SECTION 276 The Laws Pertaining to a Light Kindled by a Non-Jew on Shabbos (1-17)

סימן רעו דִּינֵי נֵר שֶׁהִדְלִיק הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"ז סְעִיפִים׃

1 When a non-Jew kindles1 a light2 for a Jew3 [on Shabbos], it is forbidden for any person, even one for whom it was not kindled, to use its light on Shabbos.4The Sages ruled stringently regarding [this matter], because an actual Scripturally [forbidden] labor5 was performed for the sake of a Jew on Shabbos. Similarly, if [a non-Jew] kindled a fire [using] wood [as fuel]6 for the sake of a Jew, it is forbidden for any Jewish person to warm himself by it on Shabbos. Even if the non-Jew had his own benefit in mind – e.g., the Jew hired him and established a fixed fee, this-and-this amount for every day that he would kindle lamps and fires on his behalf,7 or he established a fee for every lamp or fire that [the non-Jew] would kindle8 and he did not tell him to kindle them on Shabbos, but,instead, the non-Jew acted on his own initiative to increase his fee – it is, nevertheless, forbidden for the Jew to benefit from [the non-Jew’s] work on Shabbos. [The rationale:] Since the Jew’s physical person9 will benefit as a direct result of the work [performed], it is considered as if the forbidden labor was performed on Shabbos primarilyon his behalf. [The logic is that] the non-Jew does not benefit as a direct result of the work, only from the payment he receives for it, and his intent in performing the forbidden labor is for the Jew to benefit from it on Shabbos. Thus, the work is [primarily] being performed so that [the Jew] will benefit from it on Shabbos. [The Sages therefore felt it necessary] to issue a [Rabbinic] prohibition [forbidding benefit from such labor.[They feared that] were [the Jew] to be permitted to benefit from [the forbidden labor], he might tell [the non-Jew] to perform [such Scripturally forbidden] tasks on his behalf on Shabbos primarily for his benefit.10

א נָכְרִי שֶׁהִדְלִיק1 אֶת הַנֵּר2 בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל3 – אָסוּרא לְכָל אָדָם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא הֻדְלַק בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,4 שֶׁהֶחֱמִירוּ בְּזֶה חֲכָמִים, הוֹאִיל וְנַעֲשֵׂית מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה5 בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת.ב וְכֵן אִם הִבְעִיר מְדוּרַת עֵצִים6 בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת.ג

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנָּכְרִי נִתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְקָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָרד כָּךְ וְכָךְ בְּעַד כָּל יוֹם וְיוֹם שֶׁיַּדְלִיק לוֹ נֵרוֹת וְיַבְעִיר לוֹ מְדוּרָה,ה,7 אוֹ שֶׁקָּצַץ לוֹ בְּעַד כָּל (א) הַדְלָקָה וְהַדְלָקָה וְהַבְעָרָה וְהַבְעָרָה,ו,8 וְלֹא צִוָּהוּ לְהַדְלִיק וּלְהַבְעִיר בְּשַׁבָּת,ז אֶלָּא הוּא עוֹשֶׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּשְׂכָרוֹ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהוֹאִיל וְגוּף הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל9 יְהֵא נֶהֱנֶה בְּשַׁבָּת מִגּוּף הַמְּלָאכָה – הֲרֵי עִקַּר הַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,ח שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה מִגּוּף הַמְּלָאכָה אֶלָּא מִשְּׂכָרָהּ,ט וְהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּעֲשִׂיַּת גּוּף הַמְּלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,י נִמְצָא שֶׁעֲשִׂיַּת מְלֶאכֶת הַשַּׁבָּת הִיא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ כְּשֶׁיֵּהָנֶה מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, וְיֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל הֲנָאָתוֹיא אִם יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה כְּשֶׁעִקַּר עֲשִׂיָּתָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל הֲנָאָתוֹ:10

2 Nevertheless, even though the Jew derives satisfaction from the light of the lamp that the non-Jew kindled [on Shabbos] on his own initiative for the sake of the Jew, [our Sages] did not trouble him to leave his home,11 only not to use the light of the lamp at all.12 The same applies to a fire [kindled by a non-Jew].13

The same laws apply when [a Jew] spends the Shabbos in an inn [located] in the home of a non-Jew. He is not required to leave [the inn] if the non-Jew kindles a lamp for him. Since he is spending the Shabbos there, it is considered like his home and it is troublesome for him to leave it. If he wishes to act in a pious manner,14 he should turn his face away from the light of the lamp to show that he does not desire it[s light].

