SECTION 263 Who Should Kindle [Shabbos Lights]; [Reciting the Shabbos Prayers Early as a Result of] an Error [in Judgment on] a Cloudy Day (1-25)

סימן רסג מִי וָמִי הַמַּדְלִיקִין וְאִם טָעוּ בְּיוֹם הַמְּעֻנָּן וּבוֹ כ"ה סְעִיפִים׃

1 Our Sages ordained1 that on Shabbos every person2 should have a light burning3 in each room that he will enter on Shabbos4 for the sake of peace in the home (shalom bayis),5 i.e., so that he [or other members of his household] will not stumble over [a piece of] wood or a stone.6 [Also,] every person is obligated to partake of his [Shabbos] meal at night near the light of a lamp,7 for this is included in [the obligation of] delighting in the Shabbos.8Indeed, the primary aspect of the mitzvah of kindling lights is [kindling] a light close to where one eats.9 One should be meticulous to make this [light] attractive. Anyone who is meticulous [in doing so] will merit sons who are Torah scholars, as implied by the verse:10 “A mitzvah is a lamp and Torah, light.” [The implication is that] the light of the Torah results from the lamp of mitzvah.11

There are those who place two wicks in this lamp, with the intent that one light recall [the command] “Remember”12 and the other, [the command] “Observe.”13 [When they use] candles of beeswax, tallow, or the like, they light two candles.14 One may add [additional ones], kindling three or four, for one may add more than this specified amount [of lights] with another purpose [in mind], as long as he does not [kindle] fewer [than two].

Accordingly, it is customary for a woman who once forgot to kindle [Shabbos lights] to kindle three lights throughout her lifetime. If she forgot several times, she should add a light [for] every time [she forgot], to serve as a sign and a reminder for her so that she will be meticulous in the future in honoring the Shabbos and not forget [again]. If, however, she did not kindle lights because of forces beyond her control, e.g., she was in prison or the like, 15 she does not need to add a candle for [the Shabbasos that she missed].16 There are those who are accustomed to always light seven lights;17 others are accustomed to lighting ten, for reasons known to them.18

It is customary to light two interwoven beeswax candles in the synagogue to recall that the commands “Remember” and “Observe” were uttered simultaneously. Based on this rationale, it is desirable to follow this practice in one’s home as well. Moreover, doing so will also increase light, thus glorifying the mitzvah.

A blessing is not recited over the lights [kindled] in the synagogue for the reason to be explained.19

א תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִיםא,1 שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לְכָל אָדָםב,2 נֵר דּוֹלֵקג,3 בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָל חֵדֶר וְחֵדֶר שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת,ד,4 מִשּׁוּם שְׁלוֹם בַּיִת,ה,5 שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּשֵׁל בְּעֵץ אוֹ בְּאֶבֶן.ו,6

וְחַיָּב כָּל אָדָם כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל סְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה לְאָכְלָהּ אֵצֶל אוֹר הַנֵּר,ז,7 שֶׁזֶּה בִּכְלַל עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת8 הוּא.ח (א) וְעִקַּר מִצְוַת הַדְלָקַת נֵרוֹת הוּא נֵר זֶה שֶׁאוֹכֵל אֶצְלוֹ.ט,9 וִיהֵא זָהִיר בּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ יָפֶה.י וְכָל הַזָּהִיר בּוֹ – זוֹכֶה לְבָנִים תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים,יא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַריב,10 "כִּי נֵר מִצְוָה וְתוֹרָה אוֹר", עַל יְדֵי "נֵר מִצְוָה" בָּא אוֹר תּוֹרָה.יג,11

וְיֵשׁ מְכַוְּנִים לַעֲשׂוֹת ב' פְּתִילוֹת בְּנֵר זֶה: אֶחָד כְּנֶגֶד "זָכוֹר",12 וְאֶחָד כְּנֶגֶד "שָׁמוֹר".יד,13 וּבְנֵרוֹת שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה אוֹ שֶׁל חֵלֶבטו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן – מַדְלִיקִין ב' נֵרוֹת.טז,14 וִיכוֹלִין גַּם כֵּן לְהוֹסִיף וּלְהַדְלִיק ג' אוֹ ד',יז כִּי יְכוֹלִין לְהוֹסִיף עַל דָּבָר הַמְּכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד דָּבָר אַחֵר, רַק שֶׁלֹּא יִפְחוֹת.יח

וְלָכֵן אִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁכְחָה פַּעַם אַחַת לְהַדְלִיק – נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁמַּדְלֶקֶת כָּל יָמֶיהָ ג'.יט וְאִם שָׁכְחָה כַּמָּה פְעָמִים – מוֹסֶפֶת בְּכָל פַּעַם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לָהּ הֶכֵּר וְזִכָּרוֹן שֶׁתְּהֵא זְהִירָה מִכַּאן וּלְהַבָּא בִּכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת וְלֹא תָבֹא לִידֵי שִׁכְחָה.כ

אֲבָל אִם נֶאֶנְסָה וְלֹא הִדְלִיקָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה15 – אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְהוֹסִיף כְּנֶגֶד זֶה.כא,16

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַדְלִיק לְעוֹלָם ז' נֵרוֹת.כב,17 וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים לְהַדְלִיק עֲשָׂרָה,כג מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶם.כד,18

וְנוֹהֲגִין לְהַדְלִיק בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת ב' נֵרוֹת שֶׁל שַׁעֲוָה כְּרוּכִים, לִזְכּוֹר שֶׁ"זָּכוֹר" וְ"שָׁמוֹר" בְּדִבּוּר אֶחָד נֶאֶמְרוּ.כה וְאַף בְּבֵיתוֹ טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן לְפִי טַעַם זֶה. וְגַם כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת הָאוֹרָהכו לְהִדּוּר מִצְוָה. וְעַל נֵרוֹת שֶׁל בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵין מְבָרְכִין, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:כז,19

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Kehot Publication Society)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

2 A person who lacks the means to purchase a Shabbos light is obligated to even seek alms to [purchase] such a light.20 [Its purchase] is not governed by the principle:21 “Make your Shabbos like a weekday, but do not turn to others for your needs,” for it is included [in the mitzvah] to delight in the Shabbos night meal. For if one would partake of [that meal] without a light, he would not derive that much pleasure from it.22 The night meal is one of the fundamental Shabbos meals. It is not comparable to the third meal about which it was said: “Make your Shabbos like a weekday, but do not turn to others for your needs,” as explained in sec. 242[:4].

ב מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מָעוֹת לִקְנוֹת נֵר לְשַׁבָּת – חַיָּב אֲפִלּוּ לְחַזֵּר עַל הַפְּתָחִים בִּשְׁבִיל נֵר זֶה.כח,20 וְאֵין זֶה בִּכְלַל21 "עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת",כט לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ בִּכְלַל עֹנֶג סְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה,ל שֶׁכְּשֶׁאוֹכְלָהּ בְּלֹא נֵר – אֵין לוֹ עֹנֶג מִמֶּנָּה כָּל כָּךְ,22 וּסְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה הִיא מֵעִקַּר סְעֻדּוֹת הַשַּׁבָּת,לא וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לִסְעֻדָּה שְׁלִישִׁית שֶׁעָלֶיהָ אָמְרוּ:לב "עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ב:לג

3 [The above applies] even [to] a person who has limited financial means and must use them to purchase foods for Shabbos, and [if he purchases these foods] he will not have the means to purchase a light. A [Shabbos] light nevertheless takes priority over all Shabbos foods, with the exception of bread. Bread takes priority over the [Shabbos] light, because the primary mitzvah of the [Shabbos] meal is [to partake of] it,23 as will be explained in sec. 274[:5].

