SECTION 268 The Laws Governing One Who Errs in the Shabbos Prayers (1-18)

סימן רסח דִּין הַטּוֹעֶה בִּתְפִלַּת שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"ח סְעִיפִים׃

1 It is necessary to recite the passage Vaychulu 1in the Evening Service.2 Whenever one prays and recites Vaychulu, the Torah considers it as if he became a partner with the Holy One, blessed be He, in the work of Creation. [Our Sages derived this concept as follows:]3 The term vaychulu is written ויכלו [without a vav after the chaf. Our Sages commented:] “Do not read vaychulu …, ‘[heaven and earth] were completed,’ read vayichlu, ‘and they,’ i.e., the Holy One, blessed be He, and the person [reading,] completed [together heaven and earth].”4

א צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר פָּרָשַׁת "וַיְכֻלּוּ"1 בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית.א,2 וְכָל הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְאוֹמֵר "וַיְכֻלּוּ" – מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ נַעֲשָׂה שׁוּתָּף לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרב,3 "וַיְכֻלּוּ", אַל תִּקְרֵי "וַיְכֻלּוּ", אֶלָּא "וַיְכַלּוּ",ג כְּלוֹמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וָהוּא:ד,4

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Kehot Publication Society)

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2 [The following rules apply] if one errs and began reciting the intermediate blessings recited during the week [rather than the intermediate blessing recited on Shabbos].5 If he realized [his error] in the midst of a blessing, he must complete that entire blessing6 and then begin the intermediate blessing recited on Shabbos. [This law applies] whether he recalled in the midst of the first of the weekday intermediate blessings, Atah chonein, “You graciously endow…” or whether he recalled during one of the other intermediate weekdays blessings. This law applies on festivals as well.7

[The rationale is that] according to the dictates of halachah, it would have been appropriate to ordain that all the intermediate blessings be recited on Shabbos and festivals as they are during the week,8 and the holiness of the day [should] be mentioned in the blessing Retzei, as is done on Rosh Chodesh and Chol HaMoed.9Nevertheless, as an expression of honor for the Shabbos and the festivals, the Sages did not trouble a person [to recite all those blessings], but instead, instituted one blessing [that focuses on] the holiness of the day.10 Accordingly, if a person began reciting the intermediate blessings of the weekday, he should conclude the blessing that he started, since, according to the dictates of halachah, it is appropriate that it presently be recited.

ב אִם טָעָה וְהִתְחִיל בְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל חֹל,5 אִם נִזְכַּר בְּאֶמְצַע בְּרָכָה – צָרִיךְ לִגְמוֹר כָּל אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה,6 וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַתְחִיל בְּרָכָה אֶמְצָעִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת,ה בֵּין שֶׁנִּזְכַּר בִּבְרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל חֹל שֶׁהִיא אַתָּה "חוֹנֵן", וּבֵין שֶׁנִּזְכַּר בִּשְׁאָר בְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל חֹל,ו וְכֵן בְּיוֹם טוֹב,ז,7 לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין הָיָה רָאוּי לְתַקֵּן גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב כָּל בְּרָכוֹת הָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת כְּמוֹ בְּחֹלח,8 וּלְהַזְכִּיר קְדֻשַׁת הַיּוֹם בָּעֲבוֹדָה כְּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,ט,9 אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב לֹא הִטְרִיחוּהוּ חֲכָמִים,י וְתִקְּנּוּ בְּרָכָה אַחַת אֶמְצָעִית לִקְדֻשַׁת הַיּוֹם,10 אִם כֵּן זֶה שֶׁהִתְחִיל בְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל חֹל – יֵשׁ לוֹ לִגְמוֹר אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה שֶׁהִתְחִיל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לְאָמְרָהּ עַתָּה מִן הַדִּין:

3 When does the above apply? When one made such an error in the Evening, Morning, or Afternoon Service. If, however, one began one of the weekday intermediate blessings in the Mussaf service, he should cease in the middle of the blessing in which he realized [his error] and [immediately] begin the Mussaf intermediate blessing.

