SECTION 271 The Laws Pertaining to [the Recitation of] Kiddush over Wine (1-30)

סימן רעא דִּינֵי קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁעַל הַיַּיִן וּבוֹ ל׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1It is a positive commandment of Scriptural origin1 to sanctify the Shabbos day verbally, as it is written:2 “Remember the Shabbos day to sanctify it” – i.e., call attention to it with [words of] praise and sanctification.3

This remembrance must be made at the commencement [of the Shabbos] and at its departure: at its commencement with the Kiddush, sanctification of the day, and at its departure with Havdalah. There are authorities who maintain that [the recitation of] Havdalah is merely a Rabbinic ordinance and, according to Scriptural Law, it is only necessary to recall its holiness upon its commencement. This [difference of opinion] is further explained in sec. 296[:19].

א מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָה1 לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת בִּדְבָרִים, א שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ב,2 "זָכוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ", כְּלוֹמַר זָכְרֵהוּ זְכִירוֹת שֶׁבַח וְקִדּוּשׁ. ג,3

וְצָרִיךְ לְזָכְרֵהוּ בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ וּבִיצִיאָתוֹ, בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ – בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם, וּבִיצִיאָתוֹ – בְּהַבְדָּלָה. ד

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים ה שֶׁהַבְדָּלָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וּמִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְזָכְרֵהוּ אֶלָּא בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ בִּלְבָד, וְיִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רצ"ו: ו

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2 Our Sages ordained that this [verbal] remembrance [of the holiness of Shabbos be recited] over a cup of wine,4 both at the commencement [of the day] as well as at its departure.

The optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to recite Kiddush as close to the commencement [of the day] as is possible. Even if one left the synagogue [after reciting the Evening Service] while it was still day [on Friday], he should recite Kiddush immediately.5 Since he added from the mundane to the holy [by reciting the Evening Service], the Shabbos has already commenced for him and he should recite Kiddush immediately upon its commencement.

After reciting Kiddush, he must also eat immediately,6 so that Kiddush will have been recited in the place where the meal will be held.7 If he has no appetite just then, he may wait [to recite Kiddush] as far into the night as he desires [so that he will] recite Kiddush when he will eat with appetite.8 He may rely on his mention of [the Shabbos] in the Evening Service [to fulfill the requirement of sanctifying the Shabbos]upon its commencement. With it, he fulfills his obligation according to Scriptural Law, for according to Scriptural Law, all that is necessary is a verbal acknowledgment [of the holiness of Shabbos]; wine is not [required]. This, he already did in his prayers.

ב וְתִקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים ז שֶׁתְּהֵא זְכִירָה זוֹ עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל יַיִן, ח,4 בֵּין בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ, בֵּין בִּיצִיאָתוֹ. ט

וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְקַדֵּשׁ סָמוּךְ לִתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסָתוֹ בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר. י וְאַף אִם יָצָא מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת יא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – יֵשׁ לוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ מִיָּד,יב,5 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ – הֲרֵי זֶה אֶצְלוֹ כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת,יג וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ מִיָּד סָמוּךְ לִכְנִיסָתוֹ. וְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל גַּם כֵּן מִיָּד,יד,6 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַקִּדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה.טו,7

וְאִם אֵינוֹ תָאֵב לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד – יָכוֹל לְהַמְתִּין מִלְּקַדֵּשׁ תּוֹךְ הַלַּיְלָה כַּמָּה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאכַל לְתֵאָבוֹן,טז,8 וְיוּכַל לִסְמוֹךְ עַל מַה שֶּׁכְּבָר זְכָרוֹ בִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסָתוֹ בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית, שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא בָּזֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא זְכִירָה בִּדְבָרִים בִּלְבָד בְּלֹא יַיִן,יז וַהֲרֵי זְכָרוֹ בִּתְפִלָּה:יח

3 There are those who are careful not to recite Kiddush9in the first hour of the night (i.e., the seventh hour after midday;10 see sec. 428).11 [Thus, one should recite Kiddush] either before nightfall or an hour into the night. [The rationale is that] in the first hour of the night, the mazal of Mars [is empowered]12 and the angel Samael13 has sovereignty over it. It was already explained14 that, as an initial preference, one should recite Kiddush immediately when coming from the synagogue, while it is still day.

ג יֵשׁ נִזְהָרִים שֶׁלֹּא לְקַדֵּשׁ9 בְּשָׁעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל הַלַּיְלָהיט (דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁעָה שְׁבִיעִית אַחַר חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם,כ,10 עַיֵּן סִמָּן תכ"חכא),11 אֶלָּא אוֹ קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה, אוֹ לְאַחַר שָׁעָה תּוֹךְ הַלַּיְלָה, לְפִי שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הוּא מַזָּל מַאְדִּים,12 וְסמא"ל13 מוֹשֵׁל עָלָיו.

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵרכב,14 שֶׁלְּכַתְחִלָּה יֵשׁ לוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ מִיָּד בְּבוֹאוֹ מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:

4 [The recitation of] Kiddush on a festival is a Rabbinic ordinance. Nevertheless, all of the laws that apply to Kiddush on Shabbos apply to it in every regard. Nonetheless, [greater prominence is granted to Shabbos]. Thus if a person has only one cup of wine and a festival falls on Friday,15 Shabbos is granted prominence over the festival [and the cup of wine is saved for the recitation of Kiddush on that night.16 The rationale is that although both are Rabbinic precepts,] the fundamental mitzvah to recite Kiddush on Shabbos is of Scriptural origin, even though the recitation over a cup of wine is of Rabbinic origin.

ד הַקִּדּוּשׁ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,כג וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵשׁ לוֹ כָּל דִּינֵי קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת לְכָל דָּבָר.כד

אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא כּוֹס אֶחָד (א) וְחָל יוֹם טוֹב בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת15 – הֲרֵי קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת קוֹדֵם לְשֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב,כה,16 כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר הַקִּדּוּשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַל הַכּוֹס הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:כו

5 Women are obligated in the sanctification of the Shabbos day according to Scriptural Law17 and in [the sanctification of] the festivals according to Rabbinic decree. Although women are exempt from all positive commandments that are dependent on time, they are obligated in the sanctification of the [Shabbos] day. [This concept is derived as follows:] It is written: “Remember the Shabbos day to sanctify it” and it is written:18 “Observe the Shabbos day….” [Our Sages stated:]19 All those who are obligated to observe are obligated to remember. Women are obligated in the observance of Shabbos, i.e., to safeguard against the performance of forbidden labors on it. This is a negative commandment, [as it is written:] “Do not perform any work” and women are obligated in all negative commandments, even those dependent on time. [Therefore,] they are also obligated in the remembrance [of Shabbos,] i.e., the sanctification of the day.20

ה נָשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם בְּשַׁבָּת מִן הַתּוֹרָה,כז,17 וּבְיוֹם טוֹב מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.כח וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא נָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת מִמֶּנָּהכט – בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם חַיָּבוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרל,2 "זָכוֹר אֶת יוֹם וְגוֹ'", וְנֶאֱמַרלא,18 "שָׁמוֹר אֶת יוֹם וְגוֹ'", כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ בִּשְׁמִירָה יֶשְׁנוֹ בִּזְכִירָה,,19 וְהוֹאִיל וְהַנָּשִׁים מֻזְהָרוֹת בִּשְׁמִירָתוֹ לְהִשָּׁמֵר בּוֹ מֵעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה, שֶׁהִיא מִצְוַת "לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָּל מְלָאכָה וְגוֹ'",לב וְכָל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה אַף שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא נָשִׁים מֻזְהָרוֹת בָּהּלג – הֲרֵי הֵן מֻזְהָרוֹת גַּם כֵּן בִּזְכִירָתוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם:לד,20

6 Since women are obligated in the sanctification of the Shabbos day according to Scriptural Law as men are, they may fulfill this obligation on behalf of men.21 Nevertheless, should a person ask about this,22 as an initial preference, one should not instruct him to actually do so,23 (lest this cause mitzvos to be demeaned).

ו וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּמוֹ הָאֲנָשִׁים – יְכוֹלוֹת לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הָאֲנָשִׁים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָם,לה,21 אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לְהוֹרוֹת כֵּן לְשׁוֹאֵל22 הֲלָכָה לְמַעֲשֶׂהלו,23 (שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לְזַלְזֵל בְּמִצְוֹתלז):

7 A minor – even if he is thirteen years old, [but] it is not known whether he manifested physical signs of maturity24 – may not fulfill the obligation [of Kiddush] for a woman. For she is definitely obligated according to Scriptural Law,25 while his obligation is a matter of question, for perhaps he did not manifest physical signs of maturity and thus is exempt from [the observance of] all the mitzvos according to Scriptural Law. Therefore, the woman should recite Kiddush herself. If she does not know [the words],26 she should recite [them] together with the minor, word by word. [Moreover,] even if she listens to [the recitation of] Kiddush by an adult, if she does not understand the Holy Tongue, she should repeat after him, word by word, as stated in sec. 193[:1].27

ז וְקָטָן אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בֶּן י"ג שָׁנָה, אִם אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ שֶׁהֵבִיא ב' שְׂעָרוֹת,24 – אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֶת הָאִשָּׁה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא מְחֻיֶּבֶת מִן הַתּוֹרָה25 בְּוַדַּאי וְהוּא אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב אֶלָּא מִסָּפֵק, כִּי שֶׁמָּא לֹא הֵבִיא ב' שְׂעָרוֹת עֲדַיִן, וְהוּא פָּטוּר מִכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת מִן הַתּוֹרָה,לח לָכֵן תְּקַדֵּשׁ הָאִשָּׁה בְּעַצְמָהּ.