ב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא הִטְרִיחוּ עַל הַיִּשְׂרַאֵל לָצֵאת מִבֵּיתוֹ כְּשֶׁמַּדְלִיק בּוֹ הַנָּכְרִי נֵר בִּשְׁבִילוֹ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹיב,11 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ הֲנָאָה מֵאוֹר הַנֵּר,יג רַק שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ כְּלוּם לְאוֹרוֹ,יד,12 וְכֵן בַּמְּדוּרָה.טו,13

וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם הוּא שׁוֹבֵת בְּמָלוֹן בְּבֵית הַנָּכְרִי – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לָצֵאת מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁמַּדְלִיק הַנָּכְרִי נֵר בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹבֵת בּוֹ – נַעֲשָׂה כְּבֵיתוֹ וְטֹרַח לוֹ לָצֵאת מִמֶּנּוּ.טז וְאִם רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת מִדַּת חֲסִידוּת14 – יַהֲפוֹךְ פָּנָיו מֵאוֹר הַנֵּריז לְהַרְאוֹת שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָפֵץ בּוֹ:יח

3 Nonetheless, if the light belongs to the Jew, as an initial preference, he must admonish [the non-Jew and tell him] not to kindle it for him for the reason15 stated in sec. 252[:10, 11].16 The same applies with regard to a fire when the wood belongs to the Jew. (If [the non-Jew] did not heed [the Jew] and, [despite his admonishments,] kindled [a lamp belonging to the Jew, the Jew] may benefit from it and make use of its light,17 provided he was not insincere when admonishing [the non-Jew].)

If the non-Jew was working as a servant in [the Jew’s] house, [and the Jew] admonished him [for kindling a light], but the non-Jew did not heed him, (even though it is permitted for the Jew to perform tasks by the light of the lamp over which he admonished him, nevertheless,) he is obligated to dismiss this non-Jew from [his position in] his home, for he does not heed his [instructions] and kindles lights or fires for him on Shabbos.18 True, [the non-Jew] is seeking his own benefit, to increase his wage, [for] a fixed fee was established for every time he kindles a light or a fire. Thus, [in these circumstances] he is [considered not as a day-worker, but] a contractor, and there is no necessity to admonish him even if he is performing work with articles belonging to the Jew, as stated in [sec. 252:8]. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to allow him to perform [these activities] in [the Jew’s] home, because of the impression that might be created, as stated in [sec. 252:5].19

ג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הַנֵּר הוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל – צָרִיךְ הוּא לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא יַדְלִיקֶנּוּ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,יט מִטַּעַם15 שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב,כ,16 וְכֵן בִּמְדוּרָה מֵעֵצִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל.

(וְאִם לֹא הִשְׁגִּיחַ בּוֹ וְהִדְלִיקוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ,כא,17 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲרִים בִּמְחָאָתוֹכב).

וְאִם מִחָה בַּנָּכְרִי הַמְשָׁרְתו בְּבֵיתוֹ וְלֹא הִשְׁגִּיחַ בּוֹ (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹר הַנֵּר שֶׁמִּחָה בּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם) חַיָּב הוּא לְגָרֵשׁ מִבֵּיתוֹ אֶת הַנָּכְרִי הַזֶּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ לוֹ וּמַדְלִיק אוֹ מַבְעִיר בִּשְׁבִילוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.כג,18

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּשְׂכָרוֹ שֶׁקָּצַץ לוֹ בְּעַד כָּל הַדְלָקָה וְהַבְעָרָה,כד וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּקַבְּלָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ אַף שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַמְּלָאכָה בַּחֲפָצִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,כה מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר לוֹ לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּבֵיתוֹ, מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:כו,19

4 If, however, the lamp or the wood belongs to the non-Jew, there is no need to admonish him when he acts on his own initiative,20 even though he did not establish a fixed fee for him, because of the reason explained in [sec. 252:9-10].21 When the [forbidden] labor is performed with articles belonging to the non-Jew, we are not concerned with the impression that might be created even if [he performs this activity] in the Jew’s home, for the reason to be explained in sec. 325[:3].22

ד אֲבָל אִם הַנֵּר אוֹ הָעֵצִים שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בּוֹכז כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹכח,20 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.כט,21

וַאֲפִלּוּ (ב) בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵלל אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן כְּשֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בַּחֲפָצִים שֶׁל נָכְרִי, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה:לא,22

5 Nevertheless, it is permitted to admonish him.23 Similarly, it is permitted to admonish a non-Jew who comes to add oil to a lamp that is burning. This is not considered as extinguishing the lamp, i.e., [we do not say that] his admonishment caused the lamp to burn out earlier.24 When he admonishes the non-Jew who kindles a lamp or a fire with his own resources, whether in the house of the Jew or the house of the non-Jew, if the non-Jew did not heed him, he is permitted to make use of the light [the non-Jew] kindled, provided he is not insincere when admonishing [the non-Jew].)

