SECTION 284 The Laws Pertaining to the Haftarah and Its Blessings (1-14)

סימן רפד דִּין הַהַפְטָרָה וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ וּבוֹ י"ד סְעִיפִים׃

1The one who reads the Haftarah from the works of the Prophets should not read fewer than 21 verses on Shabbos.1 [The rationale is that on Shabbos,] there are seven men who receive aliyos to read from the Torah, and it is necessary to read three verses in the works of the Prophets for each of those who receive an aliyah.

[To explain:] Once [the non-Jewish rulers of Eretz Yisrael]2 instituted decrees intended to stamp out the Jews’ religion and forbade them to read from the Torah. [To compensate, the Jews] would read [a selection from] the works of the Prophets that shares the theme of the Torah reading,3 calling seven people to read, corresponding to the seven who would have read from the Torah. They did not apportion fewer than three verses to each reader, just as [one who reads] from the Torah does not [read fewer than that number of verses]. Thus a total of [at least] 21 verses were read. Afterwards, when the decree was nullified and [the Jews were able] to read from the Torah again, they ordained that on Shabbos, one person should read [at least] 21 verses from the works of the Prophets that share the theme of the Torah reading. On a festival, by contrast, it is sufficient [for the Haftarah to contain] 15 verses, corresponding to the five men called to the Torah [on that day].

If the [corresponding] theme [of the Haftarah]is completed in fewer than 21 verses [on Shabbos] or fewer than 15 verses [on Yom Tov],4 for example, the Haftarah for Shabbos Shuvah, which is short,5 or the passage, “Add your burnt-offerings to your sacrifices,”6 there is no need to complete [the specified number with the addition] from another subject,7 (neither before it nor afterwards).

א הַמַּפְטִיר בְּנָבִיא לֹא יִפְחוֹת מִכ"א פְּסוּקִיםא בְּשַׁבָּת,ב1 שֶׁשִּׁבְעָה עוֹלִים לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה, וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּפְטִיר בְּנָבִיא ג' פְּסוּקִים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל אֶחָד מֵהָעוֹלִים,ג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת2 גָּזְרוּ שְׁמָד עַל יִשְׂרָאֵלד שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרְאוּ בַּתּוֹרָה, וְקָרְאוּ בִּנְבִיאִים מֵעִנְיַן הַפָּרָשָׁה3 שִׁבְעָה כְּנֶגֶד הַשִּׁבְעָה שֶׁהָיוּ צְרִיכִים לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה, וְלֹא הָיוּ פּוֹחֲתִין מִג' פְּסוּקִים לְכָל אֶחָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין פּוֹחֲתִין בַּתּוֹרָה, וַהֲרֵי בֵּין כֻּלָּם כ"א פְּסוּקִים,ה וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁבָּטְלָה הַגְּזֵרָה וְחָזְרוּ לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה – הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא אֶחָד קוֹרֵא בְּנָבִיא מֵעִנְיַן הַפָּרָשָׁה כ"א פְּסוּקִיםו בְּשַׁבָּת.ז אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב דַּי בְּט"ו פְּסוּקִים, כְּנֶגֶד ה' הָעוֹלִים בַּתּוֹרָה.ח

וְאִם נִשְׁלָם הָעִנְיָן בְּפָחוֹת מִכ"א,ט אוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִט"ו,4 כְּגוֹן פָּרָשַׁת "שׁוּבָה"י שֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה,יא,5 אוֹ כְּגוֹן "פָּרָשַׁתיב עוֹלוֹתֵיכֶם סְפוּ עַל זִבְחֵיכֶם וְגוֹ'"יג,6 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִים מֵעִנְיָן אַחֵר7 (לֹא שֶׁמִּלְּפָנָיו וְלֹא שֶׁמִּלְּאַחֲרָיו):

2 [Our Sages] also ordained that the maftir should recite seven blessings, corresponding to the seven aliyos for the Torah reading:8 [These seven blessings consist of] the two blessings that he recites on the passage from the Torah that he reads before reading the Haftarah from the works of the Prophets, as stated in sec. 282[:10], and five blessings that he recites on the Haftarah, one beforehand and four afterwards.