וְאִם אֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת26 – תֹּאמַר עִם הַקָּטָן מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה.לט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שׁוֹמַעַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ מִגָּדוֹל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֵינָהּ מְבִינָה לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ – תֹּאמַר עִמּוֹ מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קצ"ג:מ,27

8 [The following guidelines apply when] a person does not have the means to: a) purchase wine for Kiddush at night; b) prepare the needs for the meal in honor of the night and the meal in honor of the day; and c) [purchase] wine for Kiddush for the day. The [purchase of wine for the] Kiddush at night takes priority over all [other purchases],28 because [it is required] by Scriptural Law. Even though one may recite Kiddush over bread and the obligation to recite it over wine is only Rabbinic, since the fundamental obligation of Kiddush is a Scriptural requirement, the wine for its recitation receives precedence over everything else, with the exception of bread.29 For if one does not have two loaves of bread (lechem mishneh), [the bread] takes precedence over wine for Kiddush at night.30 [In such a situation,] he should recite Kiddush over the bread. [The rationale is that] bread is the fundamental dimension of the mitzvah of the Shabbos meal, for it is utterly impossible to carry it out without bread, as will be stated in sec. 274:5.31

If one has bread and wine for Kiddush at night and he must (purchase wine for Kiddush during the day) and prepare the needs for the meal in honor of the night and the meal in honor of the day, the needs for the meal in honor of the day take precedence over ([wine] for Kiddush during the day) and the needs for the meal in honor of the night. [The rationale is that] the honor of the day takes precedence over the honor of the night. Similarly, if a person has but a small amount of delicacies, he should leave them for the day [meal] and not partake of them at night, for honoring the day meal is granted precedence. (Similarly, wine for Kiddush during the day is granted precedence over the needs of the meal that honors the night.)

ח מִי שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לִקְנוֹת יַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה, וּלְהָכִין צָרְכֵי סְעֻדָּה לִכְבוֹד הַלַּיְלָה וְלִכְבוֹד הַיּוֹם, וְיַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבַּיּוֹם – הֲרֵי קִדּוּשׁ הַלַּיְלָה קוֹדֵם לַכֹּל,מא,28 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת, וְגַם עַל הַיַּיִן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,מב מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר קִדּוּשׁ זֶה הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה – גַּם הַיַּיִן שֶׁלּוֹ קוֹדֵם לַכֹּל.מג

חוּץ מִן הַפַּת,מד,29 שֶׁאִם אֵין לוֹ פַּת (ב) לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה – הִיא קוֹדֶמֶת לְיַיִן שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ הַלַּיְלָה,30 וִיקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת,מה לְפִי שֶׁהַפַּת הוּא עִקַּר מִצְוַת סְעֻדַּת הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקַיְּמָן כְּלָל בְּלֹא פַת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ד.מו,31

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ פַּת וְיַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ הַלַּיְלָה, וְצָרִיךְ (לִקְנוֹת יַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבַּיּוֹם) וּלְהָכִין צָרְכֵי סְעֻדָּה לִכְבוֹד לַיְלָה וְלִכְבוֹד יוֹם – הֲרֵי צָרְכֵי סְעֻדָּה שֶׁלִּכְבוֹד הַיּוֹם קוֹדְמִין (לְקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹםמז) וּלְצָרְכֵי סְעֻדָּה שֶׁלִכְבוֹד הַלַּיְלָה, שֶׁכְּבוֹד יוֹם קוֹדֵם לִכְבוֹד לַיְלָה.מח

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מְעַט מִינֵי מְגָדִים – יַנִּיחֵם עַד הַיּוֹםמט וְלֹא יֹאכְלֵם בַּלַּיְלָה, שֶׁכְּבוֹד הַיּוֹם קוֹדֵם (וְכֵן קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבַּיּוֹם קוֹדֵם לְצָרְכֵי סְעֻדָּה שֶׁלִכְבוֹד הַלַּיְלָהנ):

9 Our Sages32 forbade tasting anything, even water, from the time when the obligation to recite Kiddush takes effect – i.e., from bein hashmashos, at which time there is a question whether the holiness of the day takes effect – until one recites Kiddush. Moreover, [this restriction takes effect] even while it is still day [on Friday] if one had recited the Evening Service at that time.

[Our Sages established a general rule] regarding all mitzvos whose observance is associated with a specific time: When the time for their observance arrives, it is only forbidden to sit down to a meal,33 lest one be drawn to continue eating34 and the time [for the observance of the mitzvah] pass. Merely tasting [food or drink] is permitted,35 because there is no concern that one’s [sitting] will be extended36 and the time [for the observance of the mitzvah will] pass. Nevertheless, [our Sages] ruled more stringently with regard to Kiddush and Havdalah,37because primarily, the mitzvah is to be fulfilled at the very beginning of the time frame [for its observance], i.e., close to the commencement of Shabbos and close to its departure.38

Even if one began to eat and drink while it is still day [on Friday], he must stop when bein hashmashos arrives.39 With regard to all the other mitzvos, even those of Scriptural origin, if one began [eating or drinking] when one is permitted to do so, i.e., before the time for the fulfillment of the mitzvah arrived, there is no need for him to interrupt [his meal]. For this reason, it is not necessary [at this meal] for one to cease [eating] to recite the Shema or the Shemoneh Esreh [immediately] when the time [for their recitation] arrives.40 Nevertheless, with regard to the sanctification of the [Shabbos] day, our Sages did not grant license for one to complete his meal and then recite Kiddush. [The rationale is] that Kiddush was primarily ordained to be recited at – and before – the Shabbos meal,41 not after it. Our Sages [derived this concept through] their interpretation of the verse:42 “And you shall call the Shabbos ‘a delight,’ ” explaining: “in the place where one delights,” i.e., in the place where you will take pleasure in the Shabbos meal, “there – before [partaking of] it – Shabbos should be ‘called’ ” through the prior recitation of Kiddush.

Nevertheless, one should not interrupt his meal entirely and recite the Grace after Meals for the reason to be explained.43 Instead, he should [stop], recite Kiddush immediately, and then finish his meal, so that Kiddush will have been recited on the portion of the meal that follows it.44

ט אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים32 לִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם,נא אֲפִלּוּ מַיִם,נב מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ עַד שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ, דְּהַיְנוּ מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתנג שֶׁנִּתְקַדֵּשׁ הַיּוֹם מִסָּפֵק, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.נד

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מִצְוֹת הַקָּבוּעַ לָהֶם זְמַן לֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לִקְבּוֹעַ סְעֻדָּה33 מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּן, מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמָּשֵׁךְ בַּסְּעֻדָּהנה,34 וְיַעֲבוֹר הַזְּמַן, אֲבָל טְעִימָה בְּעָלְמָא מֻתָּר,נו,35 שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ בָּהּ שֶׁמָּא יִמָּשֵׁךְ36 וְיַעֲבוֹר הַזְּמַן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּקִדּוּשׁ, וְכֵן בְּהַבְדָּלָה,נז הֶחֱמִירוּ יוֹתֵר,37 לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר מִצְוָתָן הוּא בִּתְחִלַּת זְמַנָּם, דְּהַיְנוּ סָמוּךְ לִכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּתנח וְסָמוּךְ לִיצִיאָתוֹ.נט,38

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הִתְחִיל לֶאֱכוֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיקס (ג) כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.סא,39

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, אִם הִתְחִיל בְּהֶתֵּר, דְּהַיְנוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַמִּצְוָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק,סב וּמִטַּעַם זֶה גַם כֵּן אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַעסג וְלִתְפִלָּהסד כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַנָּן,40 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם לֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לִגְמוֹר סְעֻדָּתוֹ וּלְקַדֵּשׁ אַחַר כָּךְ, לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר הַקִּדּוּשׁ נִתְקַן בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת,סה וְקֹדֶם לָהּ,41 וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ,סו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרסז,42 "וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:סח בִּמְקוֹם עֹנֶג, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּתְעַנֵּג שָׁם בִּסְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת – שָׁם תְּהֵא קְרִיאַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ מִלְּפָנֶיהָ.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לוֹ לְהַפְסִיק סְעֻדָּתוֹ לְגַמְרֵי וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,סט,43 אֶלָּא יְקַדֵּשׁ מִיָּד וְיִגְמוֹר סְעֻדָּתוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקִּדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו:ע,44

10 Before making Kiddush,45one must spread a cloth over the table to cover the bread.46 Afterwards, he should remove it so that the bread will appear as if it was now brought to the table to honor the Shabbos that was mentioned in Kiddush.