ה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לוֹ לִמְחוֹת בּוֹ.23 וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִמְחוֹת בְּנָכְרִי שֶׁבָּא לְהוֹסִיף שֶׁמֶן שֶׁלּוֹ בְּנֵר הַדּוֹלֵק,לב וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם כִּבּוּי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי מְחָאָתוֹ גּוֹרֵם מְהִירוּת הַכִּבּוּי.לג,25 וּכְשֶׁמִּחָה בְּנָכְרִי הַמַּדְלִיק מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, בֵּין בְּבֵיתוֹ בֵּין בְּבֵית הַנָּכְרִי וְלֹא הִשְׁגִּיחַ בּוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ,לד וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲרִים בִּמְחָאָתוֹ:לה

6 All the above applies when the non-Jew kindled [the lamp or the fire] for the sake of a Jew. If, however, a non-Jew kindled [a lamp or a fire] for his own sake or for the sake of another non-Jew, it is permitted for any Jew to make use of the light,25 even if the lamp belongs to a Jew.26 For [our Sages did not issue a decree forbidding this out of concern that [a Jew] will tell a non-Jew to kindle [a lamp or a fire] for his own sake or for the sake of another non-Jew.27

Similarly, if a non-Jew kindled a light for the sake of a person who is ill, but not dangerously so, or for the sake of children28 – who are considered as a person who is ill, but not dangerously ill with regard to all matters29 – it is permitted for healthy people to use its light.30 In this instance, [our Sages did] not institute a decree out of concern that one would tell a non-Jew to kindle [a light] for the sake of a person who is ill, because it is permitted to do so, even as an initial preference.31

ו וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהִדְלִיק בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל אִם הִדְלִיק בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹלו אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל נָכְרִי אַחֵרלז – מֻתָּר לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ25 אֲפִלּוּ הַנֵּר שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,לח,26 שֶׁאֵין גּוֹזְרִים שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיַּדְלִיק בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ אוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל נָכְרִי אַחֵר.לט,27

וְכֵן אִם הִדְלִיק לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה,מ אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ קְטַנִּים,28 שֶׁדִּינָם כְּחוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָהמא לְכָל דָּבָרמב,29 – מֻתָּר לַבְּרִיאִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ,30 שֶׁאֵין כַּאן גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לַנָּכְרִי לְהַדְלִיק בִּשְׁבִיל הַחוֹלֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי דָּבָר מֻתָּר הוּא אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה:מג,31

7 [The following laws apply if] there are Jews and non-Jews who are dining together and a non-Jew came and kindled a lamp for them. If most of the participants are non-Jews, it is permitted for [the Jews] to use the light of the lamp.32 If most are Jewish, it is forbidden for them to use its light. For it can be assumed that he kindled it for the sake of the majority.33 If half are Jewish and half are not, it is also forbidden, because it can be assumed that he kindled it for the sake of them both. Even if there is a doubt for whose sake he kindled it, stringency is required in [instances of] such doubt.

All of the above applies when he kindled it without any specific intent, for then it can be assumed that he kindled it for the sake of those dining. If, however, there is evidence that he kindled it for his own sake – e.g., we see that (immediately)34 afterwards he made use of its light – even though the majority of those dining are Jewish, it is permitted to use its light. The same rule applies if it is evident35 that he is lighting it for the sake of another non-Jew. If, however, it is evident that he kindled it both for the sake of a Jew and for the sake of a non-Jew, it is forbidden [to make use of it] even if most of those dining are non-Jews.

ז יִשְׂרְאֵלִים וְנָכְרִים שֶׁהֵסֵבּוּ יַחַד וּבָא נָכְרִי וְהִדְלִיק לָהֶם נֵר,מד אִם רֹב הַמְּסִבָּה נָכְרִים – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ.מה,32 וְאִם רֻבָּהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ,מו,25 שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם מִתְכַּוֵּן הַמַּדְלִיק לְצֹרֶךְ הָרֹב.מז,33 וְאִם מֶחֱצָה יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶחֱצָה נָכְרִים – גַּם כֵּן אָסוּר,מח שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם הוּא מְכַוֵּן לְצֹרֶךְ שְׁנֵיהֶם.מט וְאַף אִם סָפֵק לְאֵיזֶה מֵהֶם מַדְלִיק – הוֹלְכִים לְהַחֲמִירנ בּסָפֵק זֶה.נא

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמַּדְלִיק סְתָם, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם כַּוָּנָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַמְסֻבִּין, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ הוֹכָחָה שֶׁמַּדְלִיק בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים שֶׁהוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרָהּנב (מִיָּדנג),34 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרֹב יִשְׂרָאֵלנד – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרָהּ. וְכֵן אִם יֵשׁ הוֹכָחָה,35 שֶׁמַּדְלִיק בִּשְׁבִיל נָכְרִי אַחֵר.

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ הוֹכָחָה שֶׁמַּדְלִיק לְצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְצֹרֶךְ נָכְרִי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרֹב נָכְרִים – אָסוּר:נה

8 It has become customary in a few places for many to be lenient with regard to giving instructions to a non-Jew to light candles for the sake of a [Shabbos] meal if the candles [lit before Shabbos] are extinguished and it is impossible to eat in darkness.36 There are [Rabbis] who have offered justification for the fact that the Sages did not admonish [these people, explaining that] they are relying on those [authorities] who maintain that [our Sages] did not impose the decree of the shvus37prohibiting giving instructions to a non-Jew [to perform a forbidden labor on Shabbos] when a mitzvah is involved,38 even [so far as] to instruct him to perform a Scripturally forbidden labor.39

