SECTION 296 The Laws Governing [the Recitation of] Havdalah over Wine (1-19)

סימן רצו דִּינֵי הַבְדָּלָה עַל הַיַּיִן וּבוֹ י"ט סְעִיפִים:

1 Our Sages established the custom of smelling [aromatic] spices on Saturday night for the reason to be explained in sec. 297[:1]. One must recite a blessing before smelling them.1 They also required the recitation of a blessing over fire every Saturday night for the reason to be explained in sec. 298[:1]. They arranged that these blessings [be recited] over a cup [of wine],2 after the blessing over the wine, but before the blessing of Havdalah. First, [one recites the blessing] over the spices, and then, over the candle[s].3 Thus, the order of the Havdalah recited over a cup [of wine] is: the blessing over wine, the blessing over spices, the blessing over the candle, and the blessing of Havdalah.4The mnemonic for [these blessings] is יבנ"ה: יין בשמים נר הבדלה.

א הִנְהִיגוּ חֲכָמִיםא לְהָרִיחַ בִּבְשָׂמִים בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רצ"ז.ב וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם הָרֵיחַ.ג,1 וְהִצְרִיכוּ גַם כֵּן לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָאוּר בְּכָל מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רצ"ח.ד וְסִדְּרוּ בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ עַל הַכּוֹסה,2 אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַבְדָּלָה, בִּתְחִלָּה עַל הַבְּשָׂמִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ עַל הַנֵּר,3 וְנִמְצָא סֵדֶר הַבְדָּלָה שֶׁעַל הַכּוֹס, בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן וּבִרְכַּת הַבְּשָׂמִים וּבִרְכַּת הַנֵּר וּבִרְכַּת הַבְדָּלָה,ו,4 וְסִמָּנָךְ יִבָּנֶ"ה,ז "יַיִן "בְּשָׂמִים "נֵר "הַבְדָּלָה:

2 With regard to the cup [of wine] over which Havdalah [is recited], one must be careful regarding all requirements [mentioned] concerning the cup [of wine] over which Kiddush [is recited] and the cup over which the Grace after Meals [is recited],5 as explained in sec. 183[:1-10]6 and sec. 271[:18].7

ב וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכוֹס שֶׁל הַבְדָּלָה בְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ וְשֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,ח,5 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קפ"ג6 וְסִמָּן רע"א:ט,7

3 It is customary to recite [several verses] before reciting Havdalah at home.8 [These include:] “Behold, G‑d is my deliverance…”;9 “The Jews had [light, joy, gladness, and honor]”;10 and “I will raise the cup of deliverance….”11 They are all [recited] as a good omen; there is no obligation [to recite them].12

ג נָהֲגוּ לוֹמַר קֹדֶם הַבְדָּלָהי שֶׁבַּבַּיִת8 "הִנֵּה אֵל יְשׁוּעָתִי וְגוֹ'",יא,9 "לַיְּהוּדִים הָיְתָה וְגוֹ'",יב,10 "כּוֹס יְשׁוּעוֹת אֶשָּׂא וְגוֹ'".יג,11 הַכֹּל לְסִמָּן טוֹב,יד וְאֵין חוֹבָה בַּדָּבָר:12

4 While the blessing of Havdalah is being recited, the listeners should focus their eyes on the cup [of wine]13 and the candle.14

ד וּבִשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת הַבְדָּלָה יִתְּנוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת עֵינֵיהֶם בַּכּוֹסטו,13 וּבַנֵּר:טז,14

5 It is customary that some of the wine from the cup [for Havdalah] should be spilled on the earth15 as a sign of abundance,16 for [our Sages taught]17 that any house in which wine is not spilled like water lacks a sign of blessing. Accordingly, such a sign of blessing is made at the beginning of the week. [Doing so] does not violate the prohibition against treating beverages disrespectfully by pouring them out wastefully, since one pours out only a small amount.18

One should carry out the custom of pouring out the wine [as follows]: When filling the cup to the brim, one should pour another little bit of wine so some of it will spill on the earth. One should not, however, pour from the wine used to fill the cup to the earth, for if one pours from it, the cup will not be filled to capacity as is fitting. And if one will not pour anything from it until after the recitation of Havdalah,so that the cup will be filled to capacity at the time of the recitation of Havdalah, it will be an act of disrespect to the blessing Borei pri hagafen. [For] he recited that blessing on a cup that was filled as is fitting, and after he recited the blessing, before he drank from it, he poured out some of it to the earth as if it was revolting when he made the blessing over it. Therefore, one should pour out [the wine] only in the manner described above.

