SECTION 266 The Laws Pertaining to a Person Who Was in the Midst of a Journey when Night Fell [on Friday] (1-27)

סימן רסו דִּין מִי שֶׁהֶחְשִׁיךְ לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וּבוֹ כ"ז סְעִיפִים׃

1 [The following rules apply when] a person who is carrying money1 is traveling on a journey and Shabbos is about to commence. If he has his donkey with him and he is also accompanied by a non-Jew, he should not place his purse on the donkey,2 because he is commanded to have it rest on Shabbos.3Instead, he should give it to the non-Jew to carry for him on Shabbos,4until he reaches the place where he will spend the Shabbos.5[That place] must be within the Shabbos limits6 of the place where he was located when the Shabbos commenced.7 On Saturday night, he may take it back from him.

[Since] he did not pay him a wage for this [favor, the non-Jew] is considered to have worked for the sake of the Jew. Nevertheless, even if he gave him [the purse] after nightfall, this is permitted because a person will not stand idly by [and forfeit] his money. If he would not be granted permission to have his money carried and and transported by the non-Jew – which are, after all, only Rabbinic prohibitions – [it is entirely possible that] he would carry it himself and violate a Scriptural prohibition.8 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, he should give it to the non-Jew while it is still day [on Friday]9 and not carry [an article10 that is] muktzeh on Shabbos.

א מִי שֶׁהָיָה בָּא בַדֶּרֶךְ וְקִדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם וְהָיוּ עִמּוֹ מָעוֹת,א,1 וְיֵשׁ לוֹ חֲמוֹרוֹ וְגַם יֵשׁ עִמּוֹ נָכְרִי – לֹא יַנִּיחַ כִּיסוֹ עַל חֲמוֹרוֹ,2 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתָתוֹ,ב,3 אֶלָּא יִתְּנֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִיג לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לוֹד בְּשַׁבָּת4 עַד מְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ,5 שֶׁהוּא תּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּםה,7 מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם,7 וּלְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לוֹקְחוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ.ו וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל זֶהז שֶׁנִּמְצָא טוֹרֵחַ בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל,ח וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר,ט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ עַל מָמוֹנוֹ,י וְאִם לֹא נַתִּיר לוֹ טִלְטוּל הַמָּעוֹת וְהוֹלָכָה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרָן אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יָבוֹא לְהוֹלִיכוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ2 וְיַעֲבוֹר עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.יא,8

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לוֹ לִתְּנוֹ לוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,9 וְלֹא לְטַלְטֵל10 מֻקְצֶה בְּשַּׁבָּת:יב

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2 To what does the above apply? To a person’s purse. If, however, he finds an ownerless article,11 he is not permitted to give it to a non-Jew, even while it is still day [on Friday. The rationale is, that] a person will not panic as much over [the loss of] an ownerless article that he found [and could have acquired] as he would over [the loss] of his own property. He will be able to contain himself, rather than violate a Scriptural prohibition because of it.

When does the above apply? When he has yet to lift it up [and thereby acquire the ownerless article]. If, however, he already lifted up [the ownerless article] and it entered his possession while it was still day [on Friday, he acquired it and] it is treated exactly like his [other property].

ב בַּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּכִיסוֹ, אֲבָל אִם מָצָא מְצִיאָה11 – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לִתְּנָהּ לְנָכְרִייג,2 אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָדָם בָּהוּל כָּל כָּךְ עַל הַמְּצִיאָהיד כְּמוֹ עַל שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ וְיוּכַל לְהַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לָבֹא לִידֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִילָהּ.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִגְבִּיהַּ אוֹתָהּ,טו אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר הִגְבִּיהָהּ וּבָא לְיָדוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – נַעֲשֵׂית כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ:טז

3 If he is not accompanied by a non-Jew or he does not trust the non-Jew [accompanying him], he should place his purse on his donkey.12 In order that he not violate the commandment to have his animal rest on Shabbos, he should place it on [the donkey] after it lifts its foreleg and hind leg to walk.13 In such a situation, a Scriptural prohibition is not involved. For the Scriptural prohibition against moving an article four cubits in the public domain, or transferring it from a private domain to a public domain, or transferring it from a public domain to a private domain, applies only when the same person lifts up the object (i.e., performs an akirah)from the location where it was situated, carries it [in the public domain], brings it from [a private domain to a public domain], or brings it into [a private domain from a public domain and, in all these three instances, sets it down, performing a hanachah].14 Similarly, if a person lifted up an object and loaded it onto another person while he was standing, from the moment it was placed on the person who was standing, that object is considered to have been placed down after having been lifted up beforehand.15 Afterwards, when this other person lifts his feet to walk, he is considered to have lifted the object from its place again and he is liable [when he stops walking and thereby performs the hanachah].

If, however, another person loaded [the object] onto him after he already lifted his feet [and began] walking, the object is not considered to have been placed down after having been initially lifted from its place by the first person.16 Therefore, even if the second person carried the article for a great [distance], he is exempt because he did not perform the entire forbidden labor [by himself. The rationale:] He did not [perform the entire labor, since he did not] lift the article up from its place; the first person did this. It is, however, forbidden by Rabbinic decree [for a person to do so].

In this instance, by contrast, it is permitted as an initial preference to place the article on the animal after it has lifted up a foreleg and a hind leg. [Our Sages] granted this license so that [the person will not be required] to forfeit his purse, since, otherwise he might carry it himself [because of his unwillingness to lose his money].

When the animal stops to urinate, to defecate, or the like – and certainly, if it stops to rest – the person must remove the purse from it [after it stops].17 After it lifts up its foreleg and hind leg to walk again, he should [once more] place [the article] on it. If he does not do so, [the violation of] a Scriptural prohibition will be involved.18 For when the animal stood still, it is as if a hanachah was performed [by the animal] after the initial akirah done by [the person. Thus,] when the animal begins walking again, [the animal] performs a [second] akirah of the purse, and when it rests afterwards, it will also be performing a hanachah. Thus, a complete forbidden labor, [both an akirah and a hanachah,] will have been performed.

As an initial preference, the person should remove the object from the animal [when he sees that] it wants to stand, before it actually does so, so that [the animal] will not perform [even] the hanachah to the original akirah that the person performed.19 True, merely [the violation of] a Rabbinic prohibition is involved if [the animal] performs the hanachah. Nevertheless, to whatever extent possible, one should minimize [the violation of] Rabbinic prohibitions, for license was granted [to allow the animal to carry the purse] only because of the pressing situation.20

The person should continue to follow this course of action (until he reaches the outermost courtyard of the city, as will be explained).21 Whenever [the animal] desires to stand still, he should remove [the purse] from it, and when it begins walking, he should place it [back] on.

ג אִם אֵין עִמּוֹ נָכְרִייז אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ לְנָכְרִייח – מַנִּיחַ כִּיסוֹ עַל חֲמוֹרוֹ.12 וּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹא יַעֲבוֹר עַל שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ3 – יַנִּיחֶנּוּ עָלֶיהָ לְאַחַר שֶׁעָקְרָהיט יָד וָרֶגֶלכ לָלֶכֶת,13 שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין כַּאן אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּמַעֲבִיר ד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אוֹ בְּמוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אוֹ בְּמַכְנִיס מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, אֶלָא כְּשֶׁאָדָם אֶחָד עוֹקֵר אֶת הַחֵפֶץ מִמְּקוֹם הַנָּחָתוֹ וּמַעֲבִירוֹ, אוֹ מוֹצִיאוֹ, אוֹ מַכְנִיסוֹ.כא,14

וְכֵן אִם אַחֵר עָקַר הַחֵפֶץ וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל זֶה כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד, שֶׁמִּיָּד שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ עָלָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד כְּבָר נַעֲשֵׂית הַנָּחָה לְחֵפֶץ זֶה לַעֲקִירָה זוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,15 וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁזֶּה עוֹקֵר רַגְלָיו לָלֶכֶת – הֲרֵי זוֹ עֲקִירָה שְׁנִיָּה לְחֵפֶץ זֶה וְחַיָּב.כב אֲבָל אִם אַחֵר הִנִּיחוֹ עָלָיו לְאַחַר שֶׁהוּא עָקַר כְּבָר רַגְלָיו לָלֶכֶת – לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית עֲדַיִן הַנָּחָה לַעֲקִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁעָקַר חֲבֵרוֹ,כג,16 וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף שֶׁזֶּה הוֹלִיךְ הַחֵפֶץ אַחַר כָּךְ הַרְבֵּה – פָּטוּר הוּא, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה כָּל הַמְּלָאכָה, שֶׁחָסְרָה לוֹ הָעֲקִירָה שֶׁעֲשָׂאָהּ חֲבֵרוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.