Nevertheless, if there is one candle still burning and it is possible to eat by its [light], it is forbidden to tell a non-Jew to light more [candles]. In this situation, the mitzvah [to kindle additional lights]40 is not great enough to supersede the prohibition against giving instructions to a non-Jew [to perform a Scripturally forbidden labor]. (If, however, the non-Jew kindled additional lights on his own initiative, it is permitted to benefit from them, even after the first candle burned out, because one’s Shabbos pleasure is dependent on this, as will be explained.)41

Nevertheless, every person should conduct himself stringently and refrain from telling a non-Jew to kindle a light, even though he is sitting in the darkness and is unable to partake of the Shabbos meal. [The rationale is that] the majority of authorities rule that [our Sages] did not permit the performance of a shvus when a mitzvah is involved, only a shvus d’shvus,42as will be explained in sec. 307[:12].43 Fundamentally, the halachah follows their ruling. Therefore, no leniency at all should be taken in this regard, even when there is a great need. [Nonetheless,] one should not reprimand those who follow this leniency, for it is “preferable that they [transgress] unknowingly44 rather than knowingly.”45

ח בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹתנו נָהֲגוּ רַבִּים לְהָקֵל בַּאֲמִירָה לְהַנָּכְרִי לְהַדְלִיק נֵרוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ סְעֻדָּהנז כְּשֶׁנִּכְבּוּ הַנֵּרוֹת וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶאֱכוֹל בַּחֹשֶׁךְ.נח,36 וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ זְכוּת עַל שֶׁלֹּא מִחוּ בְּיָדָם חֲכָמִים,נט לְפִי שֶׁסּוֹמְכִין עַל מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרס שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּת37 שֶׁל אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה38 אֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.39

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נֵר אֶחָד דָּלוּק עֲדַיִן וִיכוֹלִים לֶאֱכוֹל אֶצְלוֹ – אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיַּדְלִיק עוֹד,סא שֶׁאֵין כַּאן מִצְוָה40 כָּל כָּךְ לִדְחוֹת בִּשְׁבִילָהּ שְׁבוּת שֶׁל אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי.

(וְאִם הִדְלִיק מֵעַצְמוֹ – מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּסב אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁכָּבָה הָרִאשׁוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעֹנֶג שַׁבָּת תָּלוּי בָּזֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרסג).41

אֲבָל כָּל אָדָם צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲמִירסד לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהַדְלִיק נֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְסה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת, לְפִי שֶׁרַבּוּ הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ שְׁבוּת בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה, אֶלָּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת,42 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש״ז,סו,43 וְדִבְרֵיהֶם עִקָּר, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְהָקֵל כְּלָל בָּזֶה אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל,סז אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּהַמְּקִלִּין, שֶׁמּוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹגְגִים44 וְאַל יִהְיוּ מְזִידִים:סח,45

9 There are, however, authorities who permit telling a non-Jew to bring a burning light – whether a beeswax or tallow candle or an oil lamp46 – for him from another place. [The rationale is that] carrying a [burning] lamp is forbidden only because it is muktzeh (“forbidden to be moved”), as will be explained in sec. 279[:1. Now,] any article that is muktzeh is permitted to be carried in an irregular manner, as will be explained in sec. 311[:14-15].47 Since the Jew could have brought the lamp himself in an irregular manner, using the back of his hands, his elbows, or the like, therefore, if a non-Jew brings it in an ordinary manner, there is no [prohibition involved]. For it is only forbidden to have a non-Jew perform on Shabbos such activities that a Jew himself is forbidden to perform.

[Nevertheless,] this lenient ruling should be imparted only to a learned person,48 but not to unlearned people, lest they become accustomed to instructing a non-Jew [to perform forbidden tasks on Shabbos], making [unfounded] comparisons [based on their own logic], permitting [themselves] even greater leniencies [than allowed by law].

ט אֲבָל לוֹמַר לַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיָּבִיא לוֹ נֵר הַדָּלוּק כְּבָר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיםסט אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בִּלְעָדוֹ, בֵּין נֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה וְחֵלֶב, בֵּין נֵר שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן,ע,46 לְפִי שֶׁטִּלְטוּל הַנֵּר אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ט,עא וְכָל מֻקְצֶה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּטִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א,עב,47 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ הָיָה יָכוֹל לְהָבִיא הַנֵּר לְכַאן בְּהֶתֵּר בְּטִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד, כְּגוֹן בַּאֲחוֹרֵי יָדָיו, אוֹ בֵּין אֲצִילֵי יָדָיו,עג וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, כְּשֶׁמְּבִיאוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּאִסּוּר בְּטִלְטוּל גָּמוּר – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם הֶתֵּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ.עד

וְאֵין לְהוֹרוֹת הֶתֵּר זֶה אֶלָּא לִבְנֵי תוֹרָה,48 אֲבָל לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֵין לְהַתִּיר, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְרַגְּלוּ בַּאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי וִידַמּוּ דָבָר לְדָבָר וְיָקֵלּוּ יוֹתֵר:עה

