SECTION 290 On Shabbos, One Should Complete [the Quota] of 100 Blessings [by Reciting Blessings] on Fruits (1-6)

סימן רצ בְּשַׁבָּת יַשְׁלִים מֵאָה בְרָכוֹת בְּפֵרוֹת וּבוֹ ו׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 One must amply partake of fruits and sweets, and enjoy various fragrances1 if he possesses them, in order to reach the sum of 100 blessings.2 [This applies] even if he listens to the blessings for the reading of the Torah and the Haftarah,3as explained in sec. 46[:1].4

א צָרִיךְ לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּפֵרוֹת וּמְגָדִים וּמִינֵי רֵיחַ1 אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ, כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁלִים מִנְיַן מֵאָה בְרָכוֹת,א,2 אַף שֶׁשָּׁמַע הַבְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה וְהַהַפְטָרָה,ב,3 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן מ"ו:ג,4

2 If one is accustomed to sleeping during the afternoon during the week, he should not neglect [this practice] on Shabbos, because it is pleasurable for him.5

ב אִם רָגִיל בְּשֵׁנַת צָהֳרַיִם בְּחֹל – אַל יְבַטְּלֶנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, כִּי עֹנֶג הוּא לוֹ:ד,5

3 After sleeping, study sessions should be established to teach the Torah to people at large.6 Thus, in the passage concerning Shabbos, [the Torah] states:7Vayakhel MosheMoshe called together [the entire congregation of the Children of Israel].” Our Sages explained:8

Why does this passage employ the term vayakhel (“he gathered them”), a term not used elsewhere9 throughout the Torah?

The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Moshe: “Go and descend and gather together large congregations on Shabbos for My sake,so that the coming generations will learn to gather congregations every Shabbos and have them enter the synagogues and houses of study to teach the Torah to the people at large.”

Therefore, one must establish study sessions to teach the people the statutes of G‑d10 and lecture on the words of the Aggadah,11imbuing their hearts with the awe of Heaven. One should not follow the common practice at present.12

ג וְאַחַר הַשֵּׁנָהה צָרִיךְ לִקְבּוֹעַ מִדְרָשׁו לִלְמוֹד תּוֹרָה לָרַבִּים,6 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּפָרָשַׁת שַׁבָּת7 "וַיַּקְהֵל מֹשֶׁה",ז וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִיםח,8 לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ "וַיַּקְהֵל" שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר כֵּן בְּכָל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ?9 אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמֹשֶׁה "רֵד וַעֲשֵׂה לִי קְהִלּוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּלְמְדוּ הַדּוֹרוֹת הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֶיךָ לְהַקְהֵל קְהִלּוֹת בְּכָל שַׁבָּת לְהִכָּנֵס בְּבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת לִלְמוֹד בָּהֶם תּוֹרָה לָרַבִּים", עַל כֵּן צָרִיךְ לִקְבּוֹעַ מִדְרָשׁ לְהוֹדִיעַ לָעָם אֶת חֻקֵּי הָאֱלֹהִים,ט,10 וְלִדְרוֹשׁ בְּדִבְרֵי אַגָּדָהי,11 לְהַכְנִיס יִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם בִּלְבָבָם, וְלֹא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים עַכְשָׁו:יא,12

4 It is forbidden to establish a set time for a meal at the time of the communal study sessions.13 Instead, one should set [the time for the meal] earlier or later, because everyone must attend the communal study session or study by himself if the presenter of the communal study session is not adequate.14

If the one who teaches the people the statutes of G‑d and imbues their hearts with the awe of Heaven is delayed in coming to the house of study,15 he should not dispense with the study session so that the third [Shabbos] meal [can be eaten],16 because the communal study of the Torah and [imbuing the masses with] the awe of Heaven take precedence over all the mitzvos of the Torah.17