וְכַאן כְּשֶׁמַּנִּיחַ עַל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ אַחַר שֶׁעָקְרָה יָד וָרֶגֶל – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה,כד שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵד כִּיסוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לְהוֹלִיכוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ.כה

וּכְשֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה עוֹמֶדֶתכו לְהַשְׁתִּין מַיִם, אוֹ לְהַטִּיל גְּלָלִיםכז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם עוֹמֶדֶת לָנוּחַ – צָרִיךְ לִטּוֹל הַכִּיס מִמֶּנָּה,17 וּלְאַחַר שֶׁתַּחֲזוֹר וְתַעֲקוֹר יָד וָרֶגֶל לָלֶכֶת – יַנִּיחֶנּוּ עָלֶיהָ,כח שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן יֵשׁ כַּאן אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,18 שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁעָמְדָה נַעֲשֵׂית הַנָּחָה לַעֲקִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁעָקַר הוּא, וּכְשֶׁחוֹזֶרֶת לֵילֵךְ – הֲרֵי הִיא בְּעַצְמָהּ עוֹשָׂה עֲקִירָה לַכִּיס, וּכְשֶׁתָּנוּחַ אַחַר כָּךְ תַּעֲשֶׂה גַּם הַנָּחָה, וַהֲרֵי כַּאן מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה.כט

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִטְּלוֹ מִמֶּנָּה כְּשֶׁתִּרְצֶה לַעֲמוֹד קֹדֶם שֶׁעָמְדָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂה אֲפִלּוּ הַנָּחָה לַעֲקִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁעָקַר הוּא,ל,19 שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵין כַּאן אֶלָּא אִסּוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אַף אִם תַּעֲשֶׂה הַנָּחָה זוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לְמַעֵט בְּאִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – צָרִיךְ לְמַעֵט, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַדֹּחַק.20

וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה לְעוֹלָם בְּכָל פַּעַם שֶׁתִּרְצֶה לַעֲמוֹד – יִטְּלֶנּוּ מֵעָלֶיהָ, וּכְשֶׁתַּעֲקוֹר לָלֶכֶת – יַנִּיחֶנּוּ עָלֶיהָ (עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה שֶׁל הָעִיר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרלא):21

4 Even when the animal does not belong to [the traveler] and thus he does not [violate] the [Scriptural] commandment of having his animal rest, he must still be careful with regard to all the above. Since he is driving the animal, he will violate a prohibition if it performs a forbidden labor,22 even though the animal does not belong to him.23

Nevertheless, if the animal does not belong to him,24 he must place [the purse] on the animal even if a non-Jew is accompanying him [and he would otherwise be required to give it to the non-Jew. The rationale:] Since he exercises caution that a complete labor forbidden by Scriptural Law will not be committed, even were such activities to be performed by a human, only a Rabbinic prohibition would be violated.25 Therefore, it is preferable that he have a Rabbinically forbidden activity performed by an animal rather than he himself performing an activity forbidden by Rabbinic Law by instructing a non-Jew26 and giving him his purse to carry for him, thereby using him as his agent on Shabbos.

When, by contrast, the animal belongs to him and he is commanded that it rest on Shabbos, even when he is careful that a completely forbidden activity is not carried out, it is nevertheless preferable that [the animal] rest entirely.27 Therefore, he must give his purse to the non-Jew, for [with regard to him,] he is not [at all] obligated to have him rest on Shabbos.

ד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין כַּאן אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכָל זֶה,לב דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְחַמֵּר אַחֲרֶיהָ, אִם תַּעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה – יַעֲבוֹר עַל לֹא תַעֲשֶׂהלג,2 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁלּוֹ.לד,21

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם (א) אֵינָהּ שֶׁלּוֹ24 – צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחוֹ עָלֶיהָ אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ עִמּוֹ נָכְרִי,לה דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא נִזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה הָאֲסוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אַף אִם אָדָם הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ,25 אִם כֵּן מוּטָב שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי הַבְּהֵמָה דָּבָר הָאָסוּר לוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּעַצְמוֹ דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, דְּהַיְנוּ הָאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִילו,26 וּנְתִינַת הַכִּיס אֵלָיו שֶׁיּוֹלִיכֶנּוּ לוֹ וְיַעֲשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת.לז

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁלּוֹ וְהוּא מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתָתָהּ, אַף שֶׁנִּזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יוֹתֵר טוֹב שֶׁתִּשְׁבּוֹת לְגַמְרֵי,לח,27 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן כִּיסוֹ לְנָכְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתָתוֹ:לט

5 If [the person has] a heavy burden that the non-Jew would be unable to carry by hand [and thus it would have to be carried by his donkey], he should also give his donkey to the non-Jew as an outright present or declare [the donkey] ownerless. In such an instance, it is governed by the laws applying to an animal that does not belong to him, as explained [previously].28

ה וְאִם הוּא מַשָּׂא כָּבֵד שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל הַנָּכְרִי לָשֵׂאת אוֹתוֹ בְּיָדָיו – יִתֵּן גַּם הַחֲמוֹר לְנָכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָה גְמוּרָה, אוֹ יַפְקִירֶנָּה,מ וַאֲזַי דִּינָהּ כִּבְהֵמָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלָל, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:מא,28

6 Even though a person was permitted to place his purse on a donkey, license was not granted for him to ride on it.29 ([This stringency applies] even when, were he not to ride on the donkey [while sitting on] the purse, the purse would be exposed on the donkey and there would be reason for concern that robbers might steal it from him. Even so, the prohibition against riding was not lifted for him on present-day roads, ([even though] they are not categorized as an actual public domain, as will be explained in sec. 345[:11]).30

[In such a situation,] even if license to ride [the animal] were not to be granted him, he would never violate a Scriptural prohibition even if he were to carry the purse himself. What difference does it make [whether he violates] the prohibition against riding or the prohibition against [carrying in] a karmelis;31they are both of Rabbinic origin. Therefore permission should not be granted [to ride on the donkey].

([Instead, the only license that should be granted to him] is for the money to be carried and transported by the animal, without it performing an akirah [lifting the object from its place] or a hanachah [bringing it to a state of rest), so that he will not transport the money himself and [thereby both] handle it and perform both an akirah and a hanachah. [Out of fear that he might perform such a transgression, our Sages reasoned that] it was preferable to grant him license [to overstep] fewer32 Rabbinic prohibitions33 than for him to violate many Rabbinic prohibitions34 willfully. [They did] not, however,) (grant him license) to ride. Instead, he should travel on foot.