ג וַאֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ מְעַט מָעוֹת וְצָרִיךְ לִקַּח בָּהֶם מַאֲכָלִים לְשַׁבָּת וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ בַּמֶּה לִקְנוֹת נֵר – הֲרֵי הַנֵּר קוֹדֵם לְכָל הַמַּאֲכָלִים שֶׁל שַׁבָּת,לד חוּץ מִפַּת, שֶׁהַפַּת קוֹדֶמֶת לְנֵר,לה שֶׁהִיא עִקַּר מִצְוַת הַסְּעֻדָּה,23 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ד:לו

4 If a person does not have [sufficient] means to purchase wine for Kiddush and a Shabbos light, the Shabbos light receives priority.24 Even though the sanctification of the day is a Scriptural [mitzvah], the obligation to [sanctify it] with wine is only Rabbinic in origin.25 Moreover, it is possible to recite Kiddush over bread.26 Therefore, the Shabbos light receives priority, because [of the importance] of peace in the home, for the members of one’s household will be uncomfortable sitting in darkness and eating. Therefore, if a person has one candle near which he can eat, that is sufficient. He should then purchase wine for Kiddush.27

ד וְאִם אֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לִקְנוֹת יַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ וְנֵר לְשַׁבָּת – נֵר שַׁבָּת קוֹדֵם.לז,24 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקִּדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל הַיַּיִן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,לח,25 וְגַם אֶפְשָׁר לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת,לט,26 וּלְפִיכָךְ נֵר שַׁבָּת קוֹדֵם מִשּׁוּם שְׁלוֹם בֵּיתוֹ,מ שֶׁמִּצְטַעֲרִין בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ לֵישֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְמא וְלֶאֱכוֹל.מב וְלָכֵן אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ נֵר אֶחָד לֶאֱכוֹל אֶצְלוֹ – דַּי בְּכָךְ, וְיִקְנֶה אַחַר כָּךְ יַיִן לְקִדּוּשׁ:מג,27

5 Both men and women are obligated to have a light burning in their homes on Shabbos. Nevertheless, women are charged with greater watchfulness concerning [this mitzvah],28 because they are more frequently found at home and are involved in the needs of the household. Also, [the first woman] extinguished “the light of the world.”29 Therefore, she [i.e., each of her descendants] was given the mitzvah of kindling the Shabbos light to correct what she spoiled.30 Accordingly, even if her husband desires to kindle the light himself, the woman is given precedence. Nevertheless, it is proper that he involve himself in the preparation of the wicks and the lamps.31 He should also kindle lights in the other rooms where the woman does not light.32

It is customary that the husband kindles the lights and recites the blessing on the first Shabbos after his wife gives birth.33 On subsequent Shabbasos, however, even if she is in the niddah state – and indeed, on any Shabbos that she is in the niddah state – she should [kindle the lights and] recite the blessing herself. (See sec. 88[:2].)34

ה אֶחָד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד הַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבִים לִהְיוֹת בְּבָתֵּיהֶם נֵר דָּלוּק בְּשַׁבָּת,מד אֶלָּא שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים מֻזְהָרוֹת בּוֹ יוֹתֵר,מה,28 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּצוּיוֹת בַּבַּיִת וְעוֹסְקוֹת בְּצָרְכֵי הַבַּיִת.מו וְעוֹד, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כָּבְתָה נֵרוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם,מז,29 לְכָךְ נָתְנוּ לָהּ מִצְוַת הַדְלָקַת נֵר שַׁבָּת שֶׁתְּתַקֵּן מַה שֶּׁקִּלְקְלָה.מח,30 וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף אִם יִרְצֶה הַבַּעַל לְהַדְלִיק בְּעַצְמוֹ – הָאִשָּׁה קוֹדֶמֶת.מט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב שֶׁהוּא יִתְעַסֵּק בְּתִקּוּן הַפְּתִילוֹת וְהַנֵּרוֹת,נ,31 וְגַם יַדְלִיק בִּשְׁאָר חֲדָרִיםנא שֶׁאֵין אִשָּׁה מַדְלֶקֶת שָׁם.נב,32

וְנוֹהֲגִין כְּשֶׁהָאִשָּׁה יוֹלֶדֶת – הַבַּעַל מַדְלִיק וּמְבָרֵךְ בַּשַּׁבָּת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,נג,33 אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא נִדָּה, וְכֵן בְּכָל פַּעַם כְּשֶׁהִיא נִדָּה – מְבָרֶכֶת בְּעַצְמָהּנד (עַיֵּן סִמָּן פ"חנה):34

6 A person should not hurry to kindle [the Shabbos lights] while there is still much daylight left,35 because then it is not evident that they are being kindled for the sake of Shabbos. Nor should the kindling be delayed [past the appropriate time].36 If one seeks to kindle the light while there is still much daylight left and accept Shabbos at that time, close to the time of kindling,37 he may do so.38 Since he accepts Shabbos directly thereafter, this is not considered as [kindling too] early, provided that it is after p’lag haminchah, which is one and a quarter seasonal hours before nightfall. (See sec. 261[:5].)39

If one kindled a [Shabbos] light while there is still much daylight left,40 but did not accept Shabbos immediately, he or she must extinguish the light and kindle it again for the sake of Shabbos,so it will be evident in the [act of] kindling that it was performed in honor of the Shabbos.41On this basis, in the previous eras, men would send a child from the synagogue to their homes before Barchu to instruct [the women] to kindle the lights at that time.42 They should not kindle [the lights] before minchah, since they would not accept Shabbos at that [early a] time.

ו לֹא יַקְדִּים לְמַהֵר לְהַדְלִיקוֹ בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל,35 לְפִי שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ נִכָּר שֶׁמַּדְלִיקוֹ לִכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת. וְגַם לֹא יְאַחֵר.נו,36 וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְהַדְלִיק הַנֵּר בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל וּלְקַבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה סָמוּךְ לְהַדְלָקָה37 – רַשַּׁאי,38 כִּי כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת לְאַלְתַּרנז – אֵין זוֹ הַקְדָּמָה, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה,נח שֶׁהוּא שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ זְמַנִּיּוֹת קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה (עַיֵּן סִמָּן רס"אנט).39

וְאִם הִדְלִיק הַנֵּר בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל 40 וְלֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת מִיָּד – צָרִיךְ לְכַבּוֹתוֹ וְלַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַדְלִיקוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת,ס כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַהַדְלָקָה עַצְמָהּ נִכֶּרֶת שֶׁהִיא לִכְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת.סא,41 וּמִכַּאן סָמְכוּ הַקַּדְמוֹנִים שֶׁהָיוּ מְשַׁגְּרִים הַתִּינוֹק[וֹ]ת מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְבָתֵּיהֶם קֹדֶם "בָּרְכוּ" שֶׁיְּצַוּוּ לְהַדְלִיק אָז,42 וְלֹא יַדְלִיקוּ קֹדֶם מִנְחָה,סב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן מְקַבְּלִים אָז עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת:סג

7 There are authorities who maintain that once one kindles a Shabbos light, Shabbos takes effect for that person and [he or she] is prohibited from performing [forbidden] labors,43 unless the person stipulated that [he or she] was not accepting Shabbos with this kindling. Accordingly, after reciting the blessing44 and kindling the lights, women are accustomed to casting to the ground45 the object46 that they held in their hand with which they kindled the lights, rather than to extinguish it, for the Shabbos has already taken effect for them when they completed this kindling.47 They may, however, kindle many Shabbos lights [before discarding the object with which they lit the candles], because [kindling all the lights] is considered as one mitzvah of kindling and Shabbos does not take effect until they complete the kindling.48

There are authorities who differ with the above, maintaining that the acceptance of Shabbos is not at all dependent on the kindling of the [Shabbos] lights, but rather on the beginning of the Shabbos Evening Service. Once the sheliach tzibbur recites Barchu, all [must] cease [the performance of forbidden] labor. Primarily, the halachah follows this view. (Nevertheless, all authorities agree that it is necessary to accept Shabbos directlyafter kindling the Shabbos lights, as explained above.)49

The established custom, however, follows the first approach, i.e., the woman who kindles the Shabbos lights accepts Shabbos by kindling [these lights]. Therefore, she should recite the Afternoon Service before doing so.50 The other members of the household, by contrast, are permitted to perform [forbidden] labors until [the recitation of] Barchu.51 Moreover, even if that woman52 initially stipulated – even in her heart53 – that she is not accepting the Shabbos with this kindling,54 the stipulation is effective in a situation of need.55 If, however, the situation is not one of need, one should not rely on this stipulation, because there are authorities who maintain that a stipulation is not effective at all according to the Rabbis who maintain that the acceptance of Shabbos is dependent on kindling the [Shabbos] light.

All the above applies with regard to her kindling the lights on the [dining] table, for they represent the primary dimension of the mitzvah and the acceptance of Shabbos is dependent on them. All authorities agree, however, that the acceptance of Shabbos is not dependent on the kindling of other lights in the house or in other rooms. A woman may perform any of the [forbidden] labors after [kindling them,] until the [Shabbos] lights on the table are kindled.

