SECTION 288 The Laws Governing Fasting on Shabbos, and [Particularly,] Fasting [as a Result of a Disturbing] Dream (1-14)

סימן רפח דִּין תַּעֲנִית וְדִין תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"ד סְעִיפִים׃

1 [On Shabbos,] one must hasten to eat [before] the end of the sixth hour,1 because it is forbidden to fast until midday2 on Shabbos.3This prohibition [applies] even if one does not have the intent of fasting, but refrains [from eating] because he is involved in another matter, even if it is a mitzvah, for example, he is studying4 or praying.5 The only exception is when one has no desire to eat yet and finds the delay pleasurable, as will be explained.6 (The same laws apply if he derives greater pleasure from study and prayer than from eating.) It is, however, forbidden [to refrain from eating] with the intent of fasting for even one hour.

א צָרִיךְ לְמַהֵר לֶאֱכוֹל סוֹף שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית,א,1 שֶׁאָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת3 עַד חֲצוֹת,ב,2 אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְשׁוּם תַּעֲנִיתג אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּמְנַע מֵחֲמַת עָסְקוֹ בְּדָבָר אַחֵר, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא דְבַר מִצְוָה,ד כְּגוֹן שֶׁקּוֹרֵא4 וּמִתְפַּלֵּל5 – אָסוּר.ה

אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ חָפֵץ לֶאֱכוֹל עֲדַיִן וְהָאִחוּר הוּא עֹנֶג לוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרו,6 (וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם מִתְעַנֵּג בִּקְרִיאָה וּתְפִלָּה יוֹתֵר מִבַּאֲכִילָהז).

וְאִם מִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם תַּעֲנִית – אֲפִלּוּ שָׁעָה אַחַת אָסוּר:ח

2 A person who is harmed by eating – in which instance, it is pleasurable for him not to eat – need not eat at all [on Shabbos.7 Indeed,] it is virtually forbidden for him to eat, so that he does not suffer discomfort on Shabbos.

Similarly, one who fasts every day – for whom eating on Shabbos involves discomfort since it deviates from his ordinary pattern – may also fast on Shabbos,8for it is only a mitzvah to eat on Shabbos because of [the] pleasure [he derives from it].9

For any other purpose, by contrast, it is forbidden to fast on Shabbos, even [when one fasts] for repentance and as an expression of piety.10 Even though he takes pleasure in this fast, he may not exchange the pleasure ordained by our Sages – the three [Shabbos] meals – for another type of pleasure that need not necessarily be observed on Shabbos11and was not licensed by our Sages.12

ב אָדָם שֶׁהָאֲכִילָה מַזֶּקֶת לוֹ שֶׁאָז עֹנֶג הוּא לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל כְּלָל,ט,7 וְכִמְעַט שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל, שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטַעֵר בְּשַׁבָּת.י

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁמִּתְעַנֶּה בְּכָל יוֹם וַאֲכִילָה בְּשַׁבָּת צַעַר הוּא לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שִׁנּוּי וֶסֶת – יָכוֹל לְהִתְעַנּוֹת גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת,יא,8 שֶׁמִּצְוַת סְעֻדּוֹת שַׁבָּת אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל עֹנֶג.יב,9 אֲבָל בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר אָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ מֵחֲמַת תְּשׁוּבָה וַחֲסִידוּת,יג,10 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תַּעֲנוּג בְּתַעֲנִית זֶה – אֵין לוֹ לְהַחֲלִיף עֹנֶג חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בְּג' סְעֻדּוֹת בְּעֹנֶג אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻכְרָח שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּשַׁבָּתיד,11 וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ חֲכָמִים:12

3 It is, however, permitted to fast on Shabbos because of a [disturbing] dream one had that day,13for then a fast is beneficial for [one who had such] a dream. [If he fasts the same day,] he nullifies any [harmful] decrees [brought about by his dream,14 abolishing these decrees] as a fire [consumes flax] chaff. The Sages [therefore] permitted him [to fast on Shabbos in order to nullify the [harmful] decrees. Moreover, [the Sages permitted him to fast because, in such an instance, fasting] does not involve the absolute nullification of Shabbos delight, since his soul will be sorrowed as a result of his dream if he does not fast. If, [by contrast,] he will fast, he is assured that the [harmful] decree against him will be rent. Thus, this fast brings him pleasure.15