ו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ כִּיסוֹ עַל חֲמוֹרוֹ – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לִרְכּוֹב עָלָיו.מב,29

(וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם לֹא יִרְכַּב עָלָיו וְהַכִּיס תַּחְתָּיו אֶלָּא יְהֵא הַכִּיס מְגֻלֶּה עַל חֲמוֹרוֹ, יִהְיֶה (ב) שָׁם חֲשָׁשׁ מִלִּסְטִים שֶׁלֹּא יִגְזְלֵהוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ אִסּוּר רְכִיבָהמג בִּדְרָכִים שֶׁלָּנוּ (שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם דִּין רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"המד),30 וְאַף אִם לֹא נַתִּיר לוֹ הָרְכִיבָה – לֹא יָבֹא לִידֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַף אִם יוֹלִיכֶנָּה בְּעַצְמוֹ, וּמַה הֶפְרֵשׁ לָנוּ בֵּין אִסּוּר הָרְכִיבָה וּבֵין אִסּוּר הַכַּרְמְלִית,31 שְׁנֵיהֶם הֵם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְהַתִּיר לוֹמה (אֶלָּא טִלְטוּל הַמָּעוֹת וְהוֹלָכָה עַל יְדֵי הַבְּהֵמָה בְּלֹא עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לְהוֹלִיךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ וִיטַלְטֵל גַּם כֵּן הַמָּעוֹת וְיַעֲשֶׂה גַם כֵּן עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה, וּמוּטָב לְהַתִּיר לוֹ מְעַט32 מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים33 מִשֶּׁיַּעֲבוֹר עַל הַרְבֵּה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים34 בְּזָדוֹן,מו אֲבָל) הָרְכִיבָה (אֵין לְהַתִּיר לוֹ), אֶלָּא יֵלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו:

7 The person should travel on foot even if he must journey beyond the Shabbos limits35 because of a possibility of danger. [There is reason to say that] he should ride on the donkey, because [when doing so,] his feet will hang more than ten handbreadths above the ground and the prohibition against [going beyond] the Shabbos limits does not apply when one is more than ten handbreadths above the ground, as explained in sec. 248[:3].36 If, by contrast, he travels on foot, he will violate the prohibition against [going beyond] the Shabbos limits. [Indeed, this ruling applies] even with regard to the Scriptural prohibition against [going beyond] the Shabbos limits, i.e., twelve mil, according to the opinions that [going beyond that distance] is forbidden by Scriptural Law.37 [Nonetheless, the rationale for prohibiting riding is that,] although while riding his feet will be more than ten handbreadths above the ground, nevertheless, since he is comfortably sitting on the donkey – a place that is comfortable to use as a seat – and the feet of the donkey touch the ground,38 the situation resembles one traveling in a coach. [In that instance,] even though it is ten handbreadths above the ground, if it is four handbreadths by four handbreadths [or more] in area, the prohibition against [going beyond] the Shabbos limits applies, as will be stated in sec. 404[:1] (see fig. 12 below).

Nevertheless, if it is a situation where danger could arise if the person does not ride [his donkey] or travel in a coach, e.g., one is traveling through a desert with a caravan and he would not be able to keep pace with them if he goes on foot39 or the like, he may ride or travel in a coach. [This leniency applies] even when he is still within the Shabbos limits and thus there is no prohibition at all against traveling on foot.40

ז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא צָרִיךְ לָצֵאת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם35 מִפְּנֵי חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה, וּכְשֶׁיִּרְכַּב עַל הַחֲמוֹר יִהְיוּ רַגְלָיו תְּלוּיוֹת לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים מִן הָאָרֶץ, וְכָל לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר תְּחוּמִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ח,מז,36 וּכְשֶׁיֵּלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו יַעֲבוֹר עַל אִסּוּר תְּחוּמִין, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִסּוּר תְּחוּמִין שֶׁהֵם מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּגוֹן חוּץ לְי"ב מִיל לְהָאוֹמְרִיםמח שֶׁהֵם מִן הַתּוֹרָה,37 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁאַף שֶׁכְּשֶׁיִּרְכּוֹב יִהְיוּ רַגְלָיו לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹחַ תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ עַל גַּבֵּי הַחֲמוֹר שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם נוֹחַ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ יְשִׁיבָה וְרַגְלֵי הַחֲמוֹר נוֹגְעִים בָּאָרֶץ38 – הֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְהוֹלֵךְ בְּקָרוֹן, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד' – יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם תְּחוּמִין,מט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ד.נ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה אִם לֹא יִרְכַּב וְיֵלֵךְ בְּקָרוֹן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בַּמִּדְבָּר עִם שַׁיָּרָא וְלֹא יוּכַל לָלֶכֶת עִמָּהֶם אִם יֵלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו,39 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה – יָכוֹל לִרְכּוֹב וְלֵילֵךְ בְּקָרוֹן אַף כְּשֶׁעוֹדֶנּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם אִסּוּר כְּלָל בַּהֲלִיכָה בָּרֶגֶל:נא,40

8 [The following rules apply when a person is traveling in a coach41 and the Shabbos is about to commence:] When there is no concern for danger, he must descend from the coach [while it is still day]. If he did not descend from it while it was still day, he must remove all his goods from his person and place them on the coach before he descends from it, if the coach itself – without its wheels – is four handbreadths [by four handbreadths] wide and ten handbreadths high without [the height of] its wheels, for then it is defined as a private domain in a complete sense, even though there is much empty space beneath it. This being so, when he descends to the ground, which is a karmelis, it is forbidden for him to transfer an article from the karmelis to the private domain.42

If the coach itself is not ten handbreadths high, even though it is ten handbreadths high together with its wheels, it is not considered as a private domain if there is an empty space of three handbreadths below it, as will be explained in sec. 345[:4],43 and it is permitted to transfer an article from a karmelis to it. If it is not four handbreadths [by four handbreadths,] even though it44 is ten handbreadths high,45 it is categorized as a makom p’tur46and it is permitted to transfer [an article] into it even from a public domain. If its upper portion is wider than four handbreadths [by four handbreadths], it is considered as a private domain even though its lower portion is not that wide, as will be explained [in sec. 345:3].47

ח וּכְשֶׁאֵין שָׁם חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה וְצָרִיךְ לֵירֵד מִן הַקָּרוֹן41 אִם לֹא יָרַד מִמֶּנּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל חֲפָצָיו וּלְהַנִּיחָם עַל הַקָּרוֹן קֹדֶם שֶׁיֵּרֵד מִמֶּנּוּ אִם גּוּף הָעֲגָלָה עַצְמָהּ בְּלֹא הַגַּלְגַּלִּים הִיא רְחָבָה ד' וְגַם הִיא גְבוֹהָה י' טְפָחִים בְּלֹא הַגַּלְגַּלִּים, שֶׁאָז הִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָהנב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ חָלָל הַרְבֵּה תַּחְתֶּיהָ, אִם כֵּן כְּשֶׁיֵּרֵד עַל הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהִיא כַּרְמְלִית אָסוּר לוֹ לְטַלְטֵל מִכַּרְמְלִית לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.נג,42

וְאִם אֵין הָעֲגָלָה גְּבוֹהָה י' טְפָחִים בְּעַצְמָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגְּבוֹהָה י' טְפָחִים עִם הַגַּלְגַּלִּים – אֵינָהּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אִם יֵשׁ תַּחְתֶּיהָ חָלָל ג' טְפָחִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה,נד,43 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִכַּרְמְלִית לְתוֹכָהּ.נה

וְאִם אֵין רְחָבָה ד' טְפָחִים, אַף עַל פִּי44 שֶׁגְּבוֹהָה בְּעַצְמָהּ י' טְפָחִים45 – הֲרֵי זֶה מָקוֹם פְּטוּר,נו,46 וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל אֲפִלּוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְתוֹכוֹ.