All the above applies to a woman. There is no custom whatsoever binding a man who kindles [Shabbos] lights. Instead, [men] follow the law as prescribed: that the acceptance of the Shabbos is not dependent on the kindling of [the Shabbos] lights, but on the recitation of Barchu. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is desirable to make such a stipulation.

ז יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהִדְלִיק נֵר שַׁבָּת חָל עָלָיו הַשַּׁבָּת וְנֶאֱסַר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה,סד,43 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִתְנָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת בְּהַדְלָקָה זוֹ.סה וְעַל פִּי זֶה נוֹהֲגוֹת הַנָּשִׁים שֶׁאַחַר שֶׁבֵּרְכוּ44 וְהִדְלִיקוּ הַנֵּרוֹת – מַשְׁלִיכוֹת לָאָרֶץ45 הַפְּתִילָה46 שֶׁבְּיָדָן שֶׁהִדְלִיקוּ בָּהּ הַנֵּרוֹת, וְאֵינָן מְכַבּוֹת אוֹתָהּ,סו שֶׁכְּבָר חָל עֲלֵיהֶן שַׁבָּת בִּגְמַר הַדְלָקָה זוֹ.47 אֲבָל יְכוֹלוֹת לְהַדְלִיק נֵרוֹת הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁכֻּלָּן מִצְוַת הַדְלָקָה אַחַת הֵן, וְאֵין קַבָּלַת הַשַּׁבָּת חָלָה עַד אַחַר גְּמַר הַהַדְלָקָה.סז,48

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל זֶהסח וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת תְּלוּיָה כְּלָל בְּהַדְלָקַת נֵרוֹת, אֶלָּא בְּהַתְחָלַת תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר "בָּרְכוּ" הַכֹּל פּוֹרְשִׁים מִמְּלַאכְתָּם.סט וְכֵן עִקָּר (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל שַׁבָּת לְאַלְתַּר אַחַר הַהַדְלָקָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהע).49

אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג הוּא כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁאוֹתָהּ אִשָּׁה הַמַּדְלֶקֶת מְקַבֶּלֶת שַׁבָּת עָלֶיהָ בְּהַדְלָקָה זוֹ,עא וְלָכֵן תִּתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה תְּחִלָּה,עב,50 אֲבָל שְׁאָר בְּנֵי הַבַּיִת מֻתָּרִים בִּמְלָאכָה עַד "בָּרְכוּ".עג,51 וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָהּ אִשָּׁה,52 אִם הִתְנֵית תְּחִלָּה אֲפִלּוּ בְּלִבָּהּ53 שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת שַׁבָּת בְּהַדְלָקָה זוֹ54 – מוֹעִיל לָהּ תְּנַאי זֶהעד בִּמְקוֹם הַצֹּרֶךְ.55 אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם הַצֹּרֶךְ – אֵין לִסְמוֹךְ עַל הַתְּנַאי,עה לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעו שֶׁאֵין תְּנַאי מוֹעִיל כְּלָל לְפִי דַּעַת הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁקַּבָּלַת שַׁבָּת תְּלוּיָה בְּהַדְלָקַת נֵר שַׁבָּת.

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהִדְלִיקָה הַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, שֶׁהֵן עִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה וּבָהֶן תְּלוּיָה קַבָּלַת הַשַּׁבָּת, אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁמַּדְלֶקֶת בַּבַּיִת וּבִשְׁאָר חֲדָרִים – אֵין קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת תְּלוּיָה בָּהֶן לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,עז וּמֻתָּר לָהּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶן כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת עַד שֶׁתַּדְלִיק נֵרוֹת שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן.

וְכָל זֶה בְּאִשָּׁה, אֲבָל בְּאִישׁ הַמַּדְלִיק אֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם מִנְהָג כְּלָל, וּמַעֲמִידִין עַל עִקַּר הַדִּין שֶׁאֵין קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת תְּלוּיָה בְּהַדְלָקַת נֵרוֹת אֶלָּא בַּאֲמִירַת "בָּרְכוּ". וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לְהַתְנוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה:עח

8 Both a man and a woman who kindle a Shabbos or Yom Tov light are obligated to recite [the following] blessing before doing so: “Blessed are You G‑d our L‑rd, King of the Universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to kindle the light of the Shabbos56 or “…the light of the festival,” just as we recite a blessing over all the mitzvos ordained by the Rabbis before57 performing them.58

The custom, [however,] is that the blessing is recited after kindling [the lights],59 because [a woman might] think that if she recites the blessing first, she will have [already] accepted Shabbos [with that blessing], and she is forbidden to kindle [the lights].

Even on a festival,60 the lights are first kindled [and then the blessing is recited] so that a distinction will not be made with regard to the same blessing, at times to recite it before lighting, and at times afterward.

In order for the blessing to be [deemed as having been recited] before the performance of the mitzvah,the woman should not derive benefit from the light61 until after the recitation of the blessing. [Thus,] she should place her hands in front of the light62 immediately after kindling [thereby blocking it from her view,] until she completes the blessing. She then removes her hands and benefits from the light. This is [also] deemed [reciting the blessing] “before the performance [of the mitzvah].”

ח הַמַּדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל שַׁבָּתעט וְיוֹם טוֹב,פ אֶחָד הָאִישׁ וְאֶחָד הָאִשָּׁהפא – חַיָּבִים לְבָרֵךְ עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָןפב "בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה׳ אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו, וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת",פג,56 אוֹ "שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב",פד כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִים עַל שְׁאָר כָּל מִצְוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםפה עוֹבֵר 57 לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן.פו,58

וְהַמִּנְהָג שֶׁמְּבָרְכִים אַחַר הַהַדְלָקָה,פז,59 לְפִי שֶׁסּוֹבְרִין שֶׁאִם תְּבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה קִבְּלָה לְשַׁבָּת,פח וּתְהֵא אֲסוּרָה לְהַדְלִיק.פט וְאַף בְּיוֹם טוֹב60 מַדְלִיקִין תְּחִלָּה,צ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לְחַלֵּק בִּבְרָכָה אַחַת לְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָהּ פְּעָמִים קֹדֶם הַדְלָקָה וּפְעָמִים אַחַר כָּךְ.צא וּכְדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא הַבְּרָכָה עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּה – אֵינָהּ נֶהֱנֵית מִן הָאוֹר61 עַד אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְּשִׂימָה יָדָהּ לִפְנֵי הַנֵּרצב,62 מִיָּד אַחַר הַהַדְלָקָה עַד אַחַר גְּמַר הַבְּרָכָה, וְאָז מְסִירָה יָדָהּ וְנֶהֱנֵית מִן הָאוֹר, וְזֶה נִקְרָא עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּה:צג

9 Young men who go to study away from home must kindle Shabbos lights in their room [where they board] and recite the blessing [there], even if they do not eat there,63 because the kindling of a light for Shabbos is an obligation64 – even when not associated with eating – so that one will not stumble over wood or a stone, as stated above.65 In contrast, when a man is together with his wife [in their dwelling] and he kindles lights in all the rooms that he will enter on Shabbos, as stated above,66 he is not required to recite a blessing, because his wife recites the blessing for him in the dining room.67 When, by contrast, he is not together with his wife and he has a private room in the place where he is being hosted [for Shabbos], he is not covered by her blessing.

If [the guest] does not have a private room [in that home] (– and even if he does, but the master of that home also uses that room, and therefore the master of the home must kindle a light there –) the guest need not kindle a light there at all. [The rationale is that] there will be peace in the home where he is staying,68 and he also fulfills the mitzvah of kindling a light for Shabbos by having a Shabbos light kindled in his home (from his own resources).

