SECTION 285 To Read the Torah Portion Twice in Its Original and Once in Translation (1-10)

סימן רפה לִקְרוֹת הַפָּרָשָׁה שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם וּבוֹ י׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 Although a person listens to the entire Torah [portion] each Shabbos [when it is read] communally each week, he is [nonetheless] obligated to review the Torah portion of that week each week on his own, [reading it] twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation.1 [When] there is no Aramaic translation for a verse, one should read the verse three times in the original. ([Verses like] Ateres v’Divon…,2 for which [although not translated by Onkelos3] there exists a Targum Yerushalmi, Machlelta U’Malbeshta…, should be read [in that translation].

א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָדָם שׁוֹמֵעַ כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ כָּל שַׁבָּת בְּצִבּוּר – חַיָּב לִקְרוֹת לְעַצְמוֹ בְּכָל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ פָּרָשַׁת אוֹתוֹ הַשָּׁבוּעַ שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם.א,1 וּפָסוּק שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ תַּרְגּוּם – קוֹרְאֵהוּ ג' פְּעָמִים.ב

(וַ"עֲטָרוֹת וְדִיבוֹןג,2 וְגוֹ'" שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּרְגּוּם יְרוּשַׁלְמִי:3 "מַכְלֶלְתָּא וּמַלְבֶּשְׁתָּא וְגוֹ'" – צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹתוֹד):

2 When a person reads the Torah twice in its original and then translates each word into a foreign language that he understands, he does not fulfill his obligation with this reading in the place of the Targum, since the Targum explains many matters that cannot be understood from the text itself. When, however, one reads (a commentary on the Torah that explains every word to a greater extent than the explanation of the Targum, there are authorities who maintain that reading it is preferable to [reading] the Targum. Similarly, if one reads) the original twice and the third time reviews the entire Torah reading, studying it with Rashi’s commentary,4 which is constructed on the foundation of the Talmud, it is more effective than reading the Targum, for [Rashi’s commentary] explains [the text] in greater detail [than the Targum].There are other authorities who maintain that the Targum merited [that it be read] because it was given at Sinai,5 e.g., Yagar Sahadusa.6 [Hence, there is an advantage in reviewing it.]

Primarily, the halachah follows the first opinion.7 Nevertheless, every G‑d-fearing person should read both the Targum and Rashi’s commentary.8 One who does not understand Rashi’s commentary should study a commentary on the Torah in a secular language that he understands.

ב הַקּוֹרֵא שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ לוֹעֵז כָּל מִלָּה וּמִלָּה בִּלְשׁוֹן לַעַז שֶׁמֵּבִין – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם תַּרְגּוּם, לְפִי שֶׁהַתַּרְגּוּם מְפָרֵשׁ כַּמָּה דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לְהָבִין מִתּוֹךְ הַמִּקְרָא.ה

אֲבָל הַקּוֹרֵא (בְּפֵרוּשׁ הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁמְּפָרֵשׁ כָּל מִלָּה וּמִלָּהו יוֹתֵר מִפֵּרוּשׁוֹ שֶׁל הַתַּרְגּוּםז – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםח שֶׁהוּא יוֹתֵר טוֹב מֵהַתַּרְגּוּם. וְכֵן הַקּוֹרֵא) ב' פְּעָמִים מִקְרָאט (א) וּבְפַעַם ג' חוֹזֵר וְלוֹמֵד כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה עִם פֵּרוּשׁ רַשִׁ"יי,4 שֶׁהוּא בָּנוּי עַל יְסוֹד הַתַּלְמוּדיא – הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹעִיל יוֹתֵר מֵהַתַּרְגּוּם, שֶׁהוּא מְפָרֵשׁ יוֹתֵר.יב

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיג שֶׁהַתַּרְגּוּם זָכָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּתַּן בְּסִינַי,יד,5 כְּגוֹן "יְגַר שָׂהֲדוּתָא".טו,6

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.טז,7 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כָּל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יֵשׁ לוֹ לִקְרוֹת הַתַּרְגּוּם וְגַם פֵּרוּשׁ רַשִׁ"י.8 וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵבִין פֵּרוּשׁ רַשִׁ"ייז – יֵשׁ לוֹ לִקְרוֹת בְּפֵרוּשׁ הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּלְשׁוֹן לַעַז שֶׁמֵּבִין:יח

3 There are those who follow the custom of reading every parshah,9 whether setumah or pesuchah,10twice; then they read the Targum for that parshah immediately, before reading a second parshah. They follow this pattern for every parshah. Others have the custom of reading every verse twice and then immediately reading the Targum for it.11 This is a more appropriate custom because this was the practice followed when the Torah was translated during the communal Torah reading. 12 They would translate every verse individually.