י וְצָרִיךְ לִפְרוֹס מַפָּה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן לְכַסּוֹת הַפַּת46 קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁעא,45 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְסִירֶנָּה, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּתְרָאֶה הַפַּת כְּאִלּוּ הוּבְאָה עַתָּה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן לִכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת שֶׁהִזְכִּיר בַּקִּדּוּשׁ:עב

11 If one had already recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen on wine in this meal, he does not have to recite that blessing on the cup [of wine] over which Kiddush is recited. For the blessing he already recited also covers the wine for Kiddush. For the same reason, he need notrecite a blessing over any wine that he will drink during his meal after Kiddush.47

Similarly, if he recites Kiddush over bread, he does not have to recite the blessing Ha­Motzi over it. Instead, he should begin from the blessing of Kiddush itself. If, however, he recites Kiddush over wine, he must recite the blessing HaMotzi over the bread that he will eat after Kiddush. [The blessing is required,] because at the time he recited Kiddush, he was unable to eat anything, because one cannot eat and speak at the same time. [Thus the Kiddush is considered an interruption in his meal, requiring him to recite a new blessing.]

[To explain by comparison:]48 His [situation] does not resemble that of one who recites the Shemoneh Esreh in the midst of his meal, in which instance, the person’s prayer is not considered an interruption that requires him to recite HaMotzi again on the bread that he will eat afterwards.49 [In that instance,] the person’s meal has not been finished, since he was not forbidden to eat at the time he was praying. If he desired, he could have eaten at the time he prayed and prayed afterwards. [Moreover,] even if there was not sufficient time left in the day for him to finish his meal and pray – in which instance, he would be obligated to interrupt his meal and pray, indeed, he would be forbidden to eat more – nevertheless, all that is forbidden to him is to sit down to a [new] meal, lest he be drawn to continue [eating]50 and [allow] the time of prayer to pass. Merely snacking would be permitted at the time of prayer.51 Therefore, his prayer is not considered an interruption of his meal.

(Furthermore, he was forbidden to eat only because the time for prayer arrived. Afterwards, he returns to his first setting. In this instance, however, eating is forbidden so that Kiddush will be recited before eating and not afterwards, as explained.52 If so, Kiddush makes a distinction between the two times he eats; when he eats afterwards, it is considered as another meal.)

[Since] he is forbidden to even snack from when the time for Kiddush arrives,53 it is as if his meal has already concluded. Accordingly, the recitation of Kiddush is considered an interruption, for he could not have eaten anything during its recitation. It is [therefore considered as if] he recited it after he finished his meal.

[The above does not apply] with regard to the wine over which Kiddush [is recited]. Even though one drinks it after Kiddush, [if one recited a blessing for wine beforehand, in the course of his meal,] he need not recite a blessing over [the cup of wine on which he is reciting Kiddush. The rationale is that] the blessing for the wine is to be recited before Kiddush and at that time no statement that differentiates [between one’s eating beforehand and afterwards] had been made.

[As] mentioned in sec. 190[:4], there are authorities who maintain that our Sages ordained that the blessing Borei pri hagafen should be recited before Kiddush –and before any other [blessing] that must be recited over a cup of wine.54 [Nevertheless, even according to that approach,] the blessing that was recited originally is [still] effective for Kiddush just as it effectively serves as a blessing over the satisfaction55 [received from the wine one drank earlier]. There is no need to recite a second blessing [over the wine over which he recites Kiddush] because at the time which is considered the conclusion of the meal and the person’s withdrawal from it – because he is forbidden to eat before Kiddush –a statement making an interruption had not yet been made. Accordingly, the initial blessing was still in effect. And at the time the person recites Kiddush, his intent is focused on the cup, to drink it immediately [after Kiddush]. Reciting Kiddush is thus necessary for the sake of drinking [the wine]. Thus, [the recitation of Kiddush] is not considered as an interruption for a person [who had recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen earlier in the meal], just as it is not considered as an interruption for any other person who recites Kiddush over a cup of wine.56

This is not so with regard to the bread that is eaten after reciting Kiddush over a cup of wine. [In that instance,] the person’s state when he recites Kiddush is the same as before he recited it – i.e., he had [already] concluded his meal and withdrawn from it.

There are authorities who differ with [this ruling] and maintain that [a blessing should not be recited for the bread one eats after reciting Kiddush.

Their reasoning:] The fact that the person was forbidden to eat after the time for Kiddush arrived is not considered as the conclusion of the meal, since the person intends to eat more afterwards. [Indeed,] he would still be eating, were he not prevented from doing so by the obligation of Kiddush. When that impediment is removed – i.e., once he recites Kiddush – he will return to his meal. Therefore, the recitation of Kiddush is not considered an interruption, just like prayer is not considered an interruption, and it is not necessary to recite HaMotzi [after Kiddush].

Whenever there is a question whether a blessing is required, we rule leniently.57 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, every conscientious person58 should be careful not to put himself in such a situation.59 [Instead,] he should conclude his meal and recite Grace before the arrival of the time when Kiddush must be recited.

יא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ זֶה אִם כְּבָר בֵּרַךְ עַל הַיַּיִן בִּסְעֻדָּה זוֹ, שֶׁגַּם יַיִן זֶה שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ נִפְטָר בְּאוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה,עג וְגַם עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ מִטַּעַם זֶה.עד,47

וְכֵן אִם מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא", אֶלָּא יַתְחִיל מִבִּרְכַּת הַקִּדּוּשׁ.עה אֲבָל אִם קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל פַּת שֶׁיֹּאכַל אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ,עו הוֹאִיל וּבִשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל וּלְדַבֵּר כְּאֶחָד.עז

וְאֵינוֹ48 דוֹמֶה לְמִתְפַּלֵּל בְּאֶמְצַע סְעֻדָּתוֹעח שֶׁאֵין תְּפִלָּתוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק לְהַטְעִינוֹ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל פַּת שֶׁיֹּאכַל אַחַר כָּךְ,עט,49 לְפִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה סְעֻדָּתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל, וְאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה הָיָה אוֹכֵל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל וְהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר כָּךְ.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא הָיָה שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם לִגְמוֹר סְעֻדָּתוֹ וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁחַיָּב הוּא לְהַפְסִיק סְעֻדָּתוֹ וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל, וְאָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל עוֹד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא נֶאֱסַר עָלָיו אֶלָּא אֲכִילַת קֶבַע,33 שֶׁמָּא יִמָּשֵׁךְ בָּהּפ,50 וְיַעֲבוֹר זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּה, אֲבָל טְעִימָה בְּעָלְמָא הָיְתָה מֻתֶּרֶת לוֹפא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל,51 וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין תְּפִלָּתוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק בַּסְּעֻדָּה.פב

(וְעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֶסְרָה עָלָיו אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַתְּפִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹזֵר לִקְבִיעוּתוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, אֲבָל כַּאן נֶאֶסְרָה עָלָיו הָאֲכִילָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקִּדּוּשׁ לִפְנֵי הָאֲכִילָה וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,פג,52 אִם כֵּן הֲרֵי הַקִּדּוּשׁ מְחַלֵּק שְׁתֵּי הָאֲכִילוֹת, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל אַחַר כָּךְ הִיא נֶחְשֶׁבֶת סְעֻדָּה אַחֶרֶתפד).

[אֲבָל כַּאן] מִיָּדפה שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ52 נֶאֱסַר עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ טְעִימָה בְּעָלְמָא,פו וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּאִלּוּ נִגְמְרָה כְּבָר סְעֻדָתוֹ, לְכָךְ חֲשׁוּבָה אֲמִירַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ הֶפְסֵק, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירָתוֹ לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל כְּלוּם, וְהוּא אֲמָרוֹ אַחַר גְּמַר סְעֻדָּתוֹ.53

אֲבָל הַיַּיִן שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשּׁוֹתֵהוּ אַחַר קִדּוּשׁ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵך עָלָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזְּמַן בִּרְכָתוֹ הוּא קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ, וְאָז עֲדַיִן אֵין שָׁם אֲמִירָה מַפְסֶקֶת.פז

וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים הוּא בְּקִדּוּשׁ וְכָל דָּבָר הַטָּעוּן כּוֹס שֶׁיְּבָרְכוּ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַיַּיִן תְּחִלָּה54 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ק"צפח – מוֹעֶלֶת בְּרָכָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְקִדּוּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמּוֹעֶלֶת לְבִרְכַּת הַנֶּהֱנִין55 שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ, הוֹאִיל וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה גְּמַר וְסִלּוּק סְעֻדָּה מִפְּנֵי אִסּוּר הַטְּעִימָה קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ לֹא הָיְתָה עֲדַיִן אֲמִירָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת, וְלֹא נִסְתַּלְּקָה עֲדַיִן בְּרָכָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּבִשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ הֲרֵי דַעְתּוֹ עַל הַכּוֹס שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ מִיָּד, וַאֲמִירַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ הַשְּׁתִיָּה וְאֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק לְזֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק לְכָל מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס.פט,56 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בַּפַּת, שֶׁאוֹכֵל לְאַחַר שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס, שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ הוּא כְּקֹדֶם אֲמִירָתוֹ, שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׁעַת גְּמַר וְסִלּוּק סְעֻדָּה.צ

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהצא וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁנֶּאֱסַר עָלָיו הָאֲכִילָה מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ – אֵין זֶה נֶחְשָׁב גְּמַר הַסְּעֻדָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּדַעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל אַחַר כָּךְ, וְגַם עַכְשָׁו הָיָה אוֹכֵל מִדַּעְתּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁחִיּוּב הַקִּדּוּשׁ מוֹנֵעַ אוֹתוֹ, וּכְשֶׁיָּסוּר הַמּוֹנֵעַ, דְּהַיְנוּ אַחַר שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ, יַחֲזוֹר לַאֲכִילָתוֹ,צב לְפִיכָךְ אֵין אֲמִירַת הַקִּדּוּשׁ מַפְסֶקֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין הַתְּפִלָּה מַפְסֶקֶת, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ הַמּוֹצִיא.

וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל.צג,57 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ58 יֵשׁ לוֹ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לָבֹא לִידֵי כָךְ,צד,59 וְיַפְסִיק סְעֻדָּתוֹ וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם:

12 All the above applies when the person has not yet said: “Bring a cup and let us recite the Grace after Meals.” If, however, he has already made such a statement, whether he said so before the time for Kiddush arrived or afterwards, he must recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen on the cup of wine for Kiddush, for he diverted his attention from drinking because of the blessing of Grace.

If, however, he recites Kiddush over bread, he does not have to recite the blessing HaMotzi [in such a situation.60 Moreover,] even if one recites Kiddush over wine, it is not necessary to recite the blessing HaMotzi on the bread he eats after Kiddush,61 because saying “Bring a cup and let us recite Grace” is not considered an interruption with regard to eating, only with regard to drinking, as explained in sec. 179[1-2, 4].62

If, however, one already washed mayim acharonim,63 he must recite a blessing even on the bread over which he is reciting Kiddush. Certainly, when one recites Kiddush on a cup of wine, he must recite the blessing HaMotzi on the bread he will partake of afterwards. For washing mayim acharonim is considered a diversion of attention even with regard to eating, as stated in that source.64 True, as an initial preference, it is desirable not to eat or drink at all after washing mayim acharonim, even when one recites a blessing on what one eats and drinks and then, before reciting Grace, washes mayim acharonim again, as stated there. Nevertheless, in this instance, it is preferable to recite Kiddush immediately and then eat a little afterwards so that Kiddush will have been recited in the place of the Shabbos meal which follows it, rather than to recite Grace immediately and then recite Kiddush afterwards. [The rationale is that] by doing so, one enters [an area where there are] many halachic differences of opinion.65

There are authorities who maintain that he should recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen on the cup over which Grace was recited and taste it. Afterwards, he should not recite Borei pri hagafen again on the cup over which Kiddush was recited, since it was already covered by the blessing [recited over the cup of Grace]. Other authorities maintain that he should not taste the cup of wine over which Grace was recited at all, since he did not yet recite Kiddush.66Therefore, he should not recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen. Instead, he should leave [that cup of wine] until after he partakes of the cup of wine over which he recited Kiddush. Then he should partake of [the wine over which Grace was recited] as well. One may not fulfill [the directives of] both approaches by reciting Kiddush over the cup over which Grace was recited, because Grace possesses its own [inherent] holiness and Kiddush is an independent mitzvah. We do not recite two holy statements over one cup, because mitzvos may not be performed in bundles.67

Even if a person dines alone and recites Grace without a cup, nevertheless, if he will recite Kiddush immediately after Grace, there are authorities who maintain that he does not fulfill his obligation unless he eats again immediately after Kiddush,so that Kiddush will have been recited in the place where one eats a Shabbos meal directly thereafter. Accordingly, the recitation of Grace will have been an unnecessary blessing,68 since he could have covered [the food for which he recited Grace] in the Grace that he will recite for his second meal. [True,] there are authorities who maintain that there is no need to eat a second meal, for – after the fact – one may rely on the meal that he already ate, since when he recites Kiddush immediately afterwards, it is considered as having recited Kiddush in the place where he ate a meal even though it is a weekday meal.69 Nevertheless, in order to give weight to the first opinion, one should be careful not to bring oneself to such a situation.70

Instead, even though one washed mayim acharonim, he should spread a cloth [over the bread], recite Kiddush, and then eat a little,71 so that Kiddush will have been recited in the place of a Shabbos meal that follows it. Afterwards, he should wash mayim acharonim again and recite Grace. How much more so should this course of action be followed if one did not wash mayim acharonim even though he completed his meal while it was still day, but was unable to recite Grace before the time for Kiddush arrived.

יב וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁלֹּא אָמַר עֲדַיִן "תְּנוּ לָנוּ הַכּוֹס וּנְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן", אֲבָל אִם אָמַר כֵּן כְּבָר, בֵּין שֶׁאָמַר כֵּן קֹדֶם זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ בֵּין אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנּוֹ – צָרִיךְ הוּא לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ,צה שֶׁהֲרֵי הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁתִיָּה מֵחֲמַת בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.

אֲבָל אִם מְקַדֵשׁ עַל הַפַּת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ "הַמּוֹצִיא".60 וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל הַפַּת שֶׁאוֹכֵל אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ,61 לְפִי שֶׁאֲמִירַת "תְּנוּ לָנוּ וּנְבָרֵךְ" אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת לְעִנְיַן אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן שְׁתִיָּה בִּלְבָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קע"ט.צו,62

אֲבָל אִם נָטַל כְּבָר יָדָיו בְּמַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים63 – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַפַּת שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאִם קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל הַפַּת שֶׁאוֹכֵל אַחַר כָּךְ, שֶׁנְּטִילַת מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים חֲשׁוּבָה הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת גַּם לְעִנְיַן אֲכִילָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.צז,64

וְאַף שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת כְּלָל אַחַר נְטִילַת מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ וּשְׁתִיָּתוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן יַחֲזוֹר וְיִטּוֹל מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִיםצח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,צט,64 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן יוֹתֵר טוֹב שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ מִיָּד וְיֹאכַל מְעַט אַחֲרָיו, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקִּדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, מִמַּה שֶּׁיְּבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִיָּד וִיקַדֵּשׁ אַחַר כָּךְ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִם יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן יִכָּנֵס בְּמַחֲלוֹקוֹת רַבּוֹת,ק,65 שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקא שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן וְיִטְעָמֶנּוּ,קב וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ שׁוּב "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ,קג שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְטַר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקד שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם מִכּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא קִדֵּשׁ עֲדַיִן,66 וּלְפִיכָךְ לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם מִכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ, וְאָז יִטְעוֹם גַם כֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ,קה וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לָצֵאת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם, שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ אוֹתוֹ עַל אוֹתוֹ כּוֹס עַצְמוֹ שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, לְפִי שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הִיא קְדֻשָּׁה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, וְהַקִּדּוּשׁ הוּא מִצְוָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים ב' קְדֻשּׁוֹת עַל כּוֹס אַחַת, שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין מִצְוֹת חֲבִילוֹת חֲבִילוֹת.קו,67

וְאַף אִם הוּא מֵסֵב יְחִידִי וּמְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּלֹא כוֹס,קז מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם יְקַדֵּשׁ מִיָּד אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקח שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יַחֲזוֹר וְיֹאכַל מִיָּד, שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקִּדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, וְאִם כֵּן מַה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן הִיא (ד) בְּרָכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה,קט,68 שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיָה יָכוֹל לִפָּטֵר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ אַחַר אֲכִילָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה.קי וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקיא שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וְלֶאֱכוֹל, לְפִי שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד יוּכַל לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְעֻדָּה שֶׁאָכַל כְּבָר שֶׁכְּשֶׁיְּקַדֵשׁ אַחֲרֶיהָ מִיָּד – הֲרֵי זֶה קִדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא סְעֻדַּת הַחֹל,קיב,69 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּדֵי לָחוּשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לָבֹא לִידֵי כָךְ.70

אֶלָּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּטַל מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים יִפְרוֹס מַפָּה וִיקַדֵּשׁ, וְיַחֲזוֹר וְיֹאכַל מְעַטקיג,71 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקִּדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַחֲזוֹר וְיִטּוֹל מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן.

וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם לֹא נָטַל יָדָיו עֲדַיִן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן,קיד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר גָּמַר סְעֻדָּתוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא הִסְפִּיק לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ:

13 If one transgressed72 and began the recitation of Grace after the time for Kiddush arrived – even if one began reciting Grace after nightfall – he should not mention Shabbos in Grace. [The rationale is that] since he is reciting Grace for a meal that he concluded on a weekday, i.e., while it was still day [on Friday], why should he mention Shabbos in [Grace]? If, however, he extended his meal into the night – even if he did not have the license to do so – he must mention Shabbos in Grace even though he did not yet recite Kiddush, because the holiness of Shabbos takes effect in and of itself.73

(Needless to say, if one spread a cloth over the bread, recited Kiddush, and then completed his meal, he is required to mention Shabbos in Grace. [This ruling applies] even if he was stringent and spread a cloth [over the bread] and recited Kiddush while it was still day [on Friday], before the time for Kiddush arrived and even if he also recited Grace while it was still day. Since he recited Kiddush, the holiness of Shabbos takes effect for him).