If, however, such a person does not have anyone to kindle [a Shabbos light] in his [permanent] home (or a light was kindled there, but without using his resources, he is not covered by the kindling [performed in his home. This applies] even though whenever he is in [that home], he would fulfill his obligation with the Shabbos light [kindled there by that individual], e.g., [it is someone who] “eats at their table” [– i.e., is supported by – the owners of his permanent home] and is thus considered as a member of their household.69 Nevertheless, on this occasion, when he does not spend [Shabbos] with them, he is not covered by their light. Instead,) he must fulfill the mitzvah of kindling a Shabbos light in the place where he is [spending Shabbos] by giving a perutah70 to the master of the house [where he is now staying,] to become a partner in his [Shabbos] light.71 Alternatively, the master of the house may formally transfer to him [ownership of] a portion of his light as a present, as will be explained in sec. 677 with regard to the Chanukah lights.72

(When does the above apply? When the person eats [at his host’s home] from his own resources. If, however, he eats at the table of the master of the home, he is considered as a member of his household and he fulfills his obligation with the light of the master of the home, without having to partner in his [Shabbos light] at all, as will be explained in that source.)73 All the above applies when [the guest] does not have his own room [in his host’s home].74

ט בַּחוּרִים הַהוֹלְכִים לִלְמוֹד חוּץ לְבֵיתָם – צְרִיכִים לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שַׁבָּת בְּחַדְרָם וּלְבָרֵךְ עָלָיוצד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם אוֹכְלִים שָׁם,צה,63 לְפִי שֶׁהַדְלָקַת נֵר בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹבָהצו,64 אַף בְּלֹא אֲכִילָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּשֵׁל בְּעֵץ וָאֶבֶן,צז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.צח,65

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁהוּא אֵצֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמַדְלִיק בְּכָל הַחֲדָרִים שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהצט,66 – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם, לְפִי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ מְבָרֶכֶת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ בְּבֵית אֲכִילָה.ק,67

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ אֵצֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ – אֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חֶדֶר מְיֻחָד שָׁם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְאָרֵחַ.

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ חֶדֶר מְיֻחָד שָׁם (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם גַּם כֵּן, וְצָרִיךְ הַבַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם נֵר שֶׁלּוֹ) – אֵין הָאוֹרֵחַ צָרִיךְ לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם כְּלָל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁלוֹם בַּיִת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא שָׁם,68 וְגַם מִצְוַת הַדְלָקַת נֵר שַׁבָּת הוּא מְקַיֵּם בְּמַה שֶׁמַּדְלִיקִים נֵר שַׁבָּת בְּבֵיתוֹקא (מִשֶּׁלּוֹ).

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ מִי שֶׁיַּדְלִיק בְּבֵיתוֹ (אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם מַדְלִיקִים שָׁם אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינָן מַדְלִיקִים מִשֶּׁלּוֹ – אֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּהַדְלָקָתָם, אַף אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁהָיָה אֶצְלָם נִפְטָר בְּהַדְלָקָתָם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁסָּמוּךְ עַל שֻׁלְחָנָם, שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה מִכְּלַל בְּנֵי בֵיתָם69 וְנִפְטָר בַּנֵּר שֶׁלָּהֶם,קב מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶצְלָם – אֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּנֵרָם, אֶלָּא) צָרִיךְ הוּא לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת הַדְלָקַת נֵר שַׁבָּת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּתֵּן פְּרוּטָה70 לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף עִמּוֹ בַּנֵּר שֶׁלּוֹ,קג,71 אוֹ שֶׁיַּקְנֶה לוֹ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת חֵלֶק בַּנֵּר שֶׁלּוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תרע"זקד לְעִנְיַן נֵר חֲנֻכָּה.72

(בַּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל שָׁם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא סָמוּךְ עַל שֻׁלְחַן בַּעַל הַבַּיִת – נַעֲשֶׂה כִּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְיוֹצֵא בְּנֵרוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף עִמּוֹ כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםקה).73 וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ חֶדֶר מְיֻחָד שָׁם:קו,74

10 [Some people follow the custom that when] two or three homeowners eat together at one table,75 each one recites a blessing over his own candelabra. Others dispute the practice, saying that the blessing is being recited in vain, since there is already ample light from the candles kindled by the one who lit first. There are those who justify the custom, [explaining that] the greater the increase of light in the home, the greater the peace and happiness in the home [resulting from] the satisfaction evoked by the [increased] light which illumines every corner [of the room].76 Nevertheless, even according to their view, two people should not recite blessings individually on one multi-branched candelabrum.

All authorities agree that the second person may recite a blessing [over a light that he kindles] in his private room, even if he does not eat there or use it for any purpose connected with eating, for the reason mentioned above.77 Moreover, the second person may even kindle [a Shabbos light] – either from his own resources or from supplies bought for him by the first person – in the first person’s private room, if the first person uses that room for any purpose associated with eating78 and [he] was not yet there [at that time.79 The second person] may recite a blessing for kindling [this light], although he will make no use of the room where these candles are.80

י ב' אוֹ ג' בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים שֶׁאוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָדקז,75 וּמְבָרְכִים כָּל אֶחָד עַל מְנוֹרָה שֶׁלּוֹ – יֵשׁ מְפַקְפְּקִין לוֹמַר שֶׁיֵּשׁ כַּאן בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר יֵשׁ שָׁם אוֹרָה מְרֻבָּה מִנֵּרוֹת שֶׁהִדְלִיק הָרִאשׁוֹן.קח וְיֵשׁ מְיַשְּׁבִין הַמִּנְהָג, שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁנִתּוֹסְפָה אוֹרָה בַּבַּיִת – יֵשׁ בָּהּ שְׁלוֹם בַּיִת וְשִׂמְחָה יְתֵרָה לַהֲנָאַת אוֹרָה בְּכָל זָוִית.קט,76 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי דַעְתָּם לֹא יְבָרְכוּ שְׁנַיִם בִּמְנוֹרָה אַחַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ קָנִים הַרְבֵּה.קי

וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, יָכוֹל הַשֵּׁנִי לְבָרֵךְ בְּחֶדֶר הַמְּיֻחָד לוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל שָׁם וְאֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם שׁוּם צֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה,קיא מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קיב,77

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּחֶדֶר הַמְּיֻחָד לָרִאשׁוֹן, אִם הָרִאשׁוֹן מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שׁוּם צָרְכֵי אֲכִילָה בְּאוֹתוֹ חֶדֶרקיג,78 וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הָיָה שָׁם79 – יָכוֹל הַשֵּׁנִי לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אוֹ מִמַּה שֶּׁיַּקְנֶה לוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל הַדְלָקָה זוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ כְּלוּם אֵצֶל נֵרוֹתָיו:80

11 Based on the above, [the following] custom is observed by some women on the night of their ritual immersion. [They are faced with a difficulty, because] they must bathe their heads and bodies with hot water81 while it is still day, in the bathhouse that is adjacent to the mikveh.82 They may not kindle the Shabbos lights before going there, because they accept Shabbos by kindling [the Shabbos]lights, as explained [above].83 After [kindling], the woman would be forbidden to bathe with hot water.84 [Women] prefer not to go home and kindle the [Shabbos]lights between bathing and immersion,85 lest [some form of] dirt [adhere to them] on the way and become an intervening substance [that would invalidate their immersion]. Therefore, after their preparations and before their immersions, they kindle their Shabbos lights in the women’s [section of the] synagogue, if it is close to the mikveh. The synagogue attendant then performs some task associated with eating by the light of their candles [and thus their blessings are not considered as having been recited in vain]. Certainly this is true if the woman [who lit the candles] can derive some benefit there that is associated with eating. She may not, however, kindle and recite a blessing over the lights designated for the synagogue that are usually kindled there every Shabbos. [This restriction applies] even if she wants to use these lights for the purpose of eating by their light. [The rationale is that] these lights are not kindled to illuminate [the room and enable others] to use their light, but instead, are kindled solely as an expression of honor [for the synagogue].86

[Although these options are available,] it is nevertheless preferable that on the night of a woman’s immersion, her husband should kindle [the Shabbos] lights and recite the blessing. (Alternatively, she should go home between bathing and her immersion and kindle [the Shabbos lights] there. How much more so is this true, if she can bathe at home, for that is the more desirable [option]!87 If none of these options are available,88 she should kindle [the Shabbos lights at home], recite the blessing before going to the bathhouse, and stipulate that she is not accepting Shabbos with her lighting.89 This stipulation is effective in a situation of need, as explained.)90

She should do the same when a wedding ceremony that she must attend is held on Friday and she would tarry there until after sunset, but she is unable to accept Shabbos before going there.91

([In these situations,] she should kindle [the Shabbos lights], recite the blessing, and stipulate that she is not accepting Shabbos through her lighting. Nevertheless, she may not make such a stipulation unless her husband92 accepts Shabbos immediately, directly after her kindling.93 Since she is not accepting the Shabbos directly after lighting – for she must spend much time bathing or attending the wedding – if her husband also does not accept the Shabbos directly thereafter, he is required to extinguish the [Shabbos]lights and then rekindle them shortly before his acceptance of Shabbos, as explained above.94 Thus, her blessing will have been recited in vain.)