It is also customary to pour on the table19 some of the wine that remained in the cup after the one who recited Havdalah drank from it. One [then] extinguishes the candle with it, so that it will be apparent to all that this candle was kindled only to serve the mitzvah [of it being used] as the Havdalah candle, so that a blessing could be recited over it. (Therefore, if one recites Havdalah on a lamp in the house that was not kindled for this purpose, one need not extinguish it.) It is customary to moisten one’s eyes with the wine that was poured out, as an expression of the dearness of the mitzvah.20

ה וְנוֹהֲגִין לִשְׁפּוֹךְ מְעַט יַיִן מֵהַכּוֹס עַל הָאָרֶץ15 לְסִמָּן טוֹב,יז,16 שֶׁכָּל בַּיִת שֶׁאֵין יַיִן נִשְׁפָּךְ בּוֹ כַּמַּיִם אֵין בּוֹ סִמַּן בְּרָכָה,יח,17 עַל כֵּן עוֹשִׂין סִמַּן בְּרָכָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׁבוּעַ.יט וְאֵין בָּזֶה אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם בִּזּוּי מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכוֹ לְאִבּוּד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹפֵךְ אֶלָּא דָּבָר מוּעָט.כ,18

וְיֵשׁ לִנְהוֹג שְׁפִיכָה זוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּמַלֵּא הַכּוֹס עַל כָּל גְּדוֹתָיו, יַעֲרֶה עָלָיו עוֹד מְעַט בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיִּשָּׁפֵךְ מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט עַל הָאָרֶץ.כא אֲבָל אֵין לִשְׁפּוֹךְ עַל הָאָרֶץ מִיַּיִן שֶׁהַכּוֹס נִתְמַלֵּא בּוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם יִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא יִהְיֶה הַכּוֹס מָלֵא עַל כָּל גְּדוֹתָיו כָּרָאוּי,כב וְאִם לֹא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם עַד אַחַר הַהַבְדָּלָה כְּדֵי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת הַהַבְדָּלָה יִהְיֶה עֲדַיִן מָלֵא עַל כָּל גְּדוֹתָיו – הֲרֵי זֶה בִּזָּיוֹן לְבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",כג שֶׁבֵּרַךְ אוֹתָהּ עַל כּוֹס מָלֵא כָּרָאוּי וְקֹדֶם שֶׁשָּׁתָה מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁפַךְ מִמֶּנּוּ לָאָרֶץ כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה בוֹ דָּבָר מָאוּס כְּשֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלָיו, לָכֵן אֵין לִנְהוֹג שְׁפִיכָה זוֹ אֶלָּא בְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.

גַּם נוֹהֲגִין לִשְׁפּוֹךְכד עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָןכה,19 מִן יַיִן הַנִּשְׁאָר בַּכּוֹס אַחַר שְׁתִיַּת הַמַּבְדִּילכו וּמְכַבִּין בּוֹ הַנֵּר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִרְאֶה לַכֹּל שֶׁלֹּא הֻדְלַק נֵר זֶה אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה לְנֵר שֶׁל הַבְדָּלָה לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיוכז (לְפִיכָךְ אִם מַבְדִּיל עַל נֵר שֶׁבַּבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא הֻדְלַק בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְכַבּוֹתוֹכח). וְנוֹהֲגִין לִרְחוֹץ עֵינֵיהֶם מִיַּיִן שֶׁל שְׁפִיכָה זוֹ, מִשּׁוּם חִבּוּב מִצְוָה:כט,20

6 There is no need to have the listeners taste [the wine]21 from the cup of Havdalah as is necessary with regard to the cup of Kiddush.22Instead, the person reciting Havdalah customarily drinks it in its entirety.23

ו אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַטְעִים מִכּוֹס21 שֶׁל הַבְדָּלָה לְהַשּׁוֹמְעִיםל כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ בְּכוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ,לא,22 אֶלָּא הַמַּבְדִּיל רָגִיל לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ כֻלּוֹ:לב,23

7 Havdalah may not be recited over bread. [This ruling applies] even when one does not have wine or other [distinguished] beverages.24 [The situation] is not comparable to Kiddush, which may be recited over bread.25 [The rationale for the distinction is that] Kiddush shares an intrinsic connection with bread, because Kiddush may only be recited in the place of one’s meal.26 Havdalah, by contrast, does not share any connection at all with bread.

ז אֵין מַבְדִּילִין עַל הַפַּת אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לוֹ יַיִןלג וְלֹא שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים.24 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁמְּקַדְּשִׁין עַל הַפַּת,לד,25 לְפִי שֶׁהַקִּדּוּשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ עִנְיָן לְהַפַּת, שֶׁאֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה,26 אֲבָל הַבְדָּלָה אֵין לָהּ עִנְיָן כְּלָל לְהַפַּת:לה

8 If a person does not possess wine, he may recite Havdalah over any beverage that is the “wine of the region,”27 with the exception of water. If he has wine, [he should recite Havdalah over it,] since it is not considered as an “enhancement of the mitzvah” to recite Havdalah on beer or other beverages, even where they are the “wine of the region.”28 If, however, a person does not have wine at home – although it is available from a storekeeper – he need not purchase it.29 Nevertheless, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to recite Havdalah over wine in all circumstances.

