק וּבְכָל קָמֵיעַ שֶׁאֵינָהּ מֻמְחֶה מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי הָאֱמוֹרִי.שפח וְכָל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ166 יָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו (בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ):שפט, 167

34 Anyone who has a wound on his foot that is healed by tying to it a coin with a specific design may go out [to the public domain] with [the coin bound to his foot on Shabbos].168 Since it is a healing agent, it is considered as an ornament (and as a garment) for him.

If, however, the wound is one that is not healed by a coin and [the coin] is tied to it only to protect it so that it will not be harmed by thorns or spikes on the road, it is forbidden to go out [with the coin. The rationale is that] the coin is important, and because of its importance, it does not become batel to the extent that it is deemed as a garment (or an ornament),169 unless there is a medical need for it, (in which instance, it [becomes batel and] is considered as an ornament).

לד כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּרַגְלוֹ מַכָּה שֶׁרְפוּאָתוֹ לִקְשׁוֹר עָלֶיהָ מַטְבֵּעַ שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו צוּרָה – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ,שצ, 168 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְרַפֵּא – הֲרֵי הוּא לוֹ כְּתַכְשִׁיטשצא (וּמַלְבּוּשׁשצב). אֲבָל אִם הוּא מַכָּה שֶׁאֵין הַמַּטְבֵּעַ מְרַפֵּא אוֹתָהּ, וְאֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא לְהָגֵן עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא תִנְגּוֹף בְּקוֹצִים וְיִתְדוֹת הַדְּרָכִיםשצג – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ,שצד שֶׁהַמַּטְבֵּעַ חָשׁוּב הוּא, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל מֵחֲשִׁיבוּתוֹשצה לְהִקָּרֵא עָלָיו שֵׁם מַלְבּוּשׁ (וְתַכְשִׁיט),169 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ לִרְפוּאָה (שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ עָלָיו שֵׁם תַּכְשִׁיט):

35 [The following laws apply] when one goes out wearing a tallis170that is folded and placed on his shoulders,171 i.e., he placed [the tallis] over his head, lifted up its lower edge [and placed it] on his shoulders. [Should he do so,] he is liable [for carrying on Shabbos in a public domain. It does not matter] whether he lifted up the entire length of the lower edge [see fig. 1] or only [lifted] just the two corners of the lower edge, placing one corner on one shoulder and one on the other shoulder, [leaving] the middle portion of the lower edge hanging on his body below his shoulders.172 [The rationale is that] this is not the way one wears a garment, but rather [the manner one carries] a burden.

There are authorities who maintain that he is exempt when the middle portion of the lower edge hangs down below his shoulders even though its corners are placed on his shoulders. Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view. Nevertheless, [going out in such a manner] is forbidden according to Rabbinic Law because it appears that he is carrying a burden. Even if the corners are not placed on his shoulders, but rather are clutched in his hand and lifted up so that they will not become soiled or so they will not tear, it is forbidden.

If, however, he does not pick it up in his hands, but instead wraps himself in his tallis in a manner where its lower edge is raised far above the ground and the corners of the lower edge are not placed on his shoulders, but hang over his forearms, and the middle portion of the lower edge hangs down below his shoulders and covers the majority of his body, it is permitted [see fig. 3]. Accordingly, it is permitted to robe oneself with a tallis under one’s cloak to bring it to the synagogue on Shabbos morning. Even though he wraps himself in it in a manner that shortens it so that it does not protrude beneath the hem of his cloak at all, it is permitted as long as it covers the majority of his body.

לה הַיּוֹצֵא בְּטַלִּית170 הַמְקֻפֶּלֶת וּמֻנַּחַת עַל כְּתֵפָיו,שצו, 171 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלְּאַחַר שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ הִגְבִּיהַּ שׁוּלֶי[הָ] עַל כְּתֵפָיו,שצז בֵּין שֶׁהִגְבִּיהַּ כָּל אֹרֶךְ שׁוּלֶיהָ, בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא הִגְבִּיהַּ אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי כַּנְפֵי שׁוּלֶיהָ, וְנָתַן כָּנָף אֶחָד עַל כָּתֵף זֶה וְכָנָף אֶחָד עַל כָּתֵף זֶה וְאֶמְצָעִית שׁוּלֶיהָ מְשֻׁלְשֶׁלֶת עַל גּוּפוֹ לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפָיושצח, 172 – חַיָּב,שצט שֶׁאֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, אֶלָּא מַשּׂוֹי הוּא. ת

וְיֵשׁ פּוֹטְרִיןתא כְּשֶׁאֶמְצָעִית שׁוּלֶיהָ מְשֻׁלְשֶׁלֶת לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּנָפֶיהָ נְתוּנִים עַל כְּתֵפָיו. וְכֵן עִקָּר.תב אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,תג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּמַשּׂוֹי.תד

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין כְּנָפֶיהָ נְתוּנִים עַל כְּתֵפָיו, אֶלָּא שֶׁתְּפָסָם בְּיָדָיו וְהִגְבִּיהַּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלֵךְ אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרַע – אָסוּר.תה

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַגְבִּיהַּ בְּיָדָיו, אֶלָּא הוּא מִתְעַטֵּף בְּטַלִּיתוֹ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁשּׁוּלֶיהָ מֻגְבָּהִין הַרְבֵּה מִן הָאָרֶץ, וְכַנְפֵי שׁוּלֶיהָ אֵינָם נְתוּנִים עַל כְּתֵפָיו,תו אֶלָּא הֵם מְשֻׁלְשָׁלִים עַל זְרוֹעֵי יָדָיו, וְאֶמְצָעִית שׁוּלֶיהָ מְשֻׁלְשֶׁלֶת לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפָיו וּמְכַסָּה רֹב גּוּפוֹתז – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר.

וּלְפִי זֶה מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַטֵּף בְּטַלִּית תַּחַת הַגְּלִימָא לַהֲבִיאוֹ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתתח בְּשַׁבָּת שַׁחֲרִית, שֶׁאַף שֶׁמִּתְעַטֵּף בָּהּ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁמִּתְקַצֶּרֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ יוֹצָא מִתַּחַת הַגְּלִימָא לְמַטָּה, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא מְכַסֶּה רֹב גּוּפוֹ – מֻתָּר:

Fig. 1: A tallis with the entire lower edge lifted up
Fig. 1: A tallis with the entire lower edge lifted up

Fig. 2: A tallis with only the two back corners lifted up
Fig. 2: A tallis with only the two back corners lifted up

Fig. 3: A permitted manner in which one may wrap himself in a tallis
Fig. 3: A permitted manner in which one may wrap himself in a tallis

36 Even when one places the corners of the lower edge [of his tallis] on his shoulders, the prohibition applies only when one seeks to raise the garment so that its lower edges will not become soiled or tear, or so that they will not impede him from walking rapidly.173 It is permitted to do so, however, if his intent is to adorn himself according to the local custom, i.e., people adorn themselves174 this way during the week as well. [Since] this is the way [the tallis] is worn, it does not appear as a burden. Needless to say, it is permitted to fold the ends of the lower edge of one’s tallis on both sides [to hang over] his arms as an adornment, provided the middle of the lower edge [of the tallis] hangs down below his shoulders and covers the majority of his body.

All the above applies with regard to a garment that is of one rectangular piece of fabric like our tallisos [that we wear] for the mitzvah [of prayer] that do not have holes through which to stick one’s hands. [Different laws apply with regard to] garments like ours175 that one wears [on one’s body and] that have holes through which one sticks his hands.176 It is permitted to hold a portion of the garment, even its lower edge, in one’s hands and lift it so that it will not impede his walking or so that it will not become soiled or torn. He should not, however, lift up too much [of the garment], i.e., the entire length of the lower edge, so that the majority of his body is not covered by it and thus it is not at all considered the ordinary manner of wearing a garment.177 Moreover, even if the middle of the lower edge of the garment covers the majority of his body, he should not lift its corners onto his shoulders since, according to the authorities [who rule stringently above], holding one’s garment in such a manner causes him to be liable for a sin-offering. And according to all authorities, the garment appears like a burden and [holding it in such a manner] is at least forbidden by Rabbinic decree, even though one wears it and sticks his hands out [through its holes].

When one robes himself with our garments178 and does not stick his hands out of them [through the holes], it is forbidden to hold a portion of [the garments] in his hands to lift them up so that they do not become soiled, even if he does not grasp their edges.

לו לֹא אָסְרוּ לִתֵּן כַּנְפֵי שׁוּלֶיהָ אֲפִלּוּ עַל כְּתֵפָיו אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַטַּלִּית שֶׁלֹּא תְלַכְלֵךְ בְּשׁוּלֶיהָ, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תִקָּרַע,תט אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תְעַכְּבֵהוּ מִלָּלֶכֶת בִּמְהֵרָה,תי, 173 אֲבָל אִם כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְהִתְנָאוֹת בְּזֶה, כְּמִנְהַג אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹםתיא שֶׁמִּתְנָאִים174 בְּזֶה גַּם בְּחֹלתיב – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר שֶׁזֶּהוּ דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתָם, וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמַשּׂוֹי. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְקַפֵּל קַצְווֹת שׁוּלֵי טַלִּיתוֹ מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן עַל יָדָיו כְּדֵי לְהִתְנָאוֹת,תיג וּבִלְבָד שֶׁאֶמְצָעִית שׁוּלֶיהָ מְשֻׁלְשֶׁלֶת לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפָיו וּמְכַסָּה רֹב גּוּפוֹ.תיד

וְכָל זֶה בְּטַלִּית שֶׁהִיא חֲתִיכָה אַחַת מְרֻבַּעַתתטו כְּמוֹ טַלִּיתוֹת שֶׁל מִצְוָה שֶׁלָּנוּ,תטז שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם נְקָבִים לְהוֹצִיא הַיָּדַיִם מִתּוֹכָם, אֲבָל מַלְבּוּשִׁים שֶׁלָּנוּ175 שֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בָּהֶם וּמוֹצִיא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם מִתּוֹכָם176 – מֻתָּר לִתְפּוֹס בְּיָדַיִם מִקְצָת הַמַּלְבּוּשׁ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשׁוּלָיו לְהַגְבִּיהַּ שֶׁלֹּא יְעַכְּבוּהוּ מִלָּלֶכֶת, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלֵךְ, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרַע.תיז

אֲבָל לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ הַרְבֵּהתיח (ח) כָּלתיט אֹרֶךְ שׁוּלֶיהָ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא רֹב גּוּפוֹ מְכֻסֶּה,תכ וְלֹא יִהְיוּ דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ כְּלָל,177 וְאַף אִם אֶמְצָעִית שׁוּלָיו מְכַסֶּה רֹב גּוּפוֹ – לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ קַצְווֹת שׁוּלָיו עַל כְּתֵפָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתכא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּזֶה חִיּוּב חַטָּאת, וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל עַל כָּל פָּנִים נִרְאֶה כְּמַשּׂוֹי וְאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,תכב וְאַף שֶׁלָּבוּשׁ בּוֹ וּמוֹצִיא יָדָיו מִתּוֹכוֹ.