[The rationale is:] It is not at all appropriate by law to recite the weekday intermediate blessings during the Mussaf Service,11 only the one [intermediate] blessing of Mussaf. This is reflected by the fact that although on Rosh Chodesh and Chol HaMoed, [our Sages] put a person to the trouble of reciting the eighteen blessings12 of [the weekday] Shemoneh Esreh in the Evening, Morning, and Afternoon Services, nevertheless they did not require the recitation of more than seven blessings in Mussaf.13Thus, [in this instance,] the rationale is not because of the trouble involved, but because there is no need for more [blessings to be recited].

There are authorities who differ with this approach [and require one who started a blessing from the weekday Shemoneh Esreh to complete it even during Mussaf. In practice, we follow the principle:] When there is a doubt whether a blessing should be recited, we rule leniently.14

ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית, אוֹ שַׁחֲרִית, אוֹ מִנְחָה, אֲבָל בְּמוּסָף, אִם הִתְחִיל בְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל חֹל – צָרִיךְ לִפְסוֹק בְּאֶמְצַע הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁנִזְכַּר בָּהּיא וּלְהַתְחִיל אֶמְצָעִית שֶׁל תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף, לְפִי שֶׁבִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף11 לֹא הָיָה רָאוּי כְּלָל מִן הַדִּין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל הָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל חֹליב אֶלָּא בְּרָכָה אַחַת שֶׁל מוּסָף בִּלְבַדָּהּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד שֶׁהִטְרִיחוּ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל י"ח12 עַרְבִית שַׁחֲרִית וּמִנְחָה וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן בְּמוּסָף אֵין מִתְפַּלְלִין אֶלָּא ז' בְּרָכוֹת,13 אִם כֵּן אֵין הַטַּעַם מִפְּנֵי הַטֹּרַחיג אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ יוֹתֵר. וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה.יד וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל:טו,14

4 Even if one began only one word of [one of] the weekday intermediate blessings and [then] realized [his error], he is required to complete it in its entirety.

When does the above apply? With regard to the all the intermediate blessings with the exception of Atah chonein. [In that instance,] if he only recited the first word Atah15– even when his intent in reciting it was to continue [with the word] chonein because he thought it was a weekday – should he realize [his error] before he says chonein, he should not complete that blessing. Instead, he should immediately recite kidashta es yom hashivi’i (“sanctified the seventh day”)if he is reciting the Evening Service and similarly, echad veshimcha echad (“are one and Your name, one”) if he is reciting the Afternoon Service. [It is considered as if] he did not yet begin a weekday Shemoneh Esreh, because the word Atah is also part of the Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh. Although he intended to recite a weekday service, that is of no consequence, because a blessing is not invalidated because one had another intent [in mind], as explained in sec. 209.16

[A different ruling applies] if, by contrast, he is reciting the Morning Service which does not contain the word Atah [at the beginning of its intermediate blessings]. As such, when he said Atah thinking it was a weekday, he [is considered to have begun] a weekday prayer. [Hence,] he must conclude that blessing and then begin Yismach Moshe (“Moshe would rejoice”).

[The above does not apply] if, however, he knew that it was Shabbos, but merely experienced a slip of the tongue because of his habit throughout the [six] days of the week. [If, during the Morning Service, after] saying Atah, he realizes [his error] before saying chonein, he should not complete that blessing. Instead, he should return to his Shabbos prayers. It is considered as if he is interchanging one Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh for another,17 because since he knew that it was Shabbos, and he only said the word Atah, whichalso begins [the intermediate blessings] for the Shabbos prayers [in the evening and the afternoon], i.e., Atah kidashta or Atah echad. If he desired, he could have said kidashta or echad after saying the word Atah. As such, he [is not considered] to have begun a weekday [blessing]. Nevertheless, he need not recite the word kidashta or echad. Instead, he should immediately say yismach Moshe. [In that instance,] the meaning of his words would be: You [Atah], G‑d, cause Moshe to rejoice in his allotted gift.

