SECTION 267 The Laws Pertaining to Prayer on Friday (1-6)

סימן רסז דִּין הַתְּפִלָּה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ו׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1It is customary not to recite the Tachanun prayers1 after the Afternoon Prayer2 on Friday afternoon.3

א נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לִפּוֹל עַל פְּנֵיהֶם1 אַחַר תְּפִלַּת מִנְחָה2 בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת:א,3

2 It is customary to recite the EveningService earlier than on weekdays.4 This is a fitting practice, so that one accepts Shabbos as early as possible, provided it is after p’lag haminchah, as explained in sec. 261[:5] and 263[:6].5

Even those who [usually] recite the EveningService at the appropriate time, i.e., after the appearance of [three] stars6 during the weekdays, may recite it earlier on Friday,7 praying from p’lag haminchah onward,8 following Rabbi Yehudah’s approach9 that p’lag haminchah and onward is considered night with regard to [the Evening] Prayer.10 Although the person occasionally recites the Afternoon Service at this time on other days, and thus he will be following two contradictory leniencies, as stated in sec. 233,11 one need not be concerned about this with regard to the Shabbos Evening Service. For he is performing a mitzvah by reciting it while it is still day, i.e., he is adding from the mundane to the holy. Nevertheless, one must be careful not to recite the Afternoon Service that Friday after p’lag haminchah,so that he will not be following two leniencies that are contradictory during the same time frame.

He must also be careful regarding the recitation of the Shema [at its proper time], as stated in sec. 235.12 He may also recite the Shema with its blessings at night and recite just the Shabbos Shemoneh Esreh during the day without reciting the Shema and its blessings. Although [when praying in this manner] he will not link redemption to the Shemoneh Esreh,13 [in this instance] this is not of consequence, since one intends to perform a mitzvah – to add from the mundane to the holy.

Nevertheless, if one also desires to recite the Shabbos Evening Service at night, he has license to do so.14 He may add from the mundane to the holy without reciting the [Evening] Service.15 Moreover, even one who recites the Evening Service while it is still day may accept tosefes Shabbos before praying [the Evening Service].

ב וְנוֹהֲגִים לְהַקְדִּים תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית יוֹתֵר מִבִּימוֹת הַחֹל.ב,4 וְנָכוֹן הוּא, כְּדֵי לְהַקְדִּים קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר,ג רַק שֶׁיְּהֵא מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"אד וְרס"ג.ה,5

וְאַף הַמִּתְפַּלְלִין עַרְבִית בִּזְמַנָּהּ בְּצֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים6 כָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹלו – יָכוֹל הוּא לְהַקְדִּים בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת7 לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה,ז,8 כְּדִבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָהח,9 שֶׁאוֹמֵר שֶׁמִּפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וְאֵילַךְ הוּא לַיְלָה לְעִנְיַן תְּפִלָּה.ט,10 וְאַף שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים בִּשְׁאָר יָמִים מִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה בִּזְמַן הַהוּא, וַהֲרֵי הֵן שְׁתֵּי קֻלּוֹת הַסּוֹתְרוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רל"[ג]י,11 – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים לָזֶה בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת,יא שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִצְוָה כְּשֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם שֶׁמּוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ.

אֶלָּא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הוּא לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה בּוֹ בַיּוֹם עַצְמוֹ אַחַר פְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה ב' קֻלּוֹת הַסּוֹתְרוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ בִּזְמַן אֶחָד.יב

וְגַם צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,יג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רל"ה.יד,12 וְיָכוֹל הוּא גַם כֵּן לִקְרוֹתָהּ בַּלַּיְלָה עִם בִּרְכוֹתֶיהָ, וּמִבְּעוֹד יוֹם יִתְפַּלֵּל הַתְּפִלָה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד בְּלֹא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּבִרְכוֹתֶיהָ. וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ סוֹמֵךְ גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה13 – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְמִצְוָה לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ.טו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל גַּם הַתְּפִלָּה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בַּלַּיְלָה – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ,טז,14 וְיוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּלֹא תְפִלָּה.יז,15 וְאַף הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – יָכוֹל לְקַבֵּל תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת קֹדֶם תְּפִלָּה:יח

3 The same principles stated with regard to prayer were also stated with regard to the sanctification of the day. One may recite Kiddush and eat [his Shabbos meal] from p’lag haminchah onward, even if he has not yet recited the Evening Service.16 With this meal that he is eating while it is still day [on Friday], he fulfills the obligation of partaking of one of the three meals he is obligated to eat on Shabbos. (Since he already accepted tosefes Shabbos,17[this time period] is considered [for him] as Shabbos itself in every regard.)

There are those who are stringent [and rule that] one must extend his meal into the night itself, i.e., he must eat at least an olive-sized portion18 [of bread]19 after the appearance of [three medium-sized] stars in order to partake of the three meals on Shabbos itself. For the Sages derived [the obligation to partake of] these three meals from the fact that the term hayom (“today”) is mentioned [in the Torah] three times with regard to partaking of manna on Shabbos.20Accordingly, one must partake of [these meals] on the [Shabbos]day itself and not on the time added to it. It is desirable to give weight to their words [and accept their stringency].

