SECTION 265 The Laws Pertaining to Utensils Placed Below the [Shabbos] Light (1-9)

סימן רסה דִּין כֵּלִים הַנִּתָּנִים תַּחַת הַנֵּר וּבוֹ ט׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 It is forbidden to place a container filled1 with oil that has a drainage hole positioned over the opening of the [Shabbos] lamp so that the oil will continuously drip into the lamp (see fig. 8 on opposite page).2 This is a decree lest one use some of the oil in the container, [and was imposed] since [the container] is not connected to the lamp.3 [Taking and using the oil would] constitute [a violation of] the prohibition [against] extinguishing [a fire].4 For [the removal of the oil] would cause the lamp to be extinguished earlier than it would have if one had not used any oil from it and all [the oil] had dripped into the lamp.

There are authorities5 who maintain that on a festival, it is permitted to cut off a [piece from a] burning beeswax candle. One is not considered to have extinguished it, because while he is cutting it, he does not extinguish6 its light at all. Although he causes [the candle] to burn out earlier, that is of no consequence, as will be explained in sec. 514[:8].7 According to their conception, here as well, [the person] should not be considered as extinguishing [the light] when he takes some of the oil from the container, since he does not dim the light at all while taking it, for [some] oil still remains in the container that will drip into the lamp. Nevertheless, [even according to this view, the prohibition stands, because] there is concern that the person will change his mind and take all the oil – either by removing the [entire] container, or [by removing all the oil] without [taking] the container. Thus he would [definitely be] dimming the light at the time he removes [the oil].8 This is considered as extinguishing according to all opinions.

If, however, the container was joined to the lamp in an effective manner, with lime or with plaster, it is permitted.9 Since they are joined together, they are considered a single utensil and the person will distance himself from the container because of the Shabbos prohibitions, [just] as [he distances himself] from the lamp itself, and he will not use its [oil].

א אָסוּר לִתֵּן כְּלִי מְנֻקָּב מָלֵא1 שֶׁמֶן עַל פִּי הַנֵּר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַשֶּׁמֶן מְטַפְטֵף כָּל שָׁעָה לְתוֹךְ הַנֵּר,א,2 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְתַּפֵּק מֵהַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּכְּלִיב,2 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻבָּר לַנֵּר,3 וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה,ג,4 שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵן יִכְבֶּה הַנֵּר בִּזְמַן קָרוֹב יוֹתֵר מֵאִם לֹא הָיָה מִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּםד וְהָיָה נוֹטֵף כֻּלּוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַנֵּר.

וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםה,5 דְּמֻתָּר לַחְתּוֹךְ נֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה הַדּוֹלֵק בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה, הוֹאִיל וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁחוֹתֵךְ מִמֶּנּוּ אֵינוֹ (מְכַבֶּה)6 [מַכְּהֶה] אוֹרוֹ כְּלָל, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגּוֹרֵם לוֹ לִכְבּוֹת בִּמְהֵרָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקי"ד,ו,7 וּלְפִי דִבְרֵיהֶם אַף כַּאן אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה כְּשֶׁנּוֹטֵל מֵהַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּכְּלִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַכְהֶה כְּלָל אֶת אוֹר הַנֵּר בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָתוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁאָר עֲדַיִן שֶׁמֶן בַּכְּלִי שֶׁיְּטַפְטֵף לַנֵּר,ז מִכָּל מָקוֹם חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא (א) יִמָּלֵךְ וְיִטּוֹל מֵהַנֵּר כָּל הַשֶּׁמֶןח עִם הַכְּלִי אוֹ בְּלֹא הַכְּלִי, וְנִמְצָא מַכְהֶה אוֹר הַנֵּר בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָתוֹ,8 וְיֵשׁ בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.