Nevertheless, although the [harmful] decree against him will be rent, retribution will be exacted from him for [not eating and thus] nullifying the fundamental dimension of Shabbos delight.16

What can he do to rectify the matter? He should fast one additional day during the week as atonement.17

As an initial preference, he should fast on the day that follows immediately thereafter,18 [i.e.,] on Sunday, for it is not appropriate for him to delay his request for forgiveness and atonement. [Nevertheless,] if his strength is sapped and he is unable to fast two days consecutively, he may fast afterwards when his strength is restored. How much more so [does the leniency enabling him] to postpone the fast [apply] if the Sunday is Chanukah, Purim, the day preceding Yom Kippur, Rosh Chodesh, or Chol HaMoed, and how much more so, a festival, even the second day of a festival.19

If, however, the following day is a day when the prohibition against fasting stems merely from custom, e.g., throughout the month of Nissan,20 even the day preceding Pesach,21 or the day following a festival,22 he should fast [on that Sunday], as will be stated in sec. 429[:11]. These laws also apply in the three days preceding Shavuos23 and [the days] between Yom Kippur and Sukkos.24

One may even fast on Rosh Chodesh Nissan and Rosh Chodesh Av, since there are some who fast on these days every year in commemoration of the passing of the righteous, as will be stated in sec. 580.25 A person who fasts [because of a disturbing] dream on any of these days is not required to fast again [to atone] for his fasting, like one who fasts on Shabbos. By contrast, one who fasts [because of a disturbing] dream on Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah, Purim, a festival26 – even the second day of a festival – or Chol HaMoed must fast again [to atone] for his fasting, like [one who fasts] on Shabbos, as will be stated in sec. 568.27

ג אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּתטו כְּשֶׁחָלַם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,13 שֶׁיָּפֶה תַּעֲנִית לַחֲלוֹם12 לְבַטֵּל הַגְּזַר דִּיןטז,14 כְּאֵשׁ לִנְעֹרֶתיז,13 אִם מִתְעַנֶּה בּוֹ בַיּוֹם,יח וְהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּקָּרַע גְּזַר דִּינוֹ.יט וְעוֹד, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין כַּאן בִּטּוּל עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת לְגַמְרֵי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ עֲגוּמָה עָלָיו בִּשְׁבִיל חֲלוֹמוֹ אִם לֹא יִתְעַנֶּה, וְאִם יִתְעַנֶּה בָּטוּחַ הוּא שֶׁיִּקָּרַע גְּזַר דִּינוֹ – אִם כֵּן הֲרֵי הַתַּעֲנִית הַזֶּה תַּעֲנוּג הוּא לוֹ.כ,15

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אַף שֶׁקּוֹרְעִים גְּזַר דִּינוֹ – חוֹזְרִים וְנִפְרָעִים מִמֶּנּוּ עַל שֶׁבִּטֵּל עִקַּר עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת.כא,16וּמַה תַּקָּנָתוֹ? יִתְעַנֶּה עוֹד תַּעֲנִית בְּחֹל שֶׁיִּתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ.כב,17

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת מִיָּד לְמָחָר18 בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן,כג שֶׁאֵין רָאוּי לוֹ לְהִתְעַכֵּב לְבַקֵּשׁ סְלִיחָה וְכַפָּרָה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן תָּשַׁשׁ כֹּחוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִתְעַנּוֹת ב' יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה – יָכוֹל לְהִתְעַנּוֹת אַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיְּחַזֵּק כֹּחוֹ.כד וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם הָיָה בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן חֲנֻכָּה,כה אוֹ פּוּרִים, אוֹ עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אוֹ רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, אוֹ חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן יוֹם טוֹב, אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם טוֹב ב' שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת,כו,19 שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַנֶּה עַד אַחַר כָּךְ.

