SECTION 261 The Time to Kindle the Shabbos Lights (1-7)

סימן רסא זְמַן הַדְלָקַת נֵרוֹת לְשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ז׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 The term bein hashmashos1is universally understood to refer to the period of time concerning which there is a doubt whether or not night has fallen.2 This period [begins from] the time it takes to walk three fourths of a mil3(plus an additional 49 cubits)4 before the appearance of three medium-sized stars. [During this time,] Scriptural Law prohibits the performance of labor [forbidden on Shabbos],5 because there is an unresolved question whether [this time period] is considered as night. Thus, one who performs [a forbidden labor during this time] is obligated to bring a conditional guilt offering.6 [Moreover,] even [an action] prohibited on Shabbos by Rabbinic decree is also forbidden to be performed during bein hashmashos. Even if one is in doubt whether it is [already] bein hashmashos or [whether it is surely still] day, it is of no consequence [and he must act stringently]. For any doubt that results from a lack of knowledge is immaterial; even if one does not know [the relevant information], others do.7

For the sake of a mitzvah,8during [bein hashmashos] one is permitted to perform any activity that is forbidden on Shabbos only by Rabbinic decree. Similarly, one who is burdened by a taxing and pressing matter9 is permitted bein hashmashos to perform [an activity forbidden] as a shvus.10

א סָפֵק חֲשֵׁכָה סָפֵק אֵינָהּ חֲשֵׁכָה, א,2 וְזֶהוּ נִקְרָא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת1 בְּכָל מָקוֹם, ב וְהוּא כְּדֵי מַהֲלַךְ ג' רְבִיעֵי מִיל ג,3 (וְעוֹד מ"ט אַמּוֹת ד)4 קֹדֶם צֵאת ג' כּוֹכָבִים ה בֵּינוֹנִים ו – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ מְלָאכָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה,5 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא סְפֵק לַיְלָה. וְאִם עָשָׂה – חַיָּב אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. ז,6

וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת גַּם כֵּן בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. ח

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לּוֹ אִם הוּא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אוֹ יוֹם ט – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם, שֶׁכָּל סָפֵק הַבָּא מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן יְדִיעָה י אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאִם הוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֲחֵרִים יוֹדְעִים.יא,7

וְלִדְבַר מִצְוָה8 מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהּ כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהָאִסּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.

וְכֵן אִם הוּא טָרוּד וְנֶחְפָּז וְנִצְרַךְ לְדָבָר9 שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת10 בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:יב

2 Therefore, it is permitted to establish an eruv11for a courtyard bein hashmashos12if one did not do so while it was still day, because the eruv is a pressing necessity for him so that he will be able to carry in the courtyard. Moreover, [establishing an eruv] is itself a mitzvah, as will be explained in sec. 366[:18].13

Similarly, during bein hashmashos, it is permitted to immerse utensils [purchased from a non-Jews],14 if one did not immerse them while it was still day [on Friday] and he requires them on Shabbos because he lacks other utensils.15

Similarly, one may tithe fruits16 if he does not have anything else to eat on Shabbos,17 for [then, doing so] is considered an activity performed for the sake of a mitzvah. It is, however, forbidden to separate challah in the Diaspora, because [there]18 it is permitted to partake of the bread without separating challah, leave over some until after Shabbos, and then make the separation [of challah] from the remainder.19 It is permitted to tithe demai20 and to insulate hot food in substances that do not increase its temperature,21 for the reason explained in sec. 257[:2].22

Additionally, during bein hashmashos, it is permitted to tell a non-Jew to kindle a lamp that is necessary for Shabbos,23for this is necessary for the sake of a mitzvah.It is also permitted bein hashmashos to tell [a non-Jew] to kindle a yahrzeit lamp commemorating the passing of one’s father or mother. Since people at large are conscientious [to observe] this [custom, its practice] is considered a matter of great necessity. For [our Sages] did not institute a decree bein hashmashos concerning any case of great need that would cause a person anguish if he did not carry it out, even though it is not at all a necessity for Shabbos. Similarly, in an instance where a substantial loss is involved, [the Sages] did not institute a decree bein hashmashos concerning activities involving a shvus.