ח אֲבָל מַבְדִּילִיןלו עַל כָּל מַשְׁקֶהלז שֶׁהוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָה27 חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם,לח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹ יַיִן, שֶׁאָז אֵין זֶה הִדּוּר מִצְוָהלט אִם יַבְדִּיל עַל שֵׁכָר אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם חֲמַר מְדִינָה.28 אֲבָל אִם אֵין יַיִן בְּבֵיתוֹ אַף שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ אֵצֶל חֶנְוָנִי – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹתוֹ.מ,29

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְהַבְדִּיל עַל הַיַּיִן בְּכָל עִנְיָן:מא

9 Even if a person has [only enough wine for] a cup of wine that is not full30 and [he has enough for] a full cup of beer or another beverage that is the “wine of the region,” it is preferable to recite Havdalah over the wine, as long as it is not blemished.31 [This ruling does not apply,] however, if it is blemished and the situation is such that it is impossible to correct its blemish by adding a little water to it,32 e.g., it is already blended with water [to the maximum amount of dilution], so that if he adds [even] a small amount of water to it, it will become spoiled.33 [In such a situation,] it is preferable to recite Havdalah over the unblemished “wine of the region.”

ט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ כּוֹס יַיִן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָלֵא30 וְכוֹס מָלֵא שֵׁכָר אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה חֲמַר מְדִינָה – טוֹב יוֹתֵר לְהַבְדִּיל עַל הַיַּיִן אִם אֵינוֹ פָּגוּם.מב,31 אֲבָל אִם הוּא פָּגוּם,מג וְהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְתַקְּנוֹ מִפְּגִימָתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נְתִינַת מְעַט מַיִם לְתוֹכוֹ,32 כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא מָזוּג בְּמַיִם כְּבָר כָּרָאוּי בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יוֹסִיף עָלָיו מְעַט מַיִם לְתוֹכוֹ יִתְקַלְקֵלמד,33 - אֲזַי טוֹב יוֹתֵר לְהַבְדִּיל עַל מַשְׁקֶה חֲמַר מְדִינָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ פָּגוּם:

10 In these countries,34 it is customary to rule leniently and [allow] Havdalah to be recited over beer on the night following Pesach, even if one possesses much wine at home, because at that time, he appreciates beer more than wine.35 If, however, one does not appreciate beer that much, he should recite Havdalah over wine.

[Moreover,] even a person who does appreciate [beer] may only recite Havdalah over it when it is considered “the wine of the region” in that place, as explained in sec. 272[:10].36 In places where grape vines grow, by contrast, and wine is the “beverage37 of the region,” one may not recite Havdalah on any other beverage, even if he is very fond of it and wine is not at all [presently] available in that town, as explained in that source.

י וְנוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ34 לְהָקֵל לְהַבְדִּיל בְּמוֹצָאֵי פֶסַח עַל הַשֵּׁכָר אַף אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ יַיִן הַרְבֵּה בְּבֵיתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהַשֵּׁכָר חָבִיב עָלָיו אָז יוֹתֵר מִן הַיַּיִן.מה,35 אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָבִיב עָלָיו כָּל כָּךְ – יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַבְדִּיל עַל הַיַּיִן.מו

וְאַף מִי שֶׁחָבִיב עָלָיו – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַבְדִּיל עָלָיו אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָה,מז וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ער"ב.מח,36 אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהַיַּיִן גָּדֵל שָׁם, שֶׁהַיַּיִן הוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָה37 – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַבְדִּיל עַל שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה, אַף שֶׁהוּא חָבִיב עָלָיו מְאֹד, וְגַם אֵין יַיִן נִמְצָא כְּלָל בָּעִיר, וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:

11 [There is a difference of opinion regarding the course of action to follow when] a festival falls on Saturday night and it is necessary to recite both Kiddush and Havdalah on one cup38 and the person does not have any wine. Some authorities maintain that one may recite the blessings [in the order] יקנה"ז 39 {the blessings Borei pri hagafen, Kiddush, Borei meorei ha’eish, Havdalah, and Shehechiyanu}, [but should substitute the blessing] over bread [for the blessing over wine].40 Although [as a rule], Havdalah may not be recited over bread,41 nevertheless, [in this instance,] Havdalah is secondary to Kiddush. Since Kiddush is being recited over bread, Havdalah may also be recited over it, because it is secondary to Kiddush. Other authorities maintain that it is preferable to recite Kiddush and Havdalah on beer or on another beverage that is the “wine of the region.” The custom in these countries is to follow the first opinion.42

