SECTION 286 The Laws Pertaining to the Mussaf Prayers on Shabbos (1-5)

סימן רפו דִּינֵי תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ה׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 The appropriate time for the Mussaf Service begins directly after the Morning Service. Even if one recited the Morning Service immediately after the [earliest appropriate] time for its recitation1 arrived, one may also recite the Mussaf Prayers at that time, for the time for the offering of the mussaf sacrifice begins directly after the offering of the daily sacrifice in the morning.2

א זְמַן תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף מַתְחִיל מִיָּד אַחַר תְּפִלַּת הַשַּׁחַר,א אַף אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית בַּבֹּקֶר מִיָּד אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּהּ1 – יָכוֹל גַם כֵּן לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף בָּעֵת הַהִיא, שֶׁזְּמַן הַקְרָבַת הַמּוּסָף מַתְחִיל מִיָּד אַחַר הַקְרָבַת תָּמִיד בַּבֹּקֶר:ב,2

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Kehot Publication Society)

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2 One should not delay the Mussaf Service beyond the seventh hour of the day, i.e., one [seasonal] hour3 after midday.4 One who delays to this extent [and recites this service after this time] warrants to be called a transgressor.5 Nevertheless, he fulfills his obligation because the time for the Mussaf Service [encompasses] the entire day.6 Even if one already recited the Afternoon Service, he may recite the Mussaf Service, as will be explained.7 If one forgot and did not recite [the Mussaf Service] until nightfall,8 unlike [the omission of] other services, he cannot compensate for its [omission], as stated in sec. 108[:10].9

ב וְאֵין לְאַחֵר תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף יוֹתֵר מִשֶּׁבַע שָׁעוֹת עַל הַיוֹם, דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁעָה3 אַחַר חֲצוֹת,4 וְהַמְאַחֵר כָּל כָּךְ נִקְרָא פּוֹשֵׁעַ,ג,5 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ כָּל הַיּוֹם.ד,6

אֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּבָר הִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה – חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.ה,7 וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ עַד שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה8 – אֵין לָהּ תַּשְׁלוּמִיןו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִשְׁאָר תְּפִלּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ק"ח:ז,9

3 If one transgresses and recites [the Mussaf Prayers] before the Morning Prayers, he fulfills his obligation.10 True, [when] the mussaf offering was sacrificed before the daily offering of the morning, it was invalid.11 Nevertheless, [our Sages] were not so stringent with regard to prayer as to [require one] to repeat [the Mussaf Service], since he recited it during the time fit for offering the sacrifice.12

ג וְאִם עָבַר וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל שַׁחֲרִית – יָצָא,ח,10 שֶׁאַף שֶׁקָּרְבַּן מוּסָף שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּהוּ קֹדֶם תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר פָּסוּל,ט,11 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּתְפִלָּה לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ כָּל כָּךְ לִהְיוֹת חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל, הוֹאִיל וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ בְּשָׁעָה הָרְאוּיָה לְהַקְרָבָה:12

4 It is permitted to eat a light repast after the Morning Service before the Mussaf Service,13 just as it is permitted to eat a light repast before the Afternoon Service after the time for its recitation has arrived. [Eating a light repast] refers to partaking of fruits, even extensively, to the extent that one sates his heart,14 and [similarly,] eating an egg-sized portion15 of bread, but no more, as explained in sec. 232.16 Also, one must recite Kiddush17before [eating] and [either] drink a reviis of wine or, [alternatively,] partake of an olive-sized portion18 [of food made] from one of the five species of grain19 directly after Kiddush,20as explained in sec. 273[:5, 7].