One should not respond Amen after the phrase emes vetzedek (“truth and righteousness”) [in the middle of the first blessing after the Haftarah], since it is not the conclusion of a blessing. Since there are many who err and respond Amen at that point, it is desirable for the maftir not to pause at all there, so that [the congregation] will know that this is not where the blessing concludes.

ב וְתִקְּנוּ שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ הַמַּפְטִיר ז' בְּרָכוֹת כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעָה שֶׁקָּרְאוּ בַּתּוֹרָה,יד,8 שְׁתֵּי בְרָכוֹת שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁקּוֹרֵא קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּפְטִיר בְּנָבִיא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רפ"ב,טו וְחָמֵשׁ בְּרָכוֹת מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַהַפְטָרָה, אַחַת מִלְּפָנֶיהָ וְד' לְאַחֲרֶיהָ.טז

וְאֵין לַעֲנוֹת "אָמֵן" אַחַר "אֱמֶת וָצֶדֶק",יז שֶׁאֵין שָׁם סִיּוּם הַבְּרָכָה.יח וּמִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַרְבֵּה טוֹעִים לַעֲנוֹת שָׁם "אָמֵן", לָכֵן טוֹב לַמַּפְטִיר שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁם שׁוּם הֶפְסֵק כְּלָל, לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ שֶׁאֵין שָׁם סִיּוּם בְּרָכָה:יט

3 The reading of the Haftarah was instituted only in a congregation,9 following the communal Torah reading. If, however, the congregation did not read from a Torah scroll, but only from a Chumash without a blessing [under the circumstances] described in sec. 143,10 the Haftarah should not be recited with its blessings.11 It may, however, be recited without its blessings, and it is indeed proper for it to be recited in this manner, so that the practice of [reciting the] Haftarah not be forgotten. If, however, the Torah portion was read from an invalid scroll,12 following the guidance in sec. 143, the Haftarah should be recited with its blessings, as explained there.13

ג לֹא נִתְקְנָה הַהַפְטָרָה אֶלָּא בְּצִבּוּרכ,9 אַחַר שֶׁקָּרְאוּ בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה,כא אֲבָל אִם לֹא קָרְאוּ בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּחֻמָּשׁ בְּלֹא בְרָכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קמ"גכב,10 – לֹא יֹאמַר הַהַפְטָרָה עִם בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ.11 אֲבָל בְּלֹא בִרְכוֹתֶיהָ יְכוֹלִים לְאָמְרָהּ.כג וְנָכוֹן הַדָּבָר שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּהָ,כד שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁתַּכַּח לָהֶם תּוֹרַת הַהַפְטָרָה.כה

אֲבָל אִם קָרָא בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה פָּסוּל,12 וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קמ"גכו – יֹאמְרוּ הַהַפְטָרָה עִם בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ,כז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:כח,13

4 Although [a congregation] may not read from a Torah scroll that is lacking even one letter,14 nevertheless, it is not necessary that the Haftarah be read from a scroll containing the entire book of the Prophets [from which a given Haftarah is read]. It is sufficient [for it to contain] the passage that contains the Haftarah that is being read. ([Reading from a written passage is necessary,] so that one will not read a portion of the Written Law by heart.)15 [This applies] even if the passage is not written according to the rules for the scrolls of the Books of the Prophets in the era of the Sages of the Gemara, i.e., that it be written on g’vil or k’laf16made from the hide of an animal from a kosher species and that it is [written] in a way that can be rolled like a Torah scroll, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 271.17 Although [these requirements were not met], it was possible to read the Haftarah from such a text (even in [the Talmudic] era), since it was not ordained that the Haftarah be read from a valid scroll, [in contrast to] the reading of the Torah which was ordained to be read from a valid scroll. [The only requirement that applies to the Haftarah is that] it is forbidden to read it by heart.