יא יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ וּלְהַבְדִּיל עַל כּוֹס אֶחָדמט,38 וְאֵין לוֹ יַיִן – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לוֹמַר יַקְנְהַ"ז39 עַל הַפַּת,40 שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵין מַבְדִּילִין עַל הַפַּת,41 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַבְדָּלָה זוֹ טְפֵלָה לְקִדּוּשׁ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמְּקַדְּשִׁים עַל הַפַּת יְכוֹלִים גַּם כֵּן לוֹמַר עָלֶיהָ הַהַבְדָּלָה אַגַּב הַקִּדּוּשׁ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנא שֶׁיּוֹתֵר טוֹב לוֹמַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ וְהַהַבְדָּלָה עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל שֵׁכָר אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁהֵם חֲמַר מְדִינָה. וְהַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ כַּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:נב,42

12 [There is a difference of opinion regarding the course of action to follow when] on a Saturday night before an ordinary Sunday,43 one does not have either wine or another beverage that is the “wine of the region,” nor will he be able to obtain it that night, but only on the following day. Some authorities maintain that, according to law, he may eat immediately [on Saturday night] if he recalled Havdalah in the [Evening] Service.44 It is merely pious conduct not to partake of anything until he recites Havdalah [over a cup] the following day.

Other authorities maintain that according to law, he is forbidden to partake of anything if he expects to have a cup [of wine]45 over which to recite Havdalah on the following day. If, however, he does not expect to have [a cup of wine] on the following day, he is not obligated to fast until he recites Havdalah [over such a cup].46 Therefore, he is allowed to eat, even immediately, on Saturday night.

With regard to the [actual] halachah, one should be stringent and follow the latter opinion47 unless he is very weak and it would be difficult for him to fast until a cup is brought to him on the following day.48 In such an instance, he may rely on the first opinion and adopt the lenient stance, [because the matter only concerns] a Rabbinic ordinance.

יב מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לְחֹל43 לֹא יַיִן וְלֹא שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים חֲמַר מְדִינָה וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְצוֹא בַּלַּיְלָה עַד לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנג שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד מִן הַדִּין אִם הִזְכִּיר הַבְדָּלָה בִּתְפִלָּה,נד,44 אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּדַּת חֲסִידוּת הוּא שֶׁלֹּא לִטְעוֹם מְאוּמָה עַד שֶׁיַּבְדִּיל לְמָחָר.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנה שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין אָסוּר לוֹ לִטְעוֹם מְאוּמָה אִם מְצַפֶּה שֶׁלְּמָחָר בַּיּוֹם יִהְיֶה לוֹ כּוֹס45 לְהַבְדִּיל עָלָיו, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מְצַפֶּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם – אֵין מְחַיְּבִים אוֹתוֹ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עַד הַהַבְדָּלָה,46 לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל אַף בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד.נו

(א) וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה,47 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא אָדָם חַלָּשׁ שֶׁקָּשֶׁה לוֹ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ כּוֹס לְמָחָר48 – אֲזַי יָכוֹל לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

13 [Permission may be granted to eat before Havdalah in the following situation:] A person has only one cup of wine49 [on Saturday night] and he desires to partake of a meal [that includes bread]. Were he to recite Havdalah on this cup of wine and drink the majority of a reviis,50 he would not have a cup of wine over which to recite Grace [for this meal, because,] if he would add water to the remaining wine so that it would comprise a complete reviis,51 [the wine] would be spoiled52 since it was already blended with water in an appropriate manner. [In such an instance,] he should eat [the meal] before reciting Havdalah, and recite Grace over this cup [of wine].53 After concluding Grace, he should recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen over it, then the blessings for spices and for the candle, and then Havdalah. Afterwards, he should drink it. [The rationale for this course of action is that] it is preferable to suspend the prohibition against eating before Havdalah than to recite Grace without a cup of wine after Havdalah.

When does the above apply? When the person does not expect to have another cup of wine over which to recite Grace the following day.54 If, however, he expects that he will have a cup of wine the next day,55 it is forbidden for him to partake of anything until he recites Havdalah. He should recite Havdalah on the cup [of wine] he has Saturday night and not partake of a meal [that includes bread]56 until a cup over which to recite Grace is brought to him the following day, as explained according to the latter opinion [cited] above57 with regard to Havdalah.

By contrast, the first opinion [cited there] maintains that one need not refrain from eating until the following day, when a cup [of wine] for Havdalah will be brought to him. Accordingly, he also need not wait with his meal until the next day, when a cup will be brought to him over which to recite Grace.58 Instead, he is permitted to partake of a meal immediately, and [afterwards,] to recite Grace without a cup [of wine]. Therefore, he should partake of his meal before he recites Havdalah over the cup [of wine] he possesses, so that he will be able to recite Grace over a cup of wine in the order described above: [the blessing over wine immediately after Grace, followed by the blessings for spices, fire, and Havdalah].