וְאִם הִיא מִלְמַעְלָה רְחָבָה ד' טְפָחִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּלְּמַטָּה אֵינָהּ רְחָבָה ד' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי זוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,נז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:נח,47

Fig. 12: A Coach More Than Ten Handbreadths High
a) The height of the coach, not including its wheels, more than 10 handbreadths
b) The length of the coach, more than 4 handbreadths
c) The width of the coach, more than 4 handbreadt
Fig. 12: A Coach More Than Ten Handbreadths High a) The height of the coach, not including its wheels, more than 10 handbreadths b) The length of the coach, more than 4 handbreadths c) The width of the coach, more than 4 handbreadt

9 If [in the circumstance described in subsection 1], the person is accompanied neither by a donkey nor by a non-Jew, but he is accompanied by [the following] three Jewish individuals – a deaf-mute, a mentally incompetent person, and a minor – he should give his purse to the mentally incompetent person,48 for such a person is exempt from all mitzvos.49 He should not give it to the deaf-mute50 or to the minor, although they, too, are exempt [from all mitzvos]. For the deaf-mute does possess a minimal degree of understanding and thus [one might mistakenly think that similar license might be given to] an ordinary person.51 [Nor should it be given to] the minor, for he will ultimately gain understanding and become obligated in mitzvos.52 A mentally incompetent person, by contrast, has no understanding at all, nor will he ever gain understanding.53

If he is not accompanied by a mentally incompetent person, but is accompanied by either a deaf-mute or a minor, he should give it to him. If he is accompanied by both a deaf-mute and a minor, he may give it to whomever he chooses because the [choice] is equal: The deaf-mute possesses a minimal degree of [mature] understanding [while the minor does not possess any mature understanding. Thus, one might argue that it is desirable to give it to the minor. Conversely,] although the minor does not possess any [mature] understanding,54 [one might argue that it is undesirable to give it to him because] ultimately, when he comes of age, he will attain a normal level of understanding. [All things being equal, he may therefore give it to either one.]

ט אִם אֵין עִמּוֹ לֹא חֲמוֹר וְלֹא נָכְרִי, אִם יֵשׁ עִמּוֹ חֵרֵשׁ וְשׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן – יִתֵּן כִּיסוֹ לְהַשּׁוֹטֶה48 שֶׁיּוֹלִיכֶנּוּ לוֹ,נט שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר מִכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת.ס,49

וְלֹא יִתְּנֶנּוּ לְחֵרֵשׁ50 וְקָטָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם הֵם פְּטוּרִים,סא מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַחֵרֵשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ דַּעַת מוּעֶטֶתסב וּמִתְחַלֵּף בְּפִקֵּחַ,סג,51 וְהַקָּטָן יָבֹא לִכְלַל דַּעַתסד וּלְהִתְחַיֵּב בְּמִצְוֹת,52 אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹטֶה אֵין לוֹ דַּעַת כְּלָל,סה וְלֹא יָבֹא לִכְלַל דַּעַת.53

אֲבָל אִם אֵין עִמּוֹ שׁוֹטֶה אֶלָּא חֵרֵשׁ אוֹ קָטָן – יִתְּנֶנּוּ לָהֶם.סו וְאִם יֵשׁ עִמּוֹ חֵרֵשׁ וְקָטָן – יִתְּנֶנּוּ לְאֵיזֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה,סז לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שְׁקוּלִים,סח שֶׁהַחֵרֵשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ דַּעַת מוּעֶטֶת, וְהַקָּטָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ דַּעַת כְּלָל,54 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יָבֹא לִכְלַל דַּעַת גְּמוּרָה כְּשֶׁיִּגְדַּל:

Fig. 13: A Coach Categorized as a Makom P’tur
a) the height of the coach itself, without the wheels, less than 10 handbreadths
b) the height of the coach, together with the wheels, more than 10 handbreadths
c) the height from the ground until the bottom of the coach, 3 handbreadths or more
d) the width of the coach, less than 4 handbreadt
Fig. 13: A Coach Categorized as a Makom P’tur a) the height of the coach itself, without the wheels, less than 10 handbreadths b) the height of the coach, together with the wheels, more than 10 handbreadths c) the height from the ground until the bottom of the coach, 3 handbreadths or more d) the width of the coach, less than 4 handbreadt

10 One may give [the purse] even to a minor who has reached the age55 when he should be trained in the observance of mitzvos, and [even] if it is his son, whom he [personally] is obligated to train in the observance of mitzvos.56 For the [obligation to] train [a child] is merely a Rabbinic obligation and, [in this instance,] our Sages permitted him [to ignore that obligation] lest he perform [a Scriptural transgression] himself.

Nevertheless, when he gives [the purse] to [a child] – or even to a deaf-mute or a mentally incompetent person – he must give it to them after they have lifted their legs to proceed [on their way], and [also] take it from them when they want to stand, so that they will not perform an akirah or a hanachah, as explained above.57 Even though he is not obligated to see that they rest on Shabbos,58he is nevertheless forbidden by Scriptural Law to feed them forbidden food directly, as will be explained in sec. 343[:5.59 Now,] giving them his purse [to carry] – even if he gives it to them while it is still day [on Friday],60 since he knows that they will carry it on Shabbos and that is his intent in giving it to them61 – is equivalent to feeding them forbidden food directly. Therefore, he does not have license [to have them carry it] unless they do not perform the akirah and the hanachah, since then a Scriptural prohibition is not involved (even if [they are journeying through] a public domain in the complete sense). [In such a situation,] our Sages permitted him [to violate] a Rabbinic prohibition so that he will not [carry the purse] himself.

Nevertheless, if a donkey is accompanying him, he should place [his purse] on the donkey and not give it to one of these people, for they are included in the category of adam, [i.e., part of] a group that includes those who are obligated to perform mitzvos, and thus [one might think that he is also allowed to give it to an ordinary Jewish adult].62

י וְיָכוֹל לִתְּנוֹ לְקָטָן אֲפִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ55 לְחִנּוּךְ וְהוּא בְּנוֹ שֶׁחַיָּב לְחַנְּכוֹ בְּמִצְוֹת,סט,56 מִכָּל מָקוֹם חִנּוּךְ זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ע וְהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִיםעא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ.עב

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כְּשֶׁנּוֹתְנוֹ לוֹ אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְחֵרֵשׁ וְשׁוֹטֶה – צָרִיךְ לִתְּנוֹ לָהֶם כְּשֶׁעָקְרוּ רַגְלֵיהֶם לָלֶכֶת, וְלִטְּלוֹ מֵהֶם כְּשֶׁהֵם רוֹצִים לַעֲמוֹד,עג כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשׂוּ עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,עד,57 שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתָתָם,עה,58 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי אָסוּר לְהַאֲכִילָם דָּבָר הָאָסוּר בְּיָדַיִם מִן הַתּוֹרָה,עו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ג,עז,59 וְזֶה שֶׁנּוֹתֵן לָהֶם כִּיסוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנּוֹתֵן (ג) לָהֶם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,עח,60 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיּוֹלִיכוּהוּ בְּשַׁבָּת וּלְדַעַת כֵּן נוֹתֵן לָהֶם61 – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַאֲכִילָם אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשׂוּ עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה, שֶׁאָז אֵין בְּזֶה אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה (אַף אִם הָיָה בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָהעט), וְהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים אִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶםפ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ.פא

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הָיָה עִמּוֹ חֲמוֹר – יַנִּיחֶנּוּ עַל חֲמוֹרוֹ,פב וְלֹא יִתְּנֶנּוּ לְאֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ, שֶׁהֵם בִּכְלַל אָדָם,פג וְיֵשׁ בְּמִינָם שֶׁחַיָּבִים בְּמִצְוֹת, וְיִתְחַלְּפוּ בָּהֶם:פד,62

11 If the person is not accompanied by any one of the above, [our Sages] granted a person license on Shabbos to carry his purse or an ownerless object that he acquired while it was still day [on Friday,63 by carrying it] less than four cubits at a time,64 i.e., from the commencement of Shabbos,65he should not carry it continuously for four cubits at a time. Instead, he should walk carrying it for less than four cubits, stop [at least] for a short time to rest, then resume walking, carrying it for less than four cubits, [and again] stop [at least] for a short time to rest, and continue doing so until he reaches the place where he will spend the Shabbos. If he stands still [merely] in order to adjust his burden, this is not considered an interruption [in his journey].66 Instead, he must stand still in order to rest.

