SECTION 273 [The Requirement] that Kiddush Be Recited in the Place of the Meal (1-12)

סימן רעג שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַקִּדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה וּבוֹ י"ב סְעִיפִים׃

1 Kiddush [is valid] only [if recited] in the place of the meal.1 Thus, if one recites Kiddush in one house and eats in another house, [he does not fulfill his obligation].2 Whether he originally has the intent to eat in the other house or he recites Kiddush with the intent of eating in the same house and then changes his mind and decides to eat in the other house, he does not fulfill his obligation with the first Kiddush and must recite Kiddush again before he eats in the other house.

[This requirement applies] both with regard to the Kiddush recited at night and the Kiddush recited during the day. Our Sages [derive this concept through] their interpretation of the verse:3 “And you shall call Shabbos ‘A delight,’ ” explaining that in the place where one delights, i.e., in the place where he will take pleasure in the Shabbos meal, there [Shabbos]should be “called,” [i.e.,] Kiddush [be recited]. Needless to say, if one recites Kiddush and does not eat a meal after it at all, he [certainly] does not fulfill his obligation for Kiddush.4

א אֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה,א,1 שֶׁאִם קִדֵּשׁ בְּבַיִת זֶה וְאָכַל בְּבַיִת אַחֵר,2 בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה דַעְתּוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה לֶאֱכוֹל בַּבַּיִת הָאַחֵר,ב,1 בֵּין שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עַל דַּעַת לֶאֱכוֹל בְּבַיִת זֶה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּבַיִת אַחֵרג – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּקִּדּוּשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל בַּבַּיִת הָאַחֵר, בֵּין בַּקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁל לַיְלָה וּבֵין בַּקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁל יוֹם,ד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרה,3 "וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:ו בִּמְקוֹם עֹנֶג סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת – שָׁם תְּהֵא קְרִיאַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ.

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם קִדֵּשׁ וְלֹא סָעַד אַחֲרָיו כְּלָל שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת1 קִדּוּשׁ:ז,4

2 [The above laws apply, not only when one moves from one house to another,] but even [when he moves] from room to room in the same house.5 Thus, if one recites Kiddush in one room with the intent to eat in that room, and then changes his mind and decides to eat in another room, [or if he recites Kiddush] on the first floor and then decides to eat on the second floor, or vice versa, he must recite Kiddush again.

When does the above apply? When he changes his mind. If, however, when one recites Kiddush, he has the intent to eat in another room in the same house6 – or on the second floor when he recites Kiddush on the first floor, or vice versa – he is not required to recite Kiddush again. (Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is not desirable to do so, because there are authorities who differ.) By contrast, having in mind [while reciting Kiddush that one will move] from one house to another or from a house to a courtyard7 is not effective and he is required to recite Kiddush again as explained [above].8

Nevertheless, if when eating one can see the place where he recited Kiddush, even [if he can only see it] through a window9 and even if he sees only a portion of his place,10 there are authorities who maintain that this is considered as reciting Kiddush in the place of the meal. For these two places are considered as one place with regard to Kiddush, just like they are considered as one place with regard to joining people in a zimun, as stated in sec. 195[:1]. One may rely on their words in a pressing situation.

ב וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּבַיִת אֶחָד מֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר,5 שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ בְּחֶדֶר אֶחָד עַל דַּעַת לֶאֱכוֹל בְּחֶדֶר זֶה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר, וְכֵן מִבַּיִת לָעֲלִיָּה, אוֹ מֵעֲלִיָּה לַבַּיִת – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ.ח,1

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּנִמְלַךְ, אֲבָל אִם כְּשֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ אִם שְׁנֵי הַחֲדָרִים הֵם בְּבַיִת אֶחָד. וְכֵן מִבַּיִת לָעֲלִיָּה, אוֹ מֵעֲלִיָה לַבַּיִתט,6 (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל זֶהי).