All of the above follows [the position of] the authorities who maintain that the recitation of the Grace after Meals requires a cup [of wine] like Kiddush and Havdalah, and one must seek out a cup [of wine[ for Grace like one must seek to fulfill all the obligatory mitzvos ordained by the Sages, as stated in sec. 182[:1]. However, according to the authorities who maintain that a cup of wine for Grace is not an obligatory requirement, but merely the optimal manner of fulfilling the mitzvah of reciting Grace, this mitzvah does not supersede the prohibition against partaking of food before Havdalah. Instead, one should first recite Havdalah on the cup [of wine] he possesses. Afterwards, if he desires to partake [of a meal that includes bread], he may recite Grace without a cup [of wine]. He need not delay eating until he is brought a cup of wine, even if he expects that one will be brought to him later that night.

(With regard to actual practice, [in the above situation where a person has only one cup of wine on Saturday night and he desires to partake of a meal]: Since a binding halachic ruling has not been made – neither in favor of the authorities who maintain that a cup [of wine] is required [when reciting] Grace, nor in favor of those who maintain that one is not required – one who always follows the opinion that a cup [of wine] is required [when reciting] Grace should partake of his meal before Havdalah [and recite Grace and Havdalah on the same cup, as stated above].59 If, however, he occasionally relies on the authorities who maintain that a cup is not required when reciting Grace, he should give weight to their words in this instance as well and not eat before [reciting] Havdalah.)

יג וְאִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא כּוֹס אֶחָדנז,49 וְהוּא רוֹצֶה לִסְעוֹד, וְאִם יַבְדִּיל עַל כּוֹס זֶה וְיִשְׁתֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ רֹב רְבִיעִיתנח,50 לֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהוֹסִיף מַיִם בַּיַּיִן הַנִּשְׁאָר לְהַשְׁלִימוֹ לִרְבִיעִיתנט,51 שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַלְקֵל52 מֵחֲמַת הַמַּיִם, שֶׁכְּבָר הוּא מָזוּג כָּרָאוּי בְּמַיִם מִתְּחִלָּהס – הֲרֵי זֶה סוֹעֵד קֹדֶם הַבְדָּלָה וּמְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל כּוֹס53 זֶה, וְאַחַר גְּמַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" וּבִרְכַּת הַבְּשָׂמִים וְהַנֵּר וְהַהַבְדָּלָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹתֵהוּ, שֶׁמּוּטָב שֶׁיִּדָּחֶה אִסּוּר הָאֲכִילָה קֹדֶם הַבְדָּלָה מִשֶּׁיְּבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּלֹא כוֹס אַחַר הַבְדָּלָה.סא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצַפֶּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ לְמָחָר54 עוֹד כּוֹס שֶׁיּוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲבָל אִם הוּא מְצַפֶּה שֶׁלְּמָחָר55 יִהְיֶה לוֹ עוֹד כּוֹס – אָסוּר לוֹ לִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּבְדִּיל,סב אֶלָּא מַבְדִּיל עַל כּוֹס זֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, וְלֹא יִסְעוֹד56 עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ כּוֹס לְמָחָר לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,סג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּכוֹס שֶׁל הַבְדָּלָה לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.סד,57

אֲבָל לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהסה שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין מִלֶּאֱכוֹל עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ לְמָחָר כּוֹס לְהַבְדָּלָה – גַּם כַּאן לֹא יִהְיֶה צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין מִלִּסְעוֹד עַד לְמָחָר שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,58 אֶלָּא יִהְיֶה רַשַּׁאי לִסְעוֹד מִיָּד וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּלֹא כוֹס, וְלָכֵן יִסְעוֹד קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּבְדִּיל עַל כּוֹס זֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל הַכּוֹס, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.סו

וְכָל זֶה לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן טְעוּנָה כּוֹס כְּמוֹ קִדּוּשׁ וְהַבְדָּלָה, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְחַזֵּר אַחַר כּוֹס לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְחַזֵּר אַחַר כָּל מִצְוֹת שֶׁהֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁהֵן חוֹבָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קפ"ב,סז אֲבָל לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֵינָהּ טְעוּנָה כּוֹס בְּתוֹרַת חוֹבָה גְמוּרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל הַכּוֹססח – אֵין מִצְוָה זוֹ דּוֹחָה אִסּוּר טְעִימָה קֹדֶם הַבְדָּלָה, אֶלָּא יַבְדִּיל בִּתְחִלָּה עַל כּוֹס זֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ,סט וְאַחַר כָּךְ אִם יִרְצֶה יֹאכַל וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּלֹא כוֹס, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין מִלֶּאֱכוֹל עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ כּוֹס, אַף אִם מְצַפֶּה שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ בְּלַיְלָה זֶה לְאַחַר זְמַן.