ד מֻתָּר לִטְעוֹם אַחַר תְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת הַמּוּסָפִין,י,13 כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִטְעוֹם קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּהּ,יא,13 דְּהַיְנוּ אֲכִילַת פֵּרוֹתיב אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּהיג כְּדֵי לִסְעוֹד הַלֵּב,יד,14 וּפַת כְּבֵיצָה15 וְלֹא יוֹתֵר,טו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רל"ב.טז,16

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ17 מִתְּחִלָּה,יז וְיִשְׁתֶּה רְבִיעִית יַיִןיח אוֹ יֹאכַל כְּזַיִתיט,18 מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִין19 אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ מִיָּד,20 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ג:כ

5 If the person had the option of reciting two prayer services, the Afternoon Service and the Mussaf Service, e.g., he delayed the recitation of the Mussaf Service until the time for the Afternoon Service – six and a half [seasonal] hours [after sunrise] – arrived, he must recite the Afternoon Service first.21 [The rationale is that the Afternoon Service] is recited more frequently than the Mussaf Service, and a more frequent obligation takes precedence over a less frequent one.22

When does the above apply? When one must recite both services at this time, e.g., he desires to eat either a large – or a small23 – meal and it is forbidden for him to eat before he recites the Afternoon Service, as explained in sec. 232.24 In such a situation, he must give precedence [to the Afternoon Service]. If, however, he is not required to recite the Afternoon Service [at this time], he may give precedence to the Mussaf Service.

When does the above apply? When the time of minchah ketanah,25which is the primary time for the Afternoon Service, has not yet arrived. If, however, the primary time [of the Afternoon Service, i.e., minchah ketanah]has arrived, precedence must be given to the Afternoon Service in all instances.

There are authorities who maintain that even before minchah ketanah, one must give precedence to the Afternoon Service in all instances.26 Weight should be given to their words. [Therefore,] on Yom Kippur, when the Morning Service is prolonged,27 [the congregation] should be mindful to begin the Mussaf Service before six and half [seasonal hours in the day], so that they will not be required to first recite the Afternoon Service according to this reasoning, as will be explained in sec. 620[:1].

Nevertheless, if it happened that [the congregation] prolonged the Morning Service beyond six and half [seasonal hours in the day] – and even if they did not recite the Mussaf Service until the time of minchah ketanah arrived – they should not recite the Afternoon Service first communally. [The rationale is to] prevent people at large from making an error and doing so on another occasion. The instruction to first recite the Afternoon Service [in the circumstances mentioned above] applies only to a person praying individually.28

ה הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי תְפִלּוֹת, אַחַת שֶׁל מִנְחָה וְאַחַת שֶׁל מוּסָפִים,כא כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵחַר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַמִּנְחָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וּמֶחֱצָהכב – צָרִיךְ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁל מִנְחָה תְּחִלָּה,21 לְפִי שֶׁהִיא תְּדִירָה יוֹתֵר מִתְּפִלַּת הַמּוּסָפִים,כג וְכָל הַתָּדִיר אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ – קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ.כד,22

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ עַתָּה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל שְׁתֵּיהֶן,כה כְּגוֹן שֶׁרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל סְעֻדָּה גְּדוֹלָה אוֹ קְטַנָּה,כו,23 וְאָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רל"בכז,24 – אֲזַי צָרִיךְ לְהַקְדִימָהּ. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּלָל עַתָּה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה – יָכוֹל לְהַקְדִּים שֶׁל מוּסָף.

בַּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן מִנְחָה קְטַנָּה,כח,25 שֶׁהִיא עִקַּר תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה, אֲבָל מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ עִקַּר זְמַנָּהּ – צָרִיךְ לְהַקְדִימָהּ בְּכָל עִנְיָן.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים (א) שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם מִנְחָה קְטַנָּה צָרִיךְ לְהַקְדִּים מִנְחָה בְּכָל עִנְיָן.כט,26 וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם,ל וְלִזָּהֵר בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁמַּאֲרִיכִים בִּתְפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית,27 שֶׁיַּתְחִילוּ מוּסָף קֹדֶם שֵׁשׁ וּמֶחֱצָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרְכוּ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה תְּחִלָּה לְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תר"כ.לא

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵרַע שֶׁהֶאֱרִיכוּ בְּשַׁחֲרִית עַד אַחַר שֵׁשׁ וּמֶחֱצָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵרַע שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִילוּ מוּסָף עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן מִנְחָה קְטַנָּה – לֹא יִתְפַּלְלוּ מִנְחָה תְּחִלָּה בְּצִבּוּר, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעוּ הֶהָמוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת.לב וְלֹא אָמְרוּ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה תְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא בְּיָחִיד שֶׁאֵרַע לוֹ כֵּן:28