אֲבָל מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת,יא אוֹ מִבַּיִת לֶחָצֵריב,7 – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה עַל כָּךְ, וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.8

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָתוֹ שָׁם יָכוֹל הוּא לִרְאוֹת מִשָּׁם אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ בּוֹ,יג אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ חַלּוֹן,9 וַאֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹיד,10 – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁזֶּה נִקְרָא קִדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה, שֶׁשְּׁנֵי מְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ כְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד לְעִנְיַן קִדּוּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵן כְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד לְעִנְיַן צֵרוּף לְזִמּוּן,טו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קצ"ה.טז וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק:

3 [Changing one’s place] from one corner to another corner [in] the same [room of] a house [is not significant. If] one recites Kiddush in one corner with the intent of eating there and then changes his mind [and decides] to eat in another corner of the same room in that house, he need not recite Kiddush again.11 [This rule applies] even in a large hall, for the entire room is considered as one place. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should not do so,12 because there are authorities who differ with this ruling.

ג מִפִּנָּה לְפִנָּה בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ בְּזָוִית זוֹ עַל דַּעַת לֶאֱכוֹל כַּאן וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת בְּאוֹתוֹ בַיִת וְאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶר, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא טְרַקְלִין גָּדוֹל – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ,יז,11 שֶׁכָּל הַחֶדֶר נֶחְשָׁב מָקוֹם אֶחָד. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן,יח,12 שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל זֶה:יט

4 When a sukkah is [erected] in [a corner of] a home,13 the sukkah is not considered as a separate roomeven though its partitions separate between its space and the space of the home.14 [The rationale:] The partitions are not intended to be functional [separations], but rather were erected for the sake of the mitzvah of sukkah.

Accordingly, if one recites Kiddush in the home and then changes his mind and decides to eat in the sukkah or vice versa,15 he need not recite Kiddush again. It is like moving from corner to corner [in the same room]. If, however, the walls of the house separate between the space of the home and the space of the sukkah,16even though the entrance of the house is open to the sukkah, [going from one to another] is considered as [moving] from room to room.17 (If the sukkah is not directly adjacent to the house, but the open space of the courtyard separates between them, [going from one to another] is considered as [moving] from one house to another or from a house to a courtyard.)18

ד וְסֻכָּה שֶׁהִיא בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת13 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּחִצּוֹת הַסֻּכָּה מַפְסִיקוֹת בֵּין חֲלַל הַסֻּכָּה לַחֲלַל הַבַּיִת14 – אֵינָהּ כְּחֶדֶר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מְחִצּוֹת עֲשׂוּיוֹת לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם מִצְוַת סֻכָּה,כ וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם קִדֵּשׁ בַּבַּיִתכא וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לֶאֱכוֹל בַּסֻּכָּה, אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ15 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹ מִפִּנָּה לְפִנָּה.כב

אֲבָל אִם מְחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת מַפְסִיקוֹתכג בֵּין חֲלַל הַבַּיִת לַחֲלַל הַסֻּכָּה16 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפֶּתַח הַבַּיִת פָּתוּחַ לַסֻּכָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר.17

(וְאִם אֵין הַסֻּכָּה סְמוּכָה לַבַּיִת אֶלָּא אֲוִיר הֶחָצֵר מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִבַּיִת לְבַיִת אוֹ מִבַּיִת לֶחָצֵרכד):18

5 One must eat in the place where he recited Kiddush directly after19 reciting Kiddush. If, by contrast, he did not eat until later, he did not fulfill his obligation and must recite Kiddush again before he eats. There is no difference between a long interval and a short interval.

When does the above apply? When initially the person recited Kiddush and he did not intend to eat directly [after its recitation]. If, however, he intended to eat directly afterwards, but an unforeseen event prevented him from eating until later, he fulfilled his obligation. He is not required to recite Kiddush again when he eats in the place where he recited Kiddush, provided he did not leave [the place where he recited Kiddush] from when he recited Kiddush until he ate. If he departed, he must recite Kiddush again.

If when he originally recited Kiddush, he did not intend to eat until later, and even if, additionally, he did not [even] intend to eat in this house, but in another house, and then he changed his mind and ate directly after Kiddush in the place where he recited Kiddush, he need not recite Kiddush again.