(וּלְעִנְיַן (ב) מַעֲשֶׂה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִפְסְקָה הֲלָכָהע לֹא כְּהָאוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן טְעוּנָה כּוֹס, וְלֹא כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ טְעוּנָה כּוֹס, לָכֵן מִי שֶׁנּוֹהֵג לְעוֹלָם כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁטְּעוּנָה כּוֹס – גַּם עַתָּה יִסְעוֹד קֹדֶם הַבְדָּלָה,59 אֲבָל אִם לִפְעָמִים הוּא סוֹמֵךְ עַל הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ טְעוּנָה כּוֹס – גַּם עַתָּה יָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם וְלֹא יִסְעוֹד קֹדֶם הַבְדָּלָה):

14 [The laws describing] the order of priority [when a person] does not have the means to buy wine for both Kiddush and Havdalah are explained in sec. 271[:21. The order of priority when] one does not have the means to buy oil for a Chanukah lamp and wine for Kiddush will be explained in sec. 678.60

יד מִי שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לִקְנוֹת יַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ וּלְהַבְדָּלָה – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"אעא אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קוֹדֵם. וּמִי שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לִקְנוֹת שֶׁמֶן לְנֵר חֲנֻכָּה וְיַיִן לְהַבְדָּלָה – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תרע"ח:עב,60

15 It is customary in these countries to recite Havdalah while standing, as [an act of] respect for the king61 we are escorting. Ordinary practice is to escort someone while standing. Nevertheless, after one completes [the recitation of] Havdalah, he should sit down and drink [from] the cup, for it is not appropriate for Torah scholars to eat or drink while standing.62

טו נוֹהֲגִים בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לְהַבְדִּיל מְעֻמָּדעג לִכְבוֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ61 שֶׁאָנוּ מְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ,עד וְדֶרֶךְ לְוִיָּה מְעֻמָּד.עה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אַחַר גְּמַר הַהַבְדָּלָה יֵשׁ לוֹ לֵישֵׁב וְלִשְׁתּוֹת הַכּוֹס, שֶׁאֵין לְתַלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים לֶאֱכוֹל אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת מְעֻמָּד:עו,62

16 Every entity over which one recites a blessing63 must be held in one’s right hand64 at the time of the recitation of the blessing, as stated in sec. 206[:8]. Therefore, at the time the blessing Borei pri hagafen is recited, one must hold the cup [of wine] in his right hand65 and the spices in his left hand.66 Afterwards, [prior to making the blessing on the spices,] one should switch [the objects, holding] the cup with his left hand and the spices in his right hand67 and then recite the blessing over the spices. It is preferable that [one hold] the cup in his left hand until after the blessing Borei meorei ha’eish [that is recited over the flame]68 so that he will be able to look at the fingernails of his right hand, as will be explained in sec. 298[:6]. Afterwards, he should return the cup to his right hand and recite the blessing of Havdalah over it, for it was ordained to be recited over a cup [of wine].

טז כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלָיו63 צָרִיךְ לְאָחֳזוֹ בִּימִינוֹ64 בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּרָכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"[ו].עז לְפִיכָךְ, בִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" צָרִיךְ לֶאֱחוֹז הַכּוֹס בִּימִינוֹ65 וְיִהְיוּ הַבְּשָׂמִים בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ,עח,66 וְאַחַר כָּךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲלִיף הַכּוֹס לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ וְהַבְּשָׂמִים לִימִינוֹ67 וִיבָרֵךְ עַל הַבְּשָׂמִים,עט וְטוֹב שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַכּוֹס בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא מְאוֹרֵי הָאֵשׁ",פ,68 כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהִסְתַּכֵּל בְּצִפָּרְנֵי יְמִינוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רח"צ,פא וְאַחַר כָּךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִיר הַכּוֹס לִימִינוֹפב וּלְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַהַבְדָּלָה שֶׁנִּתְקְנָה עַל הַכּוֹס:פג

17 (A sheliach tzibbur who recites Havdalah in the synagogue – even when he intended to fulfill his obligation – and others who listened to [his recitation], intending to fulfill their obligation, may recite Havdalah again in their homes to fulfill the obligation of the younger [male]69 members of their household who were not in the synagogue.70 However, one who already fulfilled his own obligation may not recite Havdalah for adult [family members] who were not in the synagogue, since they are able to recite Havdalah themselves. Instead, they should recite [that blessing] themselves.