(According to the letter of the law, however, one may read [the Torah portion] twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation in any manner he desires.) It is desirable to repeat the last verse [after reading it twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation] so that one will conclude with a verse from the Torah. (For this was the practice during the age when they would translate [the Torah communally]. They would repeat the last verse [for the above reason]).13

ג יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןיט לִקְרוֹת כָּל פָּרָשָׁה,9 בֵּין פְּתוּחָה בֵּין סְתוּמָה,10 ב' פְּעָמִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַתַּרְגּוּם עָלֶיהָ מִיָּד קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּקְרָא פָּרָשָׁה שְׁנִיָּה. וְכֵן בְּכָל פָּרָשָׁה.כ

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןכא לִקְרוֹת כָּל פָּסוּק ב' פְּעָמִים וְהַתַּרְגּוּם עָלָיו מִיָּד.11 וּמִנְהָג זֶה נָכוֹן יוֹתֵר, כִּי כֵן הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ מְתַרְגְּמִין בִּקְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה בְּצִבּוּר,12 שֶׁהָיוּ מְתַרְגְּמִין כָּל פָּסוּק בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.כב

(אֲבָל מִן הַדִּין יָכוֹל לִקְרוֹת שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם בְּכָל עִנְיָן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה).

וּפָסוּק הָאַחֲרוֹן טוֹב לְכָפְלוֹ וְלַחֲזוֹר וּלְאָמְרוֹ, כְּדֵי לְסַיֵּם בַּתּוֹרָהכג (כִּי כֵן בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ מְתַרְגְּמִין הָיוּ מְסַיְּמִים בַּמִּקְרָא, שֶׁהָיוּ כּוֹפְלִים פָּסוּק הָאַחֲרוֹןכד):13

4 It is desirable for one who is familiar with the cantillation notes by heart to read the [weekly portion] twice in its original from a valid Torah scroll14 every Friday.

ד מִי שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל בְּפִסְקֵי טְעָמִיםכה בְּעַל פֶּה – טוֹב שֶׁיִּקְרָא שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה כָּשֵׁר14 בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת:כו

5 One is obligated to complete his [study of] the Torah portions with the community. [Implied is that] he should not read15 the Torah portion of one week in another week.16 From Sunday on, one is considered [to be reading the Torah portion of the coming week] with the community, since the community already began reading the Torah portion during the Afternoon Serviceon Shabbos.

The optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to complete [the review of the Torah reading] before one eats on Shabbos morning.17 For Rabbeinu HaKadosh18 instructed19 his sons not to eat on Shabbos morning before they finished reviewing the weekly Torah portion twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation. If one did not complete [this review] before eating, he must complete it after eating, until [the recitation of] the Afternoon Service.20 From that time onward, the time for [the review of the portion of the previous week] has passed, since the community already began reading another Torah portion.

Other authorities maintain that, after the fact, one may complete [his review of the weekly Torah portion] until the end of Tuesday [of the following week], as will be explained with regard to Havdalah in sec. 299[:8].21 Others maintain that [even greater leniency is granted]. After the fact, one can complete [his review of the Torah portion] until Simchas Torah, for then the entire congregation completes the entire Torah.

It is desirable to give weight to their words. [Therefore,] one who transgressed and did not complete [his review of the Torah portion] at the appropriate time should complete its study before the conclusion of Tuesday. If he did not complete [his review then], he should complete his review before Simchas Torah,22reading it twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation, not like those who only read the original.23

ה חַיָּב לְהַשְׁלִים פָּרָשִׁיּוֹתָיו עִם הַצִּבּוּר, שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא15 בְּשָׁבוּעַ זֶה פָּרָשַׁת שָׁבוּעַ אַחֵר.כז,16 אֲבָל מִיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן וְאֵילַךְ נִקְרָא עִם הַצִּבּוּר, שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְחִילוּ הַצִּבּוּר פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמִנְחָה.כח

וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים אוֹתָהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל בְּשַׁבָּת שַׁחֲרִית,כט,17כִּי כֵן צִוָּה19 רַבֵּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ18 אֶת בָּנָיו, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלוּ שַׁבָּת שַׁחֲרִית קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּשְׁלִימוּ הַפָּרָשָׁה שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם.ל