וְאִם חִבֵּר הַכְּלִי לַנֵּרט חִבּוּר יָפֶהי בְּסִיד אוֹ בְּחַרְסִיתיא – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר,9 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁחִבְּרוֹ לוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה כְּלִי אֶחָד,יב וּבָדוּל הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר שַׁבָּתיג,9 כְּמוֹ מֵהַנֵּר עַצְמוֹ, וְלֹא יָבֹא לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ:

Fig. 8: A Container Positioned Over the Opening of a Shabbos Lamp
Fig. 8: A Container Positioned Over the Opening of a Shabbos Lamp

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (SIE)

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2 Similarly, a person may not fill a bowl with oil and place it next to a lamp and then put one end of the wick in [the bowl] so that [the wick] will draw after it the oil in the bowl.10 [This is forbidden as] a decree lest he make use of the oil in [the bowl],11 since it is not connected to the lamp.12

ב וְכֵן לֹא יְמַלֵּא אָדָם קְעָרָה שֶׁמֶן וְיִתְּנֶנָּה בְּצַד הַנֵּר וְיִתֵּן רֹאשׁ הַפְּתִילָה בְּתוֹכָהּ2 בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁתְּהֵא שׁוֹאֶבֶתיד מֵהַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ,10 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנָּה,11 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְחֻבֶּרֶת לַנֵּר:טו,12

3 On Shabbos, it is forbidden to place a utensil under a burning lamp to collect the drippings of oil from the lamp,13 [since by doing so,] one nullifies the option of using that utensil:14 Originally it was permitted to be moved, and [placing it under the lamp causes] it to be forbidden to be moved, because of the oil [that dripped] into it, which is forbidden because of a prohibition, as will be explained in sec. 279[:2].15 Our Sages forbade nullifying the option of using a utensil, because it is comparable to taking it apart.16

It is, however, permitted to place the utensil there while it is still day on Friday.17 If no oil dripped into it on Shabbos, one is permitted to move it, since it does not become forbidden as a result of [one’s] thought alone.18

If there is [also] an entity that is permitted [to be moved] within the utensil, one is permitted to place it under the lamp to collect the oil, because he will be able to move the utensil for the sake of the permitted entity within it, if in fact it would be permitted to move [the utensil] for its sake, as per the guidelines to be explained in sec. 309[:4] and sec. 310[:16-18].19

ג אָסוּר לִתֵּן כְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת תַּחַת נֵר הַדּוֹלֵק לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַנּוֹטֵף מֵהַנֵּר,טז,13 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,יז,14 שֶׁהָיָה מוּכָן מִתְּחִלָּה לְטַלְטְלוֹ וְעַכְשָׁו אוֹסְרוֹ בְּטִלְטוּליח מֵחֲמַת הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ שֶׁהוּא מֻקְצֶה מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר,יט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ט,כ,15 וַחֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה כְּאִלּוּ סוֹתֵר הַכְּלִי.כא,16

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתְּנוֹ שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,כב,17 וְאִם לֹא נָטַף לְתוֹכוֹ שֶׁמֶן בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱסַר בְּמַחֲשָׁבָה בִּלְבַדָּהּ.כג,18

וְאִם יֵשׁ בִּכְלִי דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר – מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ תַּחַת הַנֵּר לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ שֶׁמֶן, שֶׁהֲרֵי יוּכַל לְטַלְטֵל הַכְּלִי בִּשְׁבִיל הַהֶתֵּר שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹכד אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"טכה וְש"י:כו,19

Fig. 9: A Bowl Used as a Reservoir for an Oil Lamp
Fig. 9: A Bowl Used as a Reservoir for an Oil Lamp
Fig. 10: A Bowl Placed Under a Table To Collect Oil After the Table is Moved
Fig. 10: A Bowl Placed Under a Table To Collect Oil After the Table is Moved

4 While it is still day on Friday, one may place a utensil under the table over which a [hanging] lamp will be kindled (see fig. 10 on the preceding page).20 Upon the conclusion of the Shabbos meal, one may then remove the table and the utensil will thus be positioned under the lamp. Removing the table is not considered as causing the option of using that utensil on Shabbos to be nullified, since he is not directly nullifying its use on Shabbos.21 Moreover, one need not show concern when placing a utensil on the table [to make sure that it is not] under the lamp,22 since even if oil falls there, it was placed there without an explicit intent [to collect the oil]. Similarly, in this instance, when removing the table, one’s sole intent is to protect the table,23 and the utensil was placed there when [it was] permitted [for him to do so] – while it was still day [on Friday].24