Nevertheless,) a person who intended not to fulfill his obligation through the Havdalah recited in the synagogue71 – and even the sheliach tzibbur who intended not to fulfill his obligation with his recitation of Havdalah [in the synagogue]72 – must recite Havdalah again at home. Therefore, people at large have adopted the custom that every person should recite Havdalah again in his home even if all the members of his household were in the synagogue, because their intent is not to fulfill their obligation with the Havdalah recited in the synagogue.73

יז (שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הַמַּבְדִּיל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אַף שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וְכֵן אֲחֵרִים שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ וְנִתְכַּוְּנוּ לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם – יְכוֹלִים לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַבְדִּיל בְּבָתֵּיהֶם לְהוֹצִיא בְּנֵי בֵיתָם הַקְּטַנִּיםפד,69 שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.פה,70 אֲבָל הַגְּדוֹלִים שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, הוֹאִיל וְהֵם יְכוֹלִים לְהַבְדִּיל בְּעַצְמָם – אֵין לְמִי שֶׁיָּצָא כְּבָר יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לְהַבְדִּיל לָהֶם, אֶלָּא יַבְדִּילוּ בְּעַצְמָם.פו

אֲבָל) מִי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּהַבְדָּלָה שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,פז,71 אַף הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר עַצְמוֹפח שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָה בְּהַבְדָּלָתוֹ,72 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַבְדִּיל בְּבֵיתוֹ.

לְפִיכָךְ, נָהֲגוּ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד חוֹזֵר וּמַבְדִּיל בְּבֵיתוֹ אַף אִם כָּל בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ הָיוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,פט לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתָּם כְּלָל לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתָםצ בְּהַבְדָּלָה שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת:73

18 Even though [initially], when the blessing over the wine was recited, a person listening to Havdalah – whether in the synagogue or at home – did not have in mind to fulfill his obligation by listening to this Havdalah, (indeed, even if he did not hear the blessing over the wine at all), it is of no consequence.74 As long as he intended to fulfill his obligation when he heard the blessing of Havdalah, he fulfills his obligation for Havdalah. (He may not, however, drink wine, relying on the blessing over the wine recited by the person reciting Havdalah, if at the time he heard the blessing over the wine, he did not intend for [the other person’s] blessing to cover the wine he would drink.)75

יח הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ הַבְדָּלָה, בֵּין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בֵּין בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ כְּשֶׁשָּׁמַע בִּרְכַּת הַבְדָּלָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לָצֵאת בְּהַבְדָּלָה זוֹ בִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן (וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא שָׁמַע כְּלָל בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן) – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,74 וְיָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת הַבְדָּלָה.צא

(אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן עַל סְמַךְ בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁבֵּרַךְ הַמַּבְדִּיל, כָּל שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן בִּשְׁמִיעַת בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן לִפְטוֹר בָּהּ הַיַּיִן שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּההוּאצב):75

19 According to the authorities who maintain that the fundamental obligation of Havdalah is of Scriptural origin, as it is written:76 “Remember the Shabbos day to sanctify it,” [implying that we are to] “remember it upon its entrance and upon its departure,”77 as explained in sec. 271[:1], women are also obligated in the recitation of Havdalah according to Scriptural Law, just as they are obligated in the recitation of Kiddush according to Scriptural Law.78 For a textual association79 exists80 between the commandment: “Remember the Shabbos and sanctify it” and the commandment:81 “Observe the Shabbos day” as stated there.82

[Women] are [thus] obligated to recite Havdalah in the Shemoneh Esreh83 and [also recite Havdalah] over a cup [of wine] as ordained by the Sages whose ordinance was directed to them just as it was directed to men, since, according to Scriptural Law, they are obligated as men are in the fundamental obligation of Havdalah.

However, according to the authorities who maintain that the mitzvah of remembering [Shabbos] applies only at the entrance of Shabbos, but not at its departure, and the fundamental obligation of Havdalah is a Rabbinic ordinance, [there is a difference of opinion regarding a woman’s obligation]. There is an authority who maintains that women are exempt [from Havdalah] just as they are exempt from all time-oriented positive commandments, whether of Scriptural or Rabbinic origin. True, with regard to all elements of Shabbos, men and women are equally [obligated. This applies] even to those elements that are of Rabbinic origin. Since [men and women] are equally [obligated] with regard to Scriptural [obligations,] i.e., the mitzvos of remember[ing] and observ[ing], our Sages instituted the ordinances they established as an extension of the remembrance or observance of Shabbos asequally incumbent upon them. Nevertheless, Havdalah is not an element of the observance of Shabbos,84but rather an independent ordinance established by the Sages to distinguish between the sacred and the mundane.85 They found support86 [for this practice] in the Torah, as it is written:87 “To distinguish between the holy and the mundane.”

