A Summary of the Laws Governing Shi’ah [Leaving Food on a Cooking Surface] and Hatmanah [Insulating It] According to the Accepted Practices in These Countries

הִלְכוֹת שְׁהִיָּה וְהַטְמָנָה בִּקְצָרָה לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ

The general practice1 at present is that we leave pots uncovered in the oven and we do not place any insulation around their walls or over their openings. As such, only the laws of shi’ah – and not those of hatmanah – apply.2 Accordingly, if food is cooked to the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i while it is still day [on Friday], it is permitted to leave it in the oven, even though its coals were neither removed nor covered.3

[There is a further leniency:] It is permitted to place raw meat in a pot directly before nightfall [and allow it to cook so that it will be ready for the next day].4

Nevertheless, the fact that dough products – whether baked5 or cooked,6 [all] types of kitniyos,7water,8 and [meat] to be roasted on a spit9 are totally uncooked is of no consequence. [For permission to be granted for them to be left in or on a range or an oven,] they must have reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i before [the onset of] Shabbos.

When the oven is sealed closed with mud, it is permitted [to leave food in it to stay warm] in all instances.10 If there are burning coals in the oven, it should be opened only by a non-Jew.11

If coals surround a pot, a Jew should not remove the pot from [the oven], only a non-Jew.12 If, however, the pot is [merely] resting on the coals,13 it is permitted [for a Jew to remove it]14 if it is impossible to have a non-Jew do so. (This law also applies to pots [left to keep warm] for the night [meal]. If they were placed on the coals, [it is permitted for] one to remove them from the coals during Shabbos. One must, however, be careful not to cover them with clothes from above when they are placed on coals, even if the coals have already burned out.)15

It is permitted to place a warm, fully cooked food next to an oven that has already been kindled and fire is burning inside of it.16 [One may] even [place it] on the border surrounding the oven. If, however, [one desires to place a pot] on top of an oven that has already been kindled and fire is burning within it, one must place a brick or another entity under the pot,17 even when [the place on which the pot is set down] is not hot enough to cause a hand to recoil. If, however, the oven has not yet been kindled, it is customary to rule leniently [and allow a pot to be placed on it], even though one desires that it be kindled immediately afterwards.

If, by contrast, the food is cold, it is forbidden [to place it on] or even close [to an oven], even before it was kindled,18 unless it was done so by a non-Jew.19 In that instance, it is permitted even [for the non-Jew] to place it on top of [the oven if the oven] has not yet been kindled.20 After [the oven] has been kindled, by contrast, it is forbidden even for a non-Jew to place [cold food] on it,21 except for the sake of a sick person or a child who has nothing else to eat.22

When cooked food does not contain liquid, even if it is entirely cold, it is considered as if it was hot.23 If [the food] has not cooled entirely, even if it contains liquid, it is customary to rule leniently and [consider it] as if it was totally warm.24

It is permitted to place [food], even if it has cooled entirely, next to an oven in a place where it would not become so hot that a hand would recoil from it.25 Nevertheless, [if one places it] on [top of] the oven, even if a hand would not recoil from that place, there must be an intervening substance between it and the oven. [This measure must be taken] even if the food is entirely warm. Similarly, [if one placed food] in kochlin,26 an intervening substance is required.

Uncooked fruit27 [or vegetables] and beverages are governed by the same laws – with regard to both prohibitions and leniencies – as cooked food that contains liquid that has cooled entirely.28

The laws governing placing food on top of a pot that is permanently fixed in an oven are the same as those applying to [placing food] next to an oven.29 It is, however, forbidden to place a container with beverages into the water of that pot. [Moreover,] it is forbidden to place water in that pot even before the oven was kindled, unless it was placed there by a non-Jew.30 If the non-Jew placed the water there before the oven was kindled, it is permitted to benefit from it on Shabbos. If it was placed there by a Jew, it is forbidden to benefit from it until Saturday night after waiting the time it would take for it to warm.31 Even if one places it there after the oven was kindled Friday directly before nightfall, it is forbidden to benefit from it until Saturday night after waiting the time it would take for it to warm.

On Shabbos, it is forbidden to cover a pot of (hot) food with pillows, blankets, or other clothes32 if it is insulated in them entirely. If one transferred the food to another pot, it is permitted to cover it there.33

This concludes the summary of the laws governing shi’ah and hatmanah.

כְּלָל1 הַדָּבָר עַכְשָׁוא שֶׁאָנוּ מַנִּיחִים הַקְּדֵרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר מְגֻלּוֹת, וְאֵין אָנוּ עוֹשִׂים שׁוּם הַטְמָנָה סְבִיב דָּפְנוֹתֵיהֶן וְעַל פִּיהֶן, אִם כֵּן אֵין לָהֶם רַק דִּין שְׁהִיָּה וְלֹא דִּין הַטְמָנָה,ב,2 וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַתַּנּוּר גָּרוּף וְלֹא קָטוּם.ג,3

וּבָשָׂר, אִם נוֹתְנוֹ חַי בַּקְּדֵרָה סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר.ד,4

אֲבָל בְּמִינֵי בָצֵק,ה בֵּין מְבֻשָּׁלִיםו,5 בֵּין נֶאֱפִים,ז,6 וּבְמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת,ח,7 וּבְמַיִם,ט,8 וּבְצָלִיי הַנִּצְלֶה בְּשַׁפּוּד9 – אֵין מוֹעִיל חַי, וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי קֹדֶם שַׁבָּת.