יג וְאִם עָבַר72 וְהִתְחִיל לְבָרֵךְ אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ הִתְחִיל לְבָרֵךְ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה – לֹא יַזְכִּיר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן,קטו דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַסְּעֻדָּה שֶׁגָּמַר בְּחֹל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, הַאֵיךְ יַזְכִּיר בָּהּ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת.

אֲבָל אִם מָשַׁךְ סְעֻדָּתוֹ עַד תּוֹךְ הַלַּיְלָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי – צָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹןקטז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא קִדֵּשׁ, שֶׁכְּבָר חָלָה עָלָיו קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת מֵאֵלֶיהָ.73

(וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם פֵּרַס מַפָּה וְקִדֵּשׁ וְגָמַר סְעֻדָּתוֹ, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הֶחֱמִיר וּפֵרַס מַפָּה וְקִדֵּשׁ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ,קיז וְגַם מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ – חָלָה עָלָיו קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת):

14 [If] while it was still day on Friday, two people were drinking after they completed their meal and they said, “Let us sanctify the day,”74 it is forbidden for them to drink any more75 until they recite Kiddush, even though the time for Kiddush has yet to arrive.76 If they desire to drink more – even though they do not have license to – they must recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen again. [The rationale is that] since they spoke about reciting Kiddush, they diverted their attention from drinking until they [actually] recite Kiddush. If, however, they recite Kiddush immediately, they do not have to recite the blessing [Borei pri hagafen] on the cup of wine over which Kiddush is recited, as explained above.77 For by making this statement, they did not divert their attention from the cup of Kiddush.

יד שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהָיוּ (ה) שׁוֹתִיןקיח אַחַר גְּמַר הַסְּעֻדָּהקיט מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםקכ וְאָמְרוּ "בֹּא וּנְקַדֵּשׁ קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם",74 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ עֲדַיִן זְמַן הַקִּדּוּשׁ 76 – נֶאֱסַר עֲלֵיהֶם לִשְׁתּוֹתקכא,75 עַד שֶׁיְּקַדְּשׁוּ. וְאִם רוֹצִים לַחֲזוֹר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם רַשָּׁאִים – צְרִיכִים הֵם לַחֲזוֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְקַדֵּשׁ – הִסִּיחוּ דַעְתָּם מִשְּׁתִיָּה עַד שֶׁיְּקַדְּשׁוּ.

אֲבָל אִם מְקַדְּשִׁים מִיָּד – אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קכב,77 שֶׁהֲרֵי בַּאֲמִירָה זוֹ לֹא הִסִּיחוּ דַעְתָּם מִכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ:קכג

15 Although it is forbidden to taste [any food or drink] before Kiddush,78 if one forgot or [intentionally] transgressed this prohibition, even if he ate an entire meal, he must recite Kiddush immediately after he recalls [that he has yet to make Kiddush,] and is forbidden to eat or drink at all until after Kiddush.79 If he recited the blessing Borei pri hagafen [during his meal], he should not recite that blessing over the cup of Kiddush. Similarly, if he recites Kiddush over bread, he need not recite the blessing HaMotzi if he already recited that blessing earlier. Moreover, even if he recited Kiddush over a cup of wine, he is not required to recite the blessing HaMotzi on the bread he eats afterwards, as explained above.80

(If one remembers after completing his meal, he need not eat anything more after Kiddush so that Kiddush will have been recited in the place of the Shabbos meal that follows it. Since he ate his meal after nightfall, after the commencement of Shabbos, it is considered as a Shabbos meal,81 and when he recites Kiddush afterwards, he [is considered to have] recited Kiddush in the place where the Shabbos meal was eaten.)82

If he remembers after he recited the blessing HaMotzi, [but] before he tastes the piece of bread over which he recited that blessing, he should not recite Kiddush over wine, for he must partake of the bread before reciting Kiddush, so that the blessing HaMotzi will not have been recited in vain.83 Instead, he should recite Kiddush over the bread. If he does not have two loaves of bread84 and must wait until the bread is brought before him, [it is acceptable]. This is not considered as an interruption. Moreover, even if it would be necessary for him to speak and tell others to bring two loaves, it is not considered as an interruption at all,85 since it is necessary for the meal, as explained in sec. 167[:9].

טו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לִטְעוֹם קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ,קכד,78 אִם שָׁכַח, אוֹ עָבַר, וְטָעַם,קכה אֲפִלּוּ אָכַלקכו סְעֻדָּה גְמוּרָה – צָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ מִיָּד שֶׁנִּזְכַּר,קכז וְאָסוּר לוֹ לִטְעוֹם כְּלוּם מִשֶּׁנִּזְכַּר עַד שֶׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ.קכח,79

וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" עַל כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ אִם בֵּרַךְ כְּבָר עַל יַיִן. וְכֵן אִם מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" אִם בֵּרַךְ כְּבָר. וְאַף אִם מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל הַפַּת שֶׁאוֹכֵל אַחַר כָּךְ,קכט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קל,80

(וְאִם נִזְכַּר אַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר סְעֻדָּתוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל עוֹד אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקִּדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאָכַל הַסְּעֻדָּה מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת – הֲרֵי הִיא נִקְרֵאת סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת,81 וּכְשֶׁמְקַדֵּשׁ אַחֲרֶיהָ – הֲרֵי קִדֵּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּתקלא).82

וְאִם נִזְכַּר אַחַר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" קֹדֶם שֶׁטָּעַם פְּרוּסַת "הַמּוֹצִיא" – לֹא יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לִטְעוֹם מֵהַפַּת קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" לְבַטָּלָה,קלב,83 אֶלָּא יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת.קלג וְאַף אִם אֵין לְפָנָיו לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶהקלד,84 וְצָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו – אֵין זֶה הֶפְסֵק.קלה וְאַף אִם יִצְטָרֵךְ לְדַבֵּר וְלוֹמַר לָהֶם שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ – אֵין זֶה הֶפְסֵק כְּלָל,85 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קס"ז:קלו

16 Even though the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to recite Kiddush close to the onset of Shabbos,86 fundamentally, the mitzvah continues throughout the night.87

If a person forgot or [intentionally] transgressed and did not recite Kiddush at night, he may compensate throughout the entire following day.88 He should recite the entire Kiddush recited at night with the exception of the passage Vaychulu. There is no point in reciting it during the day [because its purpose is to serve as testimony to G‑d’s creation,] and it was at nightfall that the Holy One, blessed be He, completed the work of creation.

טז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְקַדֵּשׁ סָמוּךְ לִכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת,קלז,86 מִכָּל מָקוֹם נִמְשָׁךְ עִקַּר מִצְוָתוֹ כָּל הַלַּיְלָה.קלח,87

וְאִם שָׁכַח, אוֹ עָבַר, וְלֹא קִדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה – יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמִין לְמָחָר כָּל הַיּוֹם.קלט,88 וְיֹאמַר כָּל הַקִּדּוּשׁ שֶׁל לַיְלָה, מִלְּבַד פָּרָשַׁת "וַיְכֻלּוּ"קמ שֶׁאֵינוֹ עִנְיָן לְאָמְרָהּ בַּיּוֹם, לְפִי שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה הָיְתָה גְּמַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:קמא

17 Even though the table should be set and prepared while it is still day [on Friday], as stated in sec. 262[:1], nevertheless, it should not be brought to the place where the meal is eaten until after Kiddush is recited,89 so that it is evident that it is [being brought] in honor of the Shabbos. If it was brought before the recitation of Kiddush, a cloth should be spread over it to cover it until after Kiddush [so that it appears] as if it was not there. [In this way, when it is uncovered after Kiddush] it will appear as if it was now brought in honor of the Shabbos.

When did the above apply? In the [Talmudic] era when they had small tables that were brought [and placed] individually in front of each of the persons dining. Thus, there was no difficulty in pausing to bring [these tables to the dining hall] after Kiddush. Presently, however, our tables are large and there would be much difficulty in bringing them [to the dining hall] after Kiddush. [Thus, this would necessitate making] an interruption between Kiddush and the meal. [Therefore,] it is customary to bring [the table] at the outset, before the recitation of Kiddush.90

Whether one recites Kiddush over wine or over bread, he should spread a cloth to cover the bread until after Kiddush.91 [In addition,] there should be a cloth on the table under the bread.92 Thus, the bread will be between two cloths, in commemoration of the manna which [was covered by] dew from above and from below.93

יז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשֻּׁלְחָן צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת עָרוּךְ וּמְסֻדָּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר[ס]"ב,קמב מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין מְבִיאִים אוֹתוֹ לִמְקוֹם הַסְּעֻדָּה עַד אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ,קמג,89 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִכָּר שֶׁבָּא לִכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת.קמד וְאִם הֱבִיאוֹ קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ – צָרִיךְ לִפְרוֹס עָלָיו מַפָּה לְכַסּוֹתוֹקמה כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ כַּאן עַד אַחַר קִדּוּשׁ,89 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְרָאֶה כְּאִלּוּ הוּבָא עַתָּה לִכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת.קמו

בַּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּימֵיהֶם, שֶׁהָיוּ לָהֶם שֻׁלְחָנוֹת קְטַנִּים כָּל אֶחָד שֻׁלְחָנוֹ לְפָנָיו,קמז וְלֹא הָיָה לָהֶם טֹרַח לְהַפְסִיק וְלַהֲבִיאָם אַחַר קִדּוּשׁ, אֲבָל עַכְשָׁו שֶׁשֻּׁלְחָנוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ גְּדוֹלִים, וְטֹרַח לַהֲבִיאוֹ אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ וּלְהַפְסִיק בֵּין קִדּוּשׁ לִסְעֻדָּה – נוֹהֲגִין לַהֲבִיאוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה קוֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ90 וְלִפְרוֹס מַפָּה לְכַסּוֹת הַפַּתקמח עַד אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ,קמט,91 בֵּין שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן, בֵּין שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת.קנ וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתְּהֵא גַּם מַפָּה תַּחַת הַפַּת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,קנא,92 כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא הַפַּת בֵּין שְׁתֵּי מַפּוֹת, זֵכֶר לַמָּן שֶׁהָיָה עָלָיו טַל מִלְמַעְלָה וְטַל מִלְּמַטָּה:קנב,93

18 The cup [of wine] over which Kiddush is recited – whether by day or by night – and [the cup of wine] for Havdalah must comply with all the requirements necessary for the cup of wine over which Grace is recited, i.e., it must be: a) whole,94 b-c) washed out from within and its outer surface rinsed,95 d) filled with wine to capacity,96 e) the wine must not be blemished,97 f-g) he must receive it with both hands and [then] hold it with his right hand alone,98 h) he must lift it a handbreadth above the table,99 and i) he must look at it100 and not divert his attention from it,101 as explained in sec. 183.102

יח כּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ,קנג בֵּין שֶׁל לַיְלָה בֵּין שֶׁל יוֹם, וּבֵין שֶׁל הַבְדָּלָה,קנד טָעוּן כָּל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁטָּעוּן כּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁלֵם,קנה,94 וְשֶׁיִּשְׁטְפֶנּוּ מִבַּחוּץ, וִידִיחֶנּוּ מִבִּפְנִים,קנו,95 וְיִהְיֶה מָלֵא יַיִן עַל כָּל גְּדוֹתָיו,קנז,96 וְלֹא יִהְיֶה הַיַּיִן פָּגוּם,קנח,97 וִיקַבְּלֶנּוּ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו, וְיֹּאחֲזֶנּוּ בִּימִינוֹ לְבַדּוֹ,קנט,98 וְיַגְבִּיהֶנּוּ מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן טֶפַח,קס,99 וְיִתֵּן עֵינָיו בּוֹקסא,100 שֶׁלֹּא יַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ,קסב,101 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קפ"ג:102

19 Even though one recited the passage Vaychulu in the synagogue,103 he should repeat it [while holding] the cup of wine104 before Kiddush, to fulfill the obligation of his sons and the members of his household who are below majority who did not recite it yet. He should then recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen105 and the blessing of Kiddush.106 If he forgot to recite Vaychulu before Kiddush, he should recite it during the meal over a cup [of wine].

It is desirable to stand while reciting the passage Vaychulu, for the reason mentioned in sec. 268[:12].107 While reciting the blessing for Kiddush, by contrast, it is preferable to sit (for the reason mentioned in sec. 296:15).108 In these countries, however, it has become the widespread custom also to sit while reciting the passage Vaychulu. [The rationale is that] since one already recited it while standing in the synagogue, there is no need to be so meticulous by standing when repeating it to fulfill the obligation of one’s sons and the members of his household. Nevertheless, one should raise himself slightly when saying the words יוםהששי ויכלוהשמים (“The sixth day. Heaven… was completed”), whose first letters form an acronym for G‑d’s name (י-ה-ו-ה).109

When one begins [the passage Vaychulu], it is desirable to look at the [Shabbos] lights, because twice the numerical equivalent of נר (“light”)110 equals 500. [This is an allusion to the concept that looking at the Shabbos lights] heals [the negative effects] brought about by taking large strides that cause a person to lose 1/500th of his sight.111 Nevertheless, when reciting Kiddush, one must look at the cup, as stated above.112

יט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר "וַיְכֻלּוּ" בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת103 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְאָמְרוֹ עַל הַכּוֹס,104 קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ, כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא בָּנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ הַקְּטַנִּיםקסג שֶׁלֹּא אֲמָרוּהוּ עֲדַיִן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן"קסד,105 וּבִרְכַּת קִדּוּשׁ.106 וְאִם שָׁכַח לְאָמְרוֹ קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ – אוֹמְרוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה עַל הַכּוֹס.קסה

וְטוֹב לַעֲמוֹד בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת "וַיְכֻלּוּ", מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ח.קסו,107 אֲבָל בִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת הַקִּדּוּשׁ יוֹתֵר טוֹב לֵישֵׁב (מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רצ"וקסז).108

אֲבָל בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג לֵישֵׁב אַף בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת פָּרָשַׁת "וַיְכֻלּוּ",קסח כִּי מֵאַחַר שֶׁאֲמָרוּהָ כְּבָר בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת מְעֻמָּד – אֵין מַקְפִּידִין כָּל כָּךְ לַעֲמוֹד בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאוֹמְרָהּ לְהוֹצִיא בָּנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, עוֹמְדִים קְצָת כְּשֶׁמַּתְחִילִין "יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם", שֶׁנִּרְמַז הַשֵּׁם בְּרָאשֵׁי תֵבוֹת.קסט,109

וּכְשֶׁמַּתְחִילִין טוֹב לִתֵּן עֵינָיו בַּנֵּרוֹת,קע כִּי ב' פְּעָמִים נֵר עוֹלֶה ת"ק,110 וְהִיא רְפוּאָה לִפְסִיעָה גַסָּהקעא שֶׁנּוֹטֶלֶת אֶחָד מִת"ק מִמְּאוֹר עֵינָיו שֶׁל אָדָם.קעב,111 אֲבָל בִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת הַקִּדּוּשׁ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן עֵינָיו בַּכּוֹס,קעג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קעד,112

20 [The following laws apply to] one who has only one cup of wine [over which to recite] both the Kiddush on [Friday] and the Kiddush on [Shabbos] day, and if he divides it into two cups, they will not be full. ([They also apply] even if this cup is not full, but if it is divided into two cups, there will be less than a reviis113of wine in each one.)114

He should place [all the wine] in one cup and recite Kiddush over it at night. So that it will not become entirely blemished when he drinks from its entire contents at this time, he should pour off a little bit of it into another container before he tastes it. He should be careful that a reviis remains in this cup so that he will drink from a reviis [of wine], for a cup over which a blessing was recited must contain no less than a reviis. After [drinking at least a cheekful,]115 he should pour the bit he poured into the other container back into the cup. In that way, he corrects its blemish, as stated in sec. 182[:5].

(If the cup [the person has] is not full even at this time, but if he divides it into two cups, there will not be a complete reviis in each cup, he should pour off a little before Kiddush and after he drinks, pour that wine back into [the cup to correct its blemish]. He should not pour off some after Kiddush, before drinking {because this demeans the blessing (see sec. 296[:5]),116 as explained in sec. 206[:15]}. Also, [in this way,] he will avoid a purposeless interruption117 between the blessing and his drinking, for regardless, the cup will not be full, even if he does not pour anything from it before Kiddush.)

[The following law applies] if one has but an exact reviis of undiluted wine that is not blended with water,118 or even if he has a little more than that, but he does not have two ample revios [of wine], and thus when he drinks at night, he will be lacking [much during the next day]. He should mix [the wine that remains after he recited Kiddush at night] with water on the following day,119 until it contains a reviis, provided it remains fit to drink despite this dilution and it thus is fit to have the blessing Borei pri hagafen recited over it, as explained in sec. 204[:9].

כ מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל לַיְלָה וְשֶׁל יוֹם אֶלָּא כּוֹס אַחַת, וְאִם יְחַלְּקֶנּוּ לְב' כּוֹסוֹת לֹא יִהְיוּ מְלֵאִים (אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם כּוֹס זֶה אֵינוֹ מָלֵא, אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם יְחַלְּקֶנּוּ לְב' כּוֹסוֹת לֹא יִהְיֶה רְבִיעִית113 יַיִן בְּכָל אַחַת)114 – יַנִּיחֶנּוּ כֻּלּוֹ בְּכוֹס אַחַת וִיקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו בַּלַּיְלָה, וּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ פָּגוּם כְּשֶׁיִּטְעַם בּוֹ עַכְשָׁו מִכֻּלּוֹ – יִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט לִכְלִי אַחֵר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעָמֶנּוּ,קעה וִיהֵא נִזְהָר שֶׁיְּהֵא נִשְׁאָר בְּכוֹס זֶה רְבִיעִית, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם מֵרְבִיעִית, שֶׁאֵין כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה פָּחוֹת מֵרְבִיעִית,קעו וְאַחַר כָּךְ 115 יַחֲזִיר לְתוֹכוֹ מַה שֶׁבַּכְּלִי הָאַחֵר, וּבָזֶה הוּא מְתֻקָּן מִפְּגִימָתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קפ"ב.קעז

(וְאִם כּוֹס זֶה אֵינוֹ מָלֵא גַּם עַכְשָׁו, אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם יְחַלְּקֶנּוּ לְב' כּוֹסוֹת לֹא יִהְיֶה רְבִיעִית שְׁלֵמָה בְּכָל אַחַת – יִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ, וְאַחַר שֶׁיִּטְעָמֶנּוּ יַחֲזִירֶנּוּ לְתוֹכוֹ, וְלֹא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ קֹדֶם הַטְּעִימָה (מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בִּזְיוֹן הַבְּרָכָה (עַיֵּן סִמָּן רצ"וקעח),116 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"וקעט), וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיק117 בֵּין בְּרָכָה לִטְעִימָה בְּחִנָּם,קפ כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה הַכּוֹס מָלֵא אַף אִם לֹא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ.

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא רְבִיעִית יַיִן בְּצִמְצוּם יַיִן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָזוּג,118 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ יוֹתֵר מַשֶּׁהוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כִּשְׁנֵי רֹב רְבִיעִית מְרֻוָּחִים,קפא וּכְשֶׁהוּא שׁוֹתֶה בַּלַּיְלָה נֶחְסָר לוֹ לְמָחָר הַרְבֵּה – יִמְזְגֶנּוּ לְמָחָר בְּמַיִםקפב,119 עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד עַל רְבִיעִית. וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לִשְׁתִיָּה בִּמְזִיגָה זוֹ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן", כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[נִּ]תְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"ד:קפג

21 All of the above applies when the person will have another cup [of wine] for Havdalah.120If not, it is preferable that he leave [the wine] for Havdalah and recite Kiddush over bread than he recite Kiddush over [the wine] and not have anything to recite Havdalah over, for Havdalah may not be recited over bread. Nevertheless, in a place where beer is considered “the wine of the region,”121 he should not leave the wine for Havdalah if he has beer over which he could recite Havdalah. [Indeed,] even the Kiddush of the day [meal] takes precedence over Havdalah in a place where it is possible to recite Havdalah over beer because it is “the wine of the region.” [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that Kiddush – even for the day [meal] – may not be recited over beer, even though it is “the wine of the region,” as will be explained in sec. 272[:11]. All authorities, by contrast, agree that such a beverage may be used for Havdalah.

In which situations does the above apply? To a person in his home. In the synagogue,122 by contrast, Havdalah takes precedence over Kiddush, because no one fulfills their obligation with this Kiddush. Indeed, there are authorities who dispute [this practice] and protest the recitation of Kiddush [in the synagogue], as stated in sec. 269[:2]. All authorities agree, by contrast, that the recitation of Havdalah [in the synagogue] is a mitzvah — to fulfill the obligation of those individuals who do not have wine, as will be stated in sec. 295[:4].

כא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ כּוֹס אַחֵר לְהַבְדָּלָה,120 שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן מוּטָב שֶׁיַּנִּיחֶנּוּ לְהַבְדָּלָה וִיקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת, מִמַּה שֶּׁיְּקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ עַל מֶה לְהַבְדִּיל, שֶׁאֵין מַבְדִּילִים עַל הַפַּת.קפד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ שֵׁכָר לְהַבְדִּיל עָלָיו בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַשֵּׁכָר הוּא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה"121 – לֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ לְהַבְדָּלָה.קפה

וַאֲפִלּוּ קִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל יוֹם קוֹדֵם לְהַבְדָּלָה כְּשֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַבְדִּיל עַל הַשֵּׁכָר שֶׁהוּא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה",קפו לְפִי שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל יוֹם יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עַל הַשֵּׁכָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא "חֲמַר מְדִינָה", כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ער"ב,קפז וּבְהַבְדָּלָה הַכֹּל מוֹדִים שֶׁמַּבְדִּילִים עָלָיו.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּיָחִיד בְּבֵיתוֹ, אֲבָל (ו) בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת122 – הַבְדָּלָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְקִדּוּשׁ,קפח לְפִי שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא שׁוּם אָדָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וְגַם יֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים וּמְעַרְעֲרִים עַל קִדּוּשׁ זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ט,קפט אֲבָל הַבְדָּלָה הִיא מִצְוָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל לְהוֹצִיא מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ יַיִן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רצ"[ה]:קצ

22 There are three who will receive a heritage in the World to Come; one of them is a person who leaves over wine from Kiddush for Havdalah.123 [This refers to] a person who has only a little bit of wine and refrains from drinking it [so that he will have some left] for Havdalah.124

Others state that this refers to a person who recites Kiddush on a large cup and leaves over some of the wine in that cup for the Kiddush of the day and for Havdalah, correcting its blemish [each time by adding wine], as explained above.125 During the meal, he drinks other wine. It is desirable to conduct oneself in this manner.

כב שְׁלֹשָׁה מִנּוֹחֲלֵי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם הַמְּשַׁיֵּר יַיִן מִקִּדּוּשׁ לְהַבְדָּלָה,קצא,123 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מְעַט יַיִן וּמוֹנֵעַ שְׁתִיָּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַבְדָּלָה.קצב,124 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקצג דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְּקַדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה עַל כּוֹס גָּדוֹל, שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּיֵּר בְּאוֹתוֹ כּוֹס לְקִדּוּשׁ שֶׁל יוֹם וּלְהַבְדָּלָה, וִיתַקֵּן אוֹתוֹ מִפְּגִימָתוֹקצד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קצה,125 וּבְתוֹךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן אַחֵר.קצו וְטוֹב לִנְהוֹג כֵּן:

23 After one recited Kiddush on a cup of wine, he should wash his hands for the meal and recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim (“concerning the washing of hands”). If he forgot and washed his hands before reciting Kiddush,126he should not recite Kiddush over wine, but instead, over bread, since by washing his hands, he showed that he desires the bread more than wine and Kiddush should be recited over [whichever] he desires more.

There are authorities who differ with this statement and maintain that one may wash his hands before Kiddush even as an initial preference. Kiddush is not considered as an interruption between washing one’s hands and the meal, since it is required for the meal.127 Fundamentally, the halachah follows the latter approach.128 This is the common custom in these countries except on the night of Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 473[:4].129 Nevertheless, a person who desires to be stringent with himself and not wash until after Kiddush is acting in a desirable manner; he should not be admonished for not observing the custom, for he can justify himself, [explaining] that he is following a course of action acceptable to all authorities.130

All authorities agree that [if] one washed his hands [before Kiddush], he should not mix the cup of wine with hot water [in the interim].131 That involves precise attention, making sure one does not [add] too little or too much, and thus constitutes an interruption and a diversion of attention. As an initial preference, it is desirable to be careful and even pour the wine from the bottle to the cup before washing one’s hands.

כג אַחַר שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס יִטּוֹל יָדָיו לִסְעֻדָּה וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם".קצז

וְאִם שָׁכַח וְנָטַל יָדָיו קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ126 – לֹא יְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן אֶלָּא עַל הַפַּת,קצח לְפִי שֶׁבִּנְטִילָה זוֹ גִּלָּה דַעְתּוֹ שֶׁהַפַּת חֲבִיבָה לוֹ מִיַּיִן, וְצָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הֶחָבִיב.קצט

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהר וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה יָכוֹל לִטּוֹל יָדָיו קֹדֶם הַקִּדּוּשׁ, וְאֵין הַקִּדּוּשׁ מַפְסִיק בֵּין נְטִילַת יָדַיִם לִסְעֻדָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה.רא,127

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא [הָאַחֲרוֹנָה].רב,128 וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג פָּשׁוּט בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, לְבַד מִלֵּיל פֶּסַח,רג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תע"ג.רד,129

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִטּוֹל עַד אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ – יָפֶה הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, וְאֵין מוֹחִין בְּיָדוֹ עַל שֶׁעוֹבֵר עַל הַמִּנְהָג, כִּי יָכוֹל לוֹמַר אֶעֱשֶׂה כְּדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.רה,130

וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר לִמְזוֹג הַכּוֹס בְּחַמִּין131 אַחַר נְטִילַת יָדַיִם,רו כִּי צָרִיךְ דִּקְדּוּק גָּדוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יֶחְסַר וְלֹא יוֹתִיר, וַהֲרֵי זֶה הֶפְסֵק וְהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת.רז

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הַשְּׁפִיכָה בִּלְבַדָּהּ מֵהַקַּנְקַן לַכּוֹס תִּהְיֶה קֹדֶם נְטִילַת יָדַיִם:רח

24 One who recites Kiddush must drink a cheekful of [the wine] from the cup.132 [The intent is] not an actual cheekful, but an amount sufficient that were one to shift it to one side of his mouth, his cheek would appear full. For an average person, this is the greater portion of a reviis.133 For a larger person, it is calculated according to his size, [for the size of] a cheekful is [calculated according to each person] individually.134 Nevertheless, no more than a reviis is necessary, even if that does not constitute the person’s cheekful.