אֲבָל אִם לְמָחָר הוּא יוֹם שֶׁאִסּוּר הַתַּעֲנִית בּוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְהָג, כְּגוֹן בְּחֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן,20 אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַחכז,21 אוֹ אִסְרוּ חַג22 – יִתְעַנֶּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תכ"ט.כחוְהוּא הַדִּין בִּימֵי הַגְבָּלָה,כט,23 וּבֵין יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לְסֻכּוֹת.ל,24 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן וְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אָב יָכוֹל לְהִתְעַנּוֹת,לא הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ מִתְעַנִּים בָּהֶם בְּכָל שָׁנָה תַּעֲנִית צַדִּיקִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"פ.לב,25

וּבְכָל יָמִים אֵלּוּ, הַמִּתְעַנֶּה בָּהֶם תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת אַחַר כָּךְ תַּעֲנִית עַל תַּעֲנִיתוֹ כְּמוֹ הַמִּתְעַנֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת.לג

אֲבָל הַמִּתְעַנֶּה תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, חֲנֻכָּה, וּפוּרִים,לד וְיוֹם טוֹב,לה,26 אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם טוֹב ב' שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת,לו וְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵדלז – צָרִיךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת אַחַר כָּךְ תַּעֲנִית עַל תַּעֲנִיתוֹ כְּמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקס"ח:לח,27

4 [The following law applies when] a person fasts on Shabbos [because of a disturbing] dream and the following day is either an obligatory fast, e.g., 17 Tammuz, 9 Av, 10 Teves,28 or the Fast of Esther, which is customary to observe [as if it is] an obligatory fast,29 or even an individual fast which that individual has the custom of considering as obligatory, e.g., one who has a fixed custom of fasting on the first day of Selichos. Fasting on that day is not considered as atonement for nullifying [the mitzvah of delighting] in the Shabbos since he would fast on this day even if he had not fasted on Shabbos. It is not effective for him, because atonement is never granted gratuitously [i.e., without effort on the person’s part].30

There are authorities who differ with this ruling. Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. This is the directive that should be given to a person who is healthy and will not be harmed by fasting. One who has difficulty fasting, by contrast, loses nothing by relying on the more lenient view.

ד הַמִּתְעַנֶּה תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת וּלְמָחָר הוּא תַּעֲנִית חוֹבָה,לט כְּגוֹן י"ז בְּתַמּוּז, אוֹ ט' בְּאָב, אוֹ עֲשָׂרָה בְּטֵבֵת,28 אוֹ תַּעֲנִית אֶסְתֵּרמ שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ בּוֹ חוֹבָה,מא,29 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ תַּעֲנִית יָחִיד שֶׁנָּהַג בּוֹ חוֹבָה, כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מִנְהָג קָבוּעַ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בְּיוֹם א' שֶׁל סְלִיחוֹת – אֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה לוֹ,מב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה מִתְעַנֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה מִתְעַנֶּה תַּעֲנִית זֶה – אֵין תַּעֲנִית זֶה מְכַפֵּר לוֹ עַל בִּטּוּל עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת, שֶׁלֹּא מָצִינוּ כַּפָּרָה בְּחִנָּם.מג,30 וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה.מד

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְכֵן יֵשׁ לְהוֹרוֹת אִם הוּא אִישׁ בָּרִיא שֶׁאֵין הַתַּעֲנִית מַזִּיק לוֹ. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁקָּשֶׁה עָלָיו הַתַּעֲנִית, אִם סוֹמֵךְ עַל הַמְּקִלִּין – לֹא הִפְסִיד:

5 One should not fast on Shabbos because of dreams involving financial loss, only [when one’s dreams involve matters so serious in nature] for which [license would be granted to] violate the Shabbos [prohibitions because of them].

ה אֵין לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת עַל חֲלוֹמוֹת שֶׁהֵם הֶפְסֵד מָמוֹן, אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּחַלְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת:מה

6 If a person’s friend had a disturbing dream about him on Shabbos, [the person who was the subject of the dream] should not fast on Shabbos.

ו אִם חֲבֵרוֹ רָאָה עָלָיו חֲלוֹם רָע – לֹא יִתְעַנֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת:מו

7 There are authorities who maintain that one should not fast on Shabbos [because of a disturbing] dream unless he sees [the dream] three times. Other authorities maintain that in the present era, one should not fast on Shabbos [because of a disturbing] dream under any circumstances, since we are not knowledgeable with regard to the interpretation of dreams [and we are unable] to distinguish what is a positive [dream] and what is a negative [one].

