SECTION 277 [Safeguards] to Prevent the [Shabbos] Lights from Being Extinguished (1-8)

סימן רעז שֶׁלֹּא לִגְרוֹם כִּבּוּי הַנֵּר וּבוֹ ח׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 When a burning lamp is placed near the door, (directly opposite the door when it opens,) where the light might be extinguished when the door is opened and a wind were to blow from outside, it is forbidden to open the door1 opposite [the light], lest the wind extinguish it.2 True, the person does not intend to extinguish the light – and [performing a deed that] unintentionally [leads to a prohibition being committed] is permitted.3 Nevertheless, since, were the wind to blow, it would be impossible for [the light] not to be extinguished, [the lamp’s being extinguished is considered as an inevitable consequence of the person’s actions; to borrow a Talmudicexpression:]4 “If you cut off its head, will it not die?” [And when one’s deeds will inevitably bring about a forbidden result, even unintentionally, one is held liable.] Therefore, even when the wind is not blowing outside, it is forbidden to open [the door],5 for perhaps [the wind] will begin blowing as soon as one begins to open [the door].

Even if the light is positioned at the door’s side – e.g., the door opens to the inside [of the house] and the burning light is positioned inside the house, behind [this door], it is forbidden to open [the door] if the light is close to the door and is (positioned opposite the crack of open space [left] between the doorpost and the door where the hinges are affixed that is brought about by opening the door.)6

If, however, the door is already open, it is permitted to close it so that the light will not be extinguished. This is not considered as causing [the light] to burn.7 Similarly, it is permitted to close a window that is opposite the table [upon which a light is burning], while it is forbidden to open it if the light is somewhat close to it.

א נֵר דּוֹלֵקא שֶׁהוּא מֻנָּח קָרוֹב אֶל הַדֶּלֶתב (נֶגֶד פְּתִיחַת הַדֶּלֶת מַמָּשׁג), בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁיִּפְתְּחוּ הַדֶּלֶת יוּכַל לִכְבּוֹת אִם יְנַשֵּׁב הָרוּחַ מִבַּחוּץד – אָסוּר לִפְתּוֹחַ הַדֶּלֶת1 כְּנֶגְדּוֹ,ה (א) שֶׁמָּא יְכַבֶּנּוּ הָרוּחַ.ו,2 וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכִבּוּי, וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן מֻתָּר,3 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִם יְנַשֵּׁב הָרוּחַ אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יְכַבֶּה,ז וּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת הוּא",ח,4 לְפִיכָךְ אַף בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין רוּחַ מְנַשֵּׁב בַּחוּץ אָסוּר לְפָתְחָהּ,ט,5 שֶׁמָּא יַתְחִיל לְנַשֵּׁב מִיָּד שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לִפְתּוֹחַ.י

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנֵּר הוּא מֻנָּח אֲחוֹרֵי הַדֶּלֶת,יא כְּגוֹן דֶּלֶת שֶׁנִּפְתַּחַת לִפְנִים וּמֵאַחֲרֶיהָ מֻנָּח בַּבַּיִת נֵר דָּלוּק – אָסוּר לְפָתְחָהּ אִם הַנֵּר הוּא קָרוֹב לַדֶּלֶתיב וְהוּא (מְכֻוָּן נֶגֶד פְּתִיחַת הַדֶּלֶת מַמָּשׁ,יג דְּהַיְנוּ (ב) נֶגֶד הֶחָלָל שֶׁבֵּין הַדֶּלֶת לַמְּזוּזָה שֶׁהַצִּירִים קְבוּעִים בָּהּ מִבִּפְנִים, שֶׁחָלָל זֶה נַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי פְּתִיחַת הַדֶּלֶתיד).6

אֲבָל אִם הַדֶּלֶת פְּתוּחָה כְּבָר – מֻתָּר לְנָעֳלָהּטו בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִכְבֶּה הַנֵּר, וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם גְּרַם הַבְעָרָה.טז,7 וְכֵן הַחַלּוֹן שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד נֵר שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן – מֻתָּר לְנָעֳלוֹ,יז וְאָסוּר לְפָתְחוֹ,יח אִם הַנֵּר קָרוֹב אֵלָיו קְצָת:

2 If a lamp is permanently affixed to the wall at the side of the doorway,8 it is forbidden to open the door in the [same] manner that one ordinarily does during the week, lest the door strike the lamp that is behind it. It is impossible for the door not to extinguish the lamp when it strikes it; this is an inevitable result. Instead, one should take care to open the door gently so that it will not touch the light that is behind it. Closing the door, however, is permitted in any fashion.