There are authorities who rule stringently and maintain that whenever [our Sages] granted a person license to carry an article for less than four cubits at a time, he must sit down [after walking] that distance. Merely standing still is of no consequence since, [in truth,] he is not standing [still in order] to rest and relax. Instead, he desires to rest [only] so that he will be permitted to carry the article [again for a bit less than] another four cubits. It is desirable to give weight to their words wherever possible.

יא וְאִם אֵין עִמּוֹ שׁוּם אֶחָד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְטַלְטֵל בְּשַׁבָּתפה כִּיסוֹ, אוֹ מְצִיאָה שֶׁבָּאָה לְיָדוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,פו,63 פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת,פז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יוֹלִיכֵם ד' אַמּוֹת רְצוּפִים64 מִשֶּׁקִּדֵּשׁ הַיּוֹם,פח,65 אֶלָּא יֵלֵךְ עִמָּהֶם פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת, וְיַעֲמוֹד מְעַט לָנוּחַ,פט וְיַחֲזוֹר וְיֵלֵךְ פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת, וְיַעֲמוֹד מְעַט לָנוּחַ, וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ. וְאִם עָמַד לְתַקֵּן מַשָּׂאוֹ – אֵין עֲמִידָה זוֹ מַפְסֶקֶת,66 אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד כְּדֵי לָנוּחַ.צ

וְיֵשׁ מַחְמִירִיןצא בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהִתִּירוּ טִלְטוּל פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת, שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב בְּכָל פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמוֹת, אֲבָל הָעֲמִידָה אֵינָהּ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ בַּעֲמִידָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לָנוּחַ וּלְהִנָּפֵשׁ, אֶלָּא הוּא רוֹצֶה לָנוּחַ כְּדֵי לְהַתִּיר אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל ד' אַמוֹת.צב וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר:

12 Nevertheless, [carrying the object] less than four cubits at a time is effective only with regard [to avoiding] the prohibition against carrying an object four cubits in the public domain, but not with regard to [the prohibition against] taking an object from a private domain to a public domain or bringing in an object from a public domain to a private domain.

What then should the person do when he reaches his home with his purse [so that he will be able to bring the purse into his home]? Were he to bring it inside in the ordinary manner, he would be bringing in an object from a public domain or a karmelis to a private domain.67 Instead, [he should do the following:] Immediately upon reaching his home, before he stands [still] there, he should toss [the purse] into his home in an irregular manner,68 i.e., departing from the ordinary way one throws, e.g., throwing it backwards over his shoulder. Even if [he would be in] a public domain in the strict sense, throwing it in this manner is not forbidden by Scriptural Law.69 [It is forbidden] only by Rabbinic decree and [our Sages] granted him license, lest he bring it into his home in the ordinary manner.

יב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמוֹת מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן אִסּוּר מַעֲבִיר ד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֲבָל לֹא לְעִנְיַן הוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְלֹא לְעִנְיַן הַכְנָסָה מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.צג

אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ עִם כִּיסוֹ, אִם יַכְנִיסֶנּוּ כְּדַרְכּוֹ – נִמְצָא מַכְנִיס מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ כַּרְמְלִית לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,67 אֶלָּא מִיָּד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְפֶתַח בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד שָׁםצד – יִזְרְקֶנּוּ לְבֵיתוֹ כִּלְאַחַר יָד,צה,68 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדֶרֶךְ זְרִיקָה, כְּגוֹן מִכְּתֵפָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיו.צו וְאֵין בִּזְרִיקָה זוֹ אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה,,69 וְאַף אִם הִיא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה, אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְהִתִּירוּ לוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לְהַכְנִיסוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ:

13 If he cannot transport it by walking less than four cubits at a time, because he fears that robbers may steal it from him,70 he may run71 while carrying his purse until he reaches his home.72 [The leniency is granted because] there is no Scriptural prohibition involved even if he is in [a place categorized as] a public domain in the fullest sense – provided he began running before the Shabbos commenced. For the [original] akirah did not take place on Shabbos and as long as he [continues] running, there is no akirah or hanachah.

[He should continue] until he reaches close to his house. Then, before he stands in front of the door of his house and thereby performs a hanachah, he must toss his purse into his house in an irregular manner so that he will not bring it from the public domain to a private domain [in a forbidden manner].

[A person may follow] the same [course of action] even if he has a donkey, but is afraid to place [his purse] on the donkey [out of fear] of robbers, because if he places [it] on the donkey and removes [his purse] from [the donkey] whenever it stands, as explained above,73 the robbers will see it and steal it from him.

In the present era, when [the public thoroughfare] does not [meet the criteria of] a public domain,74 but is [instead classified as] a karmelis,75license can be granted even if the person begins running after nightfall, as long as he throws it into his house in an irregular manner before he stands [still] in front of its entrance. Thus, there will be an akirah,76 but no [forbidden] hanachah.

יג וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹלִיכָהּ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵא מִלִּסְטִים שֶׁלֹּא יִגְזְלוּהוּ מִמֶּנּוּ,צז,70 וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ עִמּוֹ חֲמוֹר וּמִתְיָרֵא לְהַנִּיחוֹ עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי הַלִּסְטִים, שֶׁאִם יַנִּיחֶנּוּ עָלָיו וְיִטְּלֶנּוּ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,צח,73 יִרְאוּהוּ הַלִּסְטִים וְיִגְזְלוּהוּ מִמֶּנּוּצט (ד) – יָכוֹל לָרוּץק,71 עִם כִּיסוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ,72 שֶׁאֵין כַּאן אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַף אִם הִיא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה אִם הִתְחִיל לָרוּץ קֹדֶם שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה הָעֲקִירָה בְּשַׁבָּת,קא וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא רָץ אֵין כַּאן עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה,קב עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ סָמוּךְ לַבַּיִת, וְאָז קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד לִפְנֵי פֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ וְתֵעָשֶׂה הַנָּחָהקג – צָרִיךְ הוּא לִזְרוֹק כִּיסוֹ לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ כִּלְאַחַר יָד,קד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכְנִיס מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד.

וּבִזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים74 אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִיתקה,75 – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אַף אִם מַתְחִיל לָרוּץ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה,קו רַק קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד לִפְנֵי פֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ יִזְרְקֶנּוּ כִּלְאַחַר יָד, שֶׁנִּמְצָא שֶׁאֵין כַּאן אֶלָּא עֲקִירָה76 בְּלֹא הַנָּחָה:קז

14 When does the above apply? When one runs.77 Our Sages did not, by contrast, grant leniency when one walks slowly,78 even when he began walking while it was still day. [The rationale is that] sometimes [while walking] a person will [stop momentarily and] stand still without being aware of doing so, and then begin walking again. Thus he will have performed an akirah and a hanachah on Shabbos. When, by contrast, he runs, this running functions as a distinction and a reminder that it is forbidden for him to stand, and he will not come to forget.