It is, however, forbidden to establish an eruv techumin24 during bein hashmashos25even for the sake of a mitzvah, even it is of great necessity, and even if a substantial loss is involved, for the reason to be explained in sec. 415.26 Moreover, by establishing an eruv [techumin], a person acquires [the place where he positions the eruv] as his location for Shabbos. This resembles formalizing an acquisition [by performing an act of contract]27 on Shabbos and license to formalize an acquisition [on Shabbos] was not granted even bein hashmashos for the sake of a mitzvah, [and even] when a substantial loss was involved. ([The rationale:] this shvus –to formalize an acquisition – is more severe than [other acts prohibited as] shvusim) ([because] this prohibition is explicitly stated in Scripture, in Nechemiah 13[:15ff.].)28 Nevertheless, if one transgressed and established an eruv [techumin], even [if one did so] for one’s personal purposes,29 the eruv is effective, as will be stated in sec. 415.30

ב לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְעָרֵב עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת11 בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתיג,12 אִם לֹא עֵרֵב מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נֶחְפָּז וְנִצְרָךְ לָעֵרוּב כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְטַלְטֵל בֶּחָצֵר,יד וְגַם הוּא דְבַר מִצְוָה,טו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ו.טז,13

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַטְבִּיל כֵּלִים14 בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אִם לֹא טְבָלָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהוּא צָרִיךְ לָהֶם לְשַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים.יז,15

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְעַשֵּׂר פֵּרוֹת16 אִם אֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל בְּשַׁבָּת,17 שֶׁזֶּהוּ צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.יח

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלָּה בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ,18 שֶׁהֲרֵי יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל בְּלֹא הַפְרָשַׁת חַלָּה, וּלְשַׁיֵּר מְעַט עַד אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, וּלְהַפְרִישׁ מִן הַמְּשֻׁיָּר.יט,19

וּמֻתָּר לְעַשֵּׂר אֶת הַדְּמַאי20  וּלְהַטְמִין אֶת הַחַמִּין כ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל,כא,21 (א) מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן [רנ]"ז.כב,22

וּמֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לְהַדְלִיק נֵר לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת23 בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,כג שֶׁזֶּהוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.כד

וּמֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ לְהַדְלִיק בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת נֵר שֶׁל יוֹם מִיתַת אָבִיו אוֹ אִמּוֹ, שֶׁמֵּאַחַר שֶׁהָעוֹלָם נִזְהָרִים בָּזֶה הֲרֵי זֶה כְּצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל,כה וְכֹל שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ יִהְיֶה לוֹ צַעַר – לֹא גָזְרוּ עָלָיו בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת כְּלָל.כו

וְכֵן בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּת10 בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.כז

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְעָרֵב עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין24 בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,כח,25 אֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה וְצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל וְהֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תט"ו.כט,26 וְעוֹד, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הָעֵרוּב (ב) קוֹנֶה שָׁם שְׁבִיתָה, ל וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּקוֹנֶה קִנְיָן בְּיָדַיִם27 בְּשַׁבָּת, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ לִקְנוֹת קִנְיָן אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וּלְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה וְהֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּהלא (שֶׁשְּׁבוּת זֶה לִקְנוֹת קִנְיָן הוּא חָמוּר מִשְּׁאָר כָּל הַשְּׁבוּתִים), (שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מְפֹרָשׁ בְּדִבְרֵי קַבָּלָה,לב בִּנְחֶמְיָה סִמָּן יגלג).28

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וְעֵרֵב אֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת29 – עֵרוּבוֹ עֵרוּב,לד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תט"ו:לה,30

3 All of the above applies when one has not yet accepted the Shabbos. [Different rules apply], however, if one accepted the Shabbos [by reciting] the Shabbos Evening Service while it is still day [on Friday],31 or he responded together with the community to [the sheliach tzibbur’s pronouncement of] Barchu, or the majority of the community responded to [the sheliach tzibbur’s pronouncement of] Barchu, even though he did not respond with them. [In these situations,] he becomes bound by the Shabbos prohibitions against his will, i.e., even though he did not desire to accept the Shabbos, as will be stated in sec. 263[:16-17].32 Hence, he personally is forbidden to perform any activity forbidden as a shvus, even before bein hashmashos, even for the sake of a mitzvah and even when there is a great necessity, e.g., to insulate hot food for Shabbos in a substance that does not increase its temperature, even if he has nothing else to eat for Shabbos.33Similarly, [he is forbidden] to establish an eruv chatzeiros even though he has a great need to carry [articles] necessary for Shabbos in the courtyard. Similar principles apply regarding all analogous activities.

It is, however, permitted to instruct a non-Jew to perform [tasks] – even a Scripturally forbidden labor and even for one’s personal purposes – if there is still much time before nightfall. [The rationale is that] there are certainly Jewish communities [within his locale] that have not yet accepted Shabbos and who are even themselves performing labors [forbidden on Shabbos at that time].34 Why then should those who accepted Shabbos be forbidden to have these labors performed for them even by a non-Jew?35

If, however, it is already half an hour before nightfall36 – in which instance, it is possible that all the [local] Jewish communities accepted Shabbos37– it is forbidden for a non-Jew to perform even a task forbidden as a shvus, [and this prohibition extends] even before bein hashmashos,if it involves a personal matter and it is not a pressing situation.