כד הַמְקַדֵּשׁ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם מֵהַכּוֹס כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו,רט,132 וְלֹא מְלֹא לֻגְמָיו מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא כֹּל שֶׁאִלּוּ מְסַלְּקוֹ לְצַד אֶחָד בְּפִיו וְיֵרָאֶה מְלֹא לֻגְמָיו, וְהוּא רֻבּוֹ שֶׁל רְבִיעִיתרי בְּאָדָם בֵּינוֹנִי,133 וְהַגָּדוֹל לְפִי גָדְלוֹריא צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו שֶׁלּוֹ.134 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין צָרִיךְ יוֹתֵר מֵרְבִיעִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו:ריב

25 Should the person who recited Kiddush not partake of the wine and one of the others dining with him does so, all [those dining] fulfill their obligation if he partakes of a cheekful.135 [If,] however, [two people together drink that minimal amount, it is not acceptable because], the drinking of two people cannot satisfy the requirement [of drinking] a cheekful. [The rationale is that to fulfill the obligation of Kiddush,] one of those dining must derive satisfaction from drinking the cup of wine over which the blessing was recited and [drinking] less than a cheekful is not considered as drinking that provides satisfaction.136

Nevertheless, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is for all [those dining] to partake of the wine from the cup over which the blessing was recited. These others need not, however, drink a cheekful. Indeed, [when] a person has only a small amount of wine, it is preferable that only one person drink the required amount and the remainder be left for Kiddush and/or Havdalah the following day.

The Geonim maintain that the person who recited Kiddush himself does not fulfill his obligation if he does not partake of a cheekful [of wine] even though the others dining all partook of a cheekful of wine. As an initial preference, it is fitting to give weight to their words.137

When does the above apply? With regard to Kiddush.138 By contrast, with regard to Havdalah and other [blessings] that require a cup of wine, the Geonim agree that it is sufficient for one of the others dining to partake of a cheekful [of the wine], even as an initial option.

כה אִם לֹא טָעַם הַמְקַדֵּשׁ וְטָעַם אֶחָד מֵהַמְסֻבִּין, אִם טָעַם כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו מַמָּשׁ – יָצְאוּ כֻלָּם יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן.ריג,135 אֲבָל אֵין שְׁתִיַּת שְׁנַיִם מִצְטָרֶפֶת לִמְלֹא לֻגְמָא,ריד לְפִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶם מִשְּׁתִיַּת כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה, וּבְפָחוֹת מִמְּלֹא לֻגְמָיו אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת שְׁתִיָּה שֶׁל הֲנָאָה.רטו,136

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁיִּטְעֲמוּ כֻלָּם מִכּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה,רטז אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ מְלֹא לֻגְמָיו לְכֻלָּם.ריז אַךְ מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ יַיִן מְעַט – מוּטָב שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבָד כַּשִּׁעוּר, וְיַנִּיחַ הַשְּׁאָר לְמָחָר לְקִדּוּשׁ אוֹ לְהַבְדָּלָה.ריח

וְהַגְּאוֹנִים סוֹבְרִים שֶׁאִם לֹא טָעַם הַמְקַדֵּשׁ עַצְמוֹ כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו – לֹא יָצָאריט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּעֲמוּ הַמְסֻבִּין כָּל אֶחָד כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו. וְרָאוּי לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה.רכ,137

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּקִדּוּשׁ,138 אֲבָל בְּהַבְדָּלָהרכא וּבִשְׁאָר כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הַטְּעוּנִים כּוֹס – מוֹדִים הַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה דַּי בִּטְעִימַת אֶחָד מֵהַמְסֻבִּיןרכב כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו:רכג

26 If a person recited Kiddush over a cup of wine, but made an interruption by speaking before he drank from the wine, he should recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen again [before drinking].139 He need not, however, recite the Kiddush again.140 If, however, he diverted his attention from drinking this cup141 or left the room142 [where he recited Kiddush] and went to another room,143 he must recite Kiddush again. He does not fulfill his obligation with the Kiddush initially recited, since he interrupted between it and drinking the cup of wine by diverting his attention or by changing his place from one room to another.144

כו קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס וְקֹדֶם שֶׁטָּעַם הִפְסִיק בְּדִבּוּר – חוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",רכד,139 וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ.רכה,140

אֲבָל אִם הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁתִיַּת כּוֹס זֶה,רכו,141 (ז) (אוֹ) שֶׁיָּצָא מֵחֶדֶר זֶה,142 לְחֶדֶר אַחֵר,רכז,143 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזַר לִמְקוֹמוֹרכח – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ, וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּקִדּוּשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִפְסִיק בֵּינוֹ לִטְעִימַת הַכּוֹס בְּהֶסַּח הַדַּעַת, (אוֹ) בַּעֲקִירַת מָקוֹם מֵחֶדֶר לְחֶדֶר:רכט,144

27 Similarly, if the cup of wine over which Kiddush was recited was spilled, another cup [of wine]145 should be brought to him146 and he should recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen again if he did not have the intent to drink additional wine after Kiddush.147 There is no need to recite Kiddush again if he did not divert his attention nor make an interruption by changing his place in the interim.

If a person recited Kiddush in the morning over beer and the cup spilled, (since [there are] people who are disgusted by drinking beer in the morning), there is room for leniency and there is no need to bring another cup over which to recite a blessing.148 [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that one fulfills his obligation even by reciting the blessing HaMotzi over bread,149 as will be explained in sec. 272[:11].150

כז וְכֵן אִם נִשְׁפַּךְ כּוֹס שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עָלָיו – יָבִיאוּ לוֹ146 כּוֹס אַחֵר,145 וִיבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן"רל אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד יַיִן אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ,רלא,147 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ אִם לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ וְלֹא הִפְסִיק בַּעֲקִירַת מָקוֹם בֵּינְתַיִם.

וְאִם קִדֵּשׁ בְּשַׁחֲרִית עַל הַשֵּׁכָר וְנִשְׁפַּךְ הַכּוֹס (כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קָצָה בְּשֵׁכָר בְּשַׁחֲרִיתרלב) – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא כּוֹס אַחֵר לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּרלג יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁמְּבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" עַל הַפַּת,רלד,149 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"[ב]:רלה,150

28 If, however, a person recited Kiddush over a cup of water, thinking that it was a cup of wine, he is required to recite Kiddush again, even if he would not be required to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen again,151 e.g., he had the intent to drink other wine after Kiddush, as stated in sec. 209.152 [The rationale is that] since our Sages ordained that Kiddush be recited over wine and he recited it over water, [he did not fulfill their ordinance] and he must recite Kiddush again.

Nevertheless, if at the time he recited Kiddush over water, there was a reviis of wine before him in another container on the table or on a bench near him, ready for one to drink from, he need not recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen [again] nor repeat the Kiddush.153 Instead, he should drink immediately from the wine that is prepared before him. It is as if he made Kiddush on that wine. Although one must hold the cup over which Kiddush is recited in his hand,154 nevertheless, after the fact, failing to do so does not negate [his recitation of Kiddush].

כח אֲבָל אִם קִדֵּשׁ עַל כּוֹס מָלֵא מַיִם כְּסָבוּר שֶׁהוּא יַיִן – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן,רלו אַף אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",רלז,151 כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת עוֹד יַיִן אַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"ט,רלח,152 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לוֹמַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן וְזֶה אֲמָרוֹ עַל הַמַּיִם – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ.רלט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עַל הַמַּיִם הָיָה לְפָנָיו רְבִיעִית יַיִן בִּכְלִי אֶחָד עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אוֹ עַל הַסַּפְסָל אֶצְלוֹ (ח) מוּכָן לִשְׁתּוֹת – אֲזַי אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לֹא לְבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" וְלֹא לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ,153 אֶלָּא יִשְׁתֶּה מִיָּד מִן הַמּוּכָן שֶׁלְּפָנָיו,רמ שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן הַהוּא, שֶׁאַף שֶׁכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאחֲזֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ,רמא,154 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין זֶה מְעַכֵּב בְּדִיעֲבַד:רמב

29 It is not necessary to pour from the cup over which the person recited Kiddush to the cups of wine that are before the others dining, who fulfill their obligation by listening [to his Kiddush], unless their cups are blemished. In such a situation, he must pour into the cup of each one before he drinks so that they will all drink from cups that are not blemished.155 For this is the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah.

כט אֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׁפּוֹךְ מִכּוֹס הַמְקַדֵּשׁ לְכוֹסוֹת יַיִן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַמְסֻבִּין הַיּוֹצְאִים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בִּשְׁמִיעָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ פְּגוּמִין, שֶׁאָז הוּא צָרִיךְ לִשְׁפּוֹךְ לְכָל כּוֹס וְכוֹס קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם הוּא, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתּוּ כֻלָּם מִכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן פְּגוּמִין,רמג,155 שֶׁזֶּהוּ מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר:רמד

30 The others dining should not taste [their wine] before the one who recites Kiddush tastes [his wine] if they need [the wine] in his cup to be poured into their empty or blemished cups.156 If, however, they have unblemished cups of wine, they may partake of the wine before the one who recited Kiddush drinks, as already explained in detail in sec. 190[:5].

ל לֹא יִטְעֲמוּ הַמְסֻבִּים קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם הַמְקַדֵּשׁ אִם הֵם זְקוּקִים לְכוֹסוֹ, שֶׁשּׁוֹפֵךְ מִמֶּנּוּ לְכוֹסוֹת שֶׁבְּיָדָם רֵיקָנִים אוֹ פְּגוּמִים,רמה,156 אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ לָהֶם כּוֹסוֹת יַיִן שֶׁאֵינָן פְּגוּמִים – רַשָּׁאִים לִשְׁתּוֹת קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה הַמְקַדֵּשׁ,רמו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר כָּל זֶה בְּסִמָּן ק"צ:רמז