[The following option, however, is not acceptable:] To kindle the [Shabbos]lights before she leaves [home] without a blessing and then, upon her return from her immersion or the wedding ceremony, to spread out her hands in front of the lights and recite the blessing before benefiting from their light. Similarly, if her intent is to return from the wedding ceremony bein hashmashos,95 she cannot rely on the following option: She will refrain from kindling the [Shabbos]lights before leaving because she will instruct a non-Jew to kindle the [Shabbos]lights upon her return bein hashmashos.96At the time she returns, she will recite the blessing, spreading out her hands after the non-Jew kindles them, without benefiting from their light until after she recites the blessing. [This is unacceptable.] How can she recite a blessing [that states] “…Who commanded us to light…” when the lights are already kindled or are being kindled by a non-Jew?

Nevertheless, after the fact, if a woman97 forgot and did not kindle [the Shabbos lights]98 before bein hashmashos and remembers at that time, license can be granted her to instruct a non-Jew to kindle the lights and [then] to recite the blessing before she benefits from their light.99 ([This is acceptable because] in essence, the mitzvah of kindling the Shabbos light is not the kindling itself. Instead, deriving satisfaction and making use of its light is the primary aspect of the mitzvah. Nevertheless, the kindling is the first step and the preparation for fulfilling this mitzvah. Therefore, the blessing is recited over it. [In the situation described here, where a woman] forgot and did not recite the blessing at the beginning of the mitzvah, she may recite the blessing100 before fulfilling the primary dimension of the mitzvah, i.e., before benefiting from the light.)101 Nonetheless, she should instruct the non-Jew to kindle only one light on the [dining] table,102 for this is the primary dimension of the mitzvah.

(She may, however, be permitted to have one light kindled for her [so that she can recite a blessing], even though a light is already burning [in the room].103 [The rationale is that] since women are very careful concerning this blessing, it is considered as a matter of great need for which license was granted during bein hashmashos to perform a shvus, 104 [an activity otherwise Rabbinically forbidden,] as explained in sec. 261[:2].)

יא וּלְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגוֹת מִקְצָת הַנָּשִׁים בְּלֵיל טְבִילָה שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכוֹת לַחֲפוֹף רֹאשָׁן וְגוּפָן בְּחַמִּיןקיד,81 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ אֵצֶל הַמִּקְוֶה,קטו,82 וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶן לְהַדְלִיק הַנֵּרוֹת קֹדֶם לֶכְתָּן לְשָׁם, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מְקַבְּלוֹת הַשַּׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי הַדְלָקַת הַנֵּרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,קטז,83 וַאֲסוּרוֹת לִרְחוֹץ בְּחַמִּין אַחַר כָּךְ,קיז,84 וְאֵינָן רוֹצוֹת לֵילֵךְ בֵּין חֲפִיפָה לִטְבִילָה לְבֵיתָן85 לְהַדְלִיק נֵרוֹת שֶׁמִּתְיָרְאוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְטַנְּפֵם בְּלֶכְתָּן וּתְהֵא בָהֶם חֲצִיצָה, לָכֵן מַדְלִיקִין נֵרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן בֵּין חֲפִיפָה לִטְבִילָה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁל נָשִׁים אִם הוּא סָמוּךְ לְבֵית הַטְּבִילָה, וְהַשַּׁמָשׁ מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם שׁוּם דָּבָר מִצָּרְכֵי אֲכִילָה לְאוֹר נֵרוֹתֶיהָ,קיח וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם הִיא עַצְמָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם שׁוּם דָּבָר שֶׁתֵּהָנֶה בוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה.

אֲבָל אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהַדְלִיק וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל נֵרוֹת הַמְּיֻחָדִים לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהַדְלִיקָן שָׁם בְּכָל שַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ אִם תִּרְצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ צָרְכֵי אֲכִילָה לְאוֹרָן, לְפִי שֶׁנֵּרוֹת הַלָּלוּ אֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִים לְהָאִיר וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרָן, אֶלָּא לְכָבוֹד בִּלְבָד.קיט,86

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יוֹתֵר טוֹב שֶׁבְּלֵיל טְבִילָה יַדְלִיק הַבַּעַל וִיבָרֵךְ.קכ

(אוֹ תֵּלֵךְ בֵּין חֲפִיפָה לִטְבִילָה לְבֵיתָהּ לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁתָּחֹף בְּבֵיתָהּ שֶׁזֶּה יוֹתֵר טוֹב.87 וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּכָל אֵלֶּה88 – תַּדְלִיק וּתְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם לֶכְתָּהּ לְבֵית הַטְּבִילָה (ב) וְתַתְנֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת שַׁבָּת בְּהַדְלָקָה זוֹ,קכא,89 שֶׁתְּנַאי זֶה מוֹעִיל בִּמְקוֹם הַצֹּרֶךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרקכב).90

וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ חֻפָּה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּצְרִיכָה לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם וְתִתְאַחֵר שָׁם עַד אַחַר שְׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהּ שֶׁתְּקַבֵּל שַׁבָּת קֹדֶם לֶכְתָּהּ לְשָׁם91 – (אֲזַי תַּדְלִיק וּתְבָרֵךְ וְתַתְנֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת שַׁבָּת בְּהַדְלָקָה זוֹ.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לָהּ לְהַתְנוֹת תְּנַאי זֶה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַבַּעַל92 יְקַבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת מִיָּד סָמוּךְ לְהַדְלָקָתָהּ,קכג,93 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִיא אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת לְאַלְתַּר לְאַחַר הַדְלָקָתָהּ, שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לִשְׁהוֹת הַרְבֵּה בַּחֲפִיפָתָהּ אוֹ בְּלֶכְתָּהּ לְחֻפָּה, אִם כֵּן אִם גַּם הַבַּעַל לֹא יְקַבֵּל לְאַלְתַּר – יִצְטָרֵךְ לְכַבּוֹת הַנֵּר וְלַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַדְלִיקוֹ סָמוּךְ לְקַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקכד,94 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁבֵּרְכָה לְבַטָּלָה).

אֲבָל אֵין לָהּ לְהַדְלִיק לְכַתְּחִלָּה קֹדֶם לֶכְתָּהּ בְּלֹא בְרָכָה, וּבְבוֹאָהּ מֵהַטְּבִילָה מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה אוֹ מֵהַחֻפָּה תִּפְרוֹשׂ יָדֶיהָ לִפְנֵי הַנֵּרוֹתקכה וּלְבָרֵךְ אָז קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּהָנֶה לְאוֹרָן, וְכֵן אִם דַּעְתָּהּ לָבֹא מֵהַחֻפָּה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת95 – אֵין לָהּ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל זֶה שֶׁלֹּא לְהַדְלִיק קֹדֶם לֶכְתָּהּ וְשֶׁתְּצַוֶּה לְנָכְרִי לְהַדְלִיק כְּשֶׁתָּבֹא בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתקכו,96 וְשֶׁתְּבָרֵךְ הִיא עַל יְדֵי פְּרִישַׂת יָדֶיהָ מִיָּד אַחַר הַדְלָקַת הַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁלֹּא תֵּהָנֶה לְאוֹרָן עַד אַחַר בִּרְכָתָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁהַאֵיךְ תְּבָרֵךְ "וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק" וְהֵן דּוֹלְקוֹת כְּבָר מִקֹּדֶם לְכֵן, אוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַנָּכְרִי.קכז(ג)

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁשָּׁכְחָה 97 וְלֹא הִדְלִיקָה98 קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת (ד) וְנִזְכְּרָה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לָהּ לְצַוּוֹת לְנָכְרִי לְהַדְלִיק וְשֶׁתְּבָרֵךְ הִיא קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּהָנֶה לְאוֹרָןקכח,99 (דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר מִצְוַת הַדְלָקַת נֵר שַׁבָּת אֵינָהּ הַהַדְלָקָה בִּלְבָד, אֶלָּא הַהֲנָאָה וְהַתַּשְׁמִישׁ לְאוֹרָהּ הִיא עִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה,קכט אֶלָּא שֶׁהַהַדְלָקָה הִיא הַתְחָלָה וַהֲכָנָה לְמִצְוָה זוֹ, וְלָכֵן מְבָרְכִים עָלֶיהָ, וְזוֹ שֶׁשָּׁכְחָה וְלֹא בֵרְכָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַמִּצְוָה – יְכוֹלָה לְבָרֵךְ100 קֹדֶם עִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה, דְּהַיְנוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּהָנֶה לְאוֹרָן).101

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא תְצַוֶּה לְהַדְלִיק אֶלָּא נֵר אֶחָדקל עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,102 שֶׁזֶּהוּ עִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה.