ג כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְעִנְיַן תְּפִלָּה – כָּךְ אָמְרוּ לְעִנְיַן קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם, שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁיט וְלֶאֱכוֹלכ מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית עֲדַיִן.16

וּבַאֲכִילָה זוֹ שֶׁמִּבְּעוֹד יוֹם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת סְעֻדָּה אַחַת מִג' סְעֻדּוֹת שֶׁחַיָּב לֶאֱכוֹל בְּשַׁבָּתכא (כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר קִבֵּל עָלָיו תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת17 – נַעֲשָׂה אֶצְלוֹ כְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ לְכָל דָּבָרכב).

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִים שֶׁיַּמְשִׁיךְ סְעֻדָּתוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה עַצְמוֹ,כג שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִתכד,18 לְפָחוֹת19 אַחַר צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַיֵּם ג' סְעֻדּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁג' סְעֻדּוֹת אֵלּוּ לַמְדוּם חֲכָמִים מִמַּה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר ג' פְּעָמִים "הַיּוֹם" אֵצֶל אֲכִילַת הַמָּן בְּשַׁבָּת,כה,20 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְאָכְלָן בְּעִצּוּמָהּ שֶׁל יוֹם וְלֹא בְּתוֹסַפְתּוֹ.כו וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם:כז

4 (One who recites the Evening Service at the appropriate time throughout the days of the week and recites that service on Friday while it is still day) is forbidden to begin eating from about half an hour before the appearance of the stars,21 (even though he also recited the Shema), as stated in sec. 235.22 ([The rationale is that] he did not at all fulfill his obligation of reciting the [evening] Shema with the recitation of the Shema while it is still day).23

([Leniency is granted] in a pressing situation), ([for example,] the lamps will burn out before nightfall [forcing him to eat in darkness].)24

ד (הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל (א) עַרְבִית בִּזְמַנָּהּ כָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹל וּבְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִתְפַּלֵּל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםכח) (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּרָא גַּם קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע) – אָסוּר לוֹ לְהַתְחִיל לֶאֱכוֹל כַּחֲצִי שָׁעָה סָמוּךְ לְצֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִיםכט,21 (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק) (שֶׁיִּכְבּוּ הַנֵּרוֹת עַד הַלַּיְלָה),24 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רל"הל,22 (שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ כְּלָל בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁקָּרָא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםלא):23

5 One should not conclude the blessing Hashkiveinu with the words Shomer amo Yisrael, “the Guardian of His people Israel,” as he does during the week, because the Jews do not require protection on Shabbos; the Shabbos protects us.25 Instead, when he reaches the phrase uvetzeil kenafecha tastireinu (“shelter us under the shade of Your wings”), he should say “ufros26[aleinu] sukkas…. Baruch Atah A-donai haporeis… (“spread over us the shelter…. Blessed are You, G‑d, Who spreads….”).

In these countries,27 it is customary also to say ki Eil Shomreinu… ushmor tzeiseinu…. (“for You, G‑d, are our Guardian… guard our going out….”)as [recited] during the week, and conclude with Baruch Atah A-donai haporeis… (“Blessed are You, G‑d, Who spreads….”).28 [The rationale is that,] as a collective, people do not require protection on Shabbos. Individuals, however, do require protection. For this reason, we do not conclude with Shomer amo Yisrael (“the Guardian of His people Israel”), for as a whole, the people of Israel do not require protection on Shabbos. However, when we say ushmor tzeiseinu (“guard our going out”), we are making a request on behalf of each person individually.

ה בְּבִרְכַּת "הַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ" לֹא יַחְתּוֹם "שׁוֹמֵר עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל" כְּמוֹ בְּחֹל, שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל צְרִיכִין שְׁמִירָה בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת מְגִנָּה עָלֵינוּ,לב,25 אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְ"וּבְצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ תַּסְתִּירֵנוּ" – יֹאמַר "וּפְרוֹס26 סֻכַּת כוּ',לג בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' הַפּוֹרֵס כוּ'".

וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ27 נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר גַּם כֵּן "כִּי אֵל שׁוֹמְרֵנוּ כוּ', וּשְׁמוֹר צֵאתֵנוּ כוּ'" כְּמוֹ בְּחֹל,לד וְחוֹתְמִים "וּפְרוֹס כוּ', בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ הַפּוֹרֵס כוּ'",28 לְפִי שֶׁהָרַבִּים הֵם שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִין שְׁמִירָה בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל הַיָּחִיד צָרִיךְ שְׁמִירָה, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין חוֹתְמִים "שׁוֹמֵרלה עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל", שֶׁכְּלָלוּת עַם יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵינָם צְרִיכִין שְׁמִירָה בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹמְרִים "וּשְׁמוֹר צֵאתֵנוּ", מְבַקְשִׁים בָּזֶה עַל כָּל יָחִיד וְיָחִיד:לו

6 Those who follow the practice of reciting the passage of VeShamru (“The Children of Israel shall keep the Shabbos…”)29 have a basis for their conduct. This does not constitute an interruption between [the blessing of] redemption and the She­moneh Esreh,30 since [our Sages taught:]31 “If Israel would keep two Shabbosos, they would be redeemed immediately.” Thus, [this passage] also reflects the theme of redemption.

ו הַנּוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר "וְשָׁמְרוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּתלז כוּ'"29 – יֵשׁ לָהֶם עַל מַה שֶׁיִּסְמוֹכוּ. וְאֵין זֶה הֶפְסֵק בֵּין גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה,30 לְפִי31 שֶׁאִם שָׁמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁתֵּי שַׁבָּתוֹת מִיָּד נִגְאָלִין,לח וַהֲרֵי זֶה מֵעֵין גְּאֻלָּה גַּם כֵּן:לט