ה צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל בִּמְקוֹם הַקִּדּוּשׁ לְאַלְתַּר19 אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ, אֲבָל אִם לֹא אָכַל עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,כה וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכַל. וְאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין זְמַן קָצָר לִזְמַן אָרֹךְ.כו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁמִתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵרְעוֹ אֹנֶס שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל בִּמְקוֹם הַקִּדּוּשׁ.כז וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא מִמָּקוֹם זֶה מִשֶּׁקִּדֵּשׁ עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל, אֲבָל אִם יָצָא בֵּינְתַיִם – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ.כח

וְאִם מִתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ הָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן, וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ גַּם כֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל בְּבַיִת זֶה אֶלָּא בְּבַיִת אַחֵר, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ וְאָכַל מִיָּד בִּמְקוֹם הַקִּדּוּשׁ – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ:כט

6 A person may recite Kiddush for others,20 even though he does not eat with them. [There is no difficulty that] Kiddush is not being recited in the place of the meal, since for the listeners who are fulfilling their obligation, it is [being recited] in the place of their meal. Nevertheless, since he is not fulfilling his obligation with this Kiddush – and similarly, if he had already recited Kiddush for himself in the place of his meal – and thus he does not require this recitation of Kiddush, as an initial preference, he should not recite Kiddush for others [when he is not fulfilling his own obligation,] unless they do not know how to recite it themselves.21

Should he have not yet recited Kiddush for himself, he must take care not to taste anything from the cup [of wine] over which Kiddush is recited, for he is forbidden to taste anything until he recites Kiddush in the place of his meal. Although [he is not drinking], he may nevertheless recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen in this Kiddush for [the listeners].22 True, [generally,] with regard to blessings recited in appreciation for receiving benefit (birchos hanehenin), a person who is not himself deriving benefit may not recite a blessing on behalf of others, even if they do not know how to recite these blessings. Nevertheless, the blessing Borei pri hagafen of Kiddush – whether of the night or of the day – and the blessing HaMotzi when one recites Kiddush on bread23 do not resemble other birchos hanehenin, since they are obligations, as explained in sec. 167[:23].24

ו יָכוֹל אָדָם לְקַדֵּשׁ לַאֲחֵרִים20 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל עִמָּהֶם, וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּהַשּׁוֹמְעִים הַיּוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן הוּא מְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה.ל

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּקִדּוּשׁ זֶה, וְכֵן אִם כְּבָר קִדֵּשׁ לְעַצְמוֹ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְקִדּוּשׁ זֶה – אֵין לוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ לַאֲחֵרִים לְכַתְּחִלָּה,לא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם אֵינָם יוֹדְעִים לְקַדֵּשׁ בְּעַצְמָם.לב,21

וּכְשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא קִדֵּשׁ לְעַצְמוֹ – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם מִכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ זֶה, שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לִטְעוֹם עַד שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּתוֹ.לג וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ לָהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ זֶה.לד,22

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַנֶהֱנִּין אֵין מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא אֲחֵרִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעִים לְבָרֵךְ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ, בֵּין שֶׁל לַיְלָה בֵּין שֶׁל יוֹם,לה וְכֵן בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" כְּשֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּתלו,23 – אֵינָן דּוֹמוֹת לִשְׁאָר בִּרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין, הוֹאִיל וְהֵן חוֹבָה, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קס"ז:לז,24

7 The Geonim ruled that our Sages’ statement – that Kiddush may be recited only in the place of one’s meal – does not mean that one must complete his entire meal in that place. Instead, even if he ate only an olive-sized portion [of bread],25 even an olive-sized portion of products26 made from the five species of grain27 over which the blessing Borei minei mezonos is recited, or drank a reviis28 of wine besides the cup [of wine] over which Kiddush is recited,29 he fulfills the obligation to recite Kiddush in the place of a meal. Afterwards, whether immediately thereafter or at a later time, he may partake of his meal in another place.30

