SECTION 289 The Sequence of the Shabbos Morning Meal (1-3)

סימן רפט סֵדֶר סְעֻדַּת שַׁחֲרִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ג׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 When one comes [home] from the synagogue Shabbos morning, the table should be set and a cloth spread over the bread for the reason explained in sec. 271[:17].1 The couch on which one eats2 should be spread in an attractive manner, as was done for the night meal,3 because [the obligation to] honor the [Shabbos] during the day takes precedence over [the obligation to] honor it at night.4

א בְּשַׁבָּת שַׁחֲרִית בְּבוֹאוֹ מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שֻׁלְחָנוֹ עָרוּךְ וּמַפָּה פְּרוּסָה עַל הַפַּת,א מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"א,ב,1 וּמִטָּה שֶׁאוֹכֵל עָלֶיהָ2 מֻצַּעַת יָפֶהג כְּמוֹ בִּסְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה,ד,3 לְפִי שֶׁכְּבוֹד יוֹם קוֹדֵם לִכְבוֹד לַיְלָה:ה,4

2 Our Sages ordained that one should recite Kiddush over wine before the morning meal5 as one does before the evening meal. [The rationale is that the obligation to] honor the [Shabbos] during the day is greater than the obligation to honor it at night. If one does not recite Kiddush over wine during the day, the honor [shown Shabbos at] night will be greater than that [shown during] the day.

Nevertheless, [the Sages] did not ordain the recitation of the blessing of Kiddush that is recited at night. Instead, it is sufficient to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen, which is recited over wine so that a distinction will be made, [indicating] that this Kiddush is only a Rabbinic ordinance.6 Nevertheless, this Kiddush must also be recited in the place of a meal,7 and one may not partake of anything before reciting it,8 as is true with regard to the Kiddush recited at night.9 It is, however, permitted to drink water before the Morning Prayers because the obligation to recite Kiddush has yet to take effect.10

There are authorities who maintain that it is permitted to partake of food before reciting Kiddush during the day.11 Since it is fundamentally a Rabbinic ordinance, [our Sages] were not that stringent concerning it. One may rely on their words in a pressing situation, e.g., if one does not have wine or another beverage that is chamar medinah,12 nor does he even have bread,13 he may partake of other foods before reciting Kiddush [during the day]. Even if he is expecting [wine, chamar medinah, or bread] over which he could recite Kiddush to be brought to him later, it is not necessary for him to wait.

If he has bread, he must recite the blessing [HaMotzi] over it before he partakes of other foods, for there are authorities who maintain that even as an initial preference one may recite Kiddush over bread, i.e., reciting the blessing HaMotzi over it, as explained in sec. 272[:11]. If he has [a beverage that is] chamar medinah, even if he does not have wine, he should not partake of anything, not even bread, before he recites a blessing over a cup [of this beverage], as explained in that source.

ב וְתִקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן קֹדֶם סְעֻדַּת שַׁחֲרִיתו,5 כְּמוֹ קֹדֶם סְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבוֹד יוֹם קוֹדֵם לִכְבוֹד לַיְלָה,ז וְאִם לֹא יְקַדֵּשׁ בַּיּוֹם עַל הַיַּיִן יְהֵא כְּבוֹד לַיְלָה עוֹדֵף עַל כְּבוֹד יוֹם. מִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא תִקְּנוּ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בַּלַּיְלָה, אֶלָּא דַּי בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן"ח שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן,5 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הֶכֵּר בָּזֶה שֶׁקִּדּוּשׁ זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.ט,6

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, גַּם זֶה הַקִּדּוּשׁ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה,י,7 וְשֶׁלֹּא יִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם קֹדֶם לוֹיא,8 כְּמוֹ בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַלַּיְלָה.יב,9 אַךְ מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת מַיִם קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת הַשַּׁחַר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא חָל עָלָיו חוֹבַת קִדּוּשׁ.יג,10

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיד שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִטְעוֹם קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבַּיּוֹם,11 הוֹאִיל וְעִקָּרוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ בּוֹ כָּל כָּךְ. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יַיִן וְלֹא שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה "חֲמַר מְדִינָה",12 אֲפִלּוּ אִם גַּם פַּת13 אֵין לוֹ – יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל שְׁאָר מַאֲכָלִים קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ זֶה. אַף אִם מְצַפֶּה שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ אַחַר זְמַן עַל מָה לְקַדֵּשׁ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין.טו

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ פַּת – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפַּת תְּחִלָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל שְׁאָר מַאֲכָלִים,טז שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיז שֶׁאַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה יָכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת, דְּהַיְנוּ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עָלֶיהָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ער"ב.יח

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" אַף שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יַיִן – לֹא יִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם, אֲפִלּוּ פַּת, קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס,יט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:

3 At night, by contrast, when a person does not have wine, [a beverage that is] chamar medinah, or bread over which to recite Kiddush, and he expects that one of these will be brought to him during the night, he should not partake of any other foods until he is brought something over which Kiddush may be recited. He should wait at least until midnight [before eating without first reciting Kiddush].14

If, however, he does not expect that [something over which Kiddush may be recited] will be brought to him at night, he is permitted to partake of other foods without reciting Kiddush. He is not obligated to go to bed at night while fasting because [he did not recite] Kiddush over wine or over bread, since he fulfilled the fundamental Scriptural obligation of Kiddush by recalling Shabbos in the Evening Service.15

ג אֲבָל בַּלַּיְלָה אִם אֵין לוֹ לֹא יַיִן וְלֹא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" וְלֹא פַּת לְקַדֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם, וּמְצַפֶּה שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ אֶחָד מֵהֶם תּוֹךְ הַלַּיְלָה – לֹא יִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם מִשְּׁאָר מַאֲכָלִים עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ עַל מַה לְקַדֵּשׁ, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַמְתִּין עַל כָּל פָּנִים עַד חֲצוֹת לַיְלָה.כ,14

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מְצַפֶּה שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל שְׁאָר הַמַּאֲכָלִים בְּלֹא קִדּוּשׁ, וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לָלוּן בְּתַעֲנִית בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל קִדּוּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן אוֹ עַל הַפַּת, הוֹאִיל וּכְבָר יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת עִקַּר קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בְּמַה שֶּׁהִזְכִּיר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית:כא,15