There are authorities who maintain that even in the present era, one should fast on Shabbos because of any of the following dreams: one who sees a Torah scroll or tefillin consumed by fire,31 [it is] Yom Kippur at the time of Neilah,32the beams33 of his house [fell down], or his teeth fell out.34 If, however, he sees that his jaws fell off, it is a good omen; [it is] a sign that those who offer harmful counsel against him have died.35 There are authorities who maintain that seeing Yom Kippur even at times other than Neilah [requires that one fast]. Other authorities [maintain that this also applies if] one sees [himself] reading a Torah scroll (communally),36 and [still] others [add] if one sees himself marrying a woman.37

Other authorities maintain that it is permitted to fast on Shabbos [if one sees] any of the dreams that the Gemara understands as having negative implications.38 Others, by contrast, maintain that the interpretations of dreams have changed between the time of the Gemara and our time, just as the medications [used] in the time of the Gemara have changed.39

Similarly, there are some who maintain that seeing Yom Kippur, even at the time of Neilah, is not a bad dream. Instead, it is a positive omen – that his sins are forgiven. Similarly, one who sees that the beams of his house have fallen [need not view it as a bad dream, for] the Mid­rash states40 that a woman had such a dream and it was interpreted to her as implying that she would bear a son, and, in fact, she did.

There are others who [grant] even further [leniencies]: that one should not fast on Shabbos even due to dreams that all authorities agree warrant fasting, unless he views the fast as pleasurable since his soul will be depressed if he does not fast, because Shabbos delight is a Scriptural obligation. [Moreover,] even though there are authorities who maintain that [Shabbos delight is not a Scriptural obligation], but rather mandated by the works of the Prophets, as explained in sec. 242[:1], nevertheless, all authorities agree that fasting the entire [Shabbos] is forbidden according to Scriptural Law, as will be stated in sec. 570.41 Now, a fast [undertaken because of] a disturbing dream is not an obligation, nor a mitzvah. Instead – even during the week42 – it is a matter left to the person’s volition. Therefore, with regard to actual practice, the ruling should be rendered that one should not fast on Shabbos because of any dream, unless he does not nullify the obligation to delight in the Shabbos in doing so, i.e., the person derives more pleasure from fasting than he would from eating and drinking, because he suffers due to fear resulting from the dream, [and by fasting he alleviates these fears].43 When, by contrast, a person is not that afraid because of the dream or even if he is afraid, but has difficulty fasting and it would cause him more discomfort than [the relief] he would feel because of the fear of the dream, he is forbidden to fast on Shabbos because of any dream.

If a person thought of a matter during the day and then dreamt about it at night, he should not fast because of it on Shabbos under any circumstances. For [such a dream] is not a directive from Heaven at all.44

ז יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמז שֶׁאֵין לְהִתְעַנּוֹת תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא עַל חֲלוֹם שֶׁרָאָהוּ ג' פְּעָמִים.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמח שֶׁבִּזְמַן הַזֶּה אֵין לְהִתְעַנּוֹת תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָל עִנְיָן, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִים בְּפִתְרוֹן חֲלוֹמוֹת לֵידַע אֵיזוֹ טוֹב וְאֵיזוֹ רָע.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמט שֶׁעַל אֵלּוּ חֲלוֹמוֹת מִתְעַנִּין בְּשַׁבָּת אַף בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה, הָרוֹאֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אוֹ תְּפִלִּיןנ שֶׁנִּשְׂרְפוּ,31 אוֹ יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בִּשְׁעַת נְעִילָה,32 אוֹ קוֹרוֹת33 בֵּיתוֹ אוֹ שִׁנָּיו שֶׁנָּפְלוּ.34 אֲבָל אִם רָאָה לְחָיָיו שֶׁנָּשְׁרוּ – הֲרֵי זֶה סִמָּן טוֹב, שֶׁמֵּתוּ הַיּוֹעֲצִים עָלָיו רָעָה.נא,35

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנב הָרוֹאֶה יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אַף שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת נְעִילָה.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנג אַף הָרוֹאֶה שֶׁקּוֹרֵא בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה (בְּצִבּוּר).36

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנד אַף הָרוֹאֶה שֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה.37

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנה שֶׁכָּל חֲלוֹמוֹת שֶׁבֵּאֲרוּ פִּתְרוֹנָם בִּגְמָרָאנו שֶׁהֵם רָעִים38 – מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת.