ד וְאָסוּר לִקְבּוֹעַ סְעֻדָּה בְּעֵת הַמִּדְרָשׁ,יב,13 אֶלָּא יַקְדִּימֶנָּה אוֹ יְאַחֲרֶנָּה,יג שֶׁצְּרִיכִים הַכֹּל לָבֹא לִשְׁמוֹעַ הַדְּרָשָׁה,יד אוֹ לִלְמוֹד בְּעַצְמָם כְּשֶׁאֵין שָׁם דּוֹרֵשׁ כָּרָאוּי.,14

וְהַדּוֹרֵשׁ לָעָם חֻקֵּי הָאֱלֹהִים וּלְהַכְנִיס בִּלְבָבָם יִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם וְנִתְאַחֵר לָבֹא לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ,15 – לֹא יַנִּיחַ הַדְּרָשָׁה בִּשְׁבִיל סְעֻדָּה שְׁלִישִׁית,,16 לְפִי שֶׁלִּמּוּד תּוֹרָה וְיִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם לָרַבִּים קוֹדֵם לְכָל הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה׃טו,17

5 The Shabbasos and the festivals were given to the Jewish people solely so that they occupy themselves with Torah study on these days.18 During all of the weekdays, they are preoccupied with their work and they do not have the opportunity to occupy themselves with its study as their primary occupation. On Shabbos, by contrast, they are free from their work and have the capacity to occupy themselves with [Torah study] as befitting.

Therefore, workers and businessmen whose principal occupation during the week is not Torah study should not overindulge in the delights of eating and drinking on Shabbos. Instead, a small degree of [such] delight is sufficient for them, because they must occupy themselves in Torah study extensively. By contrast, Torah scholars who are primarily occupied in the study of Torah throughout the days of the week may indulge slightly more in the delights of eating and drinking, because they delight in their studies throughout the days of the week. Nevertheless, even they must occupy themselves with Torah study. They are not permitted to spend the entire day in the delights of eating, drinking, and sleeping, for it is written: “A Shabbos unto G‑d, your L‑rd.”19

ה לֹא נִתְּנוּ שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לַעֲסוֹק בָּהֶם בַּתּוֹרָה,טז,18 שֶׁכָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹל הֵם טְרוּדִים בִּמְלַאכְתָּם, וְאֵין לָהֶם פְּנַאי לַעֲסוֹק בָּהּ בִּקְבִיעוּת, וּבְשַׁבָּת הֵם פְּנוּיִים מִמְּלָאכָה, וִיכוֹלִים לַעֲסוֹק בָּהּ כָּרָאוּי.יז לְפִיכָךְ, פּוֹעֲלִים וּבַעֲלֵי בָתִּים שֶׁאֵינָם עוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה בִּקְבִיעוּת כָּל יְמֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ – לֹא יַמְשִׁיכוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּעֹנֶג אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, וְדַי לָהֶם בְּעֹנֶג קְצָת, שֶׁצְּרִיכִים לַעֲסוֹק בַּתּוֹרָה הַרְבֵּה.יח

אֲבָל תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הָעוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה בִּקְבִיעוּת כָּל יְמֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ – יַמְשִׁיכוּ קְצָת יוֹתֵר בְּעֹנֶג אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, כִּי הֵם מִתְעַנְּגִים בְּלִמּוּדָם כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁבוּעַ.יט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, גַּם הֵם צְרִיכִים לַעֲסוֹק בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאֵינָם רַשָּׁאִים לִמְשׁוֹךְ כָּל הַיּוֹם בְּעֹנֶג אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה וְשֵׁנָה,כ שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַרכא "שַׁבָּת לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ"׃19

6 On Shabbos, a person should not tell the members of his household: “Let us sleep today, so that we will be able to perform our work at night.” (See sec. 307[:1].)20

ו לֹא יֹאמַר בְּשַׁבָּת לִבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ "נִישַׁן הַיּוֹם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתֵּנוּ בָּעֶרֶב"כב (עַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"זכג20