ד אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא הִתְחִיל אֶלָּא תֵּבָה אַחַת מֵהַבְּרָכוֹת אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת שֶׁל חֹל שֶׁנִּזְכַּר בָּהּ – צָרִיךְ לִגְמוֹר אֶת כֻּלָּהּ. בַּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת הָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת, חוּץ מִבִּרְכַּת "אַתָּה חוֹנֵן", שֶׁאִם לֹא אָמַר אֶלָּא תֵּבַת "אַתָּה" בִּלְבַדָּהּ,15 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לוֹמַר "אַתָּה חוֹנֵן", שֶׁהָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא חֹל, וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁאָמַר "חוֹנֵן" – לֹא יִגְמוֹר אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה, אֶלָּא יֹאמַר מִיָּד "קִדַּשְׁתָּ אֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כוּ'", אִם הוּא בְּעַרְבִית, וְכֵן אִם הוּא בְּמִנְחָה – יֹאמַר מִיָּד "אֶחָד וְשִׁמְךָ אֶחָד כוּ'", לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל עֲדַיִן תְּפִלַּת חֹל בְּפִיו, שֶׁתֵּבַת "אַתָּה" הִיא גַם כֵּן בִּתְפִלַּת שַׁבָּת. וְאַף שֶׁהָיְתָה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ עַל תְּפִלַּת הַחֹל – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵין הַבְּרָכָה נִפְסֶדֶת בִּשְׁבִיל כַּוָּנָה אַחֶרֶת,טז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ר"ט.יז,16

אֲבָל אִם הוּא בִּתְפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית, שֶׁאֵין תֵּבַת "אַתָּה" בְּאוֹתָהּ תְּפִלָּה, אִם כֵּן זֶה שֶׁאָמַר "אַתָּה" שֶׁהָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא חֹל, הֲרֵי הִתְחִיל בִּתְפִלַּת הַחֹל, וְצָרִיךְ לִגְמוֹר אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַתְחִיל "יִשְׂמַח מֹשֶׁה".

אֲבָל אִם הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּכְשַׁל בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ מֵחֲמַת הֶרְגְלוֹ כָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹל וְאָמַר תֵּבַת "אַתָּה" וְנִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁאָמַר "חוֹנֵן" – לֹא יִגְמוֹר אוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה, אֶלָּא חוֹזֵר לִתְפִלַּת שַׁבָּת,יח לְפִי שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּהֶחֱלִיף תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת זוֹ בְּזוֹ,,17 כֵּיוָן שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת, וְלֹא אָמַר אֶלָּא תֵּבַת "אַתָּה" שֶׁיֶּשְׁנָהּ גַּם כֵּן בִּתְפִלּוֹת הַשַּׁבָּת, כְּגוֹן "אַתָּה קִדַּשְׁתָּ" אוֹ "אַתָּה אֶחָד", וְאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה הָיָה יָכוֹל לוֹמַר "קִדַּשְׁתָּ" אוֹ "אֶחָד" אַחַר תֵּבַת "אַתָּה" שֶׁאָמַר, אִם כֵּן לֹא הִתְחִיל עֲדַיִן שֶׁל חֹל. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "קִדַּשְׁתָּ" אוֹ "אֶחָד", אֶלָּא יֹאמַר מִיָּד "יִשְׂמַח מֹשֶׁה", וְיִהְיֶה פֵּרוּשׁ דְּבָרָיו: "אַתָּה" הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, "יִשְׂמַח מֹשֶׁה בְּמַתְּנַת חֶלְקוֹ":יט

5 If a person erred and began reciting a weekday Shemoneh Esreh on Shabbos, it is an undesirable omen for him. He should examine his conduct and think thoughts of teshuvah.

ה מִי שֶׁטָּעָה וְהִתְחִיל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל חֹל בְּשַׁבָּת – סִמָּן רַע לוֹ, וִיפַשְׁפֵּשׁ בְּמַעֲשָׂיו וִיהַרְהֵר בִּתְשׁוּבָה:כ

6 There are those who, for an esoteric reason,18 say vayanucha vah during the Evening Service, vayanucha vo, during Shacharis and Mussaf, and Shababasos kadshecha vayanucha vam in the Minchah Service.19

ו יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶם18 לוֹמַר בְּעַרְבִית "וְיָנוּחוּ בָהּ", וּבְשַׁחֲרִית וּמוּסָף "וְיָנוּחוּ בוֹ", וּבְמִנְחָה "שַׁבָּתוֹת קָדְשֶׁךָ וְיָנוּחוּ בָם":כא,19

7 When a person erred and recited the entire weekday Shemoneh Esreh, without mentioning the holiness of the Shabbos day in his prayer at all, he does not fulfill his obligation. He must pray again, reciting the Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh. If, however, he mentioned Shabbos in the Shemoneh Esreh,20 even though he did not designate a separate blessing for Shabbos, he fulfills his obligation.21