ד מֻתָּר לִתֵּן כְּלִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם תַּחַת הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁעָלָיו דּוֹלֵק נֵר20 וּבְשַׁבָּת אַחַר הָאֲכִילָה יָסִיר אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַכְּלִי עוֹמֵד מֵעַצְמוֹ תַּחַת הַנֵּר,כז וְאֵין בָּזֶה מַה שֶּׁגּוֹרֵם בְּשַׁבָּת לְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ עַל יְדֵי הֲסָרַת הַשֻּׁלְחָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַטְּלוֹ בְּיָדַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת,21 וְעוֹד שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין נִזְהָרִים מִלְּהָשִׂים כְּלִי עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן תַּחַת הַנֵּר22 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּפַל בּוֹ שֶׁמֶן כִּי אֵין מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ, וְכַאן גַּם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּהֲסָרַת הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא לְהַצָּלַת הַשֻּׁלְחָן,כח,23 וּנְתִינַת הַכְּלִי תַּחְתָּיו הָיְתָה בְּהֶתֵּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:24

5 It is permitted to place a utensil under a burning beeswax or tallow candle,25 so that the candle will fall into it if it falls. This is not considered as nullifying the option of using the utensil,26 since it is possible to shake out the candle from the utensil immediately27 after it falls there and carry the utensil as one desires. [Doing does not involve violation of] the prohibition against extinguishing [the candle] or causing it to burn, as will be explained in sec. 277[:5].28 Nor is the prohibition against moving an article that is muktzeh involved, because one will not move the candle that is muktzeh by hand. Instead, he will shake out the utensil and [the candle] will fall out on its own accord. The utensil does not become the base for a forbidden object (basis ledavar haassur), since the forbidden article29 was not inside it bein hashmashos and the person had the intent to shake it out [of the container were it to fall in].30 (See sec. 309[:7].)

This instance does not resemble placing a utensil under an oil lamp to collect the oil dripping [from the lamp].31 [In that instance,] although it is possible to shake the oil from the utensil, the person does not desire to do so, so as not to lose the oil. [Indeed,] the [entire] reason he placed the utensil there [was to collect the oil], and he thereby nullifies the option of using [the utensil for any other purpose].

ה מֻתָּר לִתֵּן כְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת תַּחַת נֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה אוֹ שֶׁל חֵלֶב הַדּוֹלֵק25 לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ אֶת הַנֵּר אִם יִפּוֹל, שֶׁאֵין כַּאן בִּטּוּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,26 (ב) כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר הַנֵּר מֵהַכְּלִי מִיָּד27 שֶׁיִּפּוֹל שָׁמָּהכט וּלְטַלְטֵל הַכְּלִי אַחַר כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר לְנַעֵר הַנֵּר מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר כִּבּוּי אוֹ הַבְעָרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ז,ל,28 וְגַם אֵין אִסּוּר מִשּׁוּם טִלְטוּל מֻקְצֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטֵל הַנֵּר הַמֻּקְצֶה בְּיָדַיִם אֶלָּא מְנַעֵר הַכְּלִי וְהוּא נוֹפֵל מֵאֵלָיו,לא וְאֵין הַכְּלִי נַעֲשֶׂה בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הָאִסּוּר29 בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,לב וְגַם הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְנַעֲרוֹלג,30 (עַיֵּן סִמָּן ש"טלד).

וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִנְתִינַת כְּלִי תַּחַת הַנֵּר שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן לְקַבֵּל שֶׁמֶן הַנּוֹטֵף,31 שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֵר הַשֶּׁמֶן מֵהַכְּלִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הוּא אֵינוֹ חָפֵץ בְּכָךְ, שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְסִיד הַשֶּׁמֶן, וּבִשְׁבִיל כָּךְ הוּא נוֹתְנוֹ שָׁם וּמְבַטְּלוֹ מֵהֵיכָנוֹ:לה

6 It is forbidden to touch a burning lamp hanging [from a ceiling or a wall] even though one does not move it.32 True, the prohibition of muktzeh does not include merely touching [a forbidden article].33 Nevertheless, doing so is forbidden lest [the lamp] be shaken slightly because of his touch. Even so, if there was a permitted item placed on [the lamp] one may remove it [from the lamp,] (provided he does not touch [the lamp] with his hands). There is no concern about the fact that the lamp will be moved by removing that item, because it will have been moved indirectly and when one moves an article indirectly, [the prohibition against] moving it does not apply, as will be explained in sec. 311[:14].

