SECTION 260 Laws Governing [Preparations for] the Onset of Shabbos (1-5)

סימן רס כַּמָּה דִינֵי הַכְנָסַת שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ה׳ סְעִיפִים׃

1 As an initial preference, it is a mitzvah to wash one’s entire body with hot water1 on Friday in honor of the Shabbos.2 If it is impossible for one to do so, he should [at least] wash his face, hands, and feet with hot water. Nevertheless, this washing is not an absolute obligation. Instead, one who does so will be rewarded, while one who fails to do so is not punished. It is a mitzvah to wash one’s head3 and trim one’s nails4 every Friday.5

If one’s hair [has grown] too long, it is a mitzvah for him to cut it so that he does not enter Shabbos unkempt.6 The optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to cut one’s hair on Friday itself and not beforehand, so that it will be apparent that he is doing so in honor of the Shabbos. If, however, one does not have time on Friday because of the effort [he must invest in] preparing his Shabbos needs, he should cut his hair on Thursday. To whatever extent he can bring his haircut closer to Shabbos, he should, so that it will be apparent that he is doing this in honor of [the Shabbos].

It is customary in some locales not to have one’s hair cut on Rosh Chodesh, even when it falls on Friday, out of fear of danger, because Rabbeinu Yehudah HaChassid warned against doing so.7

א מִצְוָה לִרְחוֹץ א כָּל גּוּפוֹ ב לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בְּחַמִּין,1 מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת.2 וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ – יִרְחַץ פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו ג בְּחַמִּין.2 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין רְחִיצָה זוֹ חוֹבָה גְמוּרָה, ד אֶלָּא הַמְקַיְּמָהּ – מְקַבֵּל עָלֶיהָ שָׂכָר, וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַיְּמָהּ – אֵינוֹ נֶעֱנָשׁ עָלֶיהָ. ה

וּמִצְוָה לָחֹף הָרֹאשׁ ו,3 וּלְגַלֵּחַ הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם ז,4 בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.5

וְאִם הָיוּ שַׂעֲרוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ גְּדוֹלוֹת – מִצְוָה לְגַלְּחָן, ח שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לְשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהוּא מְנֻוָּל. ט,6

וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְגַלֵּחַ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מַמָּשׁ וְלֹא קֹדֶם לָכֵן, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִכָּר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה לִכְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת. י

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ פְּנַאי בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מֵחֲמַת טֹרַח צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת – יְגַלַּח בְּיוֹם ה', שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לְקָרֵב הַגִּלּוּחַ לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת – יֵשׁ לוֹ לְקָרֵב, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִכָּר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹדוֹ. יא

וְנוֹהֲגִין בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁלֹּא לְהִסְתַּפֵּר בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ חָל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,יב מִפְּנֵי חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה,יג כִּי כֵן הִזְהִיר רַבֵּנוּ יְהוּדָה הֶחָסִיד:יד,7

2 There are those who are careful not to trim their fingernails and toenails on the same day8 out of concern for possible danger.

There are those who are careful not to cut their nails except on Friday or on the day preceding a festival; they cut their toenails on Thursday and their fingernails on Friday.9 On other days, they do not cut their nails at all, due to a reason known to them.10

There are some who are meticulous not to cut their nails11 on Thursday, because nails begin to grow again on the third day after they are cut12 and they do not want this to occur on Shabbos.

ב יֵשׁ נִזְהָרִין שֶׁלֹּא לִקְצוֹץ צִפָּרְנֵי הַיָּדַיִם וְהָרַגְלַיִם בְּיוֹם אֶחָד,8 מִפְּנֵי חֲשַׁשׁ סַכָּנָה.טו

וְיֵשׁ נִזְהָרִין שֶׁלֹּא לָקֹץ אֶלָּא בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹ בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב,טז וְקוֹצְצִין מִן הָרַגְלַיִם בְּיוֹם ה' וּמִן הַיָּדַיִם בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,9 אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים אֵין קוֹצְצִין כְּלָל,יז מִטַּעַם הַיָּדוּעַ לָהֶם.יח,10

וְיֵשׁ מַקְפִּידִים שֶׁלֹּא לִטּוֹל צִפָּרְנַיִם11 בְּיוֹם ה',יט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַצִּפָּרְנַיִם (א) מַתְחִילִין לַחֲזוֹר וְלִצְמוֹחַ בְּיוֹם ג' לְגִלּוּחָן,12 וְאֵינָם רוֹצִים שֶׁיִּהְיֶה זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת: כ

3 There are some who are meticulous not to cut their nails13 in order, i.e., a finger after the finger next to it, because this could lead to forgetfulness, to burying one’s children, and to poverty. Instead, one should intervene between [cutting the nails of one] finger and the finger [next to it, by cutting those of] a finger that is not next to it. One should begin trimming the nails of his left hand14 with [those of] the kami­tzah,15 i.e., the fourth finger, the one next to the pinky. On the right hand, [one should start] with the index finger, the second finger, the one next to the thumb. Thus, a memory cue for the order is בדאג"ה (2, 4, 1, 3, 5) on the right hand and דבהג"א (4, 2, 5, 3, 1) on the left. There are those who mock [being concerned about] this matter. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is desirable to be careful about this.

ג יֵשׁ מַקְפִּידִים שֶׁלֹּא לִטּוֹל הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם כְּסִדְרָן13 אֶצְבַּע אַחַר אֶצְבַּע הַסְּמוּכָה לָהּ,כא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקָּשֶׁה לְשִׁכְחָה וְלִקְבּוֹר בָּנִים וְלַעֲנִיּוּת,כב אֶלָּא מַפְסִיקִים בֵּין אֶצְבַּע לְאֶצְבַּע בְּאֶצְבַּע אַחֶרֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ סְמוּכָה לָהּ.