For the sake of a mitzvah38 or where there is great need, however, it is permitted to have a non-Jew perform even a Scripturally forbidden labor. [This leniency applies] even bein hashmashos and even when one has already accepted the Shabbos. For the stringency [restricting forbidden activity] when one has already accepted the Shabbos beyond [what is forbidden] bein hashmashos when one has not accepted the Shabbos applies only with regard to one’s own actions. With regard to giving instructions to a non-Jew, by contrast, [we do not enforce] greater stringency than that which applies bein hashmashos when one has not accepted the Shabbos. [And at that time,] it is permitted to have any forbidden labor performed by a non-Jew for the sake of a mitzvah or because of a great need, as was explained.39

ג וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת, אֲבָל אִם (ג) כְּבָר קִבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּתלו בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,לז,31 אוֹ שֶׁעָנָה "בָּרְכוּ" עִם הַצִּבּוּר,לח אוֹ שֶׁרֹב הַצִּבּוּר עָנוּ "בָּרְכוּ" אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא עָנָה עִמָּהֶם,לט שֶׁחָל עָלָיו הַשַּׁבָּת בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְקַבְּלוֹ מ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"גמא,32 – אָסוּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ כָּל שְׁבוּת, אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה וְצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל, כְּגוֹן לְהַטְמִין חַמִּין לְשַׁבָּתמב בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל בְּשַׁבָּת,33 וְכֵן לְעָרֵב עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ מְאֹד לְטַלְטֵל בֶּחָצֵר צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת, וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה,מג וַאֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת,מד אִם הוּא הַרְבֵּה קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה, לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא קִבְּלוּ עֲדַיִן אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְעוֹשִׂים מְלָאכוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּעַצְמָן,34 וְהֵיאַךְ נֶאֱסוֹר לְאֵלּוּ שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשׂוּ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי.מה,35

אֲבָל אִם הוּא חֲצִי שָׁעָה קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה,36 שֶׁאָז אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁכָּל מְקוֹמוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל קִבְּלוּ כְּבָר אֶת הַשַּׁבָּתמו,37 – אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת10 אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אִם הוּא לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּתמז וְאֵין שָׁם שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק.מח

אֲבָל לִדְבַר מִצְוָה38 אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר קִבְּלוּ הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁאֵין מַחְמִירִים בְּקַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת יוֹתֵר מִבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בְּלֹא קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי אֵין מַחְמִירִים יוֹתֵר מִבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בְּלֹא קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת,מט שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ כָּל מְלָאכָה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי לִדְבַר מִצְוָה אוֹ צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:39

4 There are authorities who maintain that it is a positive commandment of Scriptural origin to add from the mundane40 to the holy with regard to the prohibition against performing forbidden labor41 at the advent and departure of Shabbos and festivals, as alluded to in [the command concerning Yom Kippur]:42 “And you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening; (from evening to evening shall you observe your day of rest).”

One could think that [the verse is implying] that one should begin his fast on the ninth of the month. [This, however, could not possibly be so, for] the verse states, “In the evening.”43 If one postulates that [“in the evening,”] implies [that the fast begins] from nightfall, [that would be problematic because] the verse states, “On the ninth.” What, then, is implied? [This teaches us:] One should begin to fast while it is still day.44 From this we learn that we must add [time] from the mundane realm to the realm of holiness.45

[The above teaches that time must be added] only at the advent of [the fast]. What source teaches that [time must also be added] at the departure of [the fast]? The verse states, “from evening to evening.”46

[The above refers] solely to Yom Kippur. What source teaches that [additional time should also be added] with regard to other festivals? The [above] verse continues, “shall you observe [(tishbasu) your day of rest].”47 What is the source that teaches that [additions should also be made] with regard to Shabbos? The verse continues, “[shall you observe] your day of rest.” What is implied? That whenever you observe a day of rest, you must add to it from the preceding [day] and the following [day].48