In the [Talmudic] era, it was forbidden to write Biblical passages separately; [they had to be written as part of] an entire book.18 [This requirement applied to the Five Books] of the Torah as well as to the Books of the Prophets and of Scripture, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 283.19 Nevertheless, [the Sages] permitted the Haftaros to be written [separately based on the principle implied by the verse:]20 “It is a time to act for G‑d; they have abrogated Your Torah.”21 For not every community has the resources to purchase scrolls of the entire Books of the Prophets. [Thus, upholding the above mentioned requirement] would cause them to neglect the reading of the Haftarah entirely.

Even in the present age, after printing was invented and texts are inexpensive, it is still permitted to print or write the Haftaros as separate [documents. The rationale is that] even if an entire Book of the Prophets was to be printed on paper, it would be permitted to read from it only based on [the principle implied by the verse]: “It is a time to act for G‑d….” For [were it not for the application of the above principle, reading the Tanach from a printed page would be prohibited,] since it is not written on the hide of an animal from a kosher species and it is not [written] in a way that it can be rolled [like a Torah scroll].

Moreover, even if this printed or written text of the Haftarah lacks many words, one may read the missing [words] by heart, as long as one does not violate the prohibition against reading [entire] passages from the Written Law by heart. (See sec. 143.)22

ד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסֵּפֶר תּוֹרָה הֶחָסֵר אֲפִלּוּ אוֹת אַחַת אֵין קוֹרִין בּוֹ,כט,14 אֲבָל בְּהַפְטָרָה אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַנָּבִיא שֶׁמַּפְטִירִים בּוֹ סֵפֶר שָׁלֵם, אֶלָּא דַּי בְּפָרָשָׁה שֶׁמַּפְטִירִין בָּהל (כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא בְּעַל פֶּה דְּבָרִים שֶׁבִּכְתָבלא).15

וְאַף אִם גַּם פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ אֵינוֹ כְּתוּבָה (א) כְּמִשְׁפַּט כְּתִיבַת סִפְרֵי הַנְּבִיאִים בִּימֵי חַכְמֵי הַגְּמָרָא, דְּהַיְנוּ עַל הַגְּוִיל אוֹ עַל הַקְּלָף16 שֶׁל עוֹר בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה, וְעָשׂוּי בִּגְלִילָה כְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רע"א,לב,17 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן (הָיוּ) יְכוֹלִים לְהַפְטִיר בָּהּ (אַף בִּימֵיהֶם),לג שֶׁהַהַפְטָרָה לֹא נִתְקְנָה כְּלָל שֶׁיִּקְרָאוּהָ בְּסֵפֶר כָּשֵׁרלד כְּמוֹ שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בִּקְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה לִקְרוֹת בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה כָּשֵׁר,לה אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר לִקְרוֹתָהּ עַל פֶּה.לו

וְאַף שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם הָיָה אָסוּר לִכְתּוֹב פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָןלז כֹּל שֶׁאֵינָן סֵפֶר שָׁלֵם,18 בֵּין שֶׁהֵן מִן הַתּוֹרָה, בֵּין שֶׁהֵן מִנְּבִיאִים וּכְתוּבִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רפ"ג,לח,19 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הִתִּירוּ לִכְתּוֹב הַפְטָרוֹת, מִשּׁוּם20 "עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַה' הֵפֵרוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ",לט,21 שֶׁאֵין יְכֹלֶת בְּיַד כָּל צִבּוּר לִקְנוֹת לָהֶם נְבִיאִים שְׁלֵמִיםמ וְיִתְבַּטְּלוּ מִקְּרִיאַת הַהַפְטָרָה לְגַמְרֵי.