וּמַתְחִילִין לִטּוֹל בִּשְׂמֹאל14 בִּקְמִיצָה,15 דְּהַיְנוּ בְּאֶצְבַּע רְבִיעִית הַסְּמוּכָה לַזֶּרֶת, וּבְיָמִין בְּאֶצְבַּע, דְּהַיְנוּ אֶצְבַּע שְׁנִיָּה הַסְּמוּכָה לַגּוּדָל. וְנִמְצָא הַסִּמָּן לְסִדְרָן, בדאג"ה בְּיָמִין, וּבִשְׂמֹאל דבהג"א.כג

וְיֵשׁ מַלְעִיגִים עַל זֶה.כד וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְחִלָּה:כה

4 One who burns his nails [after cutting them] is pious, one who buries them is righteous, and one who casts them away is wicked. [The rationale is that we are concerned] that a pregnant woman might pass over them and this may cause her to miscarry.16 It is, however, permissible to cast them away in a house of study or the like, i.e., a place that women do not frequent. One need not be concerned that the place will be swept and the nails cast outside [where] a pregnant woman might pass over them. For, [once they have been moved,] even if [a woman] will pass over them, they will not cause any harm to her, since they are dangerous only when they are in the same place where they were cast after being removed from [the person’s] fingers, and not when they were removed from there to another place.

ד הַשּׂוֹרֵף צִפָּרְנַיִם – חָסִיד,כו קוֹבְרָן – צַדִּיק, זוֹרְקָן – רָשָׁע, שֶׁמָּא תַּעֲבוֹר עֲלֵיהֶן אִשָּׁה עֻבָּרָה וְתַפִּיל וְלָדָהּ.כז,16

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְזָרְקָן בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין נָשִׁים מְצוּיוֹת לַעֲבוֹר שָׁם.כח וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְכַבְּדוּ אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וְיַשְׁלִיכוּ הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם הַחוּצָה וְתַעֲבוֹר אִשָּׁה עֻבָּרָה עֲלֵיהֶן, לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם תַּעֲבוֹר עֲלֵיהֶן – לֹא יַזִּיקוּ לָהּ כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵינָן מַזִּיקוֹת אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהֵן בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁזְּרָקָן שָׁם כְּשֶׁנִּטְּלוּ מֵהָאֶצְבָּעוֹת, אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁפִּנָּן מִשָּׁם לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר:כט

5 Close to nightfall, before bein hashamashos,17 a man must ask the members of his household whether they have separated the tithes from the produce necessary for Shabbos,18because one may not tithe on Shabbos.19Even in these countries, where [the obligation to] tithe does not apply, it is desirable to ask whether challah20 was separated,21 because challah is not separated on Shabbos. (True, challah from the Diaspora22 [need not be separated before one partakes of the bread. Instead,] according to the law, one may proceed and eat, leaving over a small amount from which [challah] could be separated [after Shabbos].23 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is customary to separate it before eating, lest one forget later on, and thus consequently, the outcome will be that he will have eaten tevel retroactively.)24

[Our Sages state25 that] one must also ask [the members of his household] if they established an eruv chatzeiros.26In the present era, when it is customary to make an eruv [chatzeiros] for the entire year on the day before Pesach,27 it is not necessary to ask [this question].

Before bein hashamashos, one must alert them to kindle [the Shabbos] lights28 and cease performing [forbidden] labor.

When one asks and alerts [the members of his household] about these matters, he should speak in a gentle tone, so that his [words] will be accepted. One should not hurry to remind them when there is still ample time in the day, lest they be negligent and [procrastinate], saying that there is still [plenty of] time [for these activities to be performed].

If a person is not home shortly before nightfall, but rather in the synagogue or elsewhere, he must send an agent to his house to remind [the members of his household] of these matters.29

ה סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה ל קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתלא,17 – צָרִיךְ אָדָם לִשְׁאוֹל לְאַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ אִם עִשְּׂרוּ הַפֵּרוֹת הַצְּרִיכִים לְשַׁבָּת,18 שֶׁאֵין מְעַשְּׂרִים בְּשַׁבָּת.19

וְאַף בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת נוֹהֲגִיםלב (ב) – טוֹב שֶׁיִּשְׁאַל אִם הִפְרִישׁוּ21 חַלָּה,לג,20 שֶׁאֵין מַפְרִישִׁין חַלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת.

(וְאַף שֶׁחַלַּת חוּץ לָאָרֶץ22 אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ וּמְשַׁיֵר מְעַט וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַפְרִישָׁהּלד,23 מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה נוֹהֲגִים לְהַפְרִישָׁהּ קֹדֶם אֲכִילָה,לה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח אַחַר כָּךְ וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאָכַל טֶבֶל לְמַפְרֵעַלו).24

וְצָרִיךְ25 לְשָׁאֳלָם גַּם כֵּן אִם עֵרְבוּלז עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת.לח,26 וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים לְעָרֵב בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח לְכָל הַשָּׁנָה27 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְזֶה.לט

וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִירָם קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁיַּדְלִיקוּ אֶת הַנֵּר, מ,28 וְיִפְסְקוּ מִלַּעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה.מא

וּכְשֶׁהוּא שׁוֹאֲלָם וּמַזְהִירָם עַל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאמַר בְּלָשׁוֹן רַכָּה,מב כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַבְּלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ.מג,28

וְלֹא יְמַהֵר לְהַזְכִּירָם בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל, שֶׁלֹּא יִפְשְׁעוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ עֲדַיִן יֵשׁ שָׁהוּת.מד

וְאִם אֵינוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה אֶלָּא בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר – צָרִיךְ לִשְׁלוֹחַ שָׁלִיחַ לְבֵיתוֹ לְהַזְכִּירָם עַל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ:מה,29