וּמַלְבּוּשִׁים שֶׁלָּנוּ178 שֶׁנִּתְעַטֵּף בָּהֶן וְלֹא הוֹצִיא יָדָיו מִתּוֹכָם – אָסוּר לִתְפּוֹס קְצָתָם בְּיָדָיו לְהַגְבִּיהָם שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלֵךְ,תכג אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ תּוֹפֵס בְּשׁוּלֵיהֶם:תכד

37 [There are] places where it is customary to fold a tallis and place it while folded on one’s shoulders, [draped] around one’s neck.179 [Men] walk around in this manner in their homes and courtyards as well. [Therefore, in those places,] they may go out even to the public domain on Shabbos [while wearing their tallisos] in this manner, for this is the ordinary way they wear [this type of] garment. [A different rule applies,] however, if they do not go about in this manner at home; only when they go outside do they fold their tallisos on their shoulders under their cloaks to bring them to the synagogue. It is forbidden to go out [to the public domain] in this manner on Shabbos. Should one do so, he is liable, as explained above.180 Nevertheless, it is permitted to fold the right side [of one’s tallis and] place it on one’s left shoulder, as is done when wrapping oneself in a tallis used for the mitzvah [of prayer]181 and to go out to the public domain in this manner, because one wears a tallis in this manner indoors as well. [See fig. 4.]

Similarly, a person may go out wearing a head-kerchief that is folded and placed on his shoulders,182 since this is the manner in which [such a kerchief] is worn. There is no need to tie a string from the kerchief to one’s finger so that it will not fall.183 Nevertheless, in regions where it is not common to wear kerchiefs in this manner, as in these countries, if one desires to go out with a head-kerchief, he must cover his head and the majority of his body with it,182 as one does with an actual garment.184 If the kerchief is not wide enough to cover his head and the majority of his body, he has the option of [making it] into a type of belt and going out [while wearing it], i.e., he should tie the ends of the kerchief to each other (in front of his body) below his shoulders. (The middle of the kerchief that is behind him should also be drawn down lower than his shoulders.) Thus, [the kerchief] functions like a belt and it is permitted to go out [wearing it]. (This applies even if the person is also wearing another belt underneath, according to the authorities who permit people to go out wearing two belts, as will be explained.)185

There is an authority who maintains that even in places where it is common to wear head-kerchiefs folded on one’s shoulders, the kerchief must be wide enough to cover his head and the majority [of his body] if he would unfold it. If it is not that wide, it is not deemed a garment and one may not go out wearing it unless he makes it like a belt, as explained. Weight should be given to his words [and the stringency followed].

54 pic 4

לז בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְקַפֵּל הַטַּלִּית וּלְהַנִּיחָהּ כָּךְ מְקֻפֶּלֶת עַל כִּתְפֵיהֶם סְבִיב צַוָּארָם179 וְהוֹלְכִין כָּךְ אַף בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וּבְבָתֵּיהֶם – מֻתָּרִים לָצֵאת כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת אַף לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,תכה שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ מַלְּבּוּשׁ הוּא לָהֶם.תכו אֲבָל אִם אֵין הוֹלְכִין כֵּן בְּבָתֵּיהֶם, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיּוֹצְאִין לַחוּץ מְקַפְּלִין הַטַּלִּית עַל כִּתְפֵיהֶם תַּחַת הַגְּלִימָא לַהֲבִיאָהּ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אָסוּר לָצֵאת כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאִם יָצָא – חַיָּב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תכז, 180

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לְקַפֵּל צַד הַיָּמִין וּלְהַנִּיחָהּ עַל כָּתֵף שְׂמֹאל כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמִּתְעַטְּפִין בְּטַלִיתוֹת שֶׁל מִצְוָהתכח, 181 וְלָצֵאת כֵּן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, הוֹאִיל וְכָךְ הוּא דֶרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתָהּ אַף בַּבַּיִת.תכט

וְכֵן יוֹצֵא אָדָם בְּסוּדָר הַמְקֻפָּל וּמֻנָּח עַל כְּתֵפוֹ,תל, 182 הוֹאִיל וְכָךְ הוּא דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתוֹ,תלא וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִכְרוֹךְ נִימָא מִן הַסּוּדָר עַל אֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִפּוֹל מֵעָלָיו.תלב, 183

אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין כָּךְ דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתוֹ, כְּגוֹן בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, אִם רוֹצֶה לְהוֹצִיא סוּדָר – צָרִיךְ לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹתלג, 182 דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁתלד גָּמוּר.תלה, 184 וְאִם אֵין הַסּוּדָר רָחָב כָּל כָּךְ לְכַסּוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹתלו – יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ כְּמִין אַבְנֵטתלז וְלָצֵאת בּוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּקְשׁוֹר ב' רָאשֵׁי הַסּוּדָר (שֶׁמִּלְּפָנָיו) זֶה בְזֶה (כְּנֶגְדּוֹ) לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפָיותלח (וְגַם אֶמְצָעוּת הַסּוּדָר שֶׁמִּלְּאַחֲרָיו יְהֵא מָשׁוּךְ לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפָיו), שֶׁנִּמְצָא עָשׂוּי כְּמִין אַבְנֵט, וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ (אַף שֶׁחָגוּר בְּאַבְנֵט אַחֵר לְמַטָּה, לְהַמַּתִּירִים לָצֵאת בְּב' חֲגוֹרוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרתלט).185

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרתמ שֶׁאַף בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתָם הוּא בְּסוּדָר הַמְקֻפָּל עַל כִּתְפֵיהֶם – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַסּוּדָר רָחָב לְכַסּוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ אִם יַפְשִׁיטוּהוּ מִקִּפּוּלוֹ, וְאִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב כָּל כָּךְ – אֵין שֵׁם מַלְבּוּשׁ עָלָיו, וְאֵין יוֹצְאִין בּוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עֲשָׂאוֹ כְּמִין אַבְנֵט, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו:

Fig. 3: A permitted manner in which one may wrap himself in a tallis
Fig. 3: A permitted manner in which one may wrap himself in a tallis

38 When a person goes out with money that is bound up in the cloth that he is wearing, he is liable, even though he does not hold it in his hand, because at times this is an ordinary way for money to be taken out during the week.186 When, by contrast, one goes out with money sewn into his clothes,187 he is exempt, because this is not the ordinary way of carrying [money]. It is, nevertheless, forbidden to do so by Rabbinic decree. [This applies] when coins and silver and gold [bullion or articles] that are not muktzeh188 were sewn [into his garments].

When there is a [danger of] loss, e.g., the person is among non-Jews and he cannot [safely] deposit [the money] with them, nor can he leave the garment189 in their homes without [fear of] them stealing it from him when he goes out, it is customary to show leniency and [permit one] to go out with such articles [sewn into a garment. The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that our Sages did not issue a decree prohibiting an activity which is a shvus190[when it is performed in a manner] that involves a deviation from one’s ordinary weekday practice where there is [the possibility of] a great loss, as will be explained in sec. 307[:12.]191 Moreover, there are authorities who maintain that at present there is no public domain [as defined by Scriptural Law],192 only a karmelis.142And taking an article into a karmelis, even in the ordinary manner, is forbidden only according to Rabbinic Law.193

Nevertheless, leniency should only be granted when it is impossible for the person not to go out to a karmelis.194For example, he is afraid to remain confined in the home [where he is staying] the entire day, so that the non-Jews will not sense that he is carrying money and will search his possessions to steal [the money] from him, or it is possible that his life will be endangered because they will kill him for the sake of his money. If, however, it is possible for him not to go out at all, e.g., he is among Jews,195 but he does not trust them [enough] to deposit his money with them or to leave his garment189 in their home, he should remain in the home the entire Shabbos and not go out to the karmelis [with the money sewn into the garment]. If he is not concerned about depositing the money with them or there is no concern about leaving his garment in the home, he should be stringent and remove the garment while it is still day [on Friday], so that he will not be wearing it on Shabbos, even in the home. [This is a safeguard] lest he forget and go out [wearing] it,196 as will be explained in sec. 303[:23].197

לח הַיּוֹצֵא בְּמָעוֹת הַצְּרוּרִים לוֹ בִּסְדִינוֹתמא שֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בּוֹ – חַיָּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹחֲזֵם בְּיָדוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיא כֵּן בְּחֹל לִפְעָמִיםתמב.186 אֲבָל הַיּוֹצֵא בְּמָעוֹת הַתְּפוּרִים בְּבִגְדּוֹ187 – פָּטוּר, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הוֹצָאָה בְּכָךְ,תמג אֲבָל אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,תמד בֵּין שֶׁתְּפוּרִים בּוֹ מָעוֹתתמה בֵּין כֶּסֶף וְזָהָבתמו שֶׁאֵינָם מֻקְצִים.תמז, 188

וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא בֵּין הַנָּכְרִים שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַפְקִידָם אֶצְלָם, וְגַם לֹא לְהַנִּיחַ הַבֶּגֶד189 בְּבֵיתָם שֶׁלֹּא יִגְנְבוּהָ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁיֵּצֵא הַחוּצָה – נוֹהֲגִין לְהָקֵל לָצֵאת בָּהֶם,תמח לְפִיתמט שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתנ שֶׁכָּל שְׁבוּת190 שֶׁהוּא שִׁנּוּי מִדֶּרֶךְ הַחֹל לֹא גָזְרוּ עָלָיו בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז,תנא, 191 וְגַםתנב יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתנג שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים192 אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית,142 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹצָאָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה בָּהּ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.193