ד יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים נ שֶׁמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָהנא לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל40 עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּאִסּוּר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָהנב,41 בִּכְנִיסַת שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים וּבִיצִיאָתָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרנג,42 "וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב (מֵעֶרֶב עַד עֶרֶב תִּשְׁבְּתוּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶם"), יָכוֹל יַתְחִיל וְיִתְעַנֶּה בְּתִשְׁעָה? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "בָּעֶרֶב",43 אִי "בָּעֶרֶב" יָכוֹל מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "בְּתִשְׁעָה", הָא כֵּיצַד? מַתְחִיל וּמִתְעַנֶּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,44 מִכַּאן שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִים מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ.45 אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ, בִּיצִיאָתוֹ מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "מֵעֶרֶב עַד עֶרֶב".46 אֵין לִי אֶלָּא יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, יָמִים טוֹבִים מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "תִּשְׁבְּתוּ".47 שַׁבָּתוֹת מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "שַׁבַּתְּכֶם", הָא כֵּיצַד? כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "שְׁבוֹת" – מוֹסִיפִים מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִלְּפָנֶיהָ וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ:נד,48

5 The time [to make]49 this addition before Shabbos is from the beginning of sunset, i.e., when the sun is no longer visible on the earth’s [horizon], until bein hashmashos. This period is equivalent to the time [sufficient to walk] three-and-a-quarter mil.50For the duration of time from the beginning of sunset until the appearance of three [medium] starsis equivalent to the time it takes to walk four mil. Bein hashmashos itself precedes the appearance of the stars by the time it takes to walk three fourths of a mil. Thus there is a period of time [sufficient to walk] three-and-a-quarter mil from the beginning of sunset until bein hashmashos.51[In this time, one should make the addition to Shabbos (tosefes Shabbos).]

If one desires to deem this entire period of time as tosefes Shabbos (the addition to Shabbos), he may. If he desires to deem [only] a portion of this period tosefes Shabbos (the addition to Shabbos), he may, provided he adds a certain amount of time when it is certainly day, [adding and sanctifying that time] from the mundane to the sacred. Bein hashmashos itself is not considered tosefes [Shabbos], because there is an unresolved doubt whether it is night. Thus, according to Scriptural Law, it is forbidden to perform work during that time, regardless of the mitzvah to add [time from the mundane to Shabbos].

If one desires to accept tosefes [Shabbos] earlier, from p’lag haminchah and onward, i.e., one and a fourth seasonal hours52 before nightfall,53 he has license to do so. [Should he do so, from that time on] he is prohibited against performing labors [forbidden on Shabbos]. If, however, he accepted Shabbos before p’lag haminchah, his acceptance is meaningless and he is permitted to perform labors [forbidden on Shabbos].

As an initial preference, however, one should be stringent and not perform any forbidden labor if he accepted [the Shabbos] a seasonal hour and a quarter before sunset, because there are authorities who maintain that from the beginning of sunset onward, it is actually night according to Scriptural Law.54 (According to these authorities, this is the time when three medium-sized stars can be seen.) [They maintain that] bein hashmashos is the time it takes to walk three quarters of a mil before the beginning of sunset and p’lag haminchah is a seasonal hour and a quarter before the beginning of sunset.

There are men [renowned for their good] deeds who follow this approach as an initial preference and refrain [from performing] forbidden labors a seasonal hour and a quarter before the beginning of sunset. One should not, however, hasten to kindle the [Shabbos] lights and recite the Shabbos Evening Service until a seasonal hour and a quarter before the appearance of the stars and not [that measure of time] before the beginning of sunset. [Indeed,] even after the fact, if one kindled the [Shabbos] lights [during that time], he should extinguish them and rekindle them for the sake of Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 263[:6].55 Similarly, if one recited the [Shabbos Evening] Service at this time, he must pray again afterwards, since fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.56

ה זְמַן49 תּוֹסֶפֶת זֶה מִלְּפָנֶיהָ, הוּא מִתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה שֶׁאֵין הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נִרְאֵית עַל הָאָרֶץ, עַד זְמַן בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, וְהוּא כְּדֵי ג' מִילִין וּרְבִיעַ,נה,50 שֶׁמִּתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה עַד צֵאת ג' כּוֹכָבִים הוּא מַהֲלַךְ ד' מִילִין, וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הוּא קֹדֶם צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים מַהֲלַךְ ג' רְבִיעֵי מִיל, נִשְׁאֲרוּ ג' מִילִין וּרְבִיעַ מִתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה עַד בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת.נו,51

וְהַזְּמַן הַזֶּה, אִם רָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ כֻּלּוֹ תּוֹסֶפֶת – עוֹשֶׂה, רָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מִקְצָת – עוֹשֶׂה, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיּוֹסִיף אֵיזֶה זְמַן שֶׁהוּא וַדַּאי יוֹם מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ. אֲבָל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב לְתוֹסֶפֶת,נז שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא סְפֵק לַיְלָה, וְאָסוּר בּוֹ בִּמְלָאכָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּלֹא מִצְוַת תּוֹסֶפֶת.

וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְהַקְדִּים וּלְקַבֵּל עָלָיו תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת מִפְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה,נח דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ זְמַנִּיּוֹת52 קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָהנט,53 – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ, וְנֶאֱסָר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה. אֲבָל אִם קִבֵּל קֹדֶם פְּלַג הַמִּנְחָה – אֵין קַבָּלָתוֹ כְּלוּם, וּמֻתָּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה. ס

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה אִם קִבֵּל שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ זְמַנִּיּוֹת קֹדֶם תְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה,סא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםסב שֶׁמִּתְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה וְאֵילַךְ הוּא לַיְלָה גָמוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה54 (שֶׁאָז הוּא זְמַן רְאִיַּת ג' כּוֹכָבִים בֵּינוֹנִים לְפִי דִבְרֵיהֶםסג), וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ ג' רְבִיעֵי מִיל קֹדֶם תְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה, וּפְלַג הַמִּנְחָה הוּא שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ זְמַנִּיּוֹת קֹדֶם תְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה.

וְיֵשׁ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לְכַתְּחִלָּה כִּסְבָרָא זוֹ,סד שֶׁפּוֹרְשִׁים מִמְּלָאכָה שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ זְמַנִּיּוֹת קֹדֶם תְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה.

אֲבָל אֵין לְמַהֵר לְהַדְלִיק הַנֵּרסה וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַרְבִיתסו שֶׁל שַׁבָּת עַד שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ זְמַנִּיּוֹת שֶׁקֹּדֶם צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים, וְלֹא שֶׁקֹּדֶם תְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד אִם הִדְלִיק אָז הַנֵּר – צָרִיךְ לְכַבּוֹתוֹ וְלַחֲזוֹר וּלְהַדְלִיקוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת,סז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"ג.סח,55 וְכֵן אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל אָז – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר כָּךְ,סט לְפִי שֶׁהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. ע,56

6 A person who is not knowledgeable regarding the measure of bein hashmashos and does not know when to add to it (must remove himself from all doubt and accept Shabbos far before the beginning of sunset. Therefore,) he should kindle the [Shabbos] lights while the sun is still visible on the treetops. If it is a cloudy day, he should kindle them when the roosters sit on a beam while it is still day. If he is in a field where there are no roosters, he should kindle them when the ravens sit there while it is still day.57

ו מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי בְּשִׁעוּר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתעא וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ מֵאֵימָתַי יוֹסִיף עָלָיו – (צָרִיךְ לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִכָּל סָפֵק וּלְקַבֵּל שַׁבָּת הַרְבֵּה קֹדֶם תְּחִלַּת הַשְּׁקִיעָה,עב וְלָכֵן) יַדְלִיק הַנֵּרוֹת בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בְּרָאשֵׁי הָאִילָנוֹת. וְאִם הוּא יוֹם הַמְּעֻנָּן – יַדְלִיק כְּשֶׁהַתַּרְנְגוֹלִין יוֹשְׁבִים עַל הַקּוֹרָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וְאִם הוּא בַּשָּׂדֶה שֶׁאֵין שָׁם תַּרְנְגוֹלִין – יַדְלִיק כְּשֶׁהָעוֹרְבִים יוֹשְׁבִים שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:עג,57

7 There are places where it is customary to recite Mizmor shir leyom haShabbos before Barchu.58With the recitation of this psalm, they accept tosefes Shabbos and are prohibited against performing [forbidden] labors. In these countries, however, even though it is customary to recite this psalm before Barchu, all [forbidden] labors are performed until the recitation of Barchu itself. [The rationale is, that] at the outset, when [the people] first began [the custom] of reciting this psalm, they did not have the intent of accepting tosefes Shabbos with the recitation of this psalm, but with the recitation of Barchu.59

ז יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר "מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת" קֹדֶם "בָּרְכוּ",עד,58 וּבַאֲמִירַת מִזְמוֹר זֶה הֵם מְקַבְּלִים תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת עֲלֵיהֶםעה וְנֶאֱסָרִין בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה.

אֲבָל בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לוֹמַר גַּם כֵּן מִזְמוֹר זֶה קֹדֶם "בָּרְכוּ", אַף עַל פִּי כֵן עוֹשִׂים כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת עַד "בָּרְכוּ" מַמָּשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לוֹמַר זֶה הַמִּזְמוֹר – לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתָּם לְקַבֵּל תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת בַּאֲמִירַת מִזְמוֹר זֶה, אֶלָּא בַּאֲמִירַת "בָּרְכוּ":עו,59