(אֲבָל נֵר אֶחָד אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתִּיר לָהּ אַף אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם כְּבָר נֵר דָּלוּק,קלא,103 שֶׁמֵּאַחַר שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים נִזְהָרוֹת מְאֹד בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בוֹ שְׁבוּת104 בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"אקלב):

12 A blind woman105 may also recite a blessing over a Shabbos light, because she also benefits from lights, as explained in sec. 69[:9].106 Nevertheless, if she has a husband who is sighted, her husband should recite the blessing.107 If she is eating together with others who recited a blessing [when they] kindled [Shabbos lights], she should not recite a blessing,108 because there is no mitzvah for a woman to kindle [a light] aside from the added happiness [one derives from additional light], as explained above.109 And [because she is blind, she] does not derive any happiness from the light [she kindles].110

יב סוּמָא105 יְכוֹלָה גַם כֵּן לְבָרֵךְ עַל נֵר שַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא נֶהֱנֵית גַּם כֵּן מִמְּאוֹרוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ס"ט.קלג,106 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ בַּעַל פִּקֵּחַ – יְבָרֵךְ הַבַּעַל.107

אַךְ אִם אוֹכֶלֶת בְּשֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד עִם אֲחֵרִים שֶׁבֵּרְכוּ וְהִדְלִיקוּ – אֵין לָהּ לְבָרֵךְ,108 שֶׁהֲרֵי אָז אֵין מִצְוָה בְּהַדְלָקָה זוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שִׂמְחָה יְתֵרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קלד,109 וְלָהּ אֵין שִׂמְחָה כְּלָל מֵאוֹר הַנֵּר:קלה,110

13 As an initial preference, it is a mitzvah to make long candles111 that will burn until nightfall.112 Nevertheless, if one made short candles that do not burn until nightfall,113 the blessing is not considered as having been recited in vain, since one eats by their light and derives benefit from them during the Shabbos meal.114 When, however, one does not eat by their light, e.g., he eats in a courtyard, as will be explained in sec. 273[:12],115 if [the candles] do not burn until nightfall, he will have recited a blessing in vain.116 [This would not be true were they to burn until nightfall] when he would benefit from them as he returns to his home, by not stumbling over a piece of wood or a stone [due to] the dimness and darkness [of] night. Nevertheless, if the situation is such that there was some darkness in one place [in his home] near nightfall117 were [the Shabbos lights] not burning, and he made use of their light118 in that place for a purpose, there is no prohibition [against reciting a blessing over the Shabbos lights].

יג מִצְוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה נֵרוֹת אֲרֻכִּים111 שֶׁיַּדְלִיקוּ עַד הַלַּיְלָה.112

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָשָׂה נֵרוֹת קְטַנִּים שֶׁאֵינָן דּוֹלְקִים עַד הַלַּיְלָה113 – אֵין כַּאן בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה, שֶׁכֵּיוָןקלו שֶׁאָכַל לְאוֹרָן וְנֶהֱנָה מֵהֶן בִּסְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת.קלז,114

אֲבָל אִם לֹא אָכַל לְאוֹרָן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָכַל בֶּחָצֵר, וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ג,קלח,115 אִם אֵינָן דּוֹלְקוֹת עַד הַלַּיְלָה, שֶׁאָז הוּא נֶהֱנֶה מֵהֶן בַּחֲזָרָתוֹ לַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּשֵׁל בְּעֵץ וָאֶבֶן בְּאִישׁוֹן אֲפֵלָה וְלַיְלָהקלט – הֲרֵי בֵּרַךְ לְבַטָּלָה.קמ,116

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהָיָה שָׁם קְצָת חֹשֶׁךְ בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה117 אִם לֹא הָיוּ דוֹלְקוֹת שָׁם וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שׁוּם דָּבָר לְאוֹרָן118 – אֵין בְּזֶה אִסּוּר:קמא

14 When a person kindled a light in a place that is not used at all on Shabbos,and thus he was not obligated to kindle a light there, and then took this burning light and placed it in a location that is used [on Shabbos], he does not fulfill his obligation with this light. [The rationale is that] when it was lit, it was located in a place that would not be used on Shabbos. Accordingly, it is not evident that it was kindled in honor of the Shabbos. [Thus,] if he recited a blessing over its kindling, he is considered to have recited a blessing in vain.

One may, however, recite a blessing and kindle a Shabbos light in a place that is used on Shabbos, even though it is not used in connection with matters associated with eating, provided it is [kindled in] his room or a room designated for him. [This ruling applies] whether he sets down the light [to] burn there or even when he sets it down afterward119 in another place that he does not use at all on Shabbos and kindles another light [in his designated room]. He is not considered to have recited a blessing in vain, since the light on which he recited the blessing was set down for a short time here, in a place where he is obligated to place a light on Shabbos.

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should be meticulous in reciting the blessing on [Shabbos] lights that were already placed on the table [on which one eats] and not on other lights, even those that are within the home, and even when one desires afterward to place those lights on the table. [The rationale is that] the primary element of the mitzvah is the lights that are on the table by whose light the meal is eaten. It is fitting that the blessing be recited on the lights positioned in the place where the primary element of the mitzvah [is fulfilled]. Nevertheless, it is sufficient that there be one light – (or two, one recalling [the command] “Remember” and one recalling [the command] “Observe”)120 – placed there.

If, however, there are many women in one house, they may – [even] as an initial preference – recite the blessing [on the lights they kindle] in other places, as long as that place is used on Shabbos, even if it is not used for a purpose associated with eating, provided [the place is] a room designated for her or for her husband. If the room is not designated for her, she may not kindle [the Shabbos lights] there, unless it is used for a purpose associated with eating.121 [She may recite the blessing] even if [she and her husband] do not use it at all, but the host and the members of his household, or even other people, use it for a purpose associated with eating.

יד אִם הִדְלִיק נֵרקמב בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ כְּלוּם בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם נֵר,קמג וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָטַל נֵר זֶה הַדָּלוּק וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּנֵר זֶה,קמד דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִדְלִיקוֹ הָיָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵינוֹ נִכָּר שֶׁהֻדְלַק לִכְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת.קמה וְאִם בֵּרַךְ עַל הַדְלָקָתוֹ – הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה.

אֲבָל יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ וּלְהַדְלִיק בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים שָׁם צָרְכֵי אֲכִילָה, אִם הוּא חֶדֶר שֶׁלּוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לוֹ, בֵּין שֶׁיַּנִּיחֶנּוּ דּוֹלֵק שָׁם, בֵּין שֶׁיַּנִּיחֶנּוּ אַחַר כָּךְ 119 אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ כְּלוּם בְּשַׁבָּת, וְיַדְלִיק כַּאן נֵר אַחֵר,קמו דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַנֵּר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלָיו הָיָה מֻנָּח שָׁעָה מוּעֶטֶת כָּאן בְּמָקוֹם הַחַיָּב בְּנֵר שַׁבָּת – אֵין כַּאן בְּרָכָה לְבַטָּלָה.קמז

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְבָרֵךְ עַל אוֹתָן הַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁהֵן כְּבָר עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְלֹא עַל שְׁאָר הַנֵּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת,קמח וַאֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לְהַנִּיחָן אַחַר כָּךְ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן,119 לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה הֵן הַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁאוֹכְלִין לְאוֹרָן,קמט וְרָאוּי שֶׁתְּהֵא הַבְּרָכָה עַל אוֹתָן הַמֻּנָּחִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר הַמִּצְוָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, דַּי שָׁם בְּנֵר אֶחָדקנ (אוֹ ב' נֵרוֹת כְּנֶגֶד "זָכוֹר" וְ"שָׁמוֹר"קנא).120

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ נָשִׁים רַבּוֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד – יְכוֹלוֹת לְבָרֵךְ לְכַתְּחִלָּה גַּם בִּשְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא מָקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,קנב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ צָרְכֵי אֲכִילָה, אִם הוּא חֶדֶר הַמְּיֻחָד לָהּ אוֹ לְבַעְלָהּ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְיֻחָד לָהּ – אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים שָׁם צָרְכֵי אֲכִילָה,121 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם אֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים שָׁם כְּלוּם, אֶלָּא בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֲחֵרִים, מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים שָׁם צָרְכֵי אֲכִילָה:קנג

15 (When does the above apply? When she eats from her own resources.122 If, however, she is dependent on the table of the master of the house, she may not recite a blessing there unless the room is designated for her or her husband. If [a room was] not [designated for her or for her husband], she is not obligated at all to kindle [a Shabbos light] there. For the obligation of a Shabbos light is [then] not incumbent upon her at all, because she is considered as one of the members of the host’s household and is covered by his [Shabbos] light.