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְהָקֵלתנד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת לְכַרְמְלִית,194 כְּגוֹן שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵא לֵישֵׁב כָּלוּא בַּבַּיִת כָּל הַיּוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא יַרְגִּישׁוּ הַנָּכְרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֶצְלוֹ מָעוֹת וְיַחְפְּשׂוּ כֵּלָיו לְגָזְלָם מִמֶּנּוּ, אוֹ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיָּבֹא לִידֵי סַכָּנָה שֶׁיַּהַרְגוּהוּ בִּשְׁבִיל מְעוֹתָיו.תנה אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא בֵּין יִשְׂרְאֵלִים195 אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינָם לְהַפְקִידָם אֶצְלָם אוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ הַבֶּגֶד בְּבֵיתָם189 – יֵשֵׁב בַּבַּיִת כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת, וְלֹא יֵצֵא בָּהֶםתנו לְכַרְמְלִית. וְאִם אֵין חֲשָׁשׁ לְהַפְקִיד אֶצְלָם, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין חֲשָׁשׁ לְהַנִּיחַ הַבֶּגֶד בַּבַּיִת – יֵשׁ (ט) לְהַחֲמִירתנז לְפָשְׁטוֹ מֵעָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא לָבוּשׁ בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בַּבַּיִת, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֵצֵא בּוֹ,196 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ג:תנח, 197

39 All the above198 applies when [the money] was sewn into one’s garments, in which instance, he is not taking the money out in an ordinary manner.199 If, however, [one goes out to the public domain with money]:

a) bundled up in [his garments] or held in a pocket sewn into [his garments], which is the ordinary manner one takes it out during the week;

b) in a hollow belt200 with which, at times, it is common to take out [money] when its opening is positioned upward;201

c) [placed] between his clothes and his body in places where it is common at times for one to take out [money] in this manner during the week,

it is forbidden to go out [carrying the money in the above manners], even to a karmelis. [This applies] even when one is afraid to remain inside with the money lest non-Jews become aware [that he is carrying money]. It is even forbidden to move the money202 to hide it in a place in the same courtyard [in which he is located], because a prohibition forbidden as a shvus in the complete sense203 was never permitted [even because of fear] of a great loss.204

[The prohibition applies] even if holes were made in the coins and thus they cannot readily be used for commercial purposes. Even so, the distinction as muktzeh is not removed from them unless they are made of silver or gold and holes were made in them so that one could hang them around his daughter’s neck as jewelry. (In that instance, [i.e., if they were designated for that purpose,] it is permitted to move them even when there is no concern for a loss at all.)

Nevertheless, it is permitted [for the person] to carry the money with him [in one of the abovementioned manners] in the same courtyard [in which he is located] because this is considered as carrying in an irregular manner since he is not carrying it by hand, only with his body.205 [This leniency is granted] only when there is concern for a loss if he does not carry [the money] with him. If that is not the case, even if [he is not carrying] money that is muktzeh, but other silver or gold [articles that are not muktzeh], one should be stringent not to carry them with him, lest he forget and go out carrying them, as explained.206

לט וְכָל זֶה198 בִּתְפוּרִים בְּבִגְדּוֹ,תנט שֶׁאֵין זוֹ הוֹצָאָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ,199 אֲבָל אִם הֵם צְרוּרִים בּוֹ,תס אוֹ שֶׁהֵם בְּכִיס הַתָּפוּר בּוֹ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיא בּוֹ בְּחֹל, אוֹ שֶׁהֵן בְּאֵזוֹר חָלוּל200 שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיא בּוֹ כְּשֶׁפִּיו לְמַעְלָה,תסא, 201 אוֹ שֶׁהֵן בֵּין בְּגָדָיו לִבְשָׂרוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהוֹצִיא כֵּן בְּחֹל לִפְעָמִיםתסב – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵא לֵישֵׁב עִמָּהֶם בַּבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא יַרְגִּישׁוּ בּוֹ הַנָּכְרִים. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְטַלְטֵל הַמָּעוֹתתסג, 202 לְהַצְנִיעָם בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם בְּאוֹתָהּ חָצֵר – אָסוּר, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ שׁוּם שְׁבוּת גָּמוּר203 מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה.תסד, 204 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵם מָעוֹת מְנֻקָּבִים שֶׁאֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּהוֹצָאָה בְּשִׁפּוּיתסה – לֹא מַפְקַע שֵׁם מֻקְצֶה מֵהֶם,תסו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְשֶׁל זָהָב וּנְקוּבִים כְּדֵי לִתְלוֹת בְּצַוַּאר בִּתּוֹ לְתַכְשִׁיטתסז (שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן אַף שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם חֲשַׁשׁ הֶפְסֵד כְּלָל אִם הֵם מְיֻחָדִים לְכָךְתסח).

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לוֹ (י) לָשֵׂאת הַמָּעוֹת אֶצְלוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ חָצֵר,תסט לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ טִלְטוּל כִּלְאַחַר יָד,תע כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטְלָן בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא בְּגוּפוֹ,תעא, 205 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ הֶפְסֵד אִם לֹא יִשָּׂאוּם אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן אַף אִם אֵינָם מָעוֹת הַמֻּקְצִים אֶלָּא שְׁאָר כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לָשֵׂאת אוֹתָם אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֵצֵא בָּהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:תעב, 206

40 All of the above207 applies when the person is not all that agitated about the possibility of a loss and is not that harried about saving his money [from theft] because of [this fear], for example, when a person spends the Shabbos among non-Jews and fears that they will steal his money. He will not be that agitated if he is not permitted to go out [with the money on his person], since no one has yet come to steal his money.

When, by contrast, robbers come to attack a person to steal his money, or the servants of the local ruler come to inspect his chest to take his money, in which instance he is agitated and harried because [of his desire to] save [his money] from them, there are authorities who permit him to carry his money by hand and hide it in secret places. [Moreover,] there are authorities who permit him to take it out to another place via a karmelis if he does not have a hiding place in the courtyard [in which he is located. The rationale is that] a person will not restrain himself when his money [is at risk]; he will certainly save it from being lost. If he is not permitted to save it through carrying muktzeh and/or carrying in a karmelis – [prohibitions]which are [only] Rabbinic in originthere is reason for concern that he will violate a Scriptural prohibition in order to save it, by digging [a hole to bury it] in the ground or the like. (Since he is agitated and harried over saving [his money], he will hurry to save it in the quickest manner possible, saying to himself, “Regardless of what I do, I will not be acting in a permitted manner [so let me do it in the quickest possible way].” Since, by contrast, [since] the Sages permited him to save it through [violating] a Rabbinic prohibition, he will not save it by violating a Scriptural prohibition.)208

With regard to the actual halachic [ruling], one may rule leniently only regarding carrying muktzeh, but not with regard to [carrying in] a karmelis, as will be explained in sec. 334[:2].

מ וְכָל זֶה207 (יא) כְּשֶׁהַהֶפְסֵד הוּא בָּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין נִבְהָל כָּל כָּךְ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ נֶחְפָּז כָּל כָּךְ מֵחֲמָתוֹ לְהַצָּלַת מָמוֹנוֹ, כְּגוֹן זֶה שֶׁשּׁוֹבֵת בֵּין הַנָּכְרִים שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵא שֶׁלֹּא יִגְזְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מְעוֹתָיו, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּהוּל כָּל כָּךְ כְּשֶׁאֵין מַתִּירִים לוֹ לָצֵאת בָּהֶם מִבֵּיתָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲדַיִן אֵין שׁוּם אָדָם בָּא לִגְזוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ.תעג

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁלִּסְטִים בָּאִים עָלָיו לִגְזוֹל מָמוֹנוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁעַבְדֵי הַמּוֹשֵׁל בָּאִים לְחַפֵּשׂ בְּתֵבָתוֹ לָקַחַת מָמוֹנוֹ, שֶׁהוּא בָּהוּל וְנֶחְפָּז לְהַצִּיל מֵהֶם – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיםתעד לְטַלְטֵל מְעוֹתָיו בְּיָדוֹ לְהַחְבִּיאָם בְּמַחֲבוֹאוֹת. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַחֲבוֹא בְּאוֹתוֹ חָצֵר – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןתעה אֲפִלּוּ לְהוֹצִיא לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ עַל מָמוֹנוֹ וּבְוַדַּאי יַצִּילֵם מֵהֶפְסֵד, וְאִם לֹא נַתִּיר לוֹ לְהַצִּיל עַל יְדֵי טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה וְטִלְטוּל הַכַּרְמְלִית שֶׁהֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָהתעו בְּהַצָּלָתָם, שֶׁיַּחְפִּירֵם בַּקַּרְקַעתעז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא בָּהוּל וְנֶחְפָּז בְּהַצָּלָתָם – יְמַהֵר לְהַצִּילוֹ בְּכָל הַצָּלָה שֶׁתִּזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ יוֹתֵר בִּמְהֵרָה, כִּי אוֹמֵר בְּלִבּוֹ הַאֵיךְ שֶׁאֶעֱשֶׂה לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּהֶתֵּר, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים לְהַצִּיל עַל יְדֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם – לֹא יַצִּיל עַל יְדֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָהתעח).208

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – אֵין לְהָקֵל אֶלָּא בְּאִסּוּר טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה, אֲבָל לֹא בְּאִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ד:תעט

41 It is forbidden to go out to the public domain or to a karmelis wrapped in very firm fabric as one wraps himself with a garment, because [the fabric] is not appropriate to be worn as a garment and [therefore] appears like a burden.209 If, however, [the fabric] is not very firm, it is permitted [to go out wearing it] even if he does not need to robe himself in it, and robes himself in it only to take it out to the public domain so that he or someone else may sit on it there.

[This leniency is granted] only when he robes his head and the majority of his body with [the fabric]. If, however, he did not cover his head with [the fabric], only his entire body, this does not cause [the fabric] to be considered as a garment, and it is forbidden to take it out in this manner even when he requires it to cover his body.

The same law210 applies with regard to any object that is not a garment, but one seeks to take it out by robing himself in it like a garment, e.g., a sheet or a head-kerchief in these countries, as explained above.211

מא לְבָדִים הַקָּשִׁים הַרְבֵּה – אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאָם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְכַרְמְלִיתתפ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְעֻטָּף בָּהֶם דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ,תפא לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיִים לְמַלְבּוּשׁ וְנִרְאִים כְּמַשּׂוֹי.תפב, 209 אֲבָל אִם אֵינָם קָשִׁים הַרְבֵּה – מֻתָּר,תפג אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לְהִתְעַטֵּף בָּהֶם, וְאֵין מִתְעַטֵּף בָּהֶם אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיאָם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶם שָׁם הוּא אוֹ אַחֵר,תפד וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּתְעַטֵּף בָּהֶםתפה רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ, אֲבָל אִם לֹא כִסָּה בָּהֶם רֹאשׁוֹ אֶלָּא כָּל גּוּפוֹ בִּלְבָד – לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ מַלְבּוּשׁ עַל יְדֵי כֵן, וְאָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאָם אֲפִלּוּ אִם צָרִיךְ לָהֶם לְהִתְכַּסּוֹת בָּהֶם גּוּפוֹ.