[A different ruling applies, however,] if when one closes the door firmly in his ordinary manner, the door will strike the doorpost so powerfully that the entire wall will shake, jolting the lamp affixed to it as well. [As a result,] the oil in the lamp will be drawn slightly closer to the wick (and he will be liable for causing a flame), or it will be slightly drawn away from it and thus ([his action will result in] extinguishing [the light]).9 [Hence, one must not open or close the door with great force. Instead,] he must be careful to both open and close the door gently (so that it will not be inevitable [that his actions will affect the light]) even if the light is distant from the door.

ב וְאִם הַנֵּר קָבוּעַ בַּכֹּתֶל אֲחוֹרֵי הַדֶּלֶת8 – אָסוּר לִפְתּוֹחַ הַדֶּלֶת כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל, שֶׁמָּא תְּהֵא הַדֶּלֶת נוֹקֶשֶׁת בַּנֵּר שֶׁאֲחוֹרֶיהָיט וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא תְכַבֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁתִּנָּקֵשׁ בּוֹ, וּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ הוּא",כ אֶלָּא יִזָּהֵר לִפְתּוֹחַ בְּנַחַתכא שֶׁלֹּא תִגַּע הַדֶּלֶת בַּנֵּר שֶׁאֲחוֹרֶיהָ, אֲבָל לְנָעֳלָהּ מֻתָּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן.כב

וְאִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁיִּנְעוֹל בְּחֹזֶק כְּדַרְכּוֹ תִּנָּקֵשׁ הַדֶּלֶת עַל הַמְּזוּזָה בְּחֹזֶק כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁתְּנַדְנֵד כָּל הַכֹּתֶל וּתְנַדְנֵד נֵר הַקָּבוּעַ בּוֹ,כג וְיִתְקָרֵב קְצָת הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּנֵּר אֵצֶל הַפְּתִילָה, וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מַבְעִיר, אוֹ יִתְרַחֵק קְצָת מִמֶּנָּה, וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה.כד,9

צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בֵּין בִּפְתִיחָה בֵּין בִּנְעִילָה שֶׁתְּהֵא בְּנַחַת (בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ"), אַף אִם הַנֵּר רָחוֹק מֵהַדֶּלֶת:

Fig. 15: Candles Opposite a Door
Fig. 15: Candles Opposite a Door

Fig. 16: A Lamp at the Side of a Door
Fig. 16: A Lamp at the Side of a Door

3 [More stringent rules apply] if the lamp is affixed to the door itself. If it is an oil lamp, it is forbidden for one to open and close the door in the same manner he ordinarily does during the week. For by opening and closing the door in his ordinary manner, it is impossible that the oil will not be drawn closer to the wick (and he will be liable for causing a flame to burn), or that it will be drawn away from it (and thus [his action] will extinguish [the light]). Instead, he must open and close the door gently, so that it will not be inevitable [that the oil’s position will shift]. There is no prohibition in moving the door because an object that is muktzeh – the lamp –] is affixed to it,10 because the door does not become a base for the lamp since it is considered as auxiliary to the house and is identified as part of it. It is not considered secondary to the lamp.11

If the lamp uses a beeswax candle or the like,12 one may open and close [the door] in his ordinary manner, unless (there is reason for concern) that it will be completely extinguished if one will not be careful to open and close it gently. If, however, it will fall to the ground as a result [of opening and closing the door in his ordinary manner], it is of no consequence, as will be explained.13

Similarly, [care must be taken] when the lamp is at the side of a doorway14 and there is no reason for concern about a wind [blowing in] from the outside (e.g., a door that opens from room to room), but it could be extinguished because of the breeze created by opening the door itself,15 should it be opened in the manner one ordinarily does during the week. One must open it gently (so that it will not be inevitable [that it will be extinguished]).