וְאַף שֶׁעַכְשָׁו שֶׁנִּתְגַּלֵּית מְלֶאכֶת הַדְּפוּס וְהַסְּפָרִים בְּזוֹל,מא אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְהַדְפִּיס אוֹ לִכְתּוֹב הַהַפְטָרוֹת בִּלְבַדָּן,מב לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם יַדְפִּיסוּ סֵפֶר נָבִיא שָׁלֵם עַל הַנְּיָר לֹא יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לִקְרוֹת בּוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם "עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַה'", כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עַל עוֹר בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה וְאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי בִּגְלִילָה.

וְאַף אִם בְּהַפְטָרָה זוֹ הַנִּדְפֶּסֶת אוֹ הַכְּתוּבָה יֵשׁ בָּהּ חֶסְרוֹן הַרְבֵּה תֵּבוֹת – קוֹרֵא הַחִסָּרוֹן בְּעַל פֶּה, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם "דְּבָרִים שֶׁבִּכְתָב אִי אַתָּה רַשַּׁאי לְאָמְרָם בְּעַל פֶּה" (עַיֵּן סִמָּן קמ"גמג):22

5 If there is no text of the Haftarah in the synagogue, only in another house, and it is impossible to bring it [to the synagogue] from there because there is no eruv in the town, [at least] ten people from the synagogue should go to that house. The man who read from the Torah as the maftir in the synagogue should read the Haftarah there.23 The Haftarah should not, however, be read by heart in the synagogue.24

ה וְאִם אֵין הַהַפְטָרָה כְּלָל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֶלָּא בְּבַיִת אַחֵר, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַהֲבִיאָהּ מִשָּׁם שֶׁאֵין עֵרוּב בָּעִיר – יֵלְכוּ עֲשָׂרָה מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְאוֹתוֹ בַּיִת, וְיַפְטִיר שָׁםמד הַמַּפְטִיר שֶׁקָּרָא בַּתּוֹרָה תְּחִלָּה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,23 אֲבָל לֹא יִקְרָא הַהַפְטָרָה בְּעַל פֶּה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת:מה,24

6 When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, the maftir should not mention Rosh Cho­desh at all in the blessing Al haTorah.25 [The rationale is that] there is no connection between Rosh Chodesh and the Haftarah, since were it not for Shabbos, there would be no reading of the Haftarah on Rosh Chodesh.26

ו רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין הַמַּפְטִיר מַזְכִּיר עִנְיָן שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ כְּלָל בְּבִרְכַּת "עַל הַתּוֹרָה כוּ'",25 לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עִנְיָן כְּלָל לְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ בַּהַפְטָרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִלְמָלֵא שַׁבָּת אֵין הַפְטָרָה בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ לְבָד:מו,26

7 One must concentrate on listening to the blessings recited by those reading from the Torah and the blessings of the maftir, and respond Amen to them.27 [This will benefit the one who responds, since his responses] enable him to reach the required sum of 100 blessings [to be recited daily].28 On Shabbos, he is lacking the required number [of blessings,29 and responding Amen to these blessings can compensate for that lack] if he does not possess many fruits [whose blessings would enable him]30 to reach that number, as stated in sec. 46[:1]. See also sec. 290[:1].31

ז צָרִיךְ לְכַוֵּן לְבִרְכוֹת הַקּוֹרְאִים בַּתּוֹרָהמז וּלְבִרְכוֹת הַמַּפְטִיר,מח וְיַעֲנֶה אַחֲרֵיהֶם "אָמֵן".מט,27 וְיַעֲלוּ לוֹ לְהַשְׁלִים מִנְיַן מֵאָה בְרָכוֹת28 שֶׁחָסֵר מִנְיָנָם בְּשַׁבָּת,נ,29 אִם אֵין לוֹ פֵּרוֹת הַרְבֵּה30 לְהַשְׁלִים בָּהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן מ"ו,נא וְעַיֵּן סִמָּן ר"צ:נב,31