וְכֵן הַדִּין210 בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַלְבּוּשׁ וְרוֹצֶה לְהוֹצִיאוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַטֵּף בּוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, כְּגוֹן סָדִין אוֹ סוּדָר בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:תפו, 211

42 A person may go out to the public domain wearing two of the same garments, one on top of the other, even though he only needs one of them and is taking the other out just for the sake of another person. [Nevertheless,] the second garment does not appear as a burden since he is clothed in it.212 [This ruling applies] even regarding those types of garments that are not commonly worn [on top of each other] for a person’s own sake, for example, one belt on top of another. [Nevertheless,] the second [belt] is not considered as a burden since he girds himself with it.

There are authorities who differ with this [ruling] and forbid wearing two belts. Since [the person] derives neither satisfaction nor benefit from wearing the second belt213 and he is taking it out only for the sake of another person, it is considered as a burden [for him].214 It is proper to conduct oneself in this manner.215

Even if one does not take out [the second belt] for the sake of another person, but rather puts on a distinguished-looking belt over a torn belt, it is [still] forbidden [to do so. The rationale is that] since the distinguished-looking belt by itself is sufficient to serve the purpose [of a belt], the other [inferior belt] is considered as a burden even though he girds himself with it, since girding oneself [with two belts] is not the ordinary way [of dressing]. By contrast, it is permitted to go out wearing two belts in those places where this is the common practice.

Nevertheless, when a garment separates between one belt and the other, e.g., the lower belt is worn over one’s shirt and the upper one over his outer garment, one is permitted to go out with two belts in all places,216 for then he derives satisfaction and benefit from both. Similarly, in all instances where the person himself derives satisfaction and benefit from wearing two belts – even though at the time in question he only needs one and is taking out the second for the sake of another person – since he is wearing it in a manner which, at times, is for his own sake, it is not [considered] a burden and it is permitted [to be worn].

מבמֻתָּר לָצֵאת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בִּשְׁנֵי מַלְבּוּשִׁים הַשָּׁוִים זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶהתפז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לְאֶחָד מֵהֶם וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא הַשֵּׁנִי אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ חֲבֵרוֹ,תפח וְאֵין הַשֵּׁנִי נִרְאֶה כְּמַשּׂוֹי הוֹאִיל וְהוּא לָבוּשׁ בּוֹ.212

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִינֵי מַלְבּוּשִׁים שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְעוֹלָם לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בִּשְׁנַיִם לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן שְׁתֵּי חֲגוֹרוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹתפט – אֵין הַשְּׁנִיָּה חֲשׁוּבָה מַשּׂוֹי, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא חָגוּר בָּהּ.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין בְּזֶה וְאוֹסְרִין שְׁתֵּי חֲגוֹרוֹת,תצ שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלּוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ אֵין שׁוּם הֲנָאָה וְתוֹעֶלֶת לִלְבִישָׁתוֹ מֵהַחֲגוֹרָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה213 וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיאָהּ אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ חֲבֵרוֹתצא – הֲרֵי הוּא מַשּׂוֹי.תצב, 214 וְכֵן רָאוּי לִנְהוֹג.תצג, 215

וְאַף אִם אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיאוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ חֲבֵרוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁחוֹגֵר חֲגוֹרָה חֲשׁוּבָה עַל גַּבֵּי חֲגוֹרָה קָרוּעַתצד – אָסוּר, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּהַחֲשׁוּבָה בִּלְבַדָּה דַּי לוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ לְבִישָׁתוֹ – הֲרֵי הַשְּׁנִיָּה חָשׁוּב מַשּׂוֹי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חָגוּר בָּהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לַחֲגוֹר כֵּן.תצה אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לַחֲגוֹר ב' חֲגוֹרוֹת – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן.תצו

וּבְכָל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בב' חֲגוֹרוֹת כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ מַלְבּוּשׁ מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם,תצז כְּגוֹן הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה עַל גַּבֵּי הֶחָלוּק וְהָעֶלְיוֹנָה עַל גַּבֵּי הַסַּרְבָּל,תצח, 216 שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ הֲנָאָה וְתוֹעֶלֶת מִשְׁתֵּיהֶן. וְכֵן בְּכָל עִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ הֲנָאָה וְתוֹעֶלֶת לִלְבִישָׁתוֹ מִשְׁתֵּי הַחֲגוֹרוֹת. וְאַף אִם עַכְשָׁו אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הוּא אֶלָּא לְאַחַת מֵהֶן וּמוֹצִיא הַשְּׁנִיָּה לְצֹרֶךְ חֲבֵרוֹ, הוֹאִיל וְחָגוּר בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לַחֲגוֹר בָּהּ לִפְעָמִים לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ – אֵינָהּ מַשּׂוֹי וּמֻתָּר:

43 All the above applies to a belt. By contrast, with regard to other garments, [it is permitted to wear two garments of the same type, one on top of the other] – even when, by and large, a person would not wear two garments of this type at once for his own sake, e.g., two shirts one on top of the other, two outer garments one on top of the other, or two leggings one on top of the other. [The rationale is that since] people sometimes wear two, three, or more [of the same] garments [on top of each other] during the winter, wearing them in this manner throughout the year is considered as wearing them in an ordinary [manner of] dressing. It is thus permitted to take [clothes] out [in this manner] even for the sake of another person.

Similarly, it is permitted to go out wearing two hats (even for the sake of another person, because) during the week, it is common to place a larger hat over a smaller one, provided [they are worn] in a manner that the wind cannot blow the upper hat off his head, as will be explained.217

מגוְכָל זֶה בַּחֲגוֹרָה, אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר מַלְבּוּשִׁים, אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָם שֶׁרֹב הַפְּעָמִים אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בִּשְׁנַיִם הַשָּׁוִים לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן שְׁנֵי חֲלוּקִים זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶה,תצט אוֹ שְׁנֵי סַרְבִּילִים זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶה,תק אוֹ ב' אַנְפְּלָאוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ,תקא הוֹאִיל וּבִימוֹת הַקֹּר דֶּרֶךְ הוּא לִפְעָמִים לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ בִּשְׁנַיִם וּשְׁלֹשָׁה מַלְבּוּשִׁיםתקב אוֹ יוֹתֵר – הֲרֵי הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָם אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ חֲבֵרוֹ.תקג וְכֵן מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בִּשְׁנֵי כוֹבָעִיםתקד (אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ חֲבֵרוֹ, לְפִי) שֶׁכֵּן דַּרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל לָשׂוּם כּוֹבַע גָּדוֹל עַל גַּבֵּי כּוֹבַע קָטָן,תקה וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל הָרוּחַ לְהַפְרִיחַ כּוֹבַע הָעֶלְיוֹן מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:תקו, 217

44 It is permitted to go out [to the public domain] wearing gloves, because they serve as garments for the hands.

There is an authority who is stringent and requires that they be sewed to the sleeves of one’s garments (or securely tied to [the garments] with a permanent knot)218 on Friday. [The rationale is that] at times one may have to scratch his flesh because a louse or a bug is stinging him and he cannot scratch his flesh while wearing gloves. He must therefore remove one hand from its glove and hold that glove with the other hand and not [wear it] as a garment. It is thus possible that he will forget [that he is holding the glove] and carry it four cubits [in the public domain]. It is proper to give weight to his words [and follow his stringency].

[Different laws apply to a muff, i.e.,] a hand-covering into which one inserts both of one’s hands, one from either side. It is permitted to go out while wearing it without tying or sewing it, since he will still be wearing it on his second hand even if one removes one hand from it to scratch a place [on his body]. There would be no prohibition at all if one walked four cubits [in the public domain] in this manner. We are not concerned that he will remove both his hands, and then forget and hold it in his hand while walking four cubits. There are authorities who rule stringently in this instance as well. (It is preferable to give weight to their words [and follow their stringency] when possible, i.e., in places where it is not that cold). Nevertheless, the prevailing custom is to be lenient (in all instances).

מדבְּבָתֵּי יָדַיִם (שֶׁקּוֹרִין הֶענְטשִׁי"ךְ) – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת,תקז לְפִי שֶׁהֵם מַלְבּוּשׁ שֶׁל הַיָּ דַיִם.תקח

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּחְמִיר לְהַצְרִיךְ שֶׁיִּתְפְּרוּם מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בְּבָתֵּי יָדַיִם שֶׁל מַלְבּוּשָׁיו (אוֹ שֶׁיִּקְשְׁרֵם בָּהֶם קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא יָפֶה),תקט, 218 לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים צָרִיךְ לְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בִּבְשָׂרוֹ מִפְּנֵי כִנָּה אוֹ פַּרְעוֹשׁ הָעוֹקְצִים אוֹתוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בְּיָדַיִם הַלְּבוּשִׁים בְּבָתֵּי יָדַיִם, וְצָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיא יָד אֶחָד מִבֵּית יָד אֶחָד וְאוֹחֵז הַבֵּית יָד בְּיָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדֶרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנָּה כָּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת.תקי וְרָאוּי לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו.תקיא

אֲבָל בְּאוֹתוֹ בֵּית יָד שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁמְּשִׂימִין בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי הַיָּדַיִם אַחַת מִפֹּה וְאַחַת מִפֹּה – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּלִי שׁוּם קְשִׁירָה וּתְפִירָה, לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם יוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ יָדוֹ אֶחָד כְּדֵי לְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בָּהּ בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם – יִשָּׁאֵר עֲדַיִן לָבוּשׁ עַל יָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה,תקיב וְאֵין כַּאן אִסּוּר כְּלָל אִם יֵלֵךְ כָּךְ ד' אַמּוֹת, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאחֲזֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ וְיֵלֵךְ בּוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת.

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִין גַּם בְּזֶהתקיג (וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶםתקיד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר, שֶׁאֵין הַקֹּר גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ). אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל (בְּכָל עִנְיָן):תקטו

45 It is permitted to go out to [the public domain] wearing a tallis to which tzitzis are attached in a halachically acceptable manner.219 [This applies] even at night, when [the mitzvah of] tzitzis does not apply,220because kosher tzitzis are not considered as a burden. Instead, they are an adornment that embellishes the garment, like a fringe or the like.221

For whom does the above apply? For a man. By contrast, a woman who goes out [to the public domain] wearing a tallis to which tzitzis are attached in a halachically acceptable manner is liable, for it is a burden for her.222 [Moreover,] if the tzitzis are not attached in a halachically acceptable manner, they are considered as a burden even for a man.223 He should not go out wearing [such a tallis]and if he does, he is liable for a sin-offering.224 [The rationale is that a person] values the strands [of the tzitzis] and thinks about them, [desiring] to complete them and make them acceptable as tzitzis.225Therefore, they are not considered as batel69 to the tallis,226even though they are attached to it with a permanent knot.

מהמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בְּטַלִּית הַמְצֻיֶּצֶת כְּהִלְכָתָהּ,תקטז, 219 אֲפִלּוּ בַּלַּיְלָהתקיז שֶׁאֵינוֹ זְמַן צִיצִית,תקיח, 220 שֶׁאֵין הַצִּיצִית הַכְּשֵׁרוֹת חֲשׁוּבִין מַשּׂוֹי, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵן מִנּוֹי הַבֶּגֶד וּמִתַּכְשִׁיטָיו, כְּמוֹ הָאִמְרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ.תקיט, 221

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּאִישׁ, אֲבָל בְּאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצָאתָה בְּטַלִּית הַמְצֻיֶּצֶת – חַיֶּבֶת,תקכ שֶׁמַּשּׂוֹי הוּא לָהּ זוֹ.222

וְאִם אֵינָהּ מְצֻיֶּצֶת כְּהִלְכָתָהּ – הֲרֵי הֵן מַשּׂוֹי אַף לְאִישׁ,223 וְלֹא יֵצֵא בָּהּ, וְאִם יָצָא – חַיָּב חַטָּאת,תקכא, 224 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאוֹתָן הַחוּטִין חֲשׁוּבִין הֵן בְּעֵינָיו וְדַעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁלִימֵם וְיַעֲשֵׂם צִיצִית,תקכב, 225 וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵינָם בְּטֵלִים69 לְגַבֵּי הַטַּלִּיתתקכג, 226 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם קְשׁוּרִים בּוֹ קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא:

46 It is, however, permitted to go out [to the public domain] wrapped in a curtain from which hang straps224 by which [the curtain] is extended [and hung] over posts positioned above a canopy bed. True, [one] has no need of the straps for the curtain when he wraps himself in it and goes out [wearing] it.227 Nevertheless, since they are not important [to him] at all, they are batel in relation to the curtain. For this same reason, it is permitted to go out with straps hanging from a belt, because they are not important, and [are therefore] batel to the belt. If, however, [the straps] are made of silk, they are important and are not batel. [Hence,] it is forbidden to go out wearing [silk straps hanging from a belt] unless one’s shoes or socks are tied to them. In that instance, they assist [him] in wearing [these garments] and thus are not a burden.

מואֲבָל מֻתָּר לָצֵאת מְעֻטָּף בְּכִלָּה שֶׁתְּלוּיִין בָּהּ רְצוּעוֹתתקכד, 224 שֶׁמּוֹשְׁכִין אוֹתָהּ בָּהֶן עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלוֹנָס שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּטָּה,תקכה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרְצוּעוֹת אֵינָן צְרִיכִין כְּלָל לַכִּלָּה כְּשֶׁמִּתְעַטֵּף וְיוֹצֵא בָּהּ,תקכו, 227 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כְּלָל – הֲרֵי הֵן בְּטֵלִין לְגַבֵּי הַכִּלָּה.תקכז לְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בִּרְצוּעוֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בָּאַבְנֵט, שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבוֹת, וּבְטֵלוֹת לְגַבֵּי הָאַבְנֵט.תקכח אֲבָל אִם הֵן שֶׁל מֶשִׁי – הֲרֵי הֵן חֲשׁוּבוֹת וְאֵינָן בְּטֵלוֹת, וְאָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַמִּנְעָלִים אוֹ הַבָּתֵּי שׁוֹקַיִם קְשׁוּרִין בָּהֶם,תקכט שֶׁאָז הֵן מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת לִלְבִישָׁתוֹ וְאֵינָן מַשּׂוֹי:

47 The same law applies with regard to any entity that became [partially] detached from a garment but one of its ends remains attached to it, for example, loops and the like. If it is important, it is forbidden to go out with it [while it is attached to the garment. The rationale is that] since it is not at all functional – because one of its ends has been severed – it is a burden. It is not batel to the garment, because the person values it and thinks about it. If, however, it is not important, it is batel to the garment and it is permitted to go out wearing it.228

מזוְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁנִּפְסַק מִן הַבֶּגֶד וְרֹאשׁוֹ אֶחָד מְחֻבָּר לַבֶּגֶד, כְּגוֹן לוּלָאוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן, אִם הוּא חָשׁוּב – אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ,תקל שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת כְּלוּם לַבֶּגֶד מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּפְסַק רֹאשׁוֹ אֶחָד – הֲרֵי הוּא מַשּׂוֹי,תקלא וְאֵינוֹ בָטֵל לְגַבֵּי הַבֶּגֶד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב וְדַעְתּוֹ עָלָיו.תקלב אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב – הֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הַבֶּגֶד, וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ:תקלג, 228

48 On Shabbos, it is forbidden229 to wear a large, [broad-brimmed] hat that one places on his head to shade his face to protect it from the sun,230 or to protect himself from flies,231 or the like. Similarly, [this prohibition extends to] all other entities worn by a person with the intent that they shield him and protect him from another [external] factor. [This ruling applies] even inside a house if [the brim] extends a handbreadth by a handbreadth232 beyond his head because of the prohibition against erecting a tent. ([This prohibition applies] even when only [the brim] extends beyond the person’s face).233

When does the above apply? When (this) extending handbreadth is firm and strong and does not droop downward. If, however, it droops downward, it is not classified as a tent and it is permitted [to wear it] even if it extends much more than a handbreadth around his entire head. For this reason, it is permitted to spread a tallis over one’s head even though it extends far beyond one’s head, unless it is made from a very firm fabric (called grob grin).

There are authorities who maintain that [our Sages] only prohibited [wearing a hat with] a very firm [brim], which is like a roof. (Since it is not easily bent, it is categorized as a tent. If, however, it is not very firm, it is not categorized as a tent and one is permitted [to wear it].) There is another authority who is even more lenient [and maintains] that [a hat] is not categorized as a tent and it is permitted [to wear it] even when [the brim] is very firm if it does not extend [straight out and does not lie] flat, but rather slants [downward]. It is, [however,] preferable to be stringent (with regard to all the above.234 [The brim] should droop downward by itself. In such an instance, if the person raises it and causes it to lie flat by his hand, it is of no consequence.)

All of the above applies when [one puts on the hat] to serve as a shelter, to protect him from something. If, however, he merely intends to cover his head, even though a shelter is created around him as a matter of course, it is not of consequence. [The rationale is that] it is not forbidden to make a tent that does not have walls around it unless he intends to create a shelter, as will be explained in sec. 315[:11].235

מחכּוֹבַע גָּדוֹל שֶׁמְּשִׂימִין עַל הָרֹאשׁתקלד כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת צֵל עַל הַפָּנִים לְהָגֵן מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה,תקלה, 230 אוֹ כְּדֵי לְהָגֵן מִפְּנֵי הַזְּבוּבִים,תקלו, 231 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה שֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בִּלְבִישָׁתוֹ שֶׁיַּאֲהִיל עָלָיותקלז לְהָגֵן מֵאֵיזֶה דָבָרתקלח – אָסוּר לְלָבְשׁוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת229 אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר עֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל, אִם הוּא מִתְפַּשֵּׁט לְהַלָּן מֵרֹאשׁוֹ טֶפַחתקלט עַל טֶפַחתקמ, 232 (וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּנֶגֶד פָּנָיו בִּלְבָדתקמא).233

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַטֶּפַח הַמִּתְפַּשֵּׁט (הַזֶּה) הוּא קָשֶׁה וְחָזָק שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכְפָּף לְמַטָּה, אֲבָל אִם נִכְפָּף לְמַטָּה, אַף אִם בּוֹלֵט הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִטֶּפַח סְבִיבוֹת כָּל רֹאשׁוֹ – אֵין שֵׁם אֹהֶל עָלָיו וּמֻתָּר.תקמב לְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס הַטַּלִּית עַל רֹאשׁוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבּוֹלֵט הַרְבֵּה לְהַלָּן מֵרֹאשׁוֹ,תקמג אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא מִמִּין בֶּגֶד הַקָּשֶׁה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין גְרָא"בּ גְרִי"ן).תקמד

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתקמה שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא קָשֶׁה בְּיוֹתֵר כְּעֵין גַּג (שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּקַל לִהְיוֹת נִכְפָּף, לָכֵן יֵשׁ עָלָיו שֵׁם אֹהֶל, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ קָשֶׁה בְּיוֹתֵר – אֵין שֵׁם אֹהֶל עָלָיו וּמֻתָּר).

וְיֵשׁ (יב) מִי שֶׁמֵּקֵל עוֹדתקמו שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד בְּשָׁוֶה אֶלָּא בְּשִׁפּוּעַ – אֵין שֵׁם אֹהֶל עָלָיו, וּמֻתָּר אַף שֶׁהוּא קָשֶׁה בְּיוֹתֵר.

וְטוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר (בְּכָל זֶה234 שֶׁיְּהֵא נִכְפָּף מַמָּשׁ לְמַטָּה מֵאֵלָיו, וְאָז אַף אִם מַגְבִּיהוֹ וּמַעֲמִידוֹ בְּשָׁוֶה בְּיָדוֹ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם).

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן בּוֹ לְהַאֲהִיל עָלָיו לְהָגֵן מֵאֵיזֶה דָבָר, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן רַק לְכַסּוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּמֵּילָא נַעֲשֶׂה אֹהֶל סְבִיבוֹ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,תקמז לְפִי שֶׁכָּל אֹהֶל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ דְּפָנוֹת תַּחְתָּיו – אֵין אִסּוּר בַּעֲשִׂיָּתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מִתְכַּוֵּן בּוֹ לַעֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל,תקמח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שט"ו:תקמט, 235

49 For this reason, it is permitted to wear a large hat of felt called a breital that is common in some places, even though it contains firm cardboard causing [its brim] to become very firm and stand level. [Nevertheless, it is permitted since the person wearing it] does not intend to create a tent, merely to cover his head. [Moreover,] in places where it is customary to rule leniently in all instances and [permit wearing such hats] even when one intends to create a shelter, the people should not be admonished, since they have an authority on whom to rely, because there are authorities who permit [wearing such hats] in all circumstances. They maintain that our Sages did not decree this [as forbidden because it resembles] making a tent, since one wears [the hat] as a garment.

מטלְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לִלְבּוֹשׁ כּוֹבַע גָּדוֹל שֶׁל לֶבֶד הַנָּהוּג בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁקּוֹרִין (בְּרִיטִי"ל) אַף אִם יֵשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ נְיָר קָשֶׁה שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵן מִתְקַשֶּׁה בְּיוֹתֵר וְעוֹמֵד בְּשָׁוֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְאֹהֶל אֶלָּא לְכַסּוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ.תקנ

וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל בְּכָל עִנְיָן אַף אִם הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְאֹהֶל – אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם,תקנא כִּי יֵשׁ לָהֶם עַל מַה שֶּׁיִּסְמְכוּ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין לְגַמְרֵי בְּכָל עִנְיָן,תקנב שֶׁסּוֹבְרִים שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ כַּאן מִשּׁוּם עֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל, הוֹאִיל וְנַעֲשֶׂה דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁה:

50 All the above applies with regard to wearing a hat inside a house.236 It is, however, forbidden to wear [a large hat] over a small hat worn on one’s head237 and to go out [to the public domain while wearing both hats],238 even though [the brim of the large hat] does not extend a handbreadth beyond one’s head.239 [The rationale is that] there is reason for concern that perhaps the wind will blow [the large hat] off his head and he will forget and carry it four cubits. [Permission to wear such a hat is granted only if either:] it is tightly fastened around one’s head, or it is deep and [a goodly part of] one’s head fits inside of it so that the wind will not be able to blow it off his head. Alternatively, [it is permitted to wear such a hat if] it is tied with a strap under his chin. [In these cases,] there is no concern at all.240

In those places where it is not common for people to walk in the street only with a small hat without this large hat, it is permitted to go out wearing it in all instances, for one certainly will not walk four cubits without wearing it. If, however, he is wearing a hat that people go out wearing [only] at times, it is forbidden to wear any other hat over it, be it large or small, even if he needs it because of the cold or the like, unless it is worn in a manner where there is no concern that the wind will cause it to fall off his head, as explained [previously in this subsection].

נוְכָל זֶה לִלְבּוֹשׁ הַכּוֹבַע בַּבַּיִת,236 אֲבָל אָסוּר לִלְבּוֹשׁ עַל גַּבֵּי כּוֹבַע קָטָן שֶׁעַל רֹאשׁו237ֹ וְלָצֵאת בּוֹ,תקנג, 238 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְפַּשֵּׁט טֶפַח לְהַלָּן מֵרֹאשׁוֹ,תקנד, 239 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַפְרִיחֶנּוּ הָרוּחַ מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְיִשְׁכַּח וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת,תקנה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא מְהֻדָּק בְּרֹאשׁוֹ,תקנו אוֹ שֶׁהוּא עָמֹק שֶׁרֹאשׁוֹ נִכְנָס לְתוֹכוֹ וְאֵין הָרוּחַ יָכוֹל לְהַפְרִיחוֹ מֵרֹאשׁוֹ,תקנז אוֹ שֶׁהוּא קָשׁוּר בִּרְצוּעָה תַּחַת גְּרוֹנוֹ,תקנח שֶׁבְּזֶה אֵין לָחוּשׁ לִכְלוּם.תקנט, 240

וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לֵילֵךְ בָּרְחוֹב בְּכוֹבַע קָטָן בִּלְבָד בְּלִי כּוֹבַע זֶה הַגָּדוֹל – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יֵלֵךְ ד' אַמּוֹת בִּלְעָדוֹ.תקס אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ עָלָיו כּוֹבַע שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לֵילֵךְ בּוֹ בָּרְחוֹב לִפְעָמִים – אָסוּר לִלְבּוֹשׁ עָלָיו שׁוּם כּוֹבַע אַחֵר, בֵּין גָּדוֹל בֵּין קָטָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לוֹ מֵחֲמַת הַקֹּר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַפִּילֶנּוּ הָרוּחַ מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ,תקסא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:תקסב

51 What should a person do if on Shabbos he finds [several pairs of] tefillin in a public domain,241 in a field, or in any [other] place where they are not protected from dogs and the like and it is possible that they will be disgraced?242 If they have straps243 that are tied [to them] so that they can be worn [in the ordinary manner], he should bring them into the city pair by pair,244 i.e., he should wear them as he does during the week,245 the arm tefillin on his arm and the head tefillin on his head. He should enter the city and take them off there (in the outermost courtyard,246 which is the first protected place [that he encounters]). He should then go out again and put on another pair, until he brings them all in.

He may not put on two pairs at the same time. True, he will not be violating the command prohibiting making an addition to the Torah’s commandments,247 the rationale being that since Shabbos is not a time when [the mitzvah of] tefillin is observed, when one adds to the mitzvah outside its prescribed time, the prohibition against adding to the mitzvos does not apply in any context. Nevertheless, since he never wears two pairs of tefillin [simultaneously] during the week, the second pair is not considered as being worn [in the ordinary manner], but as a burden. Because [of the possibility of] the tefillin being demeaned, our Sages gave him license to wear tefillin [on Shabbos], but only one pair at a time, like he wears them during the week, not [in a manner] where they appear as a burden.

[Since he does not intend to fulfill the mitzvah,] the prohibition [against wearing tefillin on Shabbos] in a place where they would not be demeaned is only because of [our Sages’] decree lest one carry them by hand, as explained above.248

נא מִי שֶׁמָּצָא תְּפִלִּין בְּשַׁבָּתתקסג בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםתקסד, 241 אוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶהתקסה אוֹ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינָן מִשְׁתַּמְּרִים מִכְּלָבִיםתקסו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםתקסז וִיכוֹלִין לָבֹא לִידֵי בִזָּיוֹןתקסח, 242 כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם רְצוּעוֹת243 קְשׁוּרוֹתתקסט שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְלָבְשָׁןתקע – יַכְנִיסֵן לָעִיר זוּג זוּג,תקעא, 244 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיַּלְבִּישֵׁן כְּדַרְכָּן בְּחֹל,245 תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל יָד עַל זְרוֹעוֹ וְשֶׁל רֹאשׁ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ,תקעב וְנִכְנָס וְחוֹלְצָן בָּעִירתקעג (בְּחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה246 שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר רֹאשׁוֹןתקעד), וְחוֹזֵר וְיוֹצֵא וְלוֹבֵשׁ זוּג אַחֵר עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיס כֻּלָּן.תקעה

וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִלְבּוֹשׁ ב' זוּגוֹת כְּאַחַת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבוֹר בְּזֶה בְּ"בַל תּוֹסִיף",247 שֶׁהֲרֵי שַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ זְמַן תְּפִלִּין כְּלָל, וּכְשֶׁמּוֹסִיף עַל הַמִּצְוָה שֶׁלֹּא בִזְמַנָּהּ לֹא שַׁיָּךְ "בַּל תּוֹסִיף" כְּלָל,תקעו מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּחֹל אֵין לוֹבֵשׁ לְעוֹלָם ב' זוּגוֹת, אִם כֵּן זוּג הַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁה אֶלָּא כְּמַשּׂוֹי הוּא, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים מִשּׁוּם בִּזְיוֹן הַתְּפִלִּין אֶלָּא זוּג אֶחָד, שֶׁהוּא כְּדֶרֶךְ לְבִישָׁה בְּחֹל וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמַשּׂוֹי,תקעז וְאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם בִּזָּיוֹן אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:תקעח, 248

52 [The following laws apply] if there were so many pairs [of tefillin] that there would not be enough time in the day to bring them all in, pair by pair, while wearing them. Since the person will have to bring some in after nightfall [in any event], he should not bring in any during the day. Instead, he should sit there and guard them until nightfall and then bring them all in [carrying them in] by hand.249

All the above applies with regard to a man. When, by contrast, a woman finds tefillin, even if [she finds] only one pair, she should sit and watch them until the night. She may not bring them into the town by wearing them. [The rationale is that] since women do not wear tefillin during the week,250 they are not considered as a garment for them, but rather as a burden in the complete sense.

If one251 is afraid to sit [where the tefillin are located] until nightfall because of thieves, [i.e.,] robbers who attack at night,252 he should immediately pick them all up by hand and carry them less than four cubits at a time,253 in the manner described in sec. 266[:11],254 until he reaches the outermost courtyard.255 Alternatively, he may give them all to another person who is standing next to him within four cubits. That person may then give them to another person who is standing next to him256 until [the tefillin] reach the outermost courtyard of the town, which is the first guarded place. When he reaches the area before that courtyard, while he is still walking,257 he should extend them to another person who is standing in the courtyard. Thus [the one passing the tefillin] will have performed the akirah258from the public domainand [the one receiving them] will have performed the hanachah259 in the private domain. Alternatively, he should bring [the tefillin] in by wearing them pair by pair if there is sufficient time during the day to bring them all in.260 He should not, however, throw them into the courtyard in an irregular manner, as described in sec. 266[:12], because this is disrespectful to the tefillin, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 282.261

נבוְאִם הָיוּ זוּגוֹת הַרְבֵּה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יַסְפִּיק הַיּוֹם לְהַכְנִיס כֻּלָּן זוּג זוּג דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְהַכְנִיס גַּם מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ – לֹא יַכְנִיסֵן כְּלָל בְּיוֹם, אֶלָּא יֵשֵׁב כַּאן לְשָׁמְרָן עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ, וְאָז יַכְנִיס כֻּלָּן בְּיָדָיו.תקעט, 249

וְכָל זֶה בְּאִישׁ, אֲבָל אִשָּׁה שֶׁמָּצְאָה תְּפִלִּין,תקפ אֲפִלּוּ הֵן זוּג אֶחָד – תֵּשֵׁב וְתִשְׁמְרֵן עַד הַלַּיְלָה, וְלֹא תַכְנִיסֵן לָעִיר דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הַנָּשִׁים מַנִּיחוֹת תְּפִלִּין בְּחֹל250 – אֵינָן מַלְבּוּשׁ לָהֶן אֶלָּא מַשּׂוֹי גָּמוּר.תקפא