He does not have to recite a blessing over a cup of wine before that meal. This applies both at night and during the day. Since he already fulfilled his obligation to recite Kiddush in the place of a meal, this meal is similar to the third Shabbos meal, at which one is not required to recite a blessing over a cup of wine beforehand.31

ז הוֹרוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: אֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה – אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּגְמוֹר שָׁם כָּל סְעֻדָּתוֹ,לח אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אִם אָכַל כְּזַיִת,לט,25 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כְּזַיִת26 מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִיםמ,27 שֶׁמְּבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת", אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתָה רְבִיעִית28 יַיִןמא מִלְּבַד כּוֹס הַקִּדּוּשׁמב,29 – יוֹצֵא בָזֶה יְדֵי קִדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה.

וְיָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל אַחַר כָּךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, בֵּין מִיָּד בֵּין לְאַחַר זְמַן.מג,30 וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס קֹדֶם אוֹתָהּ סְעֻדָּה,מד בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה בֵּין בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא יְדֵי קִדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה – הֲרֵי סְעֻדָּה זוֹ הָאַחֶרֶת דּוֹמָה לִסְעֻדָּה שְׁלִישִׁית שֶׁל שַׁבָּתמה שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס לְפָנֶיהָ:מו,31

8 If, however, one ate fruit – even a large amount – or drank other beverages, even if they are “the wine of the region,”32 he does not fulfill the obligation of Kiddush in the place of the meal. The rationale is that wine satiates the heart33 and the five species of grain are called mazon, “sustaining food.”34 Therefore, it is appropriate to refer to [partaking of] them as a “meal.” This is not true of other beverages and fruits.

ח אֲבָל אִם אָכַל פֵּרוֹת,מז אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה, וְכֵן אִם שָׁתָה שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם "חֲמַר מְדִינָה"32 – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי קִדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה,מח לְפִי שֶׁהַיַּיִן סוֹעֵד הַלֵּב,מט,33 וַחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים נִקְרָאִים מָזוֹן,נ,34 לְכָךְ הֵם רְאוּיִים לְהִקָּרֵא עֲלֵיהֶם שֵׁם סְעֻדָּה,נא מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים וּפֵרוֹת:

9 There are authorities who maintain that even if one drank a reviis of wine from the cup over which Kiddush was recited, he fulfills his obligation to recite Kiddush in the place of one’s meal.35 Our Sages required that a meal be eaten in the place where Kiddush was recited only when one did not drink a full reviis [of wine]. One may rely on their words when necessary, e.g., when reciting Kiddush in the synagogue36 or at a bris37when a child is not present to give him to drink from the cup of wine over which the blessing was recited. An adult may drink a full reviis with the intent to fulfill his obligation, as stated in sec. 269[:3]. (Nevertheless, if possible, it is preferable that one drink a full reviis in addition to the major portion of a reviis38 [that he must drink] to fulfill the obligation of Kiddush,and thus fulfill his obligation according to all authorities.)

ט יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנב שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית יַיִן מִכּוֹס הַקִּדּוּשׁ – יוֹצֵא בָזֶה יְדֵי קִדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה,35 וְלֹא הִצְרִיכוּ סְעֻדָּה בִּמְקוֹם קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁלֹּא שָׁתָה רְבִיעִית שְׁלֵמָה אֶלָּא רֹב רְבִיעִית. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְעֵת הַצֹּרֶךְ, כְּגוֹן בְּקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,36 אוֹ מִילָה,37 וְאֵין שָׁם קָטָן לְהַשְׁקוֹתוֹ מִכּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה – יִשְׁתֶּה גָדוֹל רְבִיעִית שְׁלֵמָה וְיִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ט.נג

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶפְשָׁר טוֹב שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה עוֹד רְבִיעִית שְׁלֵמָהנד מִלְּבַד רֹב רְבִיעִית38 שֶׁיּוֹצֵא בוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבַת קִדּוּשׁ, כְּדֵי לָצֵאת לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל):