10 When is the above [leniency] applied? When the non-Jew brings [the lamp] to [the desired location] so that [the Jew] may benefit there from its light, or when [he moves it from one place to another] because [the Jew now needs to use] the place where [the lamp] is standing [for another purpose]. However, it is forbidden to have the non-Jew carry the lamp to conceal it so that it will not be stolen. In that instance, the lamp, which is muktzeh, is being moved for its own sake, and a Jew is not permitted to move an article that is muktzeh, even in an irregular manner, for the sake of the article itself, as will be explained in sec. 311[:14].49

(True, it will be explained in that section50 that whenever one carries an object in an irregular manner by means of his body and not with his hands, he may carry it even for the sake of the article that is muktzeh. [By contrast,] when he carries the article via another article that he is carrying with his hands,51 he may carry it only when he needs [to use] its place, but not when he wishes to use the article that is muktzeh. Thus, [in the instance discussed here,] the person would not be permitted to carry [the lamp] via another article that he is carrying in order to benefit from the light [of the lamp] in the place where he brings it. Nor would he be permitted to carry [the lamp] in an irregular manner by carrying it via another article that he is carrying with his hands. If he would carry it with his body, on the back of his hands or with his elbows or the like, he would [however] be permitted to carry it even [for the purpose of the article itself,] so that it not be stolen. Nevertheless, permission cannot be granted to instruct a non-Jew to hide it. [The rationale is that] the authorities who permit a non-Jew to carry an article in an ordinary manner [in a situation] where a Jew is permitted to carry it in an irregular manner, also maintain that it is not permitted to carry an article that is muktzeh for its own sake, even via one’s body. They maintain that it is permissible to carry [an article that is muktzeh via one’s body] only in order to make use of the article that is muktzeh, or because one needs its place. And we cannot be more lenient than they themselves52 are.)53

י בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁמְּבִיאוֹ לְכַאן כְּדֵי לֵהָנוֹת כַּאן לְאוֹרוֹ, אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה הַנֵּר עוֹמֵד שָׁם, אֲבָל אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי כְּדֵי לְהַצְנִיעוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִגָּנֵב, לְפִי שֶׁטִּלְטוּל זֶה הוּא לְצֹרֵךְ הַנֵּר שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה, וְאֵין הֶתֵּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְטַלְטֵל מֻקְצֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּטִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד כְּשֶׁטִּלְטוּלוֹ הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַמֻּקְצֶה עַצְמוֹ,עו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א.עז,49

(וְאַף שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםעח,5 שֶׁכָּל טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד שֶׁהוּא עַל יְדֵי גוּפוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְיָדָיו יָכוֹל לְטַלְטְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֻּקְצֶה, וּשְׁאָר טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד שֶׁהָיָה עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁבְּיָדָיו51 אֵין הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטְלוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּגוּף הַמֻּקְצֶה,עט וְאִם כֵּן זֶה הַנֵּר אִם יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁבְּיָדָיו לֹא יוּכַל לְטַלְטְלוֹ כְּדֵי לֵהָנוֹת מֵאוֹרוֹ כַּאן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמְּבִיאוֹ, וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר כְּלָל לַהֲבִיאוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַטִּלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד שֶׁל דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁבְּיָדָיו, וְאִם יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ עַל יְדֵי גוּפוֹ כְּגוֹן בַּאֲחוֹרֵי יָדָיו אוֹ בֵּין אֲצִילֵי יָדָיו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה יָכוֹל לְטַלְטְלוֹ אַף בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִגָּנֵב – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לְהַתִּיר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיַּצְנִיעֶנּוּ, לְפִי שֶׁאוֹתָם הַמַּתִּירִיםפ טִלְטוּל כְּדַרְכּוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶתֵּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַצַּד – (ג) הֵם סוֹבְרִים שֶׁאַף עַל יְדֵי גוּפוֹ אֵין הֶתֵּר לְטַלְטֵל לְצֹרֶךְ הַמֻּקְצֶה עַצְמוֹ,פא אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּגוּף הַמֻּקְצֶה, אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִמְקוֹמוֹ,פב וְאֵין לְהָקֵל יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהֵם עַצְמָם52 מְקִלִּיםפג):53

11 [The following laws apply when] a [Jewish] person tells his [non-Jewish] servant or maidservant54 to accompany him outside at night and [the servant seeks to] kindle a lamp on his or her own initiative. Even though they too need this lamp and kindled it for their own benefit, it cannot be said that [the lamp] was kindled for the sake of a non-Jew,55 since [the servant] is going primarily [to provide] for the Jew’s needs and for his sake. Therefore, (should the lamp belong to [the Jew], he must admonish them not to kindle it.56 If he did not admonish them and they kindled it,) it is forbidden for him to accompany them outside unless they leave the lamp at home, so that he will not benefit from the light of the lamp they kindled for him to accompany them. [The above ruling also applies] even if the lamp belongs to the non-Jew. ([However, the Jew may benefit from the lamp in the following instance: The Jew] admonished [his servants] and they did not heed him and kindled [the lamp. The Jew] is permitted to use its light, provided he was not insincere [when admonishing the non-Jew], as explained above.)57