וּבְתַנּוּר טוּחַ בְּטִיט – הַכֹּל מֻתָּריא בְּכָל עִנְיָן.10

וְאִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ גֶּחָלִים לוֹחֲשׁוֹת – אֵין לְפָתְחוֹ כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי.יב,11

וְאִם הַגֶּחָלִים סְבִיב הַקְּדֵרָה – לֹא יִטּוֹל יִשְׂרָאֵל הַקְּדֵרָה מִתּוֹכוֹ כִּי אִם נָכְרִי.יג,12

וְאִם הַקְּדֵרָה עוֹמֶדֶת עַל הַגֶּחָלִים13 – מֻתָּר14 אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי.יד

(וְהוּא הַדִּין בִּקְדֵרוֹת שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה, אִם הֶעֱמִידָן עַל הַגֶּחָלִים וּבָא לִטְּלָן בְּשַׁבָּת מֵעַל הַגֶּחָלִים.טו רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יְכַסֶּה אוֹתָן בִּבְגָדִים מִלְמַעְלָה כְּשֶׁמַּעֲמִידָן עַל הַגֶּחָלִים, אֲפִלּוּ הֵן עוֹמְמוֹתטז(.15

וּמֻתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ תַּבְשִׁיל חַם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ אֵצֶל הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁהֻסַּק כְּבָר וְהָאֵשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ,יז וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל הַלְּבִזְבַּז שֶׁסְּבִיב הַתַּנּוּר.יח

אֲבָל עַל הַתַּנּוּר צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן לְבֵנָה אוֹ דָּבָר אַחֵר תַּחַת הַקְּדֵרָה16 עַל הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁהֻסַּק כְּבָריט וְיֵשׁ גֶּחָלִים לוֹחֲשׁוֹת בְּתוֹכוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם עָלָיו מִלְמַעְלָה,כ אֲבָל כְּשֶׁלֹּא הֻסַּק עֲדַיִן – נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵלכא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַסִּיקוֹ מִיָּד.17

אֲבָל תַּבְשִׁיל צוֹנֵן, אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק18 – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לִסְמוֹךְ אֶצְלוֹ,כב כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי19 קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק,כג וְאָז מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבָּיו.כד,20 אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁהֻסַּק אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,כה,21 כִּי אִם לְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה אוֹ קָטָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה לֶּאֱכוֹל.כו,22

וְתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ רֹטֶב, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא קַר – דִּינוֹ כְּחַם.כז,23 וְאִם עֲדַיִן לֹא נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ רֹטֶב – נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵלכח כְּאִלּוּ הוּא חַם לְגַמְרֵי.24

וְאִם סוֹמֵךְ אֵצֶל הַתַּנּוּר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין יָכוֹל לְהִתְחַמֵּם עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ25 – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי.כט

אֲבָל עַל הַתַּנּוּר צָרִיךְ דָּבָר הַמַּפְסִיק אַף שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם,ל וְאַף אִם הַתַּבְשִׁיל חַם לְגַמְרֵי.17 וְהוּא הַדִּין לְתוֹךְ הַקֶּכְלִי"ן26 צָרִיךְ דָּבָר הַמַּפְסִיק.לא

וּפֵרוֹת חַיִּים,לב,27 וְכֵן מִינֵי מַשְׁקִין,לג דִּינָם כְּתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ רֹטֶב וְנִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי,28 בֵּין לְאִסּוּרלד בֵּין לְהֶתֵּר.

וְלִתֵּן עַל גַּבֵּי קְדֵרָה הַקְּבוּעָה בַּתַּנּוּר דִּינָהּ כְּאֵצֶל הַתַּנּוּר.לה,29

אֲבָל אָסוּר לִתֵּן קַנְקַן עִם מַשְׁקִין לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה הַהִיא.לו וְאָסוּר לִתֵּן הַמַּיִם לַקְּדֵרָה הַהִיא אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּרלז,29 כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי.לח,30 וּמֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהַמַּיִם בְּשַׁבָּת אִם נְתָנָם נָכְרִי קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר.לט אֲבָל אִם נְתָנָם יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ.מ,31 וַאֲפִלּוּ נְתָנָם בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה אַחַר שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר – אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ.מא,29

וְאָסוּר לִכְרוֹךְ בְּשַׁבָּת קְדֵרָה עִם תַּבְשִׁיל (חַם) בְּכָרִים וּכְסָתוֹת אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר בְּגָדִים32 אִם כֻּלָּהּ טְמוּנָה בָּהֶם.מב וְאִם פִּנָּה הַתַּבְשִׁיל לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת – מֻתָּר לְכָרְכוֹ שָׁם:מג,33

סְלִיק קִצּוּר הִלְכוֹת שְׁהִיָּה וְהַטְמָנָה