With regard to the Mussaf Service, if the person recited the Shemoneh Esreh and said merely “We will offer before You our obligatory sacrifices – the daily offerings and the Mussaf offerings” in one of the blessings, he fulfills his obligation.22

ז מִי שֶׁטָּעָה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁל חֹל בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר כְּלָל עִנְיַן קְדֻשָּׁה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,כב וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת. אֲבָל אִם הִזְכִּיר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בְּתוֹךְ י"ח,20 אַף עַל פִּי (א) שֶׁלֹּא קָבַע לְשַׁבָּת בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.כג,21 וּבְמוּסָף אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל י"ח וְלֹא אָמַר רַק "וְנַעֲשֶׂה לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת חוֹבוֹתֵינוּ בִּתְמִידֵי יוֹם וּבְקָרְבָּן מוּסָף" בְּאַחַת מֵהַבְּרָכוֹת – יָצָא׃כד,22

8 [The following laws apply when a person] erred and recited a weekday Shemoneh Esreh on Shabbos and did not mention Shabbos at all. If he left the place where he stood in prayer,23 he must return and recite the entire [Shabbos] She­moneh Esreh regardless.24 [However,] if he did not yet leave his place, even though he completed the Shemoneh Esreh, but had yet to recite the supplications that he usually recites after his prayers, e.g., the passage Elokai netzor (“My G‑d, guard…”), he must return only to the beginning of the blessing for Shabbos. He then completes the final three blessings [of the Shemoneh Esreh]. If, however, he completed his supplications,25 he must recite the entire Shemoneh Esreh, even if he did not leave his place of prayer.

ח טָעָה וְהִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁל חֹל בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת, אִם עָקַר רַגְלָיו23 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר לְרֹאשׁ בְּכָל עִנְיָן.כה,24 וְאִם לֹא עָקַר רַגְלָיו עֲדַיִן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסִּיֵּים תְּפִלָּתוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר עֲדַיִן הַתַּחֲנוּנִים שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל לוֹמַר אַחַר תְּפִלָּתוֹ,כו כְּגוֹן "אֱלֹהַי נְצוֹר" – אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר אֶלָּא לִתְחִלַּת בְּרָכָה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת, וְגוֹמֵר אַחֲרֶיהָ ג' בְּרָכוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת. אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר סִיֵּם תַּחֲנוּנִים25 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר לְרֹאשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא עָקַר רַגְלָיו׃כז

9 If one is uncertain whether he mentioned Shabbos in his recitation of Shemoneh Esreh,26 he must recite the Shemoneh Esreh again.27 It can be assumed that he did not mention it, since this is not a person’s ordinary pattern. If, however, he is uncertain whether he recited a weekday Shemoneh Esreh or the seven blessings of the Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh, there is room for question whether he should recite the Shemoneh Esreh again.28

ט וְאִם הוּא מְסֻפָּק אִם הִזְכִּיר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בִּתְפִלַּת י"ח26 שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל,27 שֶׁמִן הַסְּתָם לֹא הִזְכִּיר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כֵּן הֶרְגֵּלוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם.

אֲבָל אִם הוּא מְסֻפָּק אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת י"ח שֶׁל חֹל אוֹ אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל ז' בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁל שַׁבָּת – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל׃כח,28

10 [The following rules apply when] one errs in the intermediate blessing of [one of the Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh prayers], reciting [the intermediate blessing of] one Shabbos service in the midst of another. If he realizes [his error] before he completes this blessing from the other service, he must stop, go back, and begin anew the intermediate blessing appropriate for the service he is presently reciting. If, however, he completed this blessing, he need not go back [and correct his error]. The rationale is that the fundamental dimension of the middle blessing is [the request] Retzei na beminuchaseinu (“Let our rest please find favor”). [This theme, which is the main part of the blessing] is [fundamentally] the same in all the [Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh intermediate] prayers.29