ג וְאִם הַנֵּר קָבוּעַ בַּדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ, אִם הוּא שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן – אָסוּר לִפְתּוֹחַ אוֹ לִנְעוֹל הַדֶּלֶתכה כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל,כו שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַפְּתִיחָה וּנְעִילָה כְּדַרְכּוֹ – אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקָרֵב קְצָת הַשֶּׁמֶן אֶל הַפְּתִילָה (וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מַבְעִיר), אוֹ יִתְרַחֵק קְצָת מִמֶּנּוּ (וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה),כז אֶלָּא פּוֹתֵחַ וְנוֹעֵל בְּנַחַתכח בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ".כט

(ג) וְאֵין אִסּוּר בְּטִלְטוּל הַדֶּלֶת מִשּׁוּם הַנֵּר הַמֻּקְצֶה הַקָּבוּעַ בָּהּ,10 לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּלֶת לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לַנֵּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה, שֶׁמְּשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לַבַּיִת, וּבְטֵלָה אֶצְלוֹ וְלֹא לְהַנֵּר.ל,11

וְאִם הוּא נֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָהלא וְכַיוֹצֵא בוֹ12 – מֻתָּר לִפְתּוֹחַ וְלִנְעוֹל כְּדַרְכּוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בְּעִנְיָן (שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ) שֶׁיִכְבֶּה לְגַמְרֵילב אִם לֹא יִזָּהֵר לִפְתּוֹחַ וְלִנְעוֹל בְּנַחַת. אֲבָל אִם יִפּוֹל עַל יְדֵי כָךְ לָאָרֶץ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.לג,13

וְכֵן אִם הַנֵּר הוּא אֲחוֹרֵי הַדֶּלֶת,14 וְהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְהָרוּחַ שֶׁמִּבַּחוּץ (כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַדֶּלֶת נִפְתָּח מֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר), אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּכְבֶּה מֵחֲמַת הַדֶּלֶת עַצְמָהּ שֶׁמְּנַשֶּׁבֶת עָלָיולד,15 אִם פְּתָחָהּ כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֹל – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְפָתְחָהּ בְּנַחַתלה (בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ"לו):

4 It is forbidden to open a door opposite a fire that is somewhat close to the door if a wind is blowing outside,16 because the wind will fan the flames of the fire.17 [This applies] even if merely an ordinary wind is blowing which would certainly not fan the fire. [This safeguard was instituted as] a decree lest there be an unusually strong wind that would certainly – and inevitably – fan [the fire]. If, by contrast, [a door] opposite the fire was open, it is permitted to close it; it is not considered as extinguishing [a fire].

ד אָסוּר לִפְתּוֹחַ הַדֶּלֶת כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָהלז הַקְּרוֹבָה קְצָת אֶל הַדֶּלֶתלח אִם הָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת מִבַּחוּץ,16 שֶׁהָרוּחַ מְבַעֶרֶת הַמְּדוּרָהלט יוֹתֵר,17 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא רוּחַ מְצוּיָהמ שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְבַעֶרֶת בְּוַדַּאי אֶת הַמְּדוּרָה,מא גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם רוּחַ שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְצוּיָהמב,16 שֶׁהִיא מְבַעֶרֶת בְּוַדַּאי, וּ"פְסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" הוּא.מג

אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה פְּתוּחָה כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה – מֻתָּר לְסָגְרָהּ, וְאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה:מד

5 [The following laws apply if] one left18 a [burning] lamp on a tray while it was still day [on Friday] and forgot to remove it before nightfall, and it is necessary for him to carry and use the tray on Shabbos:He should shake the tray, which as a result [will cause] the lamp to fall to the ground, provided he does not intend to extinguish the lamp by shaking it [from the tray]. He may then carry the tray wherever he wants. If the lamp is extinguished as a matter of course, it is not significant, because he did not [extinguish it] intentionally and it was not inevitable that this [fall] would cause it to be extinguished.19

When does the above apply? When the oil in the lamp has already been consumed and all that is left is the burning wick or [the lamp] used a beeswax candle or the like. When, by contrast, a lamp [still] contains oil, it is forbidden to shake the tray, even to cause the lamp to fall from it, for it is impossible that the oil in the lamp will not be drawn closer to the wick and he will be liable for igniting a flame, or that it will flow away from it and thus [his activity] involves extinguishing [the light].20 Needless to say, [this applies] if some [of the oil] will be spilled.

Nevertheless, it is permitted to tell a non-Jew to shake off [the lamp] from the tray, because any [unintentional,] but inevitable [forbidden activity] is permitted to be performed by a non-Jew [even when instructed to do so by a Jew], as explained in sec. 253[:10, 28]. Therefore, even when the lamp employs a beeswax candle or the like, it is preferable that a Jew not [shake it from the tray] himself, but rather do so via a non-Jew if one can easily be found, or [refrain from using] the tray if he is not in that great need of it.