To what does the above apply? To a beeswax candle or the like.34 If, however, an oil lamp was hanging, it is forbidden to remove a permitted item from it, lest the lamp move somewhat and a) the oil come closer to the wick, in which instance, [the person] would be liable for causing a fire to burn, or b) [the oil] will become somewhat removed from [the wick], in which instance, the prohibition against extinguishing applies, as will be explained in sec. 277[:2-3].

ו אָסוּר לִגַּע בְּנֵר דּוֹלֵק כְּשֶׁהוּא תָּלוּי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטְלוֹ,32 וְאֵין אִסּוּר בְּמֻקְצֶה בִּנְגִיעָה בְּעָלְמָא,לו,33 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר, פֶּן יִתְנַדְנֵד קְצָת מִנְּגִיעָתוֹלז.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הָיָה דְּבַר הֶתֵּר מֻנָּח עָלָיו – מֻתָּר לִטְּלוֹ מֵעָלָיולח (וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בּוֹ בְּיָדָיו). וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ בְּמַה שֶּׁמִּתְנַדְנֵד הַנֵּר עַל יְדֵי נְטִילַת אוֹתוֹ דָבָר מֵעָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּדלט וְאֵינוֹ טִלְטוּל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"א.מ

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּנֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָהמא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ,34 אֲבָל אִם הָיָה נֵר שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן תָּלוּי – אָסוּר לִטּוֹל דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר מֵעָלָיו, פֶּן יִתְנַדְנֵד הַנֵּר קְצָת וְיִתְקָרֵב הַשֶּׁמֶן אֶל הַפְּתִילָה וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מַבְעִיר, אוֹ יִתְרַחֵק קְצָת מִמֶּנָּה וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה,מב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ז:מג

7 On Shabbos, it is permittedto place a utensil under a burning lamp to collect the sparks [it produces].35 This is not considered as nullifying the option of using the utensil, since the sparks have no substance at all. Therefore, it is permitted to remove the utensil even after the sparks fell in it.

It is, however, forbidden to place [a utensil under a lamp] to collect the charred fragments that fall from the wick, because they are of substance and it would be forbidden to move the utensil after [these charred fragments] fell into it.36 True, one could cast [the fragments] from [the utensil] and move it afterwards as one desires. Nevertheless, [this is forbidden,] since one may not cast them out immediately after they fell into it; they must burn out first. [Otherwise,] one would be liable for extinguishing and causing a flame to burn as is the law governing one who stirs coals.37 If so, the person is nullifying the option of using the utensil temporarily until these charred fragments have burnt out. And it is forbidden to nullify the option of using the utensil even for a brief time unless a great loss is involved, as will be explained in sec. 266[:26].

ז מֻתָּר לִתֵּן כְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת תַּחַת נֵר לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ נִיצוֹצוֹת,מד,35 שֶׁאֵין כַּאן בִּטּוּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ,26 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַנִּיצוֹצוֹת אֵין בָּהֶם מַמָּשׁ כְּלָל,מה וּלְכָךְ מֻתָּר לִטּוֹל הַכְּלִי אַף אַחַר שֶׁנָּפְלוּ הַנִּיצוֹצוֹת לְתוֹכוֹ.מו

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ הַפֶּחָמִין הַנּוֹפְלִים מֵהַפְּתִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מַמָּשׁ – נֶאֱסָר הַכְּלִי בְּטִלְטוּל אַחַר שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹכוֹ.מז,36 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֲרָם מִמֶּנּוּ וּלְטַלְטְלוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַעֲרָם מִיָּד שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹכוֹ עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁיִכְבּוּ,מח שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מְכַבֶּה וּמַבְעִיר כְּדִין הַחוֹתֶה בַּגֶּחָלִים,מט,37 אִם כֵּן הֲרֵי הוּא מְבַטְּלוֹ מֵהֵיכָנוֹ לְפִי שָׁעָה עַד שֶׁיִּכְבּוּ הַפֶּחָמִים, וְאָסוּר לְבַטֵּל כְּלִי מֵהֵיכָנוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי שָׁעָה שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה,נ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ו:נא