וְאִם לֹא הִשְׁלִים קֹדֶם אֲכִילָה – חַיָּב לְהַשְׁלִים אַחַר אֲכִילָהלא עַד הַמִּנְחָה.לב,20 אֲבָל מִשָּׁם וְאֵילַךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ הַצִּבּוּר פָּרָשָׁה אַחֶרֶת – עָבַר זְמַנָּהּ שֶׁל זֹאת.לג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלד שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁלִימָהּ עַד סוֹף יוֹם ג' בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְעִנְיַן הַבְדָּלָה בְּסִמָּן רצ"ט.לה,21 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלו שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד יָכוֹל גַם כֵּן לְהַשְׁלִימָהּ עַד שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה, שֶׁאָז מַשְׁלִימִין כָּל הַצִּבּוּר אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה.לז

וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, שֶׁמִּי שֶׁעָבַר וְלֹא הִשְׁלִים בִּזְמַנָּהּ – יַשְׁלִים עַד סוֹף יוֹם ג'. וְאִם לֹא הִשְׁלִים – יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַשְׁלִים עַד שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה22 שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם,לח וְלֹא כְּאוֹתָן שֶׁאוֹמְרִים מִקְרָא לְבָד:לט,23

6 There are those who, because of esoteric reasons, follow the custom of completing [the review of] the entire Torah reading twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation on Friday afternoon after midday.24 Others follow the custom of reviewing it in its entirety Friday morning after the Morning Prayers, without interrupting its review at all even [merely] by speaking [of other matters].25 If a person does not have the Targum [accessible], he should read the original twice. Later, when he obtains [the text] of the Targum, he should read it. Nevertheless, according to the letter of the law, it is not necessary to read the entire passage twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation at one time. Instead, [it is acceptable] even if one reads one passage of just the Torah [without the Targum] one day and another passage the following day, [doing so] throughout the days of the week and then reviewing [the entire text] in order [all at once].26

ו יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןמ מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶם לִגְמוֹר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אַחַר חֲצוֹת.24 וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןמא לִגְמוֹר כֻּלָּהּ עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שַׁחֲרִית אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיק כְּלָל בְּאֶמְצַע שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִבּוּר.מב,25 וְאִם אֵין לוֹ תַּרְגּוּם – יִקְרָא מִקְרָא ב' פְּעָמִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ תַּרְגּוּם יִקְרָאֶנּוּ.מג

אֲבָל מִן הַדִּין אֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹת כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם בְּפַעַם אַחַת, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ פָּרָשָׁה אַחַת הַיּוֹם מִקְרָא לְבָד וּפָרָשָׁה אַחֶרֶת לְמָחָר, וְכֵן כָּל יְמֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מִקְרָא עַל הַסֵּדֶר:מד,26

7 Therefore, teachers of children who [have already] studied the entire weekly portion with their students once need not read it twice [in the original]. Instead, they should read it once in the original and [once in] the Targum.27

When does the above apply? When one taught the children only the meaning of the words.28 If, however, he [also] taught the children the meaning of the text, he has also fulfilled his obligation to review the Targum, as can be understood from the explanations above.29 He need only review the Torah portion once if he did not read [the portion] with his students [at least] twice.30

ז לְפִיכָךְ, מְלַמְּדֵי תִינוֹקוֹת שֶׁגָּמְרוּ הַפָּרָשָׁה עִם הַתִּינוֹקוֹתמה פַּעַם אַחַת – אֵינָם צְרִיכִין לַחֲזוֹר וְלִקְרוֹתָהּ ב' פְּעָמִים, אֶלָּא יִקְרְאוּ פַּעַם אַחַת וְהַתַּרְגּוּם.,27

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁלָּמְדוּ עִם הַתִּינוֹקוֹת פֵּרוּשׁ הַמִּלּוֹת בִּלְבָד,28 אֲבָל אִם לָמְדוּ פֵּרוּשׁ הַמִּקְרָא – יָצְאוּ יְדֵי תַרְגּוּם גַּם כֵּן,מו וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,מז,29 וְאֵינָם צְרִיכִים אֶלָּא לַחֲזוֹר וְלִקְרוֹת הַמִּקְרָא פַּעַם אַחַת אִם לֹא קָרְאוּ עִם הַתִּינוֹקוֹת ב' פְּעָמִים:מח,30