8 A minor who knows how to read, i.e., to enunciate the letters properly, and [also] knows Who is being blessed, may recite the Haftarah from the works of the Prophets.32 There are [congregations] who are accustomed to embellish and honor the Haftarah [describing] Yechezkel’s [vision] of the Divine chariot which is recited on Shavuos, and the Song of David that is recited as the Haftarah on the Seventh Day of Pesach, by having them read only by an adult.33 Others also follow this practice on Shabbos Shuvah.34

ח קָטָןנג הַיּוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת, שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לַחְתּוֹךְ הָאוֹתִיּוֹת בְּטוֹב,נד וְיוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מְבָרְכִיןנה – יָכוֹל לְהַפְטִיר בְּנָבִיא.32

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים סִלְסוּל וְכָבוֹד בְּמֶרְכָּבָה שֶׁל יְחֶזְקֵאל שֶׁמַפְטִירִין בַּעֲצֶרֶת וּבְשִׁירַת דָּוִד כְּשֶׁמַּפְטִירִים אוֹתָהּ בְּז' שֶׁל פֶּסַח, שֶׁלֹּא יַפְטִיר אֶלָּא גָדוֹל.נו,33 וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים כֵּן גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת "שׁוּבָה":נז,34

9 If a minor is called as the maftir and he reads35 from the Torah, but then it is discovered that he does not know how to recite the Haftarah, another person may recite it. The same [law] applies if this occurs with regard to an adult. [The person who reads the Haftarah in this situation] need not read again from the Torah; the first reading is sufficient. True, it was ordained that the one who reads the Haftarah from the works of the Prophets should read from the Torah first as an expression of honor for the Torah – by reading it before [the works of] the Prophets, as stated in sec. 282[:10]. Nevertheless, when the minor or another person reads from the Torah [as maftir], the Torah is also honored. For it is obvious to all that he reads for the sake of the Haftarah, so that it be read after the reading of the Torah. For certainly, no one will say that he reads [the passage from the Torah] for its own sake and not for the sake of the Haftarah, since the required number of aliyos were already completed and Kaddish was recited afterwards.

There are authorities who differ with this [logic].36 Therefore, as an initial preference, it is forbidden to call a person who does not know how to recite the Haftarah himself as maftir.37Nevertheless, if [such a person] was called for that aliyah, he should accept it and read from the Torah and have another person read the Haftarah,38as maintained by the authorities initially mentioned.

ט אִם קָרְאוּ קָטָן לְמַפְטִיר וְקָרָא35 בַּתּוֹרָה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לוֹמַר הַהַפְטָרָה, וְכֵן אִם אֵרַע כֵּן בְּגָדוֹל – יָכוֹל אַחֵר לְאָמְרָהּ.נח וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה עוֹד, כִּי דַּי בַּקְּרִיאָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,נט שֶׁאַף שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ שֶׁהַמַּפְטִיר בְּנָבִיא יִקְרָא בַּתּוֹרָה תְּחִלָּה מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁתְּהֵא נִקְרֵאת קֹדֶם הַנָּבִיא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רפ"ב,ס מִכָּל מָקוֹם גַּם כְּשֶׁהַקָּטָן אוֹ אַחֵר קָרָא בַּתּוֹרָה יֵשׁ בָּזֶה גַם כֵּן כָּבוֹד לַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנִּכָּר הַדָּבָר לַכֹּל שֶׁקָּרָא בִּשְׁבִיל הַהַפְטָרָה שֶׁתִּהְיֶה נִקְרֵאת אַחַר קְרִיאָה בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יָבֹאוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁקָּרָא בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַהַפְטָרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר נִשְׁלְמוּ הַקְּרוּאִים וְאָמְרוּ קַדִּישׁ אַחֲרֵיהֶם.סא

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה.סב,36 לְפִיכָךְ, לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּןסג לִקְרוֹת לְמַפְטִיר מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לוֹמַר הַהַפְטָרָה בְּעַצְמוֹ.37 וְאִם קָרְאוּ אוֹתוֹ – יַעֲלֶה וְיִקְרָא בַּתּוֹרָה וְיִקְרָא אַחֵר הַהַפְטָרָה38 כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:

10 If the maftir lost his ability to speak in the middle of the Haftarah, [the congregation should follow] the same laws as would apply were a similar situation to occur [when reading] a Torah scroll. The person who comes to replace him and complete [the reading] should not begin from the place where [the reader] ceased. Instead, he should begin from the place where the first began, as explained in sec. 140.39 (Consult that source as to whether a blessing should be recited before [the second person begins reading].)40

י אִם נִשְׁתַּתֵּק הַמַּפְטִיר בְּאֶמְצַע הַהַפְטָרָה – דִּינוֹ כְּמוֹ בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, שֶׁהַבָּא לְסַיֵּם תַּחְתָּיו לֹא יַתְחִיל מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁפָּסַק הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַתְחִיל מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִתְחִיל הָרִאשׁוֹן,סד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ק"מסה,39 (וְעַיֵּן שָׁםסו אִם צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה):40

11 The maftir should not begin the recitation of the Haftarah until after the goleil41 rolls the Torah scroll closed, so that he can also understand and hear [the Haftarah] from him. For the obligation to hear the Haftarah is incumbent on all, just like the weekly Torah portion [read] from the Torah scroll. For this reason, two people should not read the Haftarah aloud together, for [one] cannot listen to two voices simultaneously.42

There are some who, for an esoteric reason,43 do not rely on merely listening [to the reader], but instead read the Haftarah themselves and listen to the blessings from the maftir. Nevertheless, they should be careful not to read in a loud voice, but rather in a gentle [tone] (word by word with the maftir. See sec. 183:10.)44

יא לֹא יַתְחִיל הַמַּפְטִיר לְהַפְטִיר עַד שֶׁיִּגְמוֹר הַגּוֹלֵל לִגְלוֹל הַסֵּפֶר תּוֹרָה,סז כְּדֵי שֶׁגַּם הַגּוֹלֵל41 יוּכַל לְהָבִין וְלִשְׁמוֹעַ מִמֶּנּוּ,סח שֶׁחוֹבָה הִיא עַל הַכֹּל לִשְׁמוֹעַ הַהַפְטָרָה כְּמוֹ הַפָּרָשָׁה שֶׁבְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה.סט לְפִיכָךְ, לֹא יִקְרְאוּ שְׁנַיִם הַהַפְטָרָה כְּאֶחָדע בְּקוֹל רָם,עא שֶׁשְּׁנֵי קוֹלוֹת אֵין נִשְׁמָעִים.עב,42

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶםעג,43 שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ עַל שְׁמִיעָה בִּלְבַדָּהּ, אֶלָּא הֵם בְּעַצְמָם קוֹרִין הַהַפְטָרָה,עד וְשׁוֹמְעִין הַבְּרָכוֹת מִפִּי הַמַּפְטִיר. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צְרִיכִים לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרְאוּ בְּקוֹל רָם אֶלָּא בְּנַחַתעה (מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה עִם הַמַּפְטִיר, עַיֵּן סִמָּן קפ"געו):44

12 The book of the works of the Prophets [from which the Haftarah was recited] should not be taken away from the place of the maftir until after he completes the recitation of the blessings that follow its recitation, so that he will see [the reading he recited] and recite the blessing over it.45

יב אֵין לְסַלֵּק סֵפֶר הַנְּבִיאִים מִלִּפְנֵי הַמַּפְטִיר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּגְמוֹר לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאֶה וִיבָרֵךְ עַל מַה שֶּׁהִפְטִיר:עז,45