יא אִם אוֹמֵר אָדָם לְעַבְדּוֹ וּלְשִׁפְחָתוֹ54 לֵילֵךְ עִמּוֹ לַחוּץ בַּלַּיְלָה וּמַדְלִיקִים הַנֵּר מֵעַצְמָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם הֵם צְרִיכִין לְנֵר זֶה וּמִתְכַּוְּנִים לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמָן בִּלְבָדפד – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא לְצֹרֶךְ נָכְרִי,55 כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר הַהֲלִיכָה הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִשְׁבִילוֹ,פה וּלְפִיכָךְ (צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בָּם שֶׁלֹּא יַדְלִיקוּ56 אִם הַנֵּר שֶׁלּוֹ,פו וְאִם לֹא מִחָה בָּהֶם וְהִדְלִיקוּהוּ) – אָסוּר לֵילֵךְ עִמָּהֶם לַחוּץ עַד שֶׁיַּנִּיחוּ הַנֵּר בַּבַּיִת, שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה מֵאוֹר הַנֵּר שֶׁהֻדְלַק בִּשְׁבִיל הֲלִיכָתוֹ,פז אֲפִלּוּ הַנֵּר שֶׁל נָכְרִי.

(וְאִם מִחָה בָּם וְלֹא הִשְׁגִּיחוּ בּוֹ וְהִדְלִיקוּ – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ אִם אֵינוֹ מַעֲרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהפח):57

12 When, by contrast, a [non-Jewish] maidservant kindles a lamp to wash dishes by its light, even though she is washing dishes for the sake of the Jew, this kindling is not considered as having been performed for the sake of the Jew, since the Jew’s physical person does not [directly] benefit (from this candle); ([alternately: does not directly benefit] from this washing).58 It is merely that they are his dishes that are being washed.59 [The maidservant] is obligated to wash them and kindles the lamp for her own sake. [Hence,] there is no need to admonish her.60 [On the contrary,] one is permitted to make use of the light of this lamp.61

יב אֲבָל נֵר שֶׁמַּדְלֶקֶת הַשִּׁפְחָה לְהָדִיחַ כְּלֵי אֲכִילָה לְאוֹרוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֲדָחָה זוֹ הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין הַדְלָקָה זוֹ נִקְרָא בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין גּוּף הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נֶהֱנֶה (מִנֵּר זֶהפט) (ד) (מֵהֲדָחָה זוֹצ),58 אֶלָּא שֶׁכֵּלִים שֶׁלּוֹ מוּדָחִים59 וְהִיא חַיֶּבֶת לַהֲדִיחָם – לְצָרְכָּהּ הִיא מַדְלֶקֶת,צא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בָּהּ,צב,60 וּמֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹר נֵר זֶה:61

13 All the above only applies to a lamp. When, by contrast, a non-Jew kindles a fire62 – even if he does so solely for his own needs or for the needs of a sick person, even one in a life-threatening situation – it is forbidden for a healthy person to warm himself opposite it. This is a decree [enacted lest] the non-Jew add wood for the sake [of the Jew]63 if [the Jew] were to be permitted to warm himself by it.64 There is a distinction between a fire and a lamp: With regard to a lamp, there is no concern that [the non-Jew] will add [fuel] to the lamp for the sake of [the Jew], because the same candle that illuminates for one [person] illuminates for a hundred [people]. With regard to a fire, by contrast, the more people who seek to warm themselves by it, the more wood must be added to it to enlarge it. If, however, [a non-Jew] heated a winter home65 for his own sake or for the sake of a sick person, it is permitted for a healthy person to go from an unheated home66 to the winter home to warm himself. There is no concern that the non-Jew will add fuel to warm him, for the same heating that warms one will warm a hundred.67

There are authorities who rule leniently even with regard to a fire. They [maintain that] a decree was not issued lest [the non-Jew] add [wood] to the fire for the sake of [the additional person]. For even if he would not add [wood] because of [the additional person], that person would derive some benefit [from the warmth] of the fire. True, because of the additional wood, he derives greater benefit. Nevertheless, this additional benefit is not sufficient reason to issue a decree [forbidding him to benefit from the fire] lest he tell [the non-Jew] to add wood for his sake. Even if the non-Jew made a small fire for his own use alone or for the sake of a sick person, and then [an additional person] came to warm himself opposite the fire and the non-Jew added wood for [the third person’s] sake on his own initiative, this addition would not make it forbidden for that person to warm himself there, since he could have warmed himself there somewhat even without the addition [of the wood]. Similarly, if the fire was burning while it was still day [on Friday], and on Shabbos, the non-Jew added wood for the sake of the Jew, he is permitted to warm himself opposite it.