י הַטּוֹעֶה בִּבְרָכָה אֶמְצָעִית שֶׁל תְּפִלּוֹת הַשַּׁבָּת וְהֶחֱלִיף שֶׁל תְּפִלָּה זוֹ בְּשֶׁל תְּפִלָּה הָאַחֶרֶת שֶׁל שַׁבָּת, אִם נִזְכַּר קֹדֶם שֶׁסִּיֵּם בְּרָכָה זוֹ שֶׁל תְּפִלָּה הָאַחֶרֶת – צָרִיךְ לִפְסוֹק וְלַחֲזוֹר לְרֹאשׁ בְּרָכָה זוֹ מִתְּפִלָּה שֶׁל עַכְשָׁו.כט וְאִם סִיֵּם בְּרָכָה זוֹ – אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר,ל לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר בְּרָכָה הָאֶמְצָעִית הוּא "רְצֵה נָא בִמְנוּחָתֵנוּ", שֶׁהוּא שָׁוֶה בְּכָל הַתְּפִלּוֹת:לא,29

11 When does the above apply? With regard to the Evening, Morning, and Afternoon Services. With regard to the Mussaf Service, by contrast, if one recites the intermediate blessings of another service, he does not fulfill his obligation, since he did not mention the Mussaf sacrifice.30 Similarly, if one recites the Mussaf Service instead of the Evening, Morning, or Afternoon Service, he does not fulfill his obligation,31 since he mentioned the Mussaf sacrifice in his prayer and thus related a falsehood before the Omnipresent.32

יא בַּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית שַׁחֲרִית וּמִנְחָה, אֲבָל בִּתְפִלַּת מוּסָף, אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל בִּמְקוֹמָהּ אַחַת מִשְּׁאָר הַתְּפִלּוֹת – לֹא יָצָא,לב הוֹאִיל וְלֹא הִזְכִּיר קָרְבַּן מוּסָף.לג,30 וְכֵן אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף בְּעַרְבִית אוֹ שַׁחֲרִית אוֹ מִנְחָה – לֹא יָצָא,לד,31 הוֹאִיל וְהִזְכִּיר קָרְבַּן מוּסָף בְּתוֹךְ תְּפִלָּתוֹ וְאָמַר שֶׁקֶר לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם:לה,32

12 During the Evening Service, after reciting the Shemoneh Esreh in a hushed tone, it is customary to recite the passage Vaychulu again. [This practice was instituted, because] when a festival falls on Shabbos, [this passage] is not recited in the Shemoneh Esreh itself.33 Hence, [on such an occasion,] it must be recited after the She­moneh Esreh.34In order not to differentiate between one Shabbos and another, it is customary to recite it every Shabbos. Also, in this manner, one who does not know how to recite it may fulfill his obligation [by listening to its recitation].35

It is customary for the entire [congregation] to recite it together,36 in a loud voice, while standing.37 For with this passage, we are testifying to creation [of the world] by the Holy One, blessed be He, and witnesses must deliver their testimony while standing. If one forgot to recite it in the synagogue, it is desirable that he recite it before Kiddush while standing.38

יב אַחַר תְּפִלַּת לַחַשׁ בְּעַרְבִית נוֹהֲגִין לַחֲזוֹר וְלוֹמַר "וַיְכֻלּוּ", מִשּׁוּם יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים אוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּפִלָּה,33 וְצָרִיךְ לְאָמְרוֹ אָז אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה,34 וּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לְחַלֵּק בֵּין שַׁבָּת לְשַׁבָּת נָהֲגוּ לְאָמְרוֹ בְּכָל הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת,לו וְגַם כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְאָמְרוֹ.לז,35

וְנוֹהֲגִין לְאָמְרוֹ (ב) כֻּלָּם יַחַדלח,36 בְּקוֹל רָם וּמְעֻמָּד,לט,37 לְפִי שֶׁבְּזֶה אָנוּ מְעִידִים לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית וְהָעֵדִים צְרִיכִים לְהָעִיד מְעֻמָּד.מ וְאִם שָׁכַח לְאָמְרוֹ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – טוֹב שֶׁיֹּאמַר אוֹתוֹ שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ מְעֻּמָּד:מא,38

13 Our Sages ordained that after reciting the Shemoneh Esreh in a hushed tone, the sheliach tzibur recites one blessing that encapsulates the seven [blessings of the Shemoneh Esreh].39

Why was the recitation [of this blessing] ordained on Friday night in contrast to other nights when it was not ordained that the sheliach tzibur repeats the Shemoneh Esreh after the Evening Service, for the reason explained in sec. 237?40 In the [Talmudic] era, the synagogues were located in the fields where demons would be found. On other nights, people were busy with their occupations. When they would finish their labors, they would recite the Evening Service in their homes and would not come to the synagogue at night. On Friday night, however, they would attend the synagogue. [Our Sages] feared that there would be some who would tarry [and arrive late] and [thus their Friday evening prayer] would [inevitably] be delayed until after the congregation completed their prayers, and thus they would remain alone in the synagogue and [when walking home they would] be exposed to danger.41 Therefore, [the Sages] extended the communal service, so that [those] individuals would have the opportunity to finish their prayers while the sheliach tzibur would recite this blessing.