אֲבָל יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנז שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ פִּתְרוֹנֵי הַחֲלוֹמוֹת מִזְּמַן חַכְמֵי הַגְּמָרָא לִזְמַנֵּינוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ הָרְפוּאוֹת שֶׁבִּזְמַנֵּיהֶם.39

וְכֵן יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנח שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת נְעִילָה אֵינוֹ חֲלוֹם רָע, כִּי הוּא סִמָּן יָפֶה שֶׁמָּחֲלוּ עֲוֹנוֹתָיו. וְכֵן הָרוֹאֶה קוֹרוֹת בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ – אָמְרוּ בְּמִדְרָשׁנט,40 שֶׁחָלְמָה אִשָּׁה אַחַת כָּךְ וּפָתְרוּ לָהּ שֶׁתֵּלֵד זָכָר, וְכֵן הָיָה לָהּ.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםס עוֹד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הַחֲלוֹמוֹת שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּים עֲלֵיהֶם לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל – לֹא יִתְעַנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַתַּעֲנִית עֹנֶג לוֹ, שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ עֲגוּמָה עָלָיו אִם לֹא יִתְעַנֶּה.

וּלְפִי שֶׁעֹנֶג הַשַּׁבָּת הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי קַבָּלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ב,סא מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לְגַמְרֵי לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָהסב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ע,סג,41 וְתַעֲנִית חֲלוֹם אֵינָהּ חוֹבָהסד וְלֹא מִצְוָהסה אֶלָּא רְשׁוּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֹל,42 לְפִיכָךְ (א) יֵשׁ לְהוֹרוֹת כֵּן הֲלָכָה לְמַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַנֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת עַל שׁוּם חֲלוֹם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מְבַטֵּל בּוֹ עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עֹנֶג מֵהַתַּעֲנִית יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ כְּשֶׁיֹּאכַל וְיִשְׁתֶּה, שֶׁיִּצְטַעֵר מִפַּחַד הַחֲלוֹם.43 אֲבָל אָדָם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְפַּחֵד כָּל כָּךְ מֵהַחֲלוֹם, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם מִתְפַּחֵד, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַתַּעֲנִית קָשֶׁה לוֹ וּמִצְטַעֵר בּוֹ הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁמִּצְטַעֵר בְּפַחַד הַחֲלוֹם – אָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּתסו עַל שׁוּם חֲלוֹם.

וְאִם הִרְהֵר בַּיּוֹם וְחָלַם בַּלַּיְלָה – לֹא יִתְעַנֶּה עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָל עִנְיָן, שֶׁאֵין בָּזֶה הוֹרָאָה מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם כְּלָל:סז,44

8 One who fasts on Shabbos because of a [disturbing] dream must recite the passage Aneinu45without concluding [it with a blessing] after he finishes his [Shemoneh Esreh] prayers. It is desirable to include [Aneinu] in the passage Elokai, netzor…. It is also desirable to recite the passage, “Master of the worlds, it is known and revealed before You…,”46 as one does [on a fast day] during the week.

One may also recite the passage, “My G‑d, before I was created…”47 and other requests for the forgiveness of one’s sins. One may also recite the confessional prayer, saying, “I sinned, I transgressed, I have committed iniquity.” [Our Sages forbade] reciting supplications on Shabbos only when one asks for his needs, e.g., for his sustenance, for healing for a sick person one has at home, or other physical needs of that nature.48 It is, by contrast, desirable to express one’s regret for his sins on any day.49

ח הַמִּתְעַנֶּה תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת – צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "עֲנֵנוּ"45 אַחַר סִיּוּם תְּפִלָּתוֹ בְּלֹא חֲתִימָה. וְטוֹב לְכָלְלוֹ בֵּ"אלֹהַי נְצוֹרסח כוּ'". וְטוֹב לוֹמַר גַּם כֵּן "רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ לְפָנֶיךָ וְכוּ'",סט,46 כְּמוֹ בְּחֹל.ע וּמֻתָּר לוֹמַר גַּם כֵּן "אֱלֹהַי עַד שֶׁלֹּא נוֹצַרְתִּי כוּ'",עא,47 אוֹ שְׁאָר בַּקָּשׁוֹת עַל מְחִילַת עֲוֹנוֹת. וְיָכוֹל גַּם כֵּן לְהִתְוַדּוֹת וְלוֹמַר "חָטָאתִי, עָוִיתִי, פָּשַׁעְתִּי".עב