(Initially, however, in all these circumstances, one must be careful to admonish [the non-Jew] if the wood belongs to the Jew, as explained above.)68

In a time of need, one may, however, rely on the above opinion and rule leniently, [because the issue concerns] a point of Rabbinic Law.69

יג וְכָל זֶה בְּנֵר, אֲבָל בִּמְדוּרָה62 שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ נָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ לְצָרְכּוֹ בִּלְבָד, אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָהצג – אָסוּר לְבָרִיא לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה הַנָּכְרִי עֵצִים בִּשְׁבִילוֹ63 אִם יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהִתְחַמֵּם בָּהּ.צד64 וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לְנֵר, שֶׁאֵין שָׁם חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁיַּרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, שֶׁנֵּר לְאֶחָד נֵר לְמֵאָה,צה מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּמְדוּרָה, שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁמִּתְרַבִּים בְּנֵי אָדָם הַמִּתְחַמְּמִים בָּהּ צָרִיךְ לְהַרְבּוֹת בָּהּ עֵצִים לְהַרְחִיבָהּ. אֲבָל אִם חִמֵּם אֶת בֵּית הַחֹרֶף65 לְצָרְכּוֹ אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה – מֻתָּר לְבָרִיא לֵילֵךְ מִבֵּית הַקַּיִץ66 לְבֵית הַחֹרֶף לְהִתְחַמֵּם בּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה לְחַמְּמוֹ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, שֶׁחִמּוּם לְאֶחָד חִמּוּם לְמֵאָה.צו,67

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןצז אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְדוּרָה, וְאֵין גּוֹזְרִים שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה מַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ הָיָה נֶהֱנֶה קְצָת מֵהַמְּדוּרָה. וְאַף שֶׁעַל יְדֵי רִבּוּי הָעֵצִים נֶהֱנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּרֶוַח – אֵין תּוֹסֶפֶת הֲנָאָה זוֹ כְּדַאי לִגְזוֹר בִּשְׁבִילָהּצח שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לוֹצט לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ עֵצִים.

וְאַף אִם עָשָׂה הַנָּכְרִי מְדוּרָה קְטַנָּה לְצָרְכּוֹ בִּלְבָד, אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּא זֶה לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ וְהוֹסִיף הַנָּכְרִי עֵצִים בִּשְׁבִילוֹ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ – אֵין הוֹסָפָה זוֹ אוֹסַרְתּוֹ לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם קְצָת אַף בְּלֹא הוֹסָפָה זוֹ.ק

וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה הַמְּדוּרָה דּוֹלֶקֶת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וּבְשַׁבָּת הוֹסִיף בָּהּ הַנָּכְרִי עֵצִים בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל – מֻתָּר לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ.קא

(רַק שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכָל זֶה לִמְחוֹת בּוֹ אִם הָעֵצִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרקב).68

וּלְעֵת הַצֹּרֶךְ (ה) יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶםקג לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:69

14 Nevertheless, if the wood that was kindled while it was still day [on Friday], or for the sake of a non-Jew or a sick person, was consumed entirely [by the flames] and is no longer burning in the fire – only the wood that was added on Shabbos for the sake of a [healthy] Jew – it is forbidden for that person to warm himself in front of it. Similarly, if a candle was burning while it was still day [on Friday], for the sake of a non-Jew or for the sake of a sick person, and a non-Jew added another candle for the sake of [another] Jew [on Shabbos], he only is permitted to use the light [of the second candle] while the first candle is still burning.70 After the first candle burns out, however, it is forbidden to use the light of the second [candle]. Similarly, if one added oil to a lamp that was burning, one is permitted to use its light only for the time it would have taken for the oil that was originally in the lamp to burn out. Afterwards, one is forbidden [to make use of it].71

There are authorities who differ with the above and permit one to benefit – whether from a fire or from a candle – when fuel is added, even if it belongs to a Jew. [The rationale is] that since, originally, when the non-Jew performed the forbidden act for the sake of the Jew, it was permitted to benefit from it, it remains permitted forever, even after the original wood, lamp, or oil is burnt out. In a situation of great need, i.e., when one’s Shabbos pleasure is dependent on [benefiting from the light or the fire],72 one may rely on this opinion and follow their leniency.

יד וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם כְּבָר כָּלוּ עֵצִים שֶׁהֻדְלְקוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ נָכְרִי אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה, וְאֵין דּוֹלְקִים בִּמְדוּרָה זוֹ אֶלָּא הָעֵצִים שֶׁהוֹסִיף בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ.קד וְכֵן אִם הָיָה נֵר דּוֹלֵק מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ נָכְרִי אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה וּבָא נָכְרִי וְהוֹסִיף עוֹד נֵר בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין הֶתֵּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ אֶלָּא בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַנֵּר הָרִאשׁוֹן דּוֹלֵק,70 אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁכָּבָה הָרִאשׁוֹן אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹר הַשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן אִם הוֹסִיף שֶׁמֶן בְּנֵר הַדּוֹלֵק – אֵין הֶתֵּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ אֶלָּא עַד בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁהָיָה בְּנֵר בַּתְּחִלָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אָסוּר.קה,71

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהקו וּמַתִּירִין בֵּין בִּמְדוּרָה, בֵּין בְּנֵר, בֵּין בְּהוֹסָפַת הַשֶּׁמֶן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבִּתְחִלָּה כְּשֶׁעָשָׂה הַנָּכְרִי הָאִסּוּר בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הָיָה מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ – לֹא יָצָא מִדֵּי הֶתֵּרוֹ לְעוֹלָם, אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁכָּלוּ עֵצִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, אוֹ הַנֵּר הָרִאשׁוֹן, אוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶן הָרִאשׁוֹן.