10 If a person recites Kiddush in his home and a neighbor hears his recitation of Kiddush while he is in his own home, with his table set before him so that he can eat immediately in that place, [the neighbor] fulfills his obligation [for Kiddush] because he is listening to it in the place of his meal. Even though the person reciting Kiddush is in another place, it is of no consequence, provided the person reciting Kiddush has in mind to fulfill [his neighbor’s] obligation [with his recitation] and the neighbor has in mind to fulfill [his obligation] by listening.39

Indeed, even as an initial preference, a person may recite Kiddush in his home so that his neighbors will listen and fulfill their obligation. [Moreover,] he may recite Kiddush for his neighbors who do not know how to recite Kiddush, even if he does not [intend to] eat immediately and he himself does not fulfill [his own obligation] with this Kiddush.40

י אִם קִדֵּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְשָׁמַע שְׁכֵנוֹ הַקִּדּוּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ בַּיִת שֶׁלּוֹ וְשֻׁלְחָנוֹ עָרוּךְ לְפָנָיו לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם – יוֹצֵא בוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,נה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא שׁוֹמֵעַ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּתוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְקַדֵּשׁ הוּא בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן הַמְקַדֵּשׁ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,נו וְיִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא לָצֵאת בִּשְׁמִיעָה זוֹ.39

וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה יָכוֹל אָדָם לְקַדֵּשׁ בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ שְׁכֵנָיו וְיֵצְאוּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל עֲדַיִן וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בְּקִדּוּשׁ זֶה,נז אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ בִּשְׁבִיל שְׁכֵנָיו שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעִים לְקַדֵּשׁ:נח,40

11 If a person’s home is next to the synagogue and, while in his home, he hears the recitation of Kiddush by the sheliach tzibbur in the synagogue, even when [the listener] intends to fulfill his obligation [with his recitation], he does not do so. [The rationale is] that in the present era, when wayfarers do not spend the Shabbos in the synagogue, the sheliach tzibbur does not have the intent to fulfill anyone’s obligation while reciting this Kiddush. Instead, he does so merely [to maintain] the [existing] custom.41

יא מִי שֶׁבֵּיתוֹ סָמוּךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְשָׁמַע הַקִּדּוּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת בּוֹ – לֹא יָצָא,נט לְפִי שֶׁבִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ אוֹרְחִים הַשּׁוֹבְתִים אֵצֶל בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אֵין הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּלָל לְהוֹצִיא שׁוּם אָדָם בְּקִדּוּשׁ זֶה, וְאֵינוֹ מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת הַמִּנְהָג:ס,41

12 As an initial preference, one should partake of the Friday night meal in the place where the [Shabbos]lights are burning.42 Even if he partakes of the meal while it is still day, he should not partake of it in the courtyard even if he derives greater satisfaction there because of the [pleasant] air or because [in his home he is bothered by] flies. If he endures much discomfort at home because of the heat or because of the flies, he may recite Kiddush and eat his meal in the courtyard even though he does not see the [Shabbos]lights.43 [The rationale is that] the [Shabbos]lights were commanded to be kindled for the sake of pleasure, not for him to suffer discomfort. He must, however, take care to use long candles that will burn until after nightfall, as explained in sec. 263[:13]. Consult that source.

יב לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל סְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַנֵּרוֹת דּוֹלְקוֹת.סא,42 וְאַף אִם אוֹכְלָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אֵין לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל בֶּחָצֵר, אַף אִם נֶהֱנֶה שָׁם יוֹתֵר מִפְּנֵי הָאֲוִיר, אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַזְּבוּבִים.סב

אֲבָל אִם הוּא מִצְטַעֵר הַרְבֵּהסג בַּבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הַשָּׁרָב אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַזְּבוּבִים – יָכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ וְלֶאֱכוֹל בֶּחָצֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה הַנֵּרוֹת,סד,43 שֶׁהַנֵּרוֹת לְעֹנֶג נִצְטַוּוּ וְלֹא לְצַעַר.סה רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַנֵּרוֹת אֲרֻכִּים שֶׁיִּדְלְקוּ עַד הַלַּיְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ג,סו עַיֵּן שָׁם: