SECTION 272 The Wine Over Which Kiddush Is Recited (1-14)

סימן ערב עַל אֵיזֶה יַיִן מְקַדְּשִׁין וּבוֹ י"ד סְעִיפִים׃

1 In the spirit of the verse:1 “Present it, please, to your governor: Would he be pleased with you? Would he show you favor?” wine with an unpleasant fragrance may not be used for Kiddush, even though it has not soured at all.2[This applies] even if its bouquet and flavor are that of wine over which it is fitting to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen,3 but it has a slightly offensive fragrance because it was stored in a repulsive container.

Similarly, Kiddush may not be recited over wine that was left uncovered.4 True, in the present era, we are not careful about [eating or drinking food and beverages that] were left uncovered, because poisonous snakes are not common among us. Even so, in the spirit of the verse, “Present it, please, to your governor…,” [it is proper not to use it]. Nevertheless, if the wine was left uncovered for only a brief period,5 one need not be that meticulous [about this matter], for even governors and officials are not meticulous about this matter after the fact, unless the flavor and bouquet of the wine have changed. This is particularly true in these countries,6 where wine is not that commonly available.

א אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁים עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁרֵיחוֹ רָע,א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּנָּה לַחֲמִיצוּת כְּלָל,ב,2 אֶלָּא רֵיחוֹ וְטַעְמוֹ יַיִן שֶׁמְּבָרְכִים עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",ג,3 רַק שֶׁמַּסְרִיחַ קְצָת מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהָיָה בִּכְלִי מָאוּס,ד אַף עַל פִּי כֵן1 "הַקְרִיבֵהוּ נָא לְפֶחָתֶךָ,ה הֲיִרְצְךָ אוֹ הֲיִשָּׂא פָנֶיךָ".ו

וְכֵן אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁנִּתְגַּלָּה,ז,4 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין נִזְהָרִים בְּגִלּוּי,ח לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נְחָשִׁים מְצוּיִים בֵּינֵינוּ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן "הַקְרִיבֵהוּ נָא לְפֶחָתֶךָ וְגוֹ'".ט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם לֹא עָמַד מְגֻלֶּה אֶלָּא שָׁעָה מוּעֶטֶת5 – אֵין לְהַקְפִּיד כָּל כָּךְ, בִּפְרָט בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ6 שֶׁאֵין הַיַּיִן מָצוּי כָּל כָּךְ, לְפִי שֶׁגַּם הַפַּחוֹת וְהַסְּגָנִים אֵין מַקְפִּידִים עַל כָּךְ בְּדִיעֲבַד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָמַר רֵיחוֹ וְטַעְמוֹ:י

2 [Unfermented] wine [directly] from the wine press7 may be used for Kiddush.8 [Indeed,] a person may squeeze a cluster of grapes9 and recite Kiddush over [its juice].10 Nevertheless, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to use aged wine, for it is superior [in quality].

ב יַיִן מִגִּתּוֹ7 מְקַדְּשִׁין עָלָיו.יא,8 וְסוֹחֵט אָדָם אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁל עֲנָבִים9 וְאוֹמֵר עָלָיו קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם.יב,10 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר בְּיַיִן יָשָׁן,יג שֶׁהוּא מְשֻׁבָּח יוֹתֵר:יד

3 Kiddush may be recited over wine from the top of the barrel even though there are white flecks in it,11 provided it is strained to remove those flecks,12 if that is possible.13

Nevertheless, when there is a white film [over the wine], it may not be used for Kiddush, because it can be assumed that its flavor already deteriorated and it has soured. When wine tastes like vinegar, even though it has the fragrance of wine, it may not be used for Kiddush. Moreover, one should not even recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen over it, as stated in sec. 204[:6]. Nevertheless, if it is known that it has the flavor of wine, even though its fragrance is that of vinegar, it may be used for Kiddush, because the flavor is the determining factor. Even though [such wines are acceptable,] the optimal manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to choose superior wine over which to recite Kiddush. One should not even take just any wine that is found in the wine cellar [without first inspecting it], for perhaps its fragrance will be that of vinegar.

ג מְקַדְּשִׁים עַל יַיִן שֶׁבְּפִי חָבִיתטו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קִמְחִין,טז,11 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּסַנְּנוֹ תְּחִלָּה לְהַעֲבִיר הַקִּמְחִיןיז,12 אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ.יח,13 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ עָלָיו קְרוּם לָבָן – אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו,יט לְפִי שֶׁמִן הַסְּתָם כְּבָר פָּג בּוֹ טַעְמוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה חֹמֶץ.כ

וְיַיִן שֶׁטַעְמוֹ חֹמֶץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֵיחוֹ יַיִן – אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו,כא וַאֲפִלּוּ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" אֵין מְבָרְכִים עָלָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"ד.כב

אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁטַּעְמוֹ יַיִן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֵיחוֹ חֹמֶץ – מְבָרְכִים עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", וּמְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו,כג שֶׁהַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַטַּעַם.כד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לִבְרוֹר יַיִן טוֹב לְקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו,כה וְלֹא לִקַּח אֲפִלּוּ מִסְּתָם יַיִן שֶׁבַּמַּרְתֵּף,כו כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִהְיֶה רֵיחוֹ חֹמֶץ:

4 Kiddush may be recited over white wine, as will be stated in sec. 472[:26].14

ד יַיִן לָבָן מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו,כז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תע"ב:כח,14

5 Kiddush may be recited over wine from the bottom of the barrel even though it has dregs, [so, too,] over black wine,15 and over sweet16 wine.17 Nevertheless, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to choose the finest wine available for Kiddush.

ה וּמְקַדְּשִׁים עַל יַיִן שֶׁבְּשׁוּלֵי הֶחָבִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שְׁמָרִים, וְעַל יַיִן שָׁחוֹר,15 וְעַל יַיִן17 מָתוֹק.כט,16 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לִבְרוֹר הַיַּיִן הַמְשֻׁבָּח בְּיוֹתֵר לְקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו:ל

6 Undiluted wine, even if it is so strong that it is fit to be diluted to the extent that three parts of water are added to one part of wine, may be used for Kiddush, even if it was not blended with water at all.18 Nevertheless, it is preferable to dilute it, provided it is blended in the appropriate manner (see sec. 204[:9]).19 Our wines are not so strong and they are preferably drunk without dilution.

ו יַיִן חַי, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא חָזָק כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁרָאוּי לְהִמָּזֵג בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה חֲלָקִים מַיִם וְחֵלֶק אֶחָד יַיִן – מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא מְזִיגָה כְּלָל.לא,18 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יוֹתֵר טוֹב לְמָזְגוֹ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא מָזוּג כָּרָאוּילב (עַיֵּן סִמָּן ר"דלג).19

וְיֵינוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵינָם חֲזָקִים – הֵם יוֹתֵר טוֹבִים בְּלֹא מְזִיגָה:לד

7 Kiddush may be recited over raisin wine,20 i.e., [wine produced] by crushing dried grapes, pouring water over them, and allowing them to steep in it for three days until it ferments and becomes wine.21 [This applies] whether the grapes shriveled while they were still on the vine, or whether they were parched and dried in the sun or through a derivative of fire.

[This license applies] provided some moisture22 can be squeezed from them [before] they are steeped [in water].23 (This moisture will then enter the water when they are steeped and will be transformed into wine.) If, however, no moisture can be exuded from them when they are tread on or squeezed with a beam, but only when they are first soaked, Kiddush may not be recited [over the liquid produced by steeping them]. Indeed, even the blessing Borei pri hagafen may not be recited over that liquid.

ז יֵין צִמּוּקִים,לה,20 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכּוֹתְשִׁים עֲנָבִים יְבֵשִׁים וְנוֹתְנִים עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם, וְשׁוֹרִים אוֹתָם בָּהֶם ג' יָמִים, וְתוֹסֵס וְנַעֲשֶׂה יַיִןלו,21 – מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו, בֵּין שֶׁנִּכְמְשׁוּ בְּעוֹדָם בְּגַפְנֵיהֶם, בֵּין שֶׁנִּצְטַמְּקוּ וְנִתְיַבְּשׁוּ בַּחַמָּה, אוֹ עַל יְדֵי תּוֹלֶדֶת הָאוּר.לז וְהוּא שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶם קְצָת לַחְלוּחִית22 בְּלֹא שְׁרִיָּה23 כְּשֶׁמְּעַצְּרִים אוֹתָםלח (שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הַלַּחְלוּחִית הוּא שֶׁנִּכְנָס בַּמַּיִם עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה וּמְהַפְּכָם לְיַיִןלט). אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מֵהֶם שׁוּם לַחְלוּחִית אַף אִם יִדְרְכוּם בָּרֶגֶל אוֹ יַעַצְרוּם בַּקּוֹרָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה בִּלְבָד – אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו, וַאֲפִלּוּ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" אֵין מְבָרְכִים עָלָיו:מ

8 Kiddush may be recited over wine made by steeping grape dregs and pits in water, if it is fit to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen over it, as explained in sec. 204[:10-11].24

ח שִׁמְרֵי יַיִןמא אוֹ חַרְצַנִּיםמב שֶׁנָּתַן עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם וְנַעֲשָׂה יַיִן – מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו אִם רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"ד:מג,24

9 There are authorities who maintain that Kiddush may not be recited over wine that was boiled or over wine to which honey was added, because Kiddush may be recited only over wine that would be fit to be poured as a libation on the Altar.25

Other authorities maintain that this exclusion only prohibits the use of wine that is not fit to be used as a libation because of adverse factors, e.g., it was left exposed or it has an unpleasant fragrance. Wine that was boiled, by contrast, is disqualified [as a libation] for the Altar, only because it has been changed from its natural state. Nevertheless, it has been changed positively, not adversely, as stated in sec. 204[:6].26 Therefore [these authorities maintain,] it may be used for Kiddush. Needless to say, this [also] applies to wine to which honey was added, for it is not inherently disqualified [as a libation] for the Altar.27 It is disqualified only because of the honey, as it is written:28 “[You shall offer] no leaven or any honey [as a fire offering].” Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view and it is customary to recite Kiddush over such wine, even if one has other wine, but it is not of the same quality as this [wine].29

ט יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁים עַל יַיִן מְבֻשָּׁלמד וְעַל יַיִן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דְּבַשׁ,מה שֶׁאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁים אֶלָּא עַל הַיַּיִן הָרָאוּי לְנַסֵּךְ עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ.מו,25

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמז שֶׁלֹּא מִעֲטוּ אֶלָּא יַיִן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְנַסֵּךְ מִפְּנֵי גְּרִיעוּת שֶׁבּוֹ, כְּגוֹן מְגֻלֶּה, וְשֶׁרֵיחוֹ רָע, אֲבָל הַמְבֻשָּׁל אֵין פְּסוּלוֹ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה מִבְּרִיָּתוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא נִשְׁתַּנָּה לִגְרִיעוּת אֶלָּא לְעִלּוּי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"ד,מח,26 לְפִיכָךְ מְקַדְּשִׁים עָלָיו.

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר יַיִן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דְּבַשׁ,מט שֶׁאֵין פְּסוּלוֹ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ27 מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת הַדְּבַשׁ,נ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרנא,28 "כִּי כָל שְׂאֹר וְכָל דְּבַשׁ וְגוֹ'". וְכֵן עִקָּר. וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִים לְקַדֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ יַיִן אַחֵר, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ טוֹב כְּמוֹתָם:נב,29

10 [The following laws apply in] a region or town whose “wine” is primarily beer or other beverages, i.e., the majority of people in that town make beer or other beverages30 the primary [beverage] of their meals,31 just as wine is made the primary [beverage] of the meal in places where it is readily available. In such a town, these beverages are considered like wine and are referred to as chamar medinah, “the wine of the region.”

[Chamar medinah may be used] for all the blessings for which a cup of wine is required. Whenever grapevines do not grow abundantly within a day’s journey around a town – even if much wine is available in stores – it can be assumed that the majority of the populace do not regularly buy wine from a store,32 but rather make other beverages the mainstay of their meals.33 [Hence,] they are considered chamar medinah.

Moreover, even in places where grapevines grow abundantly, if blight affects the grapevines in a particular year and wine is not that available, and as a result, the majority of the populace make other beverages the mainstay of the meal during that year, then those beverages are considered as chamar medinah during that year.

There are authorities who differ with this ruling and maintain that [a beverage] is not considered chamar medinah unless wine is not at all available in the entire city, not even in the stores, during the majority of the year. If, however, during the majority of the year, wine is available in the stores, even if it is expensive, no other beverage is considered chamar medinah with regard to the blessings for which a cup of wine is required, even at times when wine is not at all available in the town. ([The cup of wine used for] Grace after Meals is an exception to this rule, for the reasons explained in sec. 182[:2].)34

The custom of people at large is to follow the first approach.

י מְדִינָה אוֹ עִיר שֶׁרֹב יֵינָם שֵׁכָרנג אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים,נד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ רֹב אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר לִקְבּוֹעַ סְעֻדּוֹתֵיהֶםנה עַל הַשֵּׁכָר31 אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים30 כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לִקְבּוֹעַ עַל הַיַּיִן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַיַּיִן מָצוּי – הֲרֵי מַשְׁקִין אֵלּוּ בְּעִיר זוֹ כְּמוֹ יַיִן, וְנִקְרָאִים שָׁם "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" לְעִנְיַן כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הַטְּעוּנִים כּוֹס.

וְכֹל שֶׁאֵין יַיִן הַרְבֵּה גָּדֵל סְבִיבוֹת הָעִיר כְּמַהֲלַךְ יוֹם,נו שֶׁאַף שֶׁמָּצוּי הַרְבֵּה יַיִן אֵצֶל הַחֶנְוָנִי (א) מִן הַסְּתָם אֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב אַנְשֵׁי עִיר זוֹ לִקְנוֹת יַיִן תָּמִיד מִן הַחֶנְוָנִי,32 אֶלָּא קוֹבְעִים רֹב סְעֻדּוֹתֵיהֶם עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים,33 וַהֲרֵי הֵם "חֲמַר מְדִינָה".נז

וְאַף בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהַיַּיִן גָּדֵל שָׁם וּבְשָׁנָה אַחַת לָקָה הַיַּיִן וְאֵינוֹ מָצוּי כָּל כָּךְ, וְרֹב הָעִיר קוֹבְעִים רֹב סְעֻדּוֹתֵיהֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים – הֲרֵי מַשְׁקִים אֵלּוּ "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא.נח

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל כָּל זֶהנט וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רֹב הַשָּׁנָהס אֵין הַיַּיִן מָצוּי כְּלָל בְּכָל הָעִיר אֲפִלּוּ אֵצֶל הַחֶנְוָנִי, אֲבָל אִם רֹב הַשָּׁנָה הוּא מָצוּי אֵצֶל הַחֶנְוָנִי אַף שֶׁהוּא בְּיֹקֶר – אֵין שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה נִקְרָא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" לְעִנְיַן כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הַטְּעוּנִים כּוֹס (חוּץ מִבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קפ"בסא),34 אַף בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין הַיַּיִן מָצוּי כְּלָל בָּעִיר.

וּמִנְהָג הָעוֹלָם כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:סב

11 There are authorities who maintain that the concept of chamar medinah was mentioned only with regard to Grace after Meals,35 Havdalah,36 and other blessings for which a cup of wine is required, but not for Kiddush. Kiddush may be recited only over wine and not over other beverages that are “the wine of the region.” [This applies] even if it is utterly impossible to find wine in the entire region. Instead, one should recite Kiddush over bread and, for the day [meal], he should fulfill his obligation by reciting Ha­Motzi over bread.37

Other authorities maintain that even someone who has wine may recite Kiddush over “the wine of the region” according to the letter of the law; it is just that this is not considered as “beautifying the mitzvah” (hiddur mitzvah). For as an initial preference, one should recite Kiddush over wine. If, however, one does not have wine at home, even though a storekeeper does, he is not obligated to recite Kiddush over wine unless he desires to fulfill the mitzvah in the optimum manner.

With regard to actual practice, if there is no wine in the city, one should recite Kiddush over bread at night to give weight to the first opinion. During the day, he should recite Kiddush over a beverage that is chamar medinah, for if he will merely recite the blessing over the bread, how will this Kiddush be distinct? Even without the mitzvah of Kiddush, he would recite a blessing over the bread.38 If, however, there is wine in the city, one should not recite Kiddush over bread, but over wine, both at night and during the day, because there are authorities who maintain that the recitation of Kiddush was not instituted over bread at all, only over wine.

Nevertheless, in these countries where wine is expensive, leniency can be taken with regard to the Kiddush for the day [meal] and Kiddush may be recited over a beverage that is “the wine of the region,”39 even if one has wine at home.

[The rationale is that] since he recites a blessing first over the cup [containing] “the wine of the region” and then over the bread, [thereby making the Kiddush distinct,] he fulfills his obligation according to all opinions. True, there is an authority who rules that Kiddush was instituted to be recited only over wine and not over bread or over “the wine of the region.” Nevertheless, because wine is expensive in these countries, there is no need to be that stringent with regard to the Kiddush of the day [meal], since this Kiddush is not obligatory to the same degree as Kiddush at night.

Nevertheless, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to always recite Kiddush over wine.

יא יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֹּא הֻזְכַּר "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן הַבְדָּלָהסג,36 וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןסד,35 וּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַטְּעוּנִים כּוֹס,סה חוּץ מִקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא עַל הַיַּיִן, וְלֹא עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים שֶׁהֵם "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" אַף אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצוֹא יַיִן כְּלָל בְּכָל הַמְּדִינָה,סו אֶלָּא יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת, וּבַיּוֹם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁמְּבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל הַפַּת.סז,37

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסח שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ יַיִן יָכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל "חֲמַר מְדִינָה" מִן הַדִּין, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין זֶה הִדּוּר מִצְוָה, וְצָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן לְכַתְּחִלָּה. אֲבָל אִם אֵין יַיִן בְּבֵיתוֹ אַף שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ אֵצֶל חֶנְוָנִי – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר.סט

וּלְעִנְיַן מַעֲשֶׂה, אִם אֵין יַיִן בָּעִיר – יְקַדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה עַל הַפַּת,ע לָחוּשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּבַיּוֹם יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁהוּא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה",עא שֶׁאִם לֹא יְבָרֵךְ אֶלָּא עַל הַפַּת – אֵיזֶה הֶכֵּר יִהְיֶה לְקִדּוּשׁ זֶה, שֶׁאַף בְּלֹא מִצְוַת קִדּוּשׁ זֶה הָיָה מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפַּת.עב,38 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ יַיִן בָּעִיר – אֵין לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּתעג אֶלָּא עַל הַיַּיִן, בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה בֵּין בַּיּוֹם, לְפִיעד שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעה שֶׁלֹּא תִקְּנוּ כְּלָל קִדּוּשׁ עַל הַפַּת אֶלָּא עַל הַכּוֹס.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁל יוֹם לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁהוּא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה"39 אַף אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ יַיִן בְּבֵיתוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה עַל כּוֹס "חֲמַר מְדִינָה", וְאַחַר כָּךְ עַל הַפַּת – יוֹצֵא בָזֶה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.עו

וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרעז שֶׁלֹּא תִקְּנוּ שׁוּם קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא עַל הַיַּיִן בִּלְבָד, וְלֹא עַל הַפַּת וְלֹא עַל "חֲמַר מְדִינָה", מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר כָּל כָּךְ בְּקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁל יוֹם, שֶׁאֵינוֹ חִיּוּב כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁל לַיְלָה,עח כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.עט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְקַדֵּשׁ לְעוֹלָם עַל הַיַּיִן:פ

12 When a person does not drink wine because he took a vow [not to partake of it], he may recite Kiddush over wine and have the others who are dining with him40 partake of it.41 If there are no others [eating with him], he should recite Kiddush over bread and not over wine, or he should hear42 the recitation of Kiddush by others who recite it over wine.43

In contrast, one who does not drink wine because he dislikes it, should compel himself to partake of it for the Kiddush recited at night44 – he should not recite Kiddush over bread for the reason explained,45 or he should hear Kiddush from someone who recites it over wine.

יב מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן מֵחֲמַת נֶדֶר – יָכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו, (ב) וְיִשְׁתּוּ41 אֲחֵרִים הַמְסֻבִּין עִמּוֹ.פא,40

וְאִם אֵין עִמּוֹ אֲחֵרִים – יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת וְלֹא עַל הַיַּיִן, אוֹ יִשְׁמַע42 קִדּוּשׁ מֵאֲחֵרִים שֶׁמְּקַדְּשִׁים עַל הַיַּיִן.פב,43

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן מֵחֲמַת שֶׁשּׂוֹנְאוֹ – יֵשׁ לוֹ לִדְחוֹק אֶת עַצְמוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּפג בְּקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁל לַיְלָה,44 וְלֹא יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,פד,45 אוֹ יִשְׁמַע מֵאֲחֵרִים הַמְקַדְּשִׁים עַל הַיַּיִן:פה

13 There is no need to recite a blessing after partaking of the cup over which Kiddush was recited, [the blessing al hagefen], neither at night nor during the day, (whether it contained wine or other beverages). [The rationale is that] Kiddush is for the sake of the meal.46 Thus this cup is considered tafeil (an auxiliary) to the meal and covered by the Grace [recited] after the meal; [it is] as if one had drunk it during the meal itself. (See sec. 174[:8].)47

([The following rules apply] if one drinks more before the meal aside from the cup of Kiddush. If [one drank] wine, there is no need to recite a blessing after it for the reason discussed in sec. 174[:6].48 If [one drank] other beverages, he must recite a blessing afterwards, unless he will be reciting a blessing after [partaking of] the cup of blessing [over which he recited] Grace, as explained in that source.49

יג אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ,פו בֵּין שֶׁל לַיְלָה בֵּין שֶׁל יוֹם (בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יַיִן בֵּין שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶהפז), לְפִי שֶׁהַקִּדּוּשׁ הוּא מִצָּרְכֵי הַסְּעֻדָּה,פח,46 וַהֲרֵי כּוֹס זֶה טָפֵל לַסְּעֻדָּה, וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעֻדָּה כְּאִלוּ שָׁתָהוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה (עַיֵּן סִמָּן קע"דפט).47

(וְאִם שָׁתָה עוֹד קֹדֶם הַסְּעֻדָּה מִלְּבַד כּוֹס הַקִּדּוּשׁ, אִם הוּא יַיִן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קע"ד.צ,48 וְאִם הוּא שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו,צא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה אַחַר כּוֹס בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםצב):49

14 There is no need to recite a blessing over the wine [one drinks] in the midst of a meal, because it is covered by the blessing Borei pri hagafen recited in Kiddush.50 (See sec. 174[:5].)51

יד אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" שֶׁבַּקִּדּוּשׁצג,50 (עַיֵּן סִמָּן קע"דצד):51