If he requires the place where the tray is located, he may carry it wherever he desires with the lamp on it,21 even if contains oil, as will be explained in sec. 309[:6].22

ה הִנִּיחַ18 נֵר עַל גַּבֵּי טַבְלָאמה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְשָׁכַח לְסַלְּקוֹ מִמֶּנָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה,מו וְנִצְרְכָה לוֹ הַטַּבְלָאמז לְטַלְטְלָהּ וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת – מְנַעֵר אֶת הַטַּבְלָא וְהַנֵּר נוֹפֵל מֵעָלֶיהָמח עַל הָאָרֶץ, וּמְטַלְטְלָהּ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לְכַבּוֹת הַנֵּר בְּנִעוּר זֶה,מט וְאַף אִם נִכְבָּה מֵאֵלָיו עַל יְדֵי נְפִילָתוֹ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,נ שֶׁדָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא,נא וְאֵין כַּאן "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ", שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִכְבֶּה עַל יְדֵי כָךְ.19

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁכְּבָר כָּלָה הַשֶּׁמֶן מֵהַנֵּרנב וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר בּוֹ רַק פְּתִילָה דּוֹלֶקֶת, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא נֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ,נג אֲבָל נֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמֶן – אָסוּר לְנַעֵר הַטַּבְלָא לְהַפִּילוֹ מֵעָלֶיהָ, לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקָרֵב הַשֶּׁמֶן קְצָת אֶל הַפְּתִילָה וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מַבְעִיר,נד אוֹ יִתְרַחֵק קְצָת מִמֶּנּוּ וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה,נה,20 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם יִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנּוּ קְצָת.נו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְנַעֲרָהּ, שֶׁכָּל "פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ" מֻתָּר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,נז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג.נח וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף בְּנֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה וְכַיוֹצֵא בוֹ – טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִינט אִם אֶפְשָׁר בְּקַל לִמְצוֹא נָכְרִי,ס אוֹ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַטַּבְלָא כָּל כָּךְ.סא

וְאִם צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַטַּבְלָא – יָכוֹל לְטַלְטְלָהּ עִם הַנֵּר שֶׁעָלֶיהָסב,21 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁל שֶׁמֶןסג לְאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה,סד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ט:סה,22

6 All the above applies when the person forgot to remove the lamp from the tray before the onset of Shabbos and, as such, the tray does not become a base for an object that is muktzeh, since it is not serving the lamp due to the intent of the homeowner, but as a result of his forgetfulness.23 If, by contrast, he intentionally placed the lamp on the tray so that it would remain on it at the onset of Shabbos, [the tray] becomes a base for the lamp and ancillary to it.24 [Hence,] the tray is forbidden to be moved just like the lamp [that is on it]. Therefore, [in such a situation,] it is forbidden to shake the lamp [from the tray], even if it employs a beeswax candle or the like. [This applies] even if he [does not] need [the tray itself, but merely] its space. It is, however, permitted to touch the tray, just as it is permitted to touch all articles that are muktzeh, as will be stated in sec. 308[:14.25 Moreover,] it is permitted to have it26 moved – and/or [the lamp] shaken off 27 – by a non-Jew, as stated in sec. 276[:9].28

There are authorities who maintain that [the object on which a Shabbos lamp rests] is not considered as a base [for a forbidden object] unless the person’s intent was for the lamp to remain on that object for the entire Shabbos. If, by contrast, his intent was to have a non-Jew remove it after the onset of the Shabbos, [or] to shake it off [himself], or to remove it in some other non-ordinary manner, [then,] if the lamp employs a beeswax candle or the like, it is permitted to shake it off.29 One may rely on their words and act leniently30 when there is a loss involved, e.g., a beeswax candle or the like that was on the table toppled onto the table,31 causing concern that the table itself would burn. One may shake the table and have the candle fall off it, if while it was still day [on Friday], one had the intent to remove it from the table on Shabbos via a non-Jew or by carrying it in a non-ordinary manner.

If the candle fell on the tablecloth, even though the candle was standing on it from the beginning of the Shabbos, all authorities agree that the tablecloth does not become a base for the lamp, for the reason to be explained in sec. 309[:9].32 Hence, one may shake the candle – or any other article that was muktzeh that fell on the tablecloth on Shabbos – from the cloth, even if no loss will be suffered if one does not shake it off.