יד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהוּא רָץ,77 אֲבָל לֵילֵךְ לְאַט לֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹקח,78 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הִתְחִיל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים יַעֲמוֹד מְעַט בְּלֹא דַעַתקט וְיַחֲזוֹר וְיֵלֵךְ, וְנִמְצָא עוֹשֶׂה עֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה בְּשַׁבָּת,קי מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁהוּא רָץ יֵשׁ לוֹ הֶכֵּרקיא וְזִכָּרוֹן בְּרִיצָה זוֹ שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לַעֲמוֹד, וְלֹא יָבֹא לִשְׁכּוֹחַ:קיב

15 Similarly, when a person was carrying a burden on his shoulders and Shabbos commenced, he may run while carrying it, even in the public domain,79 until he reaches the entrance to his house. [Before he stops], he should cast it inside in an irregular manner.

Even if he pauses in the midst of running to adjust his burden, he is not liable.80 (Nevertheless, as an initial preference, he should not stand at all, unless it is impossible for him to do otherwise.)

טו וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה חֲבִילָתוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְקִדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם – רָץ תַּחְתֶּיהָ אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים79 עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִפְנֵי פֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ, וְיִזְרְקֶנָּה שָׁם כִּלְאַחַר יָד.קיג וְאַף אִם עָמַד בְּאֶמְצַע מְרוּצָתוֹ לְתַקֵּן הַמַּשּׂוֹי (ה) – פָּטוּרקיד,80 (אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לַעֲמוֹד כְּלָל, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵרקטו):

16 All the above applies to a person who was traveling while carrying an object when] the Shabbos commenced. He was not negligent; [rather] he thought that there was still enough time left in the day [for him] to reach the city [before Shabbos arrived. Therefore, he was granted leniency.]

Someone who, by contrast, left his home close to nightfall, taking his purse with him to the public domain or even to a karmelis,81 is not granted any of the above leniencies if he later82 forgot to remove83 it and hide it before nightfall.84 He is not even permitted to [give it to] a non-Jew [and] tell him to hide it,85 since he was negligent by going out with his purse close to nightfall, as explained in sec. 252[:17].

טז וְכָל זֶה בְּמִי שֶׁהֶחְשִׁיךְ לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ,קטז שֶׁאֵינוֹ פּוֹשֵׁעַ,קיז שֶׁהָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁעֲדַיִן יֵשׁ שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם לָבֹא לָעִיר. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִבֵּיתוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְהוֹצִיא כִּיסוֹ עִמּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קיח אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְכַרְמְלִית,קיט,81 וְשָׁכַח אַחַר כָּךְ82 לַהֲסִירוֹ83 מִמֶּנּוּ וּלְהַצְנִיעוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁחָשֵׁכָהקכ,84 – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ שׁוּם אֶחָד מֵהַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ,קכא אֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהַצְנִיעוֹ,קכב,85 הוֹאִיל וּפָשַׁע בּוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא עִם כִּיסוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה,קכג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב:קכד

17 [The rules that follow apply when a person] had his purse hanging from his belt, but he forgot it and was not aware of it86 at the time he went out to the public domain close to nightfall. [They also apply] even if he forgot that he was carrying his purse on his person until after nightfall and afterwards [unknowingly] went out with it87 to the public domain, and also even if he knew he was carrying his purse on his person when he went out [to the public domain], but he did not go out close to nightfall, but rather while there was ample time in the day – as such he would not be deemed negligent – and then he forgot to hide it before nightfall.

[In all the above instances,] he may give it to a non-Jew to bring to his home for him. If there is no non-Jew with him or he does not trust [the non-Jew], he may bring it to his home by walking less than four cubits at a time and then throwing it into his house in an irregular manner.88 If he fears that it will be stolen from him,89 he is permitted to run until he reaches the front of his home, as explained.90 All of these options were granted to him so that he would not carry it in an ordinary manner, performing an akirah and a hanachah. [The rationale for these leniencies is that] a person will not stand by [and forfeit] his money, and he will certainly not leave it in the marketplace when he cannot protect it there (via a non-Jewish or Jewish watchman)91 until Saturday night.

יז אֲבָל אִם הָיָה כִּיסוֹ תָּלוּי בַּחֲגוֹרוֹ וּשְׁכָחוֹ, (ו) וְלֹא יָדַע בּוֹ86 בִּשְׁעַת יְצִיאָתוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה,קכה וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁכַח כִּיסוֹ עָלָיו עַד שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ (הוֹצִיאוֹ) יָצָא עִמּוֹ87 לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,קכו אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ יָדַע שֶׁכִּיסוֹ עָלָיו בִּשְׁעַת יְצִיאָתוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁיָּצָא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְלֹא סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה,קכז שֶׁאֵינוֹ פּוֹשֵׁעַ בָּזֶה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁכָחוֹ לְהַצְנִיעוֹ עַד שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה – מֻתָּר לוֹ לִתְּנוֹ לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיְּבִיאֶנּוּ לוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ.

וְאִם אֵין עִמּוֹ נָכְרִי, אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹקכח – יוֹלִיכֶנּוּ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת,קכט וְיִזְרְקֶנּוּ לְבֵיתוֹ כִּלְאַחַר יָד.קל,88 וְאִם מִתְיָרֵא שֶׁלֹּא יִגְזְלוּהוּ מִמֶּנּוּ89 – רַשַּׁאי לָרוּץקלא עַד לִפְנֵי בֵיתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,קלב,90 שֶׁהִתִּירוּ כָּל זֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לְהוֹלִיכוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ בַּעֲקִירָה וְהַנָּחָה, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ עַל מָמוֹנוֹ,קלג וּבְוַדַּאי לֹא יַעַזְבֶנוּ בַּשּׁוּק כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁמְרוֹ שָׁםקלד (עַל יְדֵי שׁוֹמֵר נָכְרִי אוֹ שׁוֹמֵר יִשְׂרָאֵלקלה)91 עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:

18 If, however, it is possible to have [his purse] guarded92 there until Saturday night, it is forbidden for him to bring it to his home or even have a non-Jew bring it [for him]. Instead, he should release his belt in the marketplace, let the purse fall, and then tell a non-Jew to watch it [for him]. If the non-Jew brings it [to the Jew’s home] on his own initiative, there is no need to tell him anything.93

יח אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁמְרוֹ92 שָׁם עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לַהֲבִיאוֹ לְבֵיתוֹקלו אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,קלז אֶלָּא מַתִּיר חֲגוֹרָה בַּשּׁוּק וְהַכִּיס נוֹפֵל, וְאוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי לְשָׁמְרוֹ. וְאִם מְבִיאוֹ הַנָּכְרִי מֵעַצְמוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לוֹ כְּלוּם:קלח,93

19 [The following rule applies when] a person forgot that he was carrying his purse on his person and remembered on Shabbos when he was located in a house, a courtyard, or even a town that has an eruv.94He may proceed while carrying the purse to a secluded room, where he loosens his belt and allows the purse to fall.95

The prohibition against carrying an article that is muktzeh does not apply, since he is already carrying the article that is muktzeh on his person. Thus, he may continue carrying it to any place he desires,96 as will be explained in sec. 308[:13].97 (Moreover, he is carrying the article with his body, not with his hands, and there is no prohibition at all [to carry it in this manner], as will be explained in sec. 311[:15]).98

יט וּמִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח כִּיסוֹ עָלָיו וְנִזְכַּר בְּשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הֶחָצֵר, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ עִיר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת94 – יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ עִמּוֹ עַד לְתוֹךְ חֶדֶר מֻצְנָע, וְשָׁם יַתִּיר חֲגוֹרוֹ וְהַכִּיס נוֹפֵל,קלט,95 וְאֵין בָּזֶה אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַמֻּקְצֶה יֶשְׁנוֹ עָלָיו כְּבָר – הֲרֵי הוּא יָכוֹל לְנָשְׂאוֹ עָלָיו לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה,קמ,96 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"חקמא,97 (וְעוֹד שֶׁזֶּהוּ טִלְטוּל עַל יְדֵי גוּפוֹ וְלֹא בְּיָדָיו,קמב וְאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"אקמג):,98

20 All the above applies with regard to one’s purse, or to an ownerless object that he discovered and acquired while it was still day [on Friday]. If, however, he finds a wallet on Shabbos (even in a town that has an eruv), it is forbidden even to tell a non-Jew to take it [on his behalf].99 Although he fears that another person may [take it] before him, [he is not granted any leniency. The rationale is that] since a person can restrain himself [from violating any Scriptural prohibitions with regard to such articles],100 the Sages did not relax any Rabbinical prohibitions on his behalf. ([This includes] even the prohibition against having a non-Jew move an article that is muktzeh. Although there are authorities who lift this prohibition when a significant loss is involved,101 nevertheless, in this instance [the leniency is not granted, since] the person does not lose any of his own property; he is merely prevented from profiting [through the acquisition of the ownerless article].)