[This ruling applies] even if the host instructs her to kindle [a Shabbos light] and appoints her as his agent [to kindle a Shabbos light there] on his behalf, fulfilling the obligation incumbent upon him, because he will use that room on Shabbos. [Indeed, it applies] even if he uses it for a purpose associated with eating and even if he or some of the members of his household eat there. Nevertheless, since [the host] or his wife [kindled a Shabbos light and] recited the blessing in another room [within the home], this blessing covers all the rooms in which he is obligated to kindle [a Shabbos light], as explained above.123 As such, even his agent may not recite a blessing in [those other rooms]. There are authorities who differ with this [ruling and allow a woman who is a guest to kindle a Shabbos light with a blessing]. In these countries, it has become the widespread custom [to follow this latter view].124

טו (בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאוֹכֶלֶת מִשֶּׁלָּהּ,122 אֲבָל אִם הִיא סְמוּכָה (ה) עַל שֻׁלְחַן בַּעַל הַבַּיִת – אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְבָרֵךְ שָׁם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַחֶדֶר מְיֻחָד לָהּ אוֹ לְבַעְלָהּ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן אֵינָהּ חַיֶּבֶת כְּלָל לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם, שֶׁאֵין חִיּוּב נֵר שַׁבָּת חָל עָלֶיהָ כְּלָל, לְפִי שֶׁהִיא בִּכְלַל בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְנִפְטֶרֶת בְּנֵרוֹ.קנד

וְאַף אִם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מְצַוֶּה לָהּ לְהַדְלִיק וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ שָׁלִיחַ לְפָטְרוֹ מֵחִיּוּבוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם, לְפִי שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם צָרְכֵי אֲכִילָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא אוֹ מִקְצָת בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ אוֹכְלִים שָׁם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ בֵּרְכוּ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְנִפְטַר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ לְכָל הַחֲדָרִים שֶׁחַיָּב לְהַדְלִיק שָׁם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקנה,123 – אִם כֵּן גַּם שְׁלוּחוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ שָׁם.קנו

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל זֶה.קנז וְכֵן נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּקנח):124

16 Even when the congregation has not yet recited the [Evening] Service, if a person precedes them and recites the Shabbos Evening Service while it is still day,125 he is considered to have accepted Shabbos and is forbidden to perform labors [prohibited on Shabbos].126 Even when he states explicitly that he does not yet desire to accept [Shabbos], his statement is of no consequence, since he has already mentioned the theme of the day in the Shemoneh Esreh.127

טז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפַּלְלוּ הַקָּהָל עֲדַיִן, אִם קָדַם הַיָּחִיד וְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם125 – חָל עָלָיו קַבָּלַת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְאָסוּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה.קנט,126

אֲפִלּוּ אִם אוֹמֵר בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְקַבֵּל עֲדַיִן – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִזְכִּיר כְּבָר עִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם בַּתְּפִלָּה:קס,127

17 If the majority of the congregation accepted Shabbos, the remainder of the congregation is drawn after them, [even] against their will.128 They are forbidden to perform labors [prohibited on Shabbos],129 even though they were not in the synagogue when Shabbos was accepted and even if they explicitly state that they do not yet desire to accept Shabbos.

יז אִם רֹב הַקָּהָל קִבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם שַׁבָּת – הַמִּעוּט נִמְשָׁכִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם בְּעַל כָּרְחָםקסא,128 וַאֲסוּרִים בִּמְלָאכָה,129 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵצֶל קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת,קסב וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹמְרִים בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁאֵינָם רוֹצִים לְקַבֵּל שַׁבָּת עֲדַיִן:קסג

18 Should it occur that one person has yet to prepare his Shabbos food at the time the community desires to recite Barchu,130 [the community] should wait for him (as an act of pious conduct).131 If, however, it is close to bein hashmashos, they should not wait.132

יח וְאִם אֵרַע שֶׁאֶחָד לֹא תִקֵּן עֲדַיִן מַאֲכָלוֹ לְשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהַצִּבּוּר רוֹצִים לוֹמַר "בָּרְכוּ"130 – יֵשׁ לָהֶם לְהַמְתִּין עָלָיו (מִמִּדַּת חֲסִידוּת).131 וְאִם הוּא סָמוּךְ לְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – אַל יַמְתִּינוּ:קסד,132

19 If, however, the majority of the community was not in the synagogue, they are not drawn after the minority.133 When there are many synagogues in a city,134 those who pray in one [synagogue]135 are not drawn after those who pray in the others, even though those who pray there [i.e., in that one synagogue,] are a minority when compared to the others.

(When an individual was not in a synagogue when they accepted Shabbos, even if he is always accustomed to praying there,if the majority of the city136 did not accept Shabbos yet, license may be granted for him to perform labors [forbidden on Shabbos].)137

יט אֲבָל אִם רֹב הַקָּהָל לֹא הָיוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – אֵינָם נִמְשָׁכִים אַחַר הַמִּעוּט.133

וְעִיר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיוֹת הַרְבֵּה134 – אֵין הַקָּהָל הַמִּתְפַּלְלִין בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם135 נִמְשָׁכִים אַחַר הַמִּתְפַּלְלִים בָּאֲחֵרִים,קסה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵמָּה הַמִּעוּט נֶגֶד הָאֲחֵרִים.קסו

(וְיָחִיד שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ בָּהּ שַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תָּמִיד בְּאוֹתוֹ בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אִם רֹב הָעִיר136 לֹא קִבְּלוּ עֲדַיִן שַׁבָּת – אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתִּירוֹ בִּמְלָאכָה):137

20 When a person enters a town whose inhabitants have already accepted Shabbos – even though there is still much time before sunset138 – he is also bound by [the restrictions of] Shabbos.139 If he was carrying an article that was mukzteh or money on his person, he should not remove them from his person by hand. Instead, he should follow the guidelines given in sec. 266[:19]140 for someone who forgot that he [was carrying] his purse on his person on Shabbos. Consult that source.

כ אָדָם שֶׁבָּא לָעִיר וּכְבָר קִבְּלוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר שַׁבָּת עֲלֵיהֶם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל138 – חָל עָלָיו הַשַּׁבָּת גַּם כֵּן.139 וְאִם הָיָה עָלָיו שׁוּם חֵפֶץ מֻקְצֶה אוֹ מָעוֹת – לֹא יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ בְּיָדָיו לַהֲסִירוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ,קסז אֶלָּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[יִּ]תְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"וקסח,140 בְּמִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח כִּיסוֹ עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת, וְעַיֵּן שָׁם:

21 [The following rules apply when] on a cloudy day, a person erred and thought that night had already actually141 fallen, and [on that basis] recited the Shabbos Evening Service. If, afterward, he realized that there was still much time before sunset – even if he recited [the Evening Service] after p’lag haminchah, which is a time appropriate for tosefes Shabbos – he must repeat the Evening Service.142 [The rationale is that] he did not intend to accept tosefes Shabbos with his prayer,143 but instead [prayed only] because [he thought] that it was [already] night. Thus, his prayer was recited in error.144

He is permitted to perform labors [forbidden on Shabbos] before he accepts Shabbos in his second prayer, since his first acceptance of Shabbos was in error and [thus] of absolutely no consequence.

כא מִי שֶׁטָּעָה בְּיוֹם הַמְּעֻנָּן וְסוֹבֵר שֶׁהוּא (ו) חֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ141 וְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל,קסט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל הָיָה מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה שֶׁהוּא זְמַן הָרָאוּי לְתוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּתקע – צָרִיךְ הוּא לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית,142 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ143 מִפְּנֵי קַבָּלַת תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא לַיְלָה, וַהֲרֵי הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּטָעוּת,144 וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה קֹדֶם קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת בִּתְפִלָּה הַשְּׁנִיָּה, לְפִי שֶׁקַּבָּלָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיְתָה בְּטָעוּת וְאֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה כְּלוּם:

22 In which instance does the above apply? With regard to the prayers of individuals. When, by contrast, a community erred on a cloudy day and recited the Shabbos Evening Service when there was still much time before sunset, they are not required to repeat their prayers,145 as long as they prayed after p’lag haminchah.146The rationale is that a community should not be overburdened.