[Moreover,] even if a candle – or any other article that was muktzeh – fell on a table that had become a base for it [because] it had been standing on it at the onset of the Shabbos, i.e., bein hashmashos, if bread (that was necessary for Shabbos) had also been lying on the table at that time, [the table] is considered as a base for both forbidden and permitted articles at the onset of the Shabbos. Therefore, even if the bread was already removed from [the table], it did not become a base for the candle alone since [that distinction of being a base is made] at the onset of the Shabbos and [it is presently] already after the commencement of Shabbos. Accordingly, one may shake the table to cause the candle or another article that was muktzeh to fall off, so that afterwards, one may move the table as he desires. Similar laws apply if other objects that were not muktzeh were lying on the table bein hashmashos, provided (the bread)33 or the other objects [lying on the table]34 were more important [to the person] than the flame to which the candle became a base,35 as will be stated in sec. 279[:1, 4].36

[Different rules apply if, in the latter situation, the person] requires the table itself37 and must move it to another place. If it is feasible for him to shake off the lamp (e.g., he has no further use for this lamp), he should shake it off by tilting the table and causing the lamp to fall. Afterwards, he may carry the table wherever he desires. If it is not feasible for him to shake off the lamp (e.g., he needs the lamp in the other place [to which he is moving the table], or shaking the lamp off could cause a loss, for it might break), he is permitted to carry [the table] while the lamp is on it, since it did not become a base for [the lamp] alone during bein hashmashos.

[Moreover,] even if he no longer needs the candle, but he needs the place where the table [is standing]38 and he will not be able to carry out [the activity] he desires in that place if he shakes the candle off there, he is permitted to carry the table with the candle on it to another place. [The leniency is granted] since the table did not become the base for a forbidden article alone during bein hashmashos, as will be explained [at length] in sec. 309[:4] and sec. 310[:17]. Consult those sources for all the detailed laws and their motivating rationales.

ו וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁשָּׁכַח לְסַלֵּק הַנֵּר מֵהַטַּבְלָא קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁלָּכֵן לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית הַטַּבְלָא בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הַמֻּקְצֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אָז לַנֵר מִדַּעַת בַּעַל הַבַּיִת,סו אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת שִׁכְחָתוֹ.23

אֲבָל אִם מִדַּעְתּוֹ הִנִּיחַ הַנֵּר עַל הַטַּבְלָאסז שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עָלֶיהָ בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּתסח – הֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לְהַנֵּר,סט וּטְפֵלָה אֵלָיו,ע,24 וַאֲסוּרָה בְּטִלְטוּל כָּמוֹהוּ,עא לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְנַעֲרָהּ,עב אַף אִם הַנֵּר הוּא שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה וְכַיוֹצֵא בוֹ, וְאַף אִם צָרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַטַּבְלָא.עג אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִגַּע בַּטַּבְלָא,עד כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִגַּע בְּכָל מֻקְצֶה,עה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח.עו,25 וְעַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָהּעז,26 וּלְנַעֲרָהּ,עח,27 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ו.עט,28

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפ שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת בָּסִיס אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה דַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַנֵּר עָלֶיהָ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְסַלְּקוֹ אַחַר כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,פא אוֹ עַל יְדֵי נִעוּר, אוֹ שְׁאָר טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְנַעֲרָהּ אִם הַנֵּר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ.פב,29

וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל30 בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד,פג כְּגוֹן נֵר שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁנָּפַל עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן31 וְחוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂרֵף הַשֻּׁלְחָן – יְנַעֵר הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַנֵּר נוֹפֵל מֵעָלָיו אִם הוּא שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, אִם הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְסַלְּקוֹ מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּשַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִיפד אוֹ עַל יְדֵי טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד.

וְאִם נָפַל הַנֵּר עַל הַמַּפָּה שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנֵּר הָיָה עוֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת – לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית הַמַּפָּה בָּסִיס לוֹ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,פה מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ט,פו,32 וְיָכוֹל לְנַעֲרָהּ שֶׁיִּפּוֹל הַנֵּר מֵעָלֶיהָ, אוֹ שְׁאָר מֻקְצֶה שֶׁנָּפַל עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד אִם לֹא יְנַעֵר.

וְאַף אִם נָפַל הַנֵּר אוֹ שְׁאָר מֻקְצֶה שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְהַנֵּר, שֶׁהָיָה מֻנָּח עָלָיו בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הָיָה מֻנָּח עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, גַּם לֶחֶםפז (שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּתפח) – הֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּרפט בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאַף לְאַחַר שֶׁסִלְּקוּ הַלֶּחֶם מִמֶּנּוּ – לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְהַנֵּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא כְּבָר אַחַר כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת.צ וּלְפִיכָךְ יָכוֹל לְנַעֲרוֹ לְהַפִּיל מֵעָלָיו הַנֵּר וּשְׁאָר מֻקְצֶה לְטַלְטְלוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה.צא

וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ מֻנָּחִים עָלָיו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שְׁאָר דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם מֻקְצִים,צב וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ (הַלֶּחֶם33 אוֹ) שְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים34 חֲשׁוּבִים יוֹתֵרצג מִן דְּלֵקַת הַנֵּר, דְּהַיְנוּ מִן הַשַּׁלְהֶבֶתצד שֶׁהַנֵּר נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס אֵלֶיהָ,צה,35 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ט.צו,36

וְאִם צָרִיךְ לְגוּף הַשֻּׁלְחָן37 לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר מִמֶּנּוּ הַנֵּר (כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ עוֹד לְנֵר זֶה) – יְנַעֲרֶנּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מִתְּחִלָּה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיַּטֶּה הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְיִפּוֹל הַנֵּר מֵעָלָיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה.צז וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר (כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ עוֹד לְנֵר זֶה בַּמָּקוֹם הָאַחֵר,צח אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ הֶפְסֵדצט בְּנִעוּר זֶה שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁבֵר הַנֵּרק) – רַשַּׁאי לְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ בְּעוֹד הַנֵּר עָלָיו, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לוֹ בִּלְבַדּוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ עוֹד לַנֵּר, אֶלָּא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִמְקוֹם הַשֻּׁלְחָן,קא,38 וְאִם יְנַעֵר שָׁם הַנֵּר לֹא יוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת חֶפְצוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל הַשֻּׁלְחָן עִם הַנֵּר שֶׁעָלָיו לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בָּסִיס לְאִסּוּר בִּלְבַדּוֹ, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר כָּל זֶה בְּסִמָּן ש"טקב וְש"י,קג עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּינִים אֵלּוּ וְטַעֲמֵיהֶם:

7 [On Friday,] while it is still day, one may place a Shabbos lamp on a tree with the intent that it burn there during Shabbos.39 One may not, by contrast, place a burning lamp on a tree for [use on] a festival even while it is still day [before the onset of the festival]. This is a decree lest one ascend the tree on the festival to take the lamp from there, thus making use of [a tree] on a festival while it is rooted in the ground. This is forbidden for the reason to be explained in sec. 336[:1].40 On Shabbos, however, there is no concern that he will ascend to take the lamp after it burns out, for [the lamp] is forbidden to be carried even after it burns out,41 as will be explained in sec. 279[:1].

ז מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ נֵר שֶׁל שַׁבָּתקד מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםקה עַל גַּבֵּי אִילָן וְיִדְלוֹק שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת.39 אֲבָל אֵין מַנִּיחִין נֵר שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב דּוֹלֵק עַל הָאִילָןקו אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קז,39 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה בָּאִילָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב לִטּוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ הַנֵּר,קח וְנִמְצָא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַעקט בְּיוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ו.קי,40 אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה עָלָיו לִטּוֹל הַנֵּר לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּכְבֶּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּכְבֶּה,קיא,41 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ט:קיב

8 It is permitted to place an overturned earthenware42 bowl above a lamp so that the flame will not catch on a [wooden] beam [located above the lamp]. Although he is carrying the bowl to save the beam – which [itself] is forbidden to be carried on Shabbos –there is no prohibition at all in doing so. How much more so is it permitted to place [the bowl] over the lamp to permit intimacy.43 Nevertheless, [in the above instances,] one must leave some space below the bowl; otherwise, the lamp will be extinguished.

ח מֻתָּר לִכְפּוֹת קְעָרָהקיג שֶׁל חֶרֶסקיד,42 עַל גַּבֵּי הַנֵּר בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יֶאֱחוֹז הָאוּר בַּקּוֹרָה,קטו שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁהוּא מְטַלְטֵל הַקְּעָרָה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל הַצָּלַת הַקּוֹרָה הָאֲסוּרָה בְּטִלְטוּל בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין בְּזֶה שׁוּם אִסּוּר כְּלָל.קטז וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִכְפּוֹתָהּ עַל הַנֵּר כְּדֵי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ.קיז,43 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ מְעַט אֲוִיר תַּחְתֶּיהָ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן יִכְבֶּה הַנֵּר:קיח