וְאִם מִתְיָרֵא251 לֵישֵׁב כַּאן עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ מִפְּנֵי לִסְטִיםתקפב שׁוֹדְדֵי לַיְלָהתקפג, 252 – יִטּוֹל כֻּלָּן בְּיָדָיו מִיָּד וְיוֹלִיכֵן פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת,תקפד, 253 כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ו,תקפה, 254 עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה,תקפו, 255 אוֹ נוֹתֵן כֻּלָּן לַחֲבֵרוֹתקפז שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת,תקפח וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ,256 עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ לְחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָהתקפט שֶׁל עִיר, שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר הָרִאשׁוֹן,תקצ וּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִפְנֵי הֶחָצֵר הַהוּא יוֹשִׁיט אוֹתָן לַחֲבֵרוֹ הָעוֹמֵד בֶּחָצֵר,תקצא וַחֲבֵרוֹ יִטְּלֵן מִיָּדוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ,תקצב, 257 שֶׁנִּמְצָא הוּא עוֹשֶׂה עֲקִירָה258 מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וַחֲבֵרוֹ עוֹשֶׂה הַנָּחָה259 בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.תקצג אוֹ יַכְנִיסוּ אוֹתָן זוּג זוּג דֶּרֶךְ לְבִישָׁה, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם לְהַכְנִיס כֻּלָּן.260

אֲבָל לֹא יִזְרְקֵם לֶחָצֵר כִּלְאַחַר יָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ו,תקצד מִפְּנֵי בִּזְיוֹן הַתְּפִלִּין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רפ"ב:תקצה, 261

53 [Different laws apply] in an era of a [prohibitive] decree, i.e., the [ruling authorities] decreed that [the Jews] may not wear tefillin. [Consequently,] it is dangerous to even sit near them to guard them, let alone to carry them by hand, because [the ruling authorities] will say that he is wearing tefillin. [Hence,] he should cover them262 where they are found and depart.263 [This applies] whether there are many pairs or only a few.

נגוְאִם הוּא בִּימֵי הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁגָּזְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְהָנִיחַ הַתְּפִלִּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָהתקצו אֲפִלּוּ לֵישֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶן לְשָׁמְרָןתקצז וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן לַהֲבִיאָן בְּיָדָיותקצח שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁהוּא מֵנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין מְכַסָּן262 בִּמְקוֹמָן וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹתקצט, 263 בֵּין שֶׁהֵם הַרְבֵּה בֵּין שֶׁהֵם מְעַט:תר

54 Similarly, if one finds a Torah scroll in a field during an era of a [prohibitive] decree, i.e., the [ruling authorities] decreed that [the Jews] should not study [the Torah], he should cover it where it is located and depart. If it is not during an era of a [prohibitive] decree, he must sit [near it] and guard it until nightfall. Then, he should bring it to his home. If it is raining and the scroll would be damaged if he left it in its place until nightfall, he should wrap the scroll around [his body] like a garment and then cover it with his clothes and bring it to his home immediately. Even though he is not wearing it as a garment in a complete sense,264 [the Sages] permitted him [to do so] in consideration of the honor of the Torah.265

נדוְכֵן אִם מָצָא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה בַּשָּׂדֶה בִּימֵי הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁגָּזְרוּ שֶׁלָּא לְלָמְדוֹ – מְכַסֵּהוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ זְמַן הַגְּזֵרָה – צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב וּלְשָׁמְרוֹ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ, וְאָז יְבִיאֶנּוּ לְבֵיתוֹ. וְאִם הָיוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים יוֹרְדִים שֶׁמִּתְקַלְקֵל הַסֵּפֶר אִם יִהְיֶה כַּאן עַד הַלַּיְלָה – יִתְעַטֵּף בְּהַסֵּפֶר כְּעֵין מַלְבּוּשׁ, וְחוֹזֵר וּמְכַסֶּה עָלָיו בִּבְגָדָיו, וּמְבִיאוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ מִיָּד,תרא שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ גָּמוּרתרב, 264 – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה:תרג, 265

55 The manner in which a person who seeks to save his articles from a fire should take them out to the public domain will be explained in sec. 334[:10].

נההַבָּא לְהַצִּיל כֵּלָיו מִפְּנֵי הַדְּלֵקָה, הַאֵיךְ יוֹצִיאֵם דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ד:תרד

56 One who whitens wool, flax, and all similar fabrics that are customarily whitened is liable [for melabein, “whitening”].266 This is one of the primary categories (avos melachah) of forbidden labor, because the wool and flax used for the construction of the Sanctuary were whitened [for that purpose].

Laundering garments is a derivative (toldah) of whitening and causes one to incur liability. One who wrings out a garment to the extent that water emerges from it is analogous to one who launders a garment and is liable for whitening.

A person is therefore forbidden on Shabbos to walk in a place where he might slip and fall into water, lest his clothes become drenched with water and he forget [that it is Shabbos] and wring them out. If he walked [in such a place], fell [into the water], and his clothes became drenched with water, and similarly, if one’s clothes became drenched because heavy rain fell on them, he is not required to remove them immediately. Instead, he may walk around in them267 (the entire day). There is no concern that he will forget and wring them out while going about (in them). He should not, however, shake the water off them, as will be explained in sec. 302[:2].

When he removes [the wet garments], he should not spread them out to dry on Shabbos268because of maris ayin, the impression that might be created. For one who sees them spread out to dry might think that they were washed on Shabbos. It is even forbidden to spread them out in a room where no one will see them. [The rationale is that] any practice that our Sages forbade because of the impression that might be created – so that people will not suspect that he violated a Scriptural prohibition – is forbidden even in one’s innermost chambers.269 For there is reason for concern that perhaps once another person will come there suddenly, see [what the person did], and suspect that he violated a Scriptural prohibition. Therefore, [the Sages] did not desire to make any distinctions in their decrees and forbade such acts in all instances, even when there is no reason to fear [that an undesirable impression will be created].

נוהַמְלַבֵּן אֶת הַצֶּמֶרתרה אוֹ אֶת הַפִּשְׁתָּן וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן מִמַּה שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהִתְלַבֵּןתרו – חַיָּב,266 וְהוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,תרז שֶׁכֵּן בַּמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ מְלַבְּנִים הַצֶּמֶרתרח וְהַפִּשְׁתִּים הָעֲשׂוּיִים לִמְלָאכוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן.

וְהַמְכַבֵּס בְּגָדִים – הֲרֵי הוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת מְלַבֵּן וְחַיָּב.תרט וְהַסּוֹחֵט אֶת הַבֶּגֶד עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא הַמַּיִם שֶׁבּוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְכַבֵּס בְּגָדִים, וְחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְלַבֵּן.תרי

לְפִיכָךְ, אָסוּר לֵילֵךְ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַחֲלִיק וְלִפּוֹל בְּמַיִם, שֶׁמָּא יִשָּׁרוּ בְּגָדָיו בְּמַיִם וְיִשְׁכַּח וְיִסְחוֹט.תריא וְאִם הָלַךְ וְנָפַל וְנִשְׁרוּ בְּגָדָיו בְּמַיִם,תריב וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ בְּגָדָיו בִּגְשָׁמִיםתריג הַרְבֵּהתריד שֶׁיָּרְדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְפָשְׁטָן מִיָּד, אֶלָּא יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ בָּהֶן267 (כָּל הַיּוֹםתרטו), וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִסְחָטֵםתרטז בְּהִלּוּכוֹ (בָּהֶם). אֲבָל לֹא יְנַעֲרֵם מִן הַמַּיִם,תריז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ב.תריח

וּכְשֶׁפּוֹשְׁטָן מֵעָלָיו – לֹא יִשְׁטָחֵם לְנַגְּבָם בְּשַׁבָּת,268 מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן, שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה אוֹתָם שְׁטוּחִים לְנַגֵּב יֹאמַר שֶׁכִּבְּסָן בְּשַׁבָּת.תריט וַאֲפִלּוּ לְשָׁטְחָם בְּחֶדֶר שֶׁאֵין שָׁם רוֹאֶה – אָסוּר,תרכ שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁלֹּא יַחְשְׁדוּהוּ שֶׁעָשָׂה אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָהתרכא – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַדְרֵי חֲדָרִים,תרכב, 269 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יֶאֱרַע פַּעַם אַחַת שֶׁיָּבֹא אֶחָד פִּתְאוֹם לְשָׁם וְיִרְאֵהוּ וְיַחְשְׁדֵהוּתרכג שֶׁעָבַר עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא רָצוּ לְחַלֵּק בִּגְזֵרָתָם וְאָסְרוּ בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אַף אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְכָךְ:תרכד

57 [Our Sages] only forbade spreading [one’s clothes out to dry] on Shabbos. If, however, they were spread out [to dry] on Friday, he is not obligated to remove them on Shabbos because of the impression that might be created. It is, however, forbidden to spread them out on Shabbos in all instances, even when they were not drenched with water, but with sweat.

נזוְלֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לְשָׁטְחָם בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁטוּחִים מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְסַלְּקָן בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן.תרכה אֲבָל לִשְׁטוֹחַ בְּשַׁבָּת אָסְרוּ בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִשְׁרוּ בְּמַיִם אֶלָּא מִן הַזֵּיעָה:תרכו

58 When a garment is soaked with water, even if only slightly, it is forbidden to dry it close to a fire, even if he does not spread it out there, but merely dries it there while he is wearing it. In that instance, [there is no prohibition] because of the impression that could be created.270 Nevertheless, doing so is forbidden because [of the prohibition] against cooking, i.e., the water absorbed [in the garment] will “cook” if one is so close to the fire that the garment will become so warm that a hand would recoil from touching it [yad soledes bo].271 If the person is not so close [to the fire that the garment could become so hot that yad soledes bo], he may dry [the garment] there272 as long as he does not spread it out.273

נחבֶּגֶד הַשָּׁרוּי בְּמַיִם, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא שְׁרִיָּה מוּעֶטֶתתרכז – אָסוּר לְנַגְּבוֹ סָמוּךְ לְאֵשׁ,תרכח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹטְחוֹ שָׁם, אֶלָּא מְנַגְּבוֹ שָׁם כְּשֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בּוֹ,תרכט שֶׁאֵין כַּאן מַרְאִית הָעַיִן270 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל,תרל שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַבְּלוּעִים מִתְבַּשְּׁלִים שָׁם, אִם הוּא סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהַבֶּגֶד יָכוֹל לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.271 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ סָמוּךְ כָּל כָּךְ – מֻתָּר לְנַגְּבוֹ שָׁםתרלא, 272 כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹטְחוֹ:273

59 After one takes off a garment saturated with water, he is forbidden to move it,274 lest he forget and squeeze it out. There are exceptions: a garment that one does not mind if it is wet and he would not wring it out even during the week, and one that only absorbed such a small amount of water that people do not ordinarily feel the need to wring it out.