8 When one places a utensil under a lamp to collect the sparks, the utensil should not contain water38 or other liquids, because one hastens the extinguishment of the sparks, since they will be extinguished immediately after they fall there. Even in the case of a fire [that is spreading, our Sages] permitted causing39 it to be extinguished only in one of these two ways:

a) Water would be stored in containers, e.g., new earthenware containers filled with water, that cannot withstand [the heat of] fire. When the fire reaches them, they burst open [and the water pours out] and dowses [the fire].40 Thus, [it is as if] the fire extinguishes itself; the person’s [action] was merely an [indirect] cause, for when he placed the water in these containers, the walls of the container served as a barrier, intervening between the water and the fire.

b) Alternatively, the water [may be used] even when it is not in a container, but it is [used] in a manner that does not extinguish [those substances to which the fire] has already taken hold; it merely prevents the fire from [spreading and] consuming other materials.41 For example, if fire has caught on to a [portion of a] garment, it is permitted to place liquid on [another part of] the garment that is slightly removed from the fire, so that when the fire reaches there, it will not consume anything more and [the fire] will burn out as a matter of course.42

In the instance at hand, by contrast, there are no walls of a container to intervene between the lamp and the water in the container beneath it, and the water actually extinguishes the sparks. [Hence, placing the container of water there] is not considered as being [merely] an [indirect] cause of the extinguishment of the fire.

[Moreover,] it is forbidden to place water in a utensil [under a lamp] even while it is still day on Friday.43 This is a decree lest one place it there after nightfall. True, whenever a task is completed on Shabbos as a matter of course,44 there is no prohibition at all, even though initially [it was caused by] an action performed [by a person] before nightfall. We are not concerned that the person will perform that act after nightfall, because everyone is aware of the prohibition against performing forbidden labors on Shabbos and will not err concerning it. In this instance, however, one may think that there is no prohibition at all even after nightfall, since he is placing the water there before the sparks fall.

ח כְּשֶׁנּוֹתֵן הַכְּלִי תַּחַת הַנֵּר לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ נִיצוֹצוֹת – לֹא יִהְיֶה בִּכְלִי מַיִםנב,38 אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים,נג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּקָרֵב זְמַן כִּבּוּי הַנִּיצוֹצוֹתנד שֶׁיִּכְבּוּ מִיָּד שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ שָׁמָּה.נה

וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ אֲפִלּוּ בִּדְלֵקָה לִגְרוֹם39 כִּבּוּי אֶלָּא (ג) בְּאֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי דְבָרִים,נו אוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַמַּיִם בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי, כְּגוֹן כְּלֵי חֶרֶס חֲדָשִׁים מְלֵאִים מַיִם שֶׁהֵם אֵינָם יְכוֹלִים לְקַבֵּל הָאוּר וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הָאוּר לָהֶם הֵם מִתְבַּקְּעִים וּמְכַבִּים,נז,40 שֶׁנִּמְצָא הָאוּר הוּא שֶׁמְּכַבֵּהוּ, וְהָאָדָם אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא גּוֹרֵם בְּעָלְמָא,נח שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁנָּתַן הַמַּיִם בְּכֵלִים אֵלּוּ הָיָה הֶפְסֵק מְחִצָּה בֵּין הַמַּיִם לְהָאוּר,נט דְּהַיְנוּ דָּפְנֵי הַכֵּלִי.

אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַמַּיִם בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי, אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם מְכַבִּים מַה שֶּׁהֻדְלַק כְּבָר, אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵם מוֹנְעִים הָאוּר מִלִּשְׂרוֹף יוֹתֵר,ס,41 כְּגוֹן טַלִּית שֶׁאָחֲזָה בָּהּ הָאוּרסא – מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מַשְׁקֶהסב עַל הַטַּלִּית רָחוֹק קְצָת מִן הָאוּר, שֶׁכְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ שָׁם הָאוּר לֹא יוּכַל לִשְׂרוֹף יוֹתֵר וּמֵאֵלָיו יִכְבֶּה.סג,42

אֲבָל כַּאן שֶׁאֵין דָּפְנֵי כְלִי מַפְסִיקִים בֵּין נֵר לְמַיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו,סד וְהַמַּיִם מְכַבִּים מַמָּשׁסה אֶת הַנִּיצוֹצוֹת – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא גְּרַם כִּבּוּי.