Since they are not required to repeat their prayers, they are bound by their acceptance of Shabbos in this first prayer service and are forbidden to perform labors [prohibited on Shabbos].147 Nevertheless, [in such a situation,] if a minority [of the community] had yet to accept the Shabbos, they are not drawn after the majority, for the acceptance of Shabbos by the majority of the community was in error.

There are authorities who differ with this [ruling] and maintain that even if the entire community accepted the Shabbos in error, their acceptance [of Shabbos] is of no consequence since it was made in error. [Consequently,] they are all permitted to perform labors [prohibited on Shabbos even though they are not required to repeat their prayers. [Leniency was granted with regard to prayer] since a community should not be overburdened [with having to repeat their prayers]. Nevertheless, their acceptance [of Shabbos] is of no consequence since it was made in error. One may rely on their words in a situation of necessity.

כב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּיְחִידִים, אֲבָל צִבּוּר שֶׁטָּעוּ בְּיוֹם הַמְּעֻנָּן וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל – אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּלקעא,145 אִם כְּשֶׁהִתְפַּלְלוּ הָיָה מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה,קעב,146 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַטְרִיחִין עַל הַצִּבּוּר.קעג וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל – חָל עֲלֵיהֶם קַבָּלַת הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁבַּתְּפִלָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וַאֲסוּרִים בִּמְלָאכָה.קעד,147 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ מִעוּט שֶׁלֹּא קִבְּלוּ עֲדַיִן שַׁבָּת – אֵינָן נִמְשָׁכִים אַחַר הָרֹב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁקַּבָּלַת הָרֹב הָיְתָה בְּטָעוּת.קעה(ז)

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהקעו וְאוֹמְרִים, שֶׁאַף אִם כָּל הַצִּבּוּר קִבְּלוּ בְּטָעוּת – מֻתָּרִים כֻּלָּם בִּמְלָאכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַטְרִיחִין עֲלֵיהֶם, אֲבָל קַבָּלָתָם אֵינָהּ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא בְּטָעוּת. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם אִם צְרִיכִים לְכָךְ:

23 When a person tarried and did not recite the Afternoon Service on Friday until after the congregation accepted Shabbos, i.e., they recited Barchu,148he should not recite the Afternoon Service in that synagogue at the same time that the congregation is [then] reciting the Evening Service.149 Since they have already accepted the holiness of the day, he should not treat it as an ordinary time in their presence [by reciting weekday prayers]. Instead, he150 should go outside the synagogue151 and recite the weekday Afternoon Service there.152

[The above applies] provided he did not respond to Barchu with the congregation. If, however, he did respond, he is considered to have accepted Shabbos. He is thus forbidden to recite the weekday Afternoon Service.153 Instead, he should recite the [Shabbos] Evening Service twice, as is the ruling with regard to a person who erred and did not recite the Afternoon Service on Friday, as explained in sec. 108[:14].154

כג מִי שֶׁשָּׁהָה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עַד שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ הַקָּהָל שַׁבָּת, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָמְרוּ "בָּרְכוּ"148 – לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה בְּאוֹתָהּ בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַקָּהָל מִתְפַּלְלִין עַרְבִית,149 שֶׁמֵּאַחַר שֶׁהַקָּהָל קִדְּשׁוּ הַיּוֹם – אֵין לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ חֹל אֶצְלָם, אֶלָּא150 יֵלֵךְ חוּץ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת151 וְיִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם מִנְחָה שֶׁל חֹל.קעז,152 וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא עָנָה עִמָּהֶם אַחַר "בָּרְכוּ", אֲבָל אִם עָנָה – הֲרֵי קִבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה שֶׁל חֹל,153 אֶלָּא יִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית שְׁתַּיִם,קעח כְּדִין טָעָה וְלֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ק"ח:קעט,154

24 If [a person who had not yet recited the Afternoon Service on Friday] comes to a synagogue shortly before [the sheliach tzibbur] recites Barchu, he should begin reciting the weekday Afternoon Service, even though immediately thereafter, while he is in the midst of reciting the Shemoneh Esreh, the congregation will respond to Barchu and accept Shabbos. Since he began while he had license to do so,155 he need not be concerned by the fact that he will be reciting a weekday Shemoneh Esreh near them156 [when they have already accepted the Shabbos]. True, [generally speaking,] if one begins [an activity] when he has license to do so, he must begin it early enough to conclude it before the prohibition takes effect.157 If he knows that it will extend into the time when the prohibition takes effect, it is considered as if he started it when it was already forbidden, as stated in sec. 235.158 Nevertheless, in this instance, one need not be so concerned, for this prohibition against reciting a weekday She­moneh Esreh in proximity to a congregation that is reciting the Shabbos prayers is merely a stringency.

כד וְאִם בָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת סָמוּךְ לְ"בָרְכוּ" – יַתְחִיל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה שֶׁל חֹל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּיָּד בְּעוֹדוֹ מִתְפַּלֵּל מִנְחָה יֹאמְרוּ הַצִּבּוּר "בָּרְכוּ" וִיקַבְּלוּ שַׁבָּת – אֵין לוֹ לָחוּשׁ בְּמַה שֶּׁהוּא מִתְפַּלֵּל אֶצְלָם156 תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל חֹל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְחִיל בְּהֶתֵּר.קפ,155 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַתְחִיל בְּהֶתֵּר צָרִיךְ לְהַקְדִּים כָּל כָּךְ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לִגְמוֹר קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ שְׁעַת הָאִסּוּר,157 אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁיִּמְשׁוֹךְ תּוֹךְ שְׁעַת הָאִסּוּר – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַתְחִיל בְּאִסּוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רל"ה,קפא,158 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן אֵין לְהַקְפִּיד כָּל כָּךְ, לְפִי שֶׁאִסּוּר זֶה שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁל חֹל אֵצֶל צִבּוּר הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁל שַׁבָּת – אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא חֻמְרָא בְּעָלְמָא:קפב

25 When a person recited the Evening Service of Shabbos early [on Friday afternoon,] before the congregation did, he is considered to have accepted Shabbos. Nevertheless, he may tell even another Jew159 who has not yet accepted Shabbos to perform a labor [forbidden on Shabbos] on his behalf160 and he may benefit from that labor on Shabbos.161There is no prohibition at all in asking the other Jew [to perform that activity], since he is permitted [to perform it]. (Our Sages did not forbid asking a non-Jew [to perform an activity forbidden on Shabbos] even though [the non-Jew] is not commanded to observe Shabbos) unless one makes that request at a time when [the activity] is forbidden to all Jews. (See sec. 261[:3].)162

Similarly, one who delayed the recitation of the Evening Service on Saturday night or prolonged his [Shelosh Seudos] meal into the night, may ask even another Jew who already recited the [Evening] Service and recited Havdalah in his prayers to perform a labor [forbidden on Shabbos] on his behalf. He may benefit from that labor and even eat [food prepared by its performance],163 even though he will afterward still be mentioning Shabbos in the Grace after Meals.164

כה מִי שֶׁקָּדַם לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתְפַּלְלוּ הַקָּהָל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר חָל עָלָיו קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּתקפג – יָכוֹל לוֹמַר אֲפִלּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל 159 חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל עֲדַיִן הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ מְלָאכָה,קפד,160 וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מֵהַמְּלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת,קפה,161 דְּכֵיוָן (ח) שֶׁלַּחֲבֵרוֹ מֻתָּר הוּא – אֵין בַּאֲמִירָתוֹ אֵלָיו אִסּוּר כְּלָלקפו (וְלֹא אָסְרוּ הָאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִיקפז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה עַל הַשַּׁבָּת), אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּשָׁעָה הָאֲסוּרָה לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵלקפח (עַיֵּן סִמָּן רס"אקפט).162

וְכֵן מִי שֶׁמְּאַחֵר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִית בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, אוֹ שֶׁמַּמְשִׁיךְ סְעֻדָּתוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה – מֻתָּר לוֹ לוֹמַר אֲפִלּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁכְּבָר הִתְפַּלֵּל וְהִבְדִּיל בַּתְּפִלָּה שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ מְלָאכָה, וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת וְלֶאֱכוֹל מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ,קצ,163 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ יַזְכִּיר עֲדַיִן שֶׁל שַׁבָּת בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן:קצא,164