13 Whenever two Torah portions are read on a Shabbos, the Haftarah of the second Torah portion is read, [because the reading] concludes with it,46 and the maftir first reads from it [before he reads the Haftarah]. The [only] exception is the Shabbos on which the parshiyos Acharei Mos and Kedoshim are read. [On such a Shabbos,] the Haftarah of Parshas Acharei Mos is read, as will be explained in sec. 428.47

יג בְּכָל שַׁבָּת שֶׁקּוֹרִין ב' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה מַפְטִירִים הַפְטָרָה שֶׁל פָּרָשָׁה הַשְּׁנִיָּהעח שֶׁבָּה מְסַיְּמִין,46 וּבָהּ קוֹרֵא הַמַּפְטִיר תְּחִלָּה,עט חוּץ מִשַּׁבָּת שֶׁקּוֹרִים "אַחֲרֵי מוֹת" וּ"קְדוֹשִׁים", שֶׁמַּפְטִירִים הַפְטָרַת "אַחֲרֵי מוֹת",פ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תכ"ח:פא,47

14 It is customary to recall the souls of the departed48 and to bless those occupied with the needs of the community49 after the Torah reading. Every place should follow its local custom. It is customary to recite Yekum purkan [at this time].50 All these [prayers] do not contravene the prohibition against supplicating on Shabbos,51because these prayers are not supplications; they are blessings.

It is also customary to recite the passage Av harachamim52 [prior to the recitation of Ashrei]. This prayer is not recited, nor are the souls of the departed recalled on any day that [the three verses beginning] Tzidkascha tzedek are not recited.53 This law also applies when there is a bridegroom54 or [the principals involved in] a circumcision55 [in the synagogue]. There are places where [this passage] is not recited on the Shabbos on which the new moon is blessed. [On such a Shabbos,] only the souls of those who were buried that week are recalled.

During the days of Sefiras HaOmer, when the new months of Iyar and Sivan are blessed,56 the passage Av harachamim is recited because of the tragedies that occurred during these days.57 Even when a circumcision is held on these days, this passage is recited. If, however, Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos at this time, the passage is not recited. In all similar instances, local custom should be followed.

יד נָהֲגוּ לְהַזְכִּיר אַחַר קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה נִשְׁמַת הַמֵּתִים48 וּלְבָרֵךְ הָעוֹסְקִים בְּצָרְכֵי צִבּוּר,פב,49 וְכָל מָקוֹם לְפִי מִנְהָגוֹ.פג וְנוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר "יְקוּם פּוּרְקָן".פד,50 וְאֵין בְּכָל זֶה מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר תְּחִנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,פה,51 שֶׁאֵין זוֹ תְּחִנָּה אֶלָּא בְּרָכָה.פו

גַּם נוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר "אַב הָרַחֲמִים".פז,52 וּבְכָל יוֹם שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "צִדְקָתְךָ-וְצִדְקָתְךָ-צִדְקָתְךָ"פח – אֵין אוֹמְרִים אוֹתוֹ,פט,53 וְאֵין מַזְכִּירִים נְשָׁמוֹת.צ וְכֵן כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲתֻנָּה54 אוֹ מִילָה.צא,55

וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים אוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁמְּבָרְכִין הַחֹדֶשׁ,צב וְאֵין מַזְכִּירִין נְשָׁמוֹת אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁנִּקְבַּר בְּאוֹתוֹ שָׁבוּעַ.צג

וּבִימֵי הַסְּפִירָה, כְּשֶׁמְּבָרְכִין רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר וְסִיוָן56 – אוֹמְרִים "אַב הָרַחֲמִים",צד מִפְּנֵי הַגְּזֵרוֹת שֶׁאֵרְעוּ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם.צה,57 וְאַף אִם אֵרַע מִילָה בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת הָהֵם – אוֹמְרִים אוֹתוֹ.צו אֲבָל אִם חָל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת הָהֵם – אֵין אוֹמְרִים אוֹתוֹ.צז וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה הוֹלְכִים אַחַר הַמִּנְהָג:צח