וְלֹא אָסְרוּ לוֹמַר תַּחֲנוּנִים בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא לְבַקֵּשׁ בָּהֶם עַל צְרָכָיו,עג כְּגוֹן עַל פַּרְנָסָה, אוֹ עַל רְפוּאָה לְחוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִצָּרְכֵי הַגּוּף.48 אֲבָל חֲרָטַת עֲוֹנוֹת טוֹב לוֹמַר בְּכָל יוֹם:עד,49

9 [Moreover, our Sages] even permitted supplicating for one’s needs [on Shabbos] if the matter concerns a person who is dangerously ill and is in [immediate, life-threatening] danger that day.50 It is permitted to cry out and make entreaties on his behalf on Shabbos,51even communally. Similarly, it is permitted to give a blessing for a person who is dangerously ill that day. The same applies with regard to a woman who is experiencing difficulty in childbirth and is in [immediate, life-threatening] danger that day. When, however, an ill person is not in danger on [Shabbos] itself, it is forbidden to entreat [Divine mercies] on his behalf or to bless him on Shabbos, since this can be done after Shabbos.52

If, however, something happens to a person (on Shabbos) that requires [Divine] mercies to be requested on his behalf immediately, individually, one may even prostrate himself53 and entreat for [Divine] mercy on his behalf even though the person is not in [immediate, life-threatening] danger that day.54 [Support for this ruling can be drawn from the fact that our Sages] even permitted one to fast on [Shabbos] because of a disturbing dream even though there is no [immediate] danger that day. [They allowed this] because the person must fast on the same day that he had the dream. Communal entreaties for [Divine] mercy, by contrast, are forbidden to be made when a [disturbing] event occurs, as long as there is no [immediate] danger that day.

Similarly, if there are ten people in a town who are fasting because of a [disturbing] dream on one Shabbos, they should not join together as a congregation to enable them to repeat the Afternoon Shemoneh Esreh aloud, reciting the passage Aneinu communally.

ט וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁאֵלַת צְרָכָיו הִתִּירוּ אִם הוּא חוֹלֶה הַמְסֻכָּן סַכָּנַת הַיּוֹם,50 שֶׁזּוֹעֲקִים וּמִתְחַנְּנִים עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּתעה,51 אֲפִלּוּ בְּצִבּוּר. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַחוֹלֶה הַמְסֻכָּן בּוֹ בַיּוֹם.עו,50 וְכֵן הַמַּקְשָׁה לֵילֵד, שֶׁהִיא מְסֻכֶּנֶת בּוֹ בַיּוֹם.עז

אֲבָל חוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין מְסֻכָּן בּוֹ בַיּוֹם – אָסוּר לְבַקֵּשׁ עָלָיו וְלֹא לְבָרְכוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,עח כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת.52

אֲבָל אִם אֵרַע לָאָדָם (בְּשַׁבָּת) מְאֹרָע שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ עָלָיו (ב) רַחֲמִים מִיָּד – יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ לִפּוֹל עַל פָּנָיועט,53 וּלְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים בְּיָחִיד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם סַכָּנַת הַיּוֹם,פ,54 שֶׁהֲרֵי הִתִּירוּ אֲפִלּוּ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עַל חֲלוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם סַכָּנַת הַיּוֹם, רַק מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בּוֹ בַיּוֹם שֶׁחָלַם בּוֹ. אֲבָל בְּצִבּוּר אָסוּר לְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים עַל הַמְּאֹרָע כָּל שֶׁאֵין שָׁם סַכָּנַת הַיּוֹם.פא

וְכֵן אִם יֵשׁ בָּעִיר עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּים תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת אַחַת – לֹא יַעֲשׂוּ עַצְמָן צִבּוּר לַחֲזוֹר אַחַר אֶחָד מֵהֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה בְּקוֹל רָם וְלוֹמַר "עֲנֵנוּ"45 בְּצִבּוּר:פב

10 The types of distressing situations affecting a community or an individual, and whether it is permitted to fast or call out and make supplications [to G‑d] on Shabbos, will be explained in sec. 576.55

י אִם מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת אוֹ לִזְעוֹק וּלְהִתְחַנֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת עַל אֵיזוֹ צָרָה שֶׁקָּרָה לְרַבִּים אוֹ לְיָחִיד – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקע"ו:פג,55

11 When a person fasts on Shabbos because of a [disturbing dream], he should involve himself with Torah study and prayer the entire day,56 so that he will be granted atonement and the decree against him be rent.