וּבִמְקוֹם צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁעֹנֶג שַׁבָּת תָּלוּי בְּזֶה72 – יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל:קז

15 All of the prohibitions mentioned with regard to warming oneself opposite a fire or in a winter home apply only in temperate climates. In colder lands,73 like these countries, it is permitted to instruct a non-Jew to kindle a fire for a Jew on a day of severe cold, and similarly, to heat a winter home.74 [The rationale is that] everyone is considered as sick in situations of severe cold.75 However, on days when the cold is not so severe or [in a household] where there are no young children76 who suffer extreme distress because of the cold, it is forbidden to tell a non-Jew to kindle a fire or to heat a winter home.

If [the non-Jew] kindled the fire on his own initiative using wood belonging to the Jew, one must admonish him.77 If he did not admonish him, it is forbidden to warm himself in front of it. If, on his own initiative, [a non-Jew] warmed a winter home for a Jew using wood belonging to the Jew, [the Jew] is forbidden to enter it to warm himself. If, however, the [winter] home is his dwelling, he need not leave it.

טו וְכָל הָאִסּוּרִים שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּחִמּוּם כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה אוֹ בֵּית הַחֹרֶף אֵינָן אֶלָּא בָּאֲרָצוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן קָרוֹת, אֲבָל בָּאֲרָצוֹת הַקָּרוֹתקח73 כְּמוֹ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּקט – מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת מְדוּרָה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיוֹם שֶׁהַקֹּר גָּדוֹל,קי וְכֵן לוֹמַר לוֹ לְחַמֵּם אֶת בֵּית הַחֹרֶף,74 לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל הֵם כְּחוֹלִים אֵצֶל הַקֹּר הַגָּדוֹל.75 אֲבָל בְּיוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַקֹּר גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ, אִם אֵין לוֹ קְטַנִּים76 שֶׁמִּצְטַעֲרִים הַרְבֵּה – אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת מְדוּרָה אוֹ לְחַמֵּם בֵּית הַחֹרֶף.קיא

וְאִם עוֹשֶׂה מְדוּרָה מֵעַצְמוֹ מֵעֲצֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל – צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ.קיב,77 וְאִם לֹא מִחָה – אָסוּר לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגְדָּהּ.קיג

וְאִם חִמֵּם בֵּית הַחֹרֶף מֵעַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעֲצֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר לִכָּנֵס בּוֹ כְּדֵי לְהִתְחַמֵּם.קיד אֲבָל אִם הוּא דָּר בּוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לָצֵאת מִמֶּנּוּ:קטו

16 If one hired a non-Jew to kindle one’s fire every day during the winter and he also kindled it on a Shabbos when the cold was not severe, the non-Jew is considered as acting on his own initiative78 and there is no need to leave one’s home. Nevertheless, initially, one must admonish him.

טז אִם שָׂכַר הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיַּסִּיקֶנּוּ לוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם כָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹרֶף, וְהִסִּיקוֹ גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁאֵין הַקֹּר גָּדוֹל – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה מֵעַצְמוֹקטז,78 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לָצֵאת מִבֵּיתוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בּוֹ:קיז

17 Those who customarily practice leniency even on days when the cold is not severe should not be rebuked. It is preferable that they [transgress] unknowingly rather than knowingly.79 Nevertheless, even on a day of severe cold, a winter home should not be heated twice on Shabbos, because it suffices to heat it once in the morning. Ultimately, however, everything depends on the degree of coldness, [the construction of] the winter home, and whether it maintains the heat for a long time. “A wise man’s eyes [see] from the outset.”80

יז וְהַנּוֹהֲגִים הֶתֵּר אַף בְּיוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַקֹּר גָּדוֹל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין מוֹחִין בְּיָדָם, שֶׁמּוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹגְגִים וְאַל יִהְיוּ מְזִידִים,קיח,79

וְאַף בְּיוֹם שֶׁהַקֹּר גָּדוֹל אֵין לְחַמֵּם בֵּית הַחֹרֶף שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, כִּי דַּי בַּמֶּה שֶׁהִסִּיק הַתַּנּוּר פַּעַם רִאשׁוֹן בַּבֹּקֶר.קיט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַכֹּל לְפִי הַקֹּר וּלְפִי בֵּית הַחֹרֶף אִם מַמְשִׁיךְ הַחֹם זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה, וְהֶחָכָם עֵינָיו בְּרֹאשׁוֹ:קכ,80