8 There are authorities who grant license to review [the Torah reading] twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation during the communal reading of the Torah, as stated in sec. 146.31 Other authorities [go even further, and] maintain that one fulfills his obligation [of one recitation] by hearing the Torah reading from the sheliach tzibbur if he clearly hears the entire reading.32 Thus, it is sufficient to read the Torah reading [only] once more with its Aramaic translation. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should not rely on listening [to this reading] because of the rationale mentioned in sec. 59[:4].33 Nevertheless, there are authorities who maintain that one does not at all fulfill his obligation by listening to the reading of the sheliach tzibbur. [Instead,] one is obligated to review [the Torah reading] twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation, in addition to listening [to this reading], as explained above.34 In a pressing situation, one may rely on the first opinion.35

ח יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיםמט לִקְרוֹת שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם בִּשְׁעַת קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קמ"ו.נ,31

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנא שֶׁיּוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּשְׁמִיעַת הַקְרִיאָה מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אִם שָׁמַע כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה בְּבֵרוּר,32 וְדַי שֶׁיִּקְרָא עוֹד פַּעַם אַחַת עִם תַּרְגּוּם. אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לִסְמוֹךְ עַל הַשְּׁמִיעָה,נב מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן נ"ט.נג,33

אֲבָל יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנד שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא כְּלָל בִּשְׁמִיעַת הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, שֶׁמִּלְּבַד שְׁמִיעָה זוֹ חַיָּב לִקְרוֹת שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.נה,34 וּבִשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:נו,35

9 It is not necessary for one to review the Torah reading for a festival individually on the day before the festival, because he already reviewed – or will review – this reading on its appropriate Shabbos. On the day preceding Simchas Torah, however, one should review the reading of VeZos HaBerachah twice in the original and once in the Aramaic translation, for this is the appropriate time for [that reading].

ט אֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹת פָּרָשַׁת יוֹם טוֹב לְעַצְמוֹ בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר קָרָא אוֹ יִקְרָא פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ בְּשַׁבַּתָּהּ.נז

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּעֶרֶב שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה יִקְרָא פָּרָשַׁת "וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה"נח שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם, שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הוּא זְמַנָּהּ:

10 According to the letter of the law, it is not necessary [for one] to individually review the Haftaros of all the Shabbasos. Nevertheless, it has become customary to read [the weekly Haftarah]36 so that he will be familiar with it and know it, lest he be called as the maftir in the synagogue.37 On [the Shabbasos associated with] the four readings [before Purim and Pesach], one should read the Haftarah associated with the Four Passages that are read in the synagogue and not the Haftarah associated with the weekly portion. This [principle] also [applies] on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, [as well as] when Shabbos falls on the day before Rosh Chodesh, and on Shabbos Chanukah.38

In those communities where it is the custom to read the passage Sos asis39when a wedding is held [in proximity to Shabbos], one should review that Haftarah individually and not the Haftarah associated with the weekly portion, lest he be called [to read it] on the following day. If, however, many weddings are celebrated during successive weeks, it suffices to read Sos asis [only] on the first [Shabbos]. On the subsequent Shabbasos, one should read the Haftarah associated with the weekly portion.

י הַהַפְטָרוֹת שֶׁל כָּל הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת אֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹתָן לְעַצְמוֹנט מִן הַדִּין. אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִקְרוֹתָן,ס,36 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּקִי בָּהּ וְיוֹדְעָהּ, כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָאוּהוּ לְמַפְטִיר בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.סא,37

וּבְד' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ לִקְרוֹת הַפְטָרָה שֶׁל ד' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹתסב שֶׁמַּפְטִירִין אוֹתָהּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְלֹא הַפְטָרָה שֶׁל פָּרָשַׁת הַשָּׁבוּעַ. וְכֵן בְּשַׁבַּת רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וּמָחָר חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבַּת חֲנֻכָּה.סג,38

וְאִם אֵרַע חֲתֻנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים אָז לְהַפְטִיר בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת "שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ"סד,39 – יֵשׁ לוֹ גַם כֵּן לִקְרוֹתָהּ לְעַצְמוֹ, וְלֹא הַפְטָרַת הַשָּׁבוּעַ, כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִקְרָאוּהוּ לְמָחָר.סה אֲבָל אִם אֵרְעוּ הַרְבֵּה חֲתֻנּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ – דַּי בְּמַה שֶּׁקָּרָא "שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ" בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה,סו וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לִקְרוֹת בִּשְׁאָר הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת הַפְטָרַת הַשָּׁבוּעַ:סז