If [a garment] was soaked in beer, red wine, or other beverages which do not whiten it,275 it is permitted to carry it, even though it is thoroughly drenched [with that liquid]. Indeed, even as an initial preference, one may soak a garment in such [liquids], e.g., to filter through them, as will be explained in sec. 319[:13] and sec. 320[:21].276

נטבֶּגֶד הַשָּׁרוּי בְּמַיִם – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹתרלב לְאַחַר שֶׁפְּשָׁטוֹ מֵעָלָיו,תרלג, 274 שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִסְחָטֶנּוּ,תרלד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בֶּגֶד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל מֵימָיותרלה וְאַף בְּחֹל לֹא הָיָה סוֹחֲטוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁרִיָּה מוּעֶטֶתתרלו שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהַקְפִּיד עָלֶיהָ לְסָחֳטָהּ.

וְאִם נִשְׁרוּ בְּשֵׁכָר אוֹ בְּיַיִן אָדֹם אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵינָם מְלַבְּנִיםתרלז, 275 – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹתרלח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ הַרְבֵּה. וְאַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁרוֹתוֹ בָּהֶם, כְּגוֹן לְסַנְּנָם עָלָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"טתרלט וְש"כ:תרמ, 276

60 [Our Sages] granted license for a person who [on Shabbos] washed his face, hands, and feet in hot water that was warmed on Friday, or even [if he washed] his entire body in the hot springs of Tiberias,277 or [washed] in cold water, to dry himself with a towel, a sheet, or the like.278 Even if he minds that these [cloths] are wet and he would [ordinarily] wring them out during the week, [the Sages] were not concerned that he would forget and wring them out on Shabbos.279[The rationale is that] this is a matter in which it is impossible to impose a prohibitive decree: Since everyone who washes dries themselves, if drying oneself would be forbidden, one would, in effect, be forbidding washing. This is a prohibition that cannot [be imposed. Indeed, our Sages] once decreed not to bathe [on Shabbos] because the bathhouse attendants would heat the water on Shabbos, claimingthat they had heated it on Friday. Afterwards,}the Sages even decreed against bathing in the hot springs of Tiberias, because people would bathe in water heated on Shabbos and claim that the water [was still hot because it] was [recently drawn] from the hot springs of Tiberias. Afterwards, the Sages{ saw that [their decrees] were not being upheld and they once again permitted the matter.280

It is also permitted for one to carry a towel in one’s hand from the bathhouse to one’s home if there is an eruv [in that area].281 There is no concern that he will forget and wring it out while walking. (For were we to be concerned about that and forbid him to bring [the towel], we would in effect be forbidding him to dry himself, for it is unimaginable282 to him that he abandon it and leave it in the bathhouse.) [Furthermore,] it is [also] forbidden for him to give [the towel] to the attendants, for there is reason to suspect that the attendants will wring out [the towels] by hand.

True, in the present age, it is possible not to bathe on Shabbos283and hence it would be possible to prevent one from drying himself. Nevertheless, this matter is not prohibited, since it was never forbidden by a reckoning of the Sages.284 Nevertheless, it is preferable to dry oneself with an article which, even during the week, he would not mind if it remained wet, and [might] not wring it out.

סהָרוֹחֵץ פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו בְּחַמִּין שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כָּל גּוּפוֹ בְּחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא277 אוֹ בְּצוֹנֵןתרמא – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְהִסְתַּפֵּג בְּמִטְפַּחַת אוֹ בְּסָדִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן,תרמב, 278 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עַל מֵימֵיהֶם לְסָחֳטָם בָּהֶם בְּחֹל – לֹא חָשְׁשׁוּ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִסְחָטֵם בְּשַׁבָּת,תרמג, 279 לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ דָבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִגְזוֹר עָלָיו, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל הָרוֹחֲצִין מִסְתַּפְּגִין, אִם אַתָּה אוֹסְרוֹ לְהִסְתַּפֵּג – אַף אַתָּה אוֹסְרוֹ בִּרְחִיצָה, וְזֶהוּ דָבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר,תרמד שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת גָּזְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִרְחוֹץ מִפְּנֵי הַבַּלָּנִים שֶׁהָיוּ מְחַמִּין חַמִּין בְּשַׁבָּת וְאָמְרוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת הוּחַמּוּ,תרמה וְאַחַר כָּךְתרמו רָאוּ שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר עוֹמֵד וְחָזְרוּ וְהִתִּירוּ.תרמז, 280

וּמֻתָּר לוֹ גַם כֵּן לְהָבִיא הַמִּטְפַּחַת בְּיָדוֹ מִבֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ לְבֵיתוֹתרמח אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם עֵרוּב,תרמט, 281 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִסְחָטֶנּוּ בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ (שֶׁאִם נָחוּשׁ לְכָךְ וְנֶאֱסוֹר לוֹ לַהֲבִיאוֹ – הֲרֵי אָנוּ אוֹסְרִים לְהִסְתַּפֵּג, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר282 לוֹ לְהַפְקִירוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץתרנ). וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְמָסְרוֹ לְהַבַּלָּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַבַּלָּנִים חֲשׁוּדִים עַל הַסְּחִיטָהתרנא לִסְחוֹט בְּיָדַיִם.

וְאַף עַכְשָׁו בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲמוֹד בְּלֹא רְחִיצָה בְּשַׁבָּת283 וְאִם כֵּן אֶפְשָׁר לְמָנְעוֹ מִלְּהִסְתַּפֵּג – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר,תרנב מֵאַחַר שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱסַר מֵעוֹלָם בְּמִנְיַן חֲכָמִים.תרנג, 284 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לְהִסְתַּפֵּג בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל מֵימָיו לְסָחֳטוֹ אַף בְּחֹל:תרנד

61 It is permitted to stand on a riverbank and wash one’s hands in the river. There is no prohibition involved in taking the water on his [wet] hands from the river to the riverbank. [The rationale is that] the river is a karmelis and the riverbank is also a karmelis, and one may take something from one karmelis to another [provided that the distance between them is] less than four cubits.285 He must, however, take care to dry his hands thoroughly immediately after taking them out of the river, before he walks four cubits. Similarly, one who bathes in a river must be careful to dry his body thoroughly when he ascends from the river, so that water will not remain on his body and [thereby] be carried four cubits in the karmelis.286

When, however, one walks in the public domain and rain is drenching him and his garments, the Sages were not strict about the matter, because it would be [a decree] that could not be upheld. For there are times when a person is walking in the public domain [on Shabbos] and it suddenly rains down upon him. Therefore, license [to walk in the rain] was granted in all instances. (Indeed, it is even permitted to go out from one’s home while it is raining, because a prohibition should not be imposed merely partially.)

סא מֻתָּר לַעֲמוֹד עַל שְׂפַת הַנָּהָר וְלִרְחוֹץ יָדָיו בַּנָּהָר,תרנה וְאֵין בְּזֶה אִסּוּר בְּמַה שֶּׁמּוֹצִיא הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל יָדָיו מִן הַנָּהָר אֶל שְׂפָתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהַנָּהָר הוּא כַּרְמְלִית וּשְׂפַת הַנָּהָר הוּא גַם כֵּן כַּרְמְלִית, וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מִכַּרְמְלִית לְכַרְמְלִית בְּפָחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת,תרנו, 285 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְנַגֵּב יָדָיו יָפֶה מִיָּד שֶׁהוֹצִיאָם מֵהַנָּהָר קֹדֶם שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ ד' אַמּוֹתתרנז. וְכֵן הָרוֹחֵץ בַּנָּהָר – צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב גּוּפוֹ יָפֶה כְּשֶׁעוֹלֶה מֵהַנָּהָר, שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֲרוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וִיטַלְטְלֶנּוּ ד' אַמּוֹת בְּכַרְמְלִית.תרנח, 286

אֲבָל הַהוֹלֵךְ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּמָטָר סוֹחֵף עָלָיו וְעַל לְבוּשׁוֹ – לֹא הִקְפִּידוּ חֲכָמִים עַל זֶה,תרנט לְפִי שֶׁהוּא דָבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲמוֹד עָלָיו, שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים אָדָם הוֹלֵךְ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּפִתְאוֹם יָרַד הַגֶּשֶׁם עָלָיו,תרס לָכֵן הִתִּירוּ לוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן (אַף לָצֵאת מִבֵּיתוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַגֶּשֶׁם, שֶׁאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר דָּבָר לַחֲצָאִין):

62 Bald men who place carded flax or combed wool on their heads so that it appears that [they have] hair on their heads are permitted to place [these hairpieces] on their heads on Shabbos287and go out to the public domain [while wearing] them, since they are considered as ornaments for them. They must, however, prepare [the hairpieces for this purpose]288 while it is still day [on Friday] so that [picking them up] will not violate the prohibition against moving [articles that are] muktzeh, as will be explained in sec. 308[:57].289

סבבַּעֲלֵי הַקָּרְחָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עַל רָאשֵׁיהֶם פִּשְׁתָּן סָרוּק אוֹ צֶמֶר מְנֻפָּץתרסא שֶׁיְּהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּשֵׂעָר בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶםתרסב – מֻתָּרִים לְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת287 וְלָצֵאת בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁתַּכְשִׁיט שֶׁלָּהֶם הוּא,תרסג וּבִלְבָד שֶׁהוּכְנוּ288 מִבְּעוּד יוֹם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה,תרסד וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח:תרסה, 289

63 A person who has a wound on his head290 or on his arm is permitted to tie a cloth turban around his neck [or arm to protect the wound]. He may go out to the public domain [wearing it]. Similarly, rags may be tied around an injured hand or a finger, and [the person] may go out to the public domain [wearing] them. How much more so does this apply if they are bound around the wound itself, as explained above.291 (See the rationale [explained] there.)292


סגמֻתָּר לִתְלוֹת מִצְנֶפֶת בְּצַוָּארוֹ לְמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַכָּה בְּרֹאשׁוֹתרסו, 290 אוֹ בִּזְרוֹעוֹ וְלָצֵאת בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְכֵן לִכְרוֹךְ סְמַרְטוּטִין עַל הַיָּד אוֹ עַל הָאֶצְבַּע שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַכָּה וְלָצֵאת בָּהֶם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,תרסז וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם כְּרוּכִים עַל הַמַּכָּה מַמָּשׁ,תרסח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהתרסט, 291 (עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם):292