Accordingly, this blessing was ordained [to be recited] only by the sheliach tzibur. If the congregation desires to recite it together with the sheliach tzibur, they must recite it without the beginning and concluding phrases42 so that they do not recite a blessing in vain. This is the custom in these countries – to recite together with the sheliach tzibur from Magen Avos (“the shield of the Patriarchs”) until zecher lemaaseh bereishis (“a remembrance of the work of Creation”). Even a person who prays individually who desires to recite this passage has license to do so.

יג תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁאַחַר תְּפִלַּת לַחַשׁ יֹאמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שֶׁבַע.מב,39 וְלָמָּה תִּקְּנוּ בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁאָר לֵילוֹת שֶׁלֹּא תִקְּנוּ חֲזָרַת שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אַחַר תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר הַטַּעַם בְּסִמָּן רל"ז,מג,40 לְפִי שֶׁבָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם הָיוּ בַּשָּׂדוֹת שֶׁשָּׁם מְצוּיִים מַזִּיקִים, וְכָל שְׁאָר לֵילוֹת הָיוּ עֲסוּקִין בִּמְלַאכְתָּן, וּבְגָמְרָם מְלַאכְתָּם מִתְפַּלְלִים עַרְבִית בְּבֵיתָם וְלֹא הָיוּ בָאִים לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת בַּלַּיְלָה, אֲבָל לֵיל שַׁבָּת הָיוּ בָאִים לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְחָשְׁשׁוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֶׁאֵינָן מְמַהֲרִים לָבוֹא וְשׁוֹהִין לְאַחַר תְּפִלַּת הַצִּבּוּר וְיִשָּׁאֲרוּ יְחִידִים בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְיִסְתַּכְּנוּ,41 לְכָךְ הֶאֱרִיכוּ תְּפִלַּת הַצִּבּוּרמד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה פְּנַאי לְיָחִיד לִגְמוֹר תְּפִלָּתוֹ בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אוֹמֵר בְּרָכָה זוֹ.מה

לְפִיכָךְ, לֹא תִקְּנוּהָ אֶלָּא עַל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בִּלְבָד.מו וְאִם יִרְצוּ הַצִּבּוּר לְאָמְרָהּ עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ בְּלֹא פְתִיחָה וּבְלֹא חֲתִימָה,מז,42 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְבָרְכוּ לְבַטָּלָה.מח וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לוֹמַר עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר "מָגֵן אָבוֹת" עַד "זֵכֶר לְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית".מט

וְאַף הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּיָחִיד שֶׁרוֹצֶה לוֹמַר כֵּן – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ:נ

14 When a festival falls on Shabbos, the festival is not mentioned in the one blessing that encapsulates seven,43 since were it not for Shabbos, this blessing would not be recited on the festival. For this blessing was not ordained on Shabbos as an obligation of the day, but [as a safeguard] against the demons.44 (On the night of the festivals, people would also not come to the synagogue, because they were occupied with the task of preparing for [the festive] meals.)45

The situation does not resemble the recitation of the Neilah service on Yom Kippur that falls on Shabbos – in which instance, one mentions Shabbos in the Neilah prayers46 even though [otherwise,] Neilah is not recited on Shabbos. Nevertheless, [the reason for the distinction can be explained as follows]: There are four prayer services [that we are] obligated to recite on this day: Shacharis, Mussaf, Minchah, and Neilah.47 The unique dimension of the day, that it is Shabbos, must be mentioned in each one of them. This blessing [that encapsulates seven], however, was not instituted as an obligation of the day, but merely [to enable protection] against the danger of demons.