It is, however, permitted for the person to sit near [the ownerless article] and guard it until Saturday night, for it is permitted to guard articles that are muktzeh on Shabbos, as will be stated in sec. 306[:3]. How much more so is it permitted to instruct a non-Jew to guard it [for him].102 (If [the non-Jew] brings it [to the Jew’s home] on his own initiative, there is no need to tell him anything.)103

כ וְכָל זֶה בְּכִיסוֹ, אוֹ מְצִיאָה שֶׁבָּאָה לְיָדוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֲבָל אִם מָצָא אַרְנָקִי בְּשַׁבָּתקמד (אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ עִיר (ז) הַמְעֹרֶבֶת) – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לִטְּלוֹקמה,99 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּרֵא פֶּן יְקַדְּמֶנּוּ אַחֵר,קמו דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאָדָם יָכוֹל לְהַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ עָלֶיהָקמז,100 – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹ שׁוּם אִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם (אֲפִלּוּ אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, שֶׁאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִיןקמח אִסּוּר זֶהקמט בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה,101 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיד כְּלוּם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּמְנָע מֵהָרֶוַחקנ).

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לֵישֵׁב אֶצְלוֹ וּלְשָׁמְרוֹ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,קנא שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִשְׁמוֹר הַמֻּקְצֶה בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"[ו].קנב וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְשָׁמְרוֹקנג,102 (וְאִם מְבִיאוֹ (ח) מֵעַצְמוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לוֹ כְּלוּםקנד):103

21 [The following laws apply when] a person returns from a journey on Friday night and his animal is carrying a burden.104 ([During the journey,] he removed the burden from it when it desired to stand still and placed it on it again when it [began] to proceed further,105 or night fell when it was already close to the town.)106 When he reaches the outermost courtyard of the city, i.e., the first guarded place, he should remove the articles107 that are permitted to be moved on Shabbos108 from [the animal].

(As an initial preference, he should remove them before the animal stands still in the courtyard, so that the animal will not have performed a hanachah [on Shabbos].109 Nevertheless, even if it does stand, that is of no consequence, for it constitutes a hanachah without an akirah. For when he reached the area before the courtyard and the animal briefly stood there before entering, [the owner] was required to remove the burden from it before it stood still and then place it on it again after it lifted its feet to enter the courtyard, so that it would not perform an akirah and a hanachah as explained above.)

[This ruling applies] even if the [animal’s] burden is more than fifteen seah110– which, were it to be [carried] on a wagon, would be forbidden to be removed on Shabbos, as will be stated in sec. 333[:5].111 Nevertheless, this decree was not instituted with regard to [removing a burden from an animal] because of [the prohibition against] causing an animal to suffer.112

כא מִי שֶׁבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ בְּלֵיל שַׁבָּת וּבְהֶמְתּוֹ טְעוּנָהקנה,104 (שֶׁנָּטַל הַמַּשּׂוֹי מֵעָלֶיהָ כְּשֶׁרָצְתָה לַעֲמוֹד וְהִנִּיחוֹ עָלֶיהָ כְּשֶׁהִיא מְהַלֶּכֶת,קנו,105 אוֹ שֶׁהֶחְשִׁיךְ כְּשֶׁהִיא הָלְכָה סָמוּךְ לָעִיר),106 (ט) כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָהקנז שֶׁל הָעִיר שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר הָרִאשׁוֹןקנח – נוֹטֵל מֵעָלֶיהָ הַכֵּלִים107 הַמֻּתָּרִים לְטַלְטְלָם בְּשַׁבָּת.קנט,108

(וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יִטְּלֵם (י) קֹדֶם שֶׁעָמְדָה בֶּחָצֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂה הִיא הַנָּחָה.109 וְאִם עָמְדָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁהִיא הַנָּחָה בְּלֹא עֲקִירָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ לִפְנֵי פֶּתַח הֶחָצֵר שֶׁעָמְדָה שָׁם מְעַט קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה, צָרִיךְ הָיָה לִטּוֹל הַמּשּׂוֹי מֵעָלֶיהָ קֹדֶם שֶׁעָמְדָהקס וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ עָלֶיהָ אַחַר שֶׁעָקְרָה רַגְלֶיהָ לִכָּנֵס לֶחָצֵרקסא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשֶׂה הִיא הַנָּחָה וַעֲקִירָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקסב).105

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמַּשּׂוֹי הוּא יוֹתֵר מִט"ו סְאִין,110 שֶׁאִם הָיָה עַל עֲגָלָה הָיָה אָסוּר לְהוֹרִידוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ג,קסג,111 מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵעַל הַבְּהֵמָה לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל זֶה, מִפְּנֵי צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים:קסד,112

22 If [the animal] was carrying articles that are muktzeh, [the owner] should release the saddle straps to which the sacks are bound and allow the sacks to fall on their own accord.113

כב וְאִם יֵשׁ עָלֶיהָ דְּבָרִים הַמֻּקְצִים – מַתִּיר אֶת הַחֲבָלִיםקסה שֶׁל הָאוּכָּף שֶׁהַשַּׂקִּים קְשׁוּרִים בָּהֶםקסו וְהַשַּׂקִּים נוֹפְלִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶם:,113

23[The following laws apply if] the sacks contain articles that will break if they fall, e.g., glass utensils, but which are [muktzeh and] forbidden to be moved, e.g., the cups of bloodletters, which are not fit to be used on Shabbos at all, because they are loathsome and it is impossible to use them [for any other purpose].114 Articles that are muktzeh because they are loathsome like [these cups] are not permitted to be carried on Shabbos unless they are fit to cover other utensils or the like, as will be explained in sec. 308[:2]. These [cups,] however, are not fit to be used for such a purpose, [i.e., as a covering,] since [the owner] is particular that they not be used for this purpose because they may fall and break. What then should he do to remove them from the donkey? He should bring cushions and bedding and place them below [the sacks]. He should then release the straps and [allow] the sacks to fall onto the cushions and bedding.