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אָסוּר לִתֵּן מַיִם לִכְלִי זֶה,סו,43 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתֵּן מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה.סז וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה הַנַּעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת מֵאֵלֶיהָ44 אֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר כְּלָל אַף אִם מִתְּחִלָּה נַעֲשָׂה בְּיָדַיִם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה,סח וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ, לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל יוֹדְעִים אִסּוּר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא יִטְעוּ בָּזֶה, אֲבָל כַּאן יְדַמֶּה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁאֵין בָּזֶה שׁוּם אִסּוּר כְּלָל אַף מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנּוֹתֵן הַמַּיִם קֹדֶם נְפִילַת הַנִּיצוֹצוֹת:סט

9 Nevertheless, it is permitted to place water in the bowl of a lamp that is kindled on Friday in order to elevate the oil.45 Since the person does not have the intent to extinguish the light at all, there is no concern that he will do so on Shabbos. [Moreover,] it is customary to permit [placing water in the bowl of the lamp] even if one intends to extinguish [the fire],46 so that the bowl will not be spoiled when the wick burns to its bottom. [The rationale is that,] in essence, one is not extinguishing [the fire] at all. For the wick would burn itself out when the oil is completed even if one were not to place water [in the bowl]. The water does not hasten the extinguishment of the fire at all. It only elevates the oil so that the bowl will not be spoiled when the wick burns to its bottom with only a tiny amount of oil remaining.

Based on this rationale, there is an opinion that maintains that even on Shabbos,47one may place water in the bowl of a lamp when it is lit by a non-Jew for the sake of a sick person.

It is, however, forbidden to place water into a tube into which one inserts a beeswax or tallow candle, even if he does so while it is still day on Friday, since when the fire burns to that point, it will actually be extinguished by the water.48 (It is, however, permitted to insert a candle into sand and the like,49 so that when the fire reaches there it will be prevented from burning further and it will be extinguished on its own accord. This is considered as indirectly causing the extinguishment [of the fire], as explained above.50 [Indeed,] on a festival,51 it is permitted to do so even after nightfall, as will be explained in sec. 514[:9].)

ט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מַיִם בַּעֲשָׁשִׁית שֶׁמַּדְלִיקִים בָּהּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַשֶּׁמֶן,ע,45 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכִבּוּי כְּלָל – אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת.עא

וְנוֹהֲגִין לְהַתִּיר אַף אִם מִתְכַּוֵּן (ד) לְכִבּוּי,עב,46 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִתְקַלְקֵל הָעֲשָׁשִׁיתעג כְּשֶׁתַּדְלִיק הַפְּתִילָה עַל שׁוּלֶיהָ, לְפִי שֶׁבֶּאֱמֶת אֵין כַּאן כִּבּוּי כְּלָל, שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא יִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם, כְּשֶׁיִּכְלֶה הַשֶּׁמֶן תִּכְבֶּה הַפְּתִילָה, וְאֵין הַמַּיִם מְמַהֲרִים הַכִּבּוּי כְּלָל,עד אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּגְבִּיהִים הַשֶּׁמֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִתְקַלְקֵל הָעֲשָׁשִׁית כְּשֶׁתַּדְלִיק הַפְּתִילָה עַל שׁוּלֶיהָ עִם שֶׁמֶן מְעַט מִזְּעֵר.

וּלְפִי טַעַם זֶה, יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרעה שֶׁאַף בְּשַׁבָּת47 מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מַיִם לַעֲשָׁשִׁית אִם מַדְלִיקָהּ נָכְרִי לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה.

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתֵּן מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁתּוֹחֵב בָּהּ נֵר שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה אוֹ שֶׁל חֵלֶב אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הָאוּר לְשָׁם – הַמַּיִם הֵם מְכַבִּים מַמָּשׁ.עו,48

(אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתְחוֹב הַנֵּר לְתוֹךְ הַחוֹל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ49 בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הָאוּר לְשָׁם יִמְנָעֵהוּ מִלִּשְׂרוֹף יוֹתֵר וְיִכְבֶּה מֵאֵלָיו, שֶׁגְּרַם כִּבּוּי הוּא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,עז,50 וַאֲפִלּוּ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, כְּגוֹן בְּיוֹם טוֹב,51 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקי"דעח):

Fig. 11: Water Elevating Oil in the Shabbos Lights a) the oil b) the water
Fig. 11: Water Elevating Oil in the Shabbos Lights a) the oil b) the water