יד יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר יוֹם טוֹב בִּבְרָכָה מֵעֵין שֶׁבַע,נא,43 לְפִי שֶׁאִלְמָלֵא שַׁבָּת אֵין בְּרָכוֹת מֵעֵין שֶׁבַע בְּיוֹם טוֹב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּרָכָה זוֹ לֹא נִתְקְנָה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּגְלַל חוֹבַת הַיּוֹם אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַמַּזִּיקִיןנב,44 (וּבְלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב לֹא הָיוּ בָאִים גַּם כֵּן לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיוּ טְרוּדִים בִּמְלֶאכֶת אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁנג).45

וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִנְעִילָה שֶׁבְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר גַּם שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בִּנְעִילָה46 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נְעִילָה בְּשַׁבָּת, לְפִי שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם יוֹם זֶה הוּא נִתְחַיֵּב בְּאַרְבַּע תְּפִלּוֹת,נד דְּהַיְנוּ שַׁחֲרִית מוּסָף מִנְחָה נְעִילָה,47 וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר עִנְיַן הַיּוֹם שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת בְּכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן, אֲבָל כַּאן לֹא נִתְקְנָה הַבְּרָכָה בִּשְׁבִיל חוֹבַת הַיּוֹם, אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל סַכָּנַת הַמַּזִּיקִין:נה

15 The one blessing that encapsulates seven should be recited only in an established synagogue, i.e., a place where ten people pray together in an ongoing manner. This blessing should not, by contrast, be recited in a place where ten people pray on occasion, for example, people who from time to time make a minyan in their homes,48 or in the home of a groom, or mourners who make a minyan in their homes. Since there is not an established minyan there, the rationale – that [the people should delay their departure] to enable those who come late to finish their prayers – is not relevant. [True, one might argue that] since our synagogues are located in inhabited areas, this rationale is no longer relevant at all. [The blessing is nevertheless recited at present, because it was instituted by our Sages and] an enactment of the Sages is never nullified even if the reason for which it was enacted is no longer relevant.49 Even so, initially, our Sages did not institute [the recitation of this blessing] in a place where there is no established minyan.

If a place is established as a place of prayer for ten people for a specific period – e.g., at trading fairs, it is commonplace to establish places of prayer for several weeks – there is an authority who ruled that [this blessing] should be recited there, because in such a situation, there are also people who come late [to the services]. In a locale where it is customary to recite [this blessing] even in a place where people pray only on occasion, they should not be reproved for doing so, (since this matter50 is not mentioned in the Talmudor the words of the Geonim).51

טו אֵין אוֹמְרִים בְּרָכָה מֵעֵין ז' אֶלָּא בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת קָבוּעַ, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִין בּוֹ בַּעֲשָׂרָה בִּקְבִיעוּת. אֲבָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְפַּלְלִין בּוֹ בַּעֲשָׂרָה בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא, כְּגוֹן אוֹתָן שֶׁעוֹשִׂים לִפְרָקִים מִנְיָן בְּבֵיתָם,נו,48 וְכֵן בְּבֵית חֲתָנִים וַאֲבֵלִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂים מִנְיָן בְּבֵיתָם – אֵין לוֹמַר שָׁם בִּרְכַּת מֵעֵין ז', דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְיָן קָבוּעַ – לֹא שַׁיָּךְ הַטַּעַם בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיְּסַיְּמוּ תְּפִלָּתָם הַמְאַחֲרִים לָבֹא.נז

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו שֶׁבָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ בְּיִשּׁוּב לֹא שַׁיָּךְ כְּלָל טַעַם זֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁתַּקָּנַת חֲכָמִים לֹא בָטְלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּטֵל הַטַּעַם שֶׁבִּגְלָלוֹ תִּקְּנוּ,נח,49 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְיָן קָבוּעַ – לֹא תִקְּנוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים מֵעוֹלָם.נט

וְאִם קוֹבְעִים מָקוֹם לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בּוֹ בַּעֲשָׂרָה אֵיזֶה זְמַן, כְּגוֹן בִּירִידִין שֶׁרְגִילִים לִקְבּוֹעַ מָקוֹם עַל כַּמָּה שָׁבוּעוֹת – יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁהוֹרָה לְאָמְרָהּ שָׁם,ס שֶׁגַּם שָׁם יֵשׁ הַמְאַחֲרִין לָבֹא.

וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְאָמְרָהּ אַף בְּמִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא – אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָםסא (כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִזְכַּר דָּבָר זֶה50 בִּגְמָרָא וּבְדִבְרֵי הַגְּאוֹנִים):51

16 Even on a Shabbos that follows [directly after] a festival,52 the one blessing that encapsulates seven should be recited, despite the fact that it is not so common for people to come late to the synagogue53 as they might on other Fridays, which are weekdays and they are involved in their work until the evening.

טז אַף בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאַחַר יוֹם טוֹב52 אוֹמְרִים בְּרָכָה מֵעֵין ז', אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ מָצוּי כָּל כָּךְ הַמְאַחֲרִים לָבֹאסב,53 כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר עַרְבֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת, שֶׁהֵם יוֹם חֹל וּמִתְעַסְּקִין בָּהֶם בִּמְלָאכָה עַד הָעֶרֶב:סג

17 An incident once occurred involving a pious man. In a dream, he saw another pious man [who had already passed away,] whose face was discolored.54 He asked [the departed,] “Why is your face discolored?”

He answered: “Because I would speak during the time the congregation recited Vaychulu and I did not recite it together with them. Also, because I would speak while the sheliach tzibur would recite the one blessing that encapsulates seven and when he would say Yisgadal…until Amen. Yehei shmei rabba….55and I did not focus on listening to him with concentrated intent.”

Accordingly, one should be scrupulous [regarding these matters].

יז מַעֲשֶׂה בְּחָסִיד אֶחָד שֶׁרָאָה בַּחֲלוֹמוֹ חָסִיד אַחֵר וּפָנָיו מוֹרִיקוֹת,,54 אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה פָּנֶיךָ מוֹרִיקוֹת? אָמַר לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיִיתִי מְדַבֵּר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים "וַיְכֻלּוּ" וְלֹא אָמַרְתִּי עִמָּהֶם בְּיַחַד, וְגַם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיִיתִי מְדַבֵּר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הָיָה אוֹמֵר בְּרָכָה מֵעֵין ז' וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר "יִתְגַּדַּל" עַד "אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא",55 וְלֹא הִטֵּיתִי אָזְנַי לִשְׁמוֹעַ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּכַוָּנָה.סד עַל כֵּן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר:סה

18 If one erred and recited a weekday She­moneh Esreh on Friday night, or even if he did not pray at all, he fulfills his obligation if he heard the one blessing that encapsulates seven from the sheliach tzibur from thebeginning to the end. In other prayer services, the sheliach tzibur may only fulfill the obligation of one who is not knowledgeable [in prayer], but not that of one who is knowledgeable.56 Nevertheless, since the Evening Service [was originally ordained as] a voluntary service,57 our Sages ruled leniently regarding it. Therefore, one may fulfill his obligation with this blessing instead of reciting all seven.58

When he is fulfilling his obligation [by hearing] this blessing, it is desirable for him to recite [it] together with the sheliach tzibur . If, however, the sheliach tzibur already recited it, it is forbidden for an individual to recite it to fulfill his obligation, because this blessing was ordained only as a congregational prayer. Nevertheless, if one transgressed and recited it individually, he fulfills his obligation. [This leniency is granted,] because the Evening Service [was originally ordained as] a voluntary service.

יח אִם טָעָה וְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל חֹל בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת,סו אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל כְּלָל,סז אִם שָׁמַע בְּרָכָה מֵעֵין ז' מֵהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד סוֹף – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר תְּפִלּוֹת אֵין הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מוֹצִיא אֶלָּא אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הַבָּקִי,סח,56 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּתסט,57 – הֵקֵלּוּ בָהּ,ע וּלְכָךְ יוֹצֵא גַם כֵּן בְּמֵעֵין ז' בִּמְקוֹם ז'.58 וְטוֹב שֶׁיֹּאמְרֶנָּה עִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר כְּשֶׁיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.עא

אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר אֲמָרָהּ שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר – אָסוּר לְיָחִיד לְאָמְרָהּ כְּדֵי לָצֵאת בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקְנָה אֶלָּא בְּצִבּוּר.עב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וַאֲמָרָהּ בְּיָחִיד – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,עג הוֹאִיל וּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית רְשׁוּת:עד