כג הָיוּ בַּשַּׂקִּים דְּבָרִים הַמִּשְׁתַּבְּרִים אִם יִפְּלוּ, כְּגוֹן כְּלֵי זְכוּכִיתקסז הָאֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטְלָם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֵם כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל מַקִּיזֵי דָםקסח שֶׁאֵין רְאוּיִים בְּשַׁבָּת לִכְלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם מְאוּסִיםקסט וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכָם,114 וּמֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת מִאוּס כָּזֶה אֵינוֹ מֻתָּר בְּטִלְטוּל בְּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רָאוּי לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ כֵּלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ח,קע אֲבָל אֵלּוּ אֵינָן רְאוּיִים לְכָךְ,קעא שֶׁמַּקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בְּעִנְיָן זֶה שֶׁלֹּא יִפְּלוּ וְיִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ,קעב כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה לִטְּלָם מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר? מֵבִיא כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ תַּחְתֵּיהֶם, וּמַתִּיר הַחֲבָלִים וְהַשַּׂקִּים נוֹפְלִים עַל הַכָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת:קעג

24 To what does the above apply? To small sacks, from under which he can remove the cushions (when he so desires),115 i.e., he can remove the uppermost cushion from beneath [the sacks] and they will then fall onto the second [cushion. He can then remove] the second [cushion from beneath them and they will fall] onto the third, and they will continue to do so until they reach the ground . The cushions116 do not become a base for a forbidden entity, because the sacks did not [rest] on them bein hashmashos,117the time when Shabbos commenced.118

If, however, the sacks are large and thus it is impossible to remove the cushions from beneath them, it is forbidden to place cushions beneath the sacks,119 because he negates the possibility of using the article [i.e., the cushions, on Shabbos].120 Instead, he should gently release [the sacks] from the donkey, so that they will not break.121 True, it is impossible to remove them gently without moving them slightly.122 Nevertheless, [our Sages] permitted this because of the significant loss involved.123

When unloading the animal, one must be careful not to lean on it, as will be explained in sec. 305[:25].

כד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? (יא) בְּשַׂקִּים קְטַנִּים,קעד שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִשְׁמוֹט הַכָּרִים מִתַּחְתֵּיהֶם (לִכְשֶׁיִּרְצֶה),115 שֶׁשּׁוֹמֵט כַּר הָעֶלְיוֹן מִתַּחְתֵּיהֶם וְנוֹפְלִים עַל הַשֵּׁנִי, וּמִן הַשֵּׁנִי עַל הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, וְכֵן עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִים לָאָרֶץ,קעה שֶׁהַ[כָּרִ]ים116 לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ בָּסִיס לִדְבַר הָאִסּוּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ הַשַּׂקִּים עֲלֵיהֶם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת117 שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת.קעו,118

אֲבָל אִם הֵם שַׂקִּים גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁמוֹט הַכָּרִים מִתַּחְתֵּיהֶם – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָן תַּחְתֵּיהֶן,119 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,קעז,120 אֶלָּא פּוֹרְקָן מִן הַחֲמוֹר בְּנַחַת שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁבְרוּ.קעח,121 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִפְרִיקָה בְּנַחַת בְּלֹא טִלְטוּל קְצָת,122 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הִתִּירוּ לוֹ דָּבָר זֶה מִפְּנֵי הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה.קעט,123

וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִסְמוֹךְ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה כְּשֶׁפּוֹרֵק מֵעָלֶיהָ,קפ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ה:קפא

Fig. 14 Removing Cushions from Beneath Small Sacks
Fig. 14 Removing Cushions from Beneath Small Sacks

25 If it is impossible to unload the animal gently so that the [glass vessels] will not break, there are authorities who permit placing cushions and bedding under them. For [they maintain that our Sages] did not decree against nullifying the use of a utensil when a significant loss is involved.124 However, one may not leave [the burden] on the animal until Saturday night, because of the suffering this will cause the animal, which is a Scriptural prohibition.125

כה וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִפְרוֹק בְּנַחַת שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁבְרוּ – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקפב לְהַנִּיחַ כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת תַּחְתֵּיהֶם, שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ עַל בִּטּוּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה.124 אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַנִּיחָן עַל הַחֲמוֹר עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי צַעַר בַּעֲלֵי חַיִּיםקפג שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה:קפד,125

26 All of the above applies to utensils that are muktzeh whose destruction would cause a significant loss. [Different laws apply, however,] if [the animal’s burden] consists of wide plates of glass that are used to make windows, whose breakage would cause only a minor loss, since ultimately they will be cut into smaller pieces.126 [In such an instance,] it is forbidden to place cushions and bedding under them, even if the burdens are small and it would be possible to pull out the cushions from under them. Nevertheless, during the time it takes him to pull them all out gently – so that the articles do not break – the possibility of using them [for any other purpose] is nullified, and it is forbidden to nullify the possibility of using a utensil even briefly, unless a loss127 is involved. How much more so is it forbidden to remove them gently, for that cannot be accomplished without moving the forbidden articles slightly.128 Instead, one must release the straps, [allowing] the sacks to fall off the animal.

כו וְכָל זֶה בְּכֵלִים הַמֻּקְצִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה בִּשְׁבִירָתָן, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ חֲתִיכוֹת זְכוּכִית רְחָבוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂים מֵהֶן חֲלוֹנוֹת, שֶׁאֵין בִּשְׁבִירָתָן אֶלָּא הֶפְסֵד מוּעָט, שֶׁהֲרֵי סוֹפָן לְהֵחָתֵךְ לַחֲתִיכוֹת קְטַנּוֹת126 – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ תַּחְתֵּיהֶן כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת,קפה אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מַשָּׂאוֹת קְטַנִּיםקפו שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁמוֹט הַכָּרִים מִתַּחְתֵּיהֶם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַד שֶׁיַּסְפִּיק לְשָׁמְטָם כֻּלָּם בְּנַחַת שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁבְרוּ הַכֵּלִים – הֲרֵי כְּבָר הֵם מְבֻטָּלִים מֵהֵיכָנָם בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה, וְאָסוּר לְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי שָׁעָהקפז שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד.קפח,127

וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאָסוּר לְפָרְקָן בְּנַחַת,קפט שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּלֹא טִלְטוּל קְצָת,128 אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיר הַחֲבָלִים שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ הַשַּׂקִּים מֵעַל הַבְּהֵמָה:קצ

27 When a person is traveling on a journey or sitting in a house of study in the field129 while wearing his head tefillin130 and night falls [on Friday], he is permitted to proceed to his home while wearing them.131 Although it is forbidden to go out on Shabbos wearing tefillin,132nevertheless, because of [the possibility of] the tefillin being desecrated, [our Sages] permit him to proceed to his house while wearing them so that he can put them away there, so that he will not leave them in the field or in the house of study in the field, which are not secure locations.

When walking [home], he should cover [the tefillin] with his hand lest others see him and suspect [that he wears tefillin on Shabbos]. If there is a house close to the wall [of the town] where they would be protected, he should remove them and put them in a safe place there, rather than continue to his house wearing them. (This subject was already explained in sec. 30[:4].)

כזמִי שֶׁחָשְׁכָה לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וּתְפִלִּין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ,>130 אוֹ שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ שֶׁבַּשָּׂדֶה129 וְחָשְׁכָה לוֹ – מֻתָּר לֵילֵךְ בָּהֶם לְבֵיתוֹ,קצא,131 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לָצֵאת בִּתְפִלִּין בְּשַׁבָּת,קצב,132 מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִשּׁוּם בִּזְיוֹן הַתְּפִלִּיןקצג שֶׁלֹּא יַנִּיחָן בַּשָּׂדֶהקצד אוֹ בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ שֶׁבַּשָּׂדֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּרקצה – הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לֵילֵךְ לָבוּשׁ בָּהֶן עַד בֵּיתוֹקצו שֶׁיַּצְנִיעֵן שָׁם.קצז

וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ בָּהֶן – צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ עֲלֵיהֶןקצח לְכַסּוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי הָרוֹאִים,קצט שֶׁלֹּא יַחְשְׁדוּהוּ.ר וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּיִת סָמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה שֶׁהֵן מִשְׁתַּמְּרִין שָׁם – חוֹלְצָן וּמַצְנִיעָן שָׁם,רא וְלֹא יֵלֵךְ בָּהֶן עַד בֵּיתוֹרב (וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר זֶה בְּסִמָּן ל'רג):