יא הַמִּתְעַנֶּה תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ לוֹ לַעֲסוֹק כָּל הַיּוֹם56 בַּתּוֹרָה וּתְפִלָּה, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ וְיִקָּרַע לוֹ גְּזַר דִּינוֹ:פד

12 There are authorities who maintain that if a person sleeps in the afternoon and has a disturbing dream, and [immediately thereafter] fasts for twelve hours, from the time that he rose from his sleep until the middle of the night, [the decrees against him] will be ameliorated. If he did so on Shabbos [afternoon], he should recite Havdalah [when the twelve hours end].

He must fast the entire following day [in atonement]. Even if he already partook of the third meal before he had the [disturbing] dream and thus had license not to partake of anything else on Shabbos, nevertheless, since he refrained from eating for the sake of a fast, this is considered a transgression57 which requires atonement by fasting an entire day.

Whether he undertook [such a twelve hour fast] during the week or on Shabbos, he should not recite Aneinu in the Afternoon Service, because he already ate that day.

יב מִי שֶׁיָּשֵׁן שֵׁנַת צָהֳרַיִם וְחָלַם לוֹ חֲלוֹם רָע – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמּוֹעִיל לוֹ אִם יִתְעַנֶּה י"ב שָׁעוֹת מִשֶּׁנֵּעוֹר מִשֵּׁנָתוֹ עַד אֶמְצַע הַלַּיְלָה, וְאָז יַבְדִּיל אִם עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת. וְצָרִיךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לְמָחָר יוֹם שָׁלֵם,פה אַף אִם כְּבָר אָכַל סְעֻדָּה ג' קֹדֶם שֶׁחָלַם וְהָיָה רַשַּׁאי שֶׁלֹּא לִטְעוֹם עוֹד כְּלוּם בְּשַׁבָּת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְעַנָּה לְשֵׁם תַּעֲנִית – עֲבֵרָה הִיא בְּיָדוֹ,פו,57 וְצָרִיךְ כַּפָּרָה בְּתַעֲנִית יוֹם שָׁלֵם. וּבֵין בְּחֹלפז וּבֵין בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן – לֹא יֹאמַר "עֲנֵנוּ"פח בְּמִנְחָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָכַל כְּבָר:

13 If eating earlier on Shabbos than one’s usual time during the week is a source of pleasure for a person, e.g., his [Friday] evening meal has already been digested, he should eat earlier,58 because [for him,] this is an expression of honor for the Shabbos – that he moves the time of his meal forward, making it earlier than the time of his weekday meal. [Conversely,] he should delay his meal if delaying [and eating] at a later time than during the week is pleasurable for him. For [him,] this is an expression of honor [for the Shabbos] that he will have a desire to eat and eats with appetite.59

יג אִם הַקְּדִימָה לֶאֱכוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת קֹדֶם זְמַן הַסְּעֻדָּה בְּחֹל הוּא עֹנֶג לוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּתְעַכְּלָה כְּבָר סְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה – צָרִיךְ לְהַקְדִּים,פט,58 כִּי זֶהוּ כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּתצ שֶׁמַּקְדִימִין זְמַן סְעֻדָּתוֹ לִזְמַן סְעֻדַּת הַחֹל.

וְאִם הָאִחוּר מִזְּמַן סְעֻדַּת הַחֹל הוּא עֹנֶג לוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְאַחֵר, וְזֶהוּ כְּבוֹדוֹ, שֶׁמִּתְאַוֶּה לֶאֱכוֹלצא וְאוֹכֵל לְתֵאָבוֹן:צב,59

14 Similar concepts apply with regard to a person who is accustomed to eating meat and drinking wine every day; thus, all of his days resemble Shabbos. He must change the time of the meal60 on Shabbos from the time he eats during the week,61 advancing or delaying the time when he eats. [Nevertheless, he should delay only] a short time lest he suffer discomfort.

יד וְכֵן מִי שֶׁרָגִיל בְּכָל יוֹם בְּבָשָׂר וְיַיִן, וַהֲרֵי כָּל יָמָיו כְּשַׁבָּת – צָרִיךְ לְשַׁנּוֹת זְמַן הַסְּעֻדָּה60 שֶׁל שַׁבָּת מִזְּמַן סְעֻדַּת הַחֹל,61 שֶׁיַּקְדִּים אוֹ יְאַחֵרצג שָׁעָה מוּעֶטֶת, בִּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטַעֵר:צד