SECTION 293 The Laws Governing the Evening Service on Motza’ei Shabbos (1-4)

סימן רצג דִּין עַרְבִית בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is customary to delay the recitation of the Evening Service on Motza’ei Shabbos1 in order to add from the mundane to the holy.2 [This is a stringency;] the fundamental time of the departure of Shabbos is the time when three small stars appear.3 [This time measure is given] because we are not [sufficiently] knowledgeable [to define what constitutes] medium-sized stars.4

Once three small stars appear, it would [seemingly] be permitted to perform labors [forbidden on Shabbos, and no further delay would be necessary]. Nevertheless, it is necessary to wait until three stars stand in a row in one place [in the sky,] rather than when they are scattered [across the sky].5 This [added] amount of time [is required since] one must add from the mundane to the holy at the departure of the Shabbos. Nevertheless, as soon as three stars can be seen next to each other,6 it is permitted to recite Havdalah and perform labors [forbidden on Shabbos] even though one has yet to recite the Evening Service.7 If it is a cloudy day, one should wait until he is no longer uncertain at all [that three stars will have appeared].8

א נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁמְּאַחֲרִים תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,1 כְּדֵי לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ.א,2 אֲבָל עִקַּר יְצִיאַת הַשַּׁבָּת הוּא מִשְּׁעַת צֵאת ג' כּוֹכָבִיםב קְטַנִּים,ג,3 שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִים בְּבֵינוֹנִים,ד,4

וּמִיָּד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ ג' כּוֹכָבִים קְטַנִּים הָיָה מֻתָּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ ג' כּוֹכָבִים עוֹמְדִים רְצוּפִים בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְלֹא מְפֻזָּרִים,ה,5 שֶׁזֶּהוּ הַשִּׁעוּר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּיצִיאַת הַשַּׁבָּת.ו

אֲבָל מִיָּד שֶׁנִּרְאִים ג' כּוֹכָבִים רְצוּפִים6 מֻתָּר לְהַבְדִּיל וְלַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית.ז,7

וְאִם הוּא יוֹם הַמְּעֻנָּן – יַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא הַסָּפֵק מִלִּבּוֹ:ח,8

2 A person who is prevented from reciting Havdalah over a cup [of wine] at night due to circumstances beyond his control – e.g., he must go and tend to a matter involving a mitzvah9and goes from his home to the end of the Shabbos limits while it is still day, waits there until nightfall, and immediately upon nightfall proceeds on his journey10 – may recite the Evening Service11 and recite Havdalah over a cup of wine in his home while it is still day,12 provided he does so from p’lag haminchah13and onward.14

[In such a situation,] he should not recite a blessing over a candle while it is still day. Instead, he should recite Havdalah without a candle.15 Even though he recited Havdalah, he is prohibited from performing labors [forbidden on Shabbos] until three stars appear in a row. Similarly, he must recite the Shema again [after] the appearance of the stars while he is proceeding on his journey. He does not fulfill his obligation with his recitation while it was still day.16 He does, [by contrast,] fulfill his obligation for Havdalah and he need not recite Havdalah again even if the opportunity [to recite it over] a cup [of wine] presents itself while he is on his journey.

Since his intent is for the sake of a mitzvah, there is no concern if he desires to recite only the Shemoneh Esreh while it is still day, without [reciting] the Shema and its blessings, and thus does not link the blessing of redemption to the Shemoneh Esreh. [Afterwards,] when it becomes dark while he is on his journey, he should recite the Shema and its blessings.

ב מִי שֶׁהוּא אָנוּס שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַבְדִּיל עַל הַכּוֹס בַּלַּיְלָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לֵילֵךְ לִדְבַר מִצְוָהט,9 וְהוֹלֵךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עַד סוֹף הַתְּחוּם וְיוֹשֵׁב שָׁם עַד שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה, וּמִיָּד שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה הוֹלֵךְ לְדַרְכּוֹי,10 – יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִיתיא,11 וּלְהַבְדִּיל עַל הַכּוֹס בְּבֵיתוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,יב,12 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה,13 וּלְמַעְלָה.יג,14

וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל הַנֵּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,יד אֶלָּא יַבְדִּיל בְּלֹא נֵר.,15 וּבַעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה אָסוּר עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים רְצוּפִיםטו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִבְדִּיל. (א)

וְכֵן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וְלִקְרוֹת בְּצֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים כְּשֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ, וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בְּמַה שֶּׁקָּרָא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,טז,16 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּהַבְדָּלָה יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹיז וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַבְדִּיל אַף אִם יִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ כּוֹס בַּדֶּרֶךְ.

וְאִם הוּא רוֹצֶה יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח בִּלְבַדָּהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּלֹא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ, וּכְשֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ יִקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בְּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ. וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ סוֹמֵךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה – אֵין לָחוּשׁ, הוֹאִיל וּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִדְבַר מִצְוָה:יח

3 There are authorities who maintain that even though the Sages granted a person license [to follow the leniencies mentioned in the previous subsection], it is preferable for a person to be careful not to do so, because it will be confusing to people at large.17

ג יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף שֶׁחֲכָמִים הִתִּירוּ לְאָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן – טוֹב לְאָדָם לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָבָר הַתָּמוּהַּ לָרַבִּים:יט,17

4 (It was) customary to prolong the recitation of VeHu rachum and Barchu [at the beginning of the Evening Service] with protracted, melodious tones so as to add from the mundane18 to the holy.19

ד (הָיוּ) נוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר "וְהוּא רַחוּם" וּ"בָרְכוּ" בְּמֶשֶׁךְ גָּדוֹל וּבַאֲרִיכוּת נֹעַם, כְּדֵי לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל18 עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ:כ,19