There are, however, [other] authorities who differ, maintaining that Havdalah is an aspect of the remembrance of the Shabbos and its sanctification, for it recalls the distinction between its holiness and the [ordinary] weekdays. Therefore, women are [Rabbinically] obligated in its recitation as they are obligated in all the ordinances our Sages established because of the holiness of the Shabbos, for they established their ordinances in a manner that reflects the Torah’s [commandments]. And women have the same obligations as men with regard to the Scriptural commandments of remember[ing] and observ[ing]. Fundamentally, the Halachah follows the latter view.88

Nevertheless, weight should be given to the previous opinion, and a person who does not have to recite Havdalah himself – because he has already fulfilled his obligation – should not recite Havdalah for women if no other men, neither adults or minors, are listening to his [recitation],89 only women. [The rationale is that] according to the previous opinion90 which maintains that women are exempt from Havdalah, [the person] will be reciting the blessing [of Havdalah] in vain.91

Women themselves may, however, recite Havdalah92 for their own sake,93 even [according to the perspective that] they are exempt, just as they may recite blessings over all the time-oriented mitzvos that they perform. They are not blessings in vain, as explained in sec. 17[:3].94 Nevertheless, a man should not fulfill his obligation by listening to Havdalah recited by a woman, in deference to the first opinion95 and also for the reason mentioned in sec. 271[:6] in reference to Kiddush.)

יט לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםצג שֶׁעִקַּר הַבְדָּלָה הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרצד,76 "זָכוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ", זָכְרֵהוּ בֵּין בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ בֵּין בִּיצִיאָתוֹ,77 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"אצה – הֲרֵי גַם הַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּהַבְדָּלָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחַיָּבוֹת בְּקִדּוּשׁ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,צו,78 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֻקַּשׁ79 "זָכוֹר"80 לְ"שָׁמוֹר",81 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.צז,82

וְחַיָּבוֹת גַּם כֵּן לְהַבְדִּיל בִּתְפִלָּהצח,83 וְעַל הַכּוֹס כְּתַקָּנַת חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ עֲלֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ עַל הָאֲנָשִׁים,צט הוֹאִיל וְהֵן חַיָּבוֹת כְּמוֹתָם מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּעִקַּר הַבְדָּלָה.ק

אֲבָל לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםקא שֶׁמִּצְוַת "זָכוֹר" אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא בִּיצִיאָתוֹ, וְעִקַּר הַבְדָּלָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת מִמֶּנָּה,קב כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵן פְּטוּרוֹת מִכָּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא,קג בֵּין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְאַף שֶׁבְּכָל מַעֲשֵׂה שַׁבָּת אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה שָׁוִין אֲפִלּוּ בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קד הוֹאִיל וְהֵן שָׁוִין בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֵן מִן הַתּוֹרָה, דְּהַיְנוּ "זָכוֹר" וְ"שָׁמוֹר"קה – הִשְׁווּם חֲכָמִים גַּם בְּדִבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בִּגְלַל זְכִירַת הַשַּׁבָּת אוֹ שְׁמִירָתוֹ, אֲבָל הַבְדָּלָה אֵינָהּ עִנְיָן לִשְׁמִירַת הַשַּׁבָּת,קו,84 אֶלָּא דָּבָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הוּא שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְחֹל,85 וּמָצְאוּ לָהֶם סְמַךְ86 מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקז,87 "וּלְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין הַחֹל".

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהקח וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהַהַבְדָּלָה הִיא מֵעִנְיַן זְכִירַת הַשַּׁבָּת וּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ, שֶׁמַּזְכִּירִין הֶבְדֵּל בֵּין קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ לְחֹל, וּלְפִיכָךְ הַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בָּהֶם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁחַיָּבוֹת בְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים בִּגְלַל קְדֻשַּׁת הַשַּׁבָּת,קט לְפִי שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ דִבְרֵיהֶם כְּעֵין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּ"זָכוֹר" וְ"שָׁמוֹר" מִן הַתּוֹרָה כַּאֲנָשִׁים. וְכֵן עִקָּר.88

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לַסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁלֹּא יַבְדִּיל לְנָשִׁים מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַבְדִּיל בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,קי וְגַם אֵין זְכָרִים אֲחֵרִים גְּדוֹלִים אוֹ קְטַנִּים שׁוֹמְעִים מִמֶּנּוּ89 אֶלָּא נָשִׁים בִּלְבָד, שֶׁלְּפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה90 שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת מֵהַבְדָּלָה – הֲרֵי זֶה מְבָרֵךְ לְבַטָּלָה.,91

אֲבָל (ג) הַנָּשִׁים עַצְמָן יְכוֹלוֹת לְהַבְדִּיל92 לְעַצְמָןקיא,93 אַף אִם הֵם פְּטוּרוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵן יְכוֹלוֹת לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא שֶׁמְּקַיְּמוֹת, שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן י"ז.קיב,94

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְאִישׁ לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעַת הַבְדָּלָה מֵאִשָּׁה, כְּדֵי לָחוּשׁ לַסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קיג,95 וְעוֹד מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"אקיד גַּבֵּי קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם):