SECTION 257 The Laws Governing Insulating Warm Food (1-13)

סימן רנז דִּינֵי הַטְמָנַת הַחַמִּין וּבוֹ י"ג סְעִיפִים׃

1 A person who seeks to remove a pot from a range and insulate it (lehatminah)1 so that it will not cool is forbidden to insulate it in material that will increase its temperature (davar hamosif hevel),2 even if he does so while it is still day [on Friday.3 This is] a decree lest he bury it4 in ash containing burning embers5 and then afterwards, on Shabbos, forget [about the related prohibition] and stir the coals.6 If one transgressed and placed [a pot in such a mixture], even unwittingly, the cooked food is forbidden7 both for him and for others until Saturday night8 if, when placed [in this mixture], it would have benefitted from further cooking or it was cold and was warmed.9 If, however, [the food] remains at its original temperature and further cooking will be detrimental to it (mitztamek vira lo), it is permitted, because the person does not benefit at all from [the violation of] the prohibition.10 Nevertheless, initially, it is forbidden [to place even food] which further cooking will harm [in such a mixture].

The situation does not resemble leaving food on a range (shi’ah) [whose coals] were neither removed nor covered [before Shabbos],11 in which instance, food that was [already] cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i12 while it was still day [on Friday] may be left [on the range. The rationale for the distinction is that,] generally, one insulates food (hatmanah) for the purpose of [using it] the following day; therefore, one insulates it and covers it so that it will not cool until the following day. As such, there is a greater need to stir the coals so that the food will not cool overnight. When, by contrast, one leaves food on a range (shi’ah), he generally does so for the night meal, for he leaves it exposed.13 Accordingly, there is not that great a need to stir the coals as long as the food was cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was still day [on Friday]. Even if one leaves the food on the range until the next day, there is no concern that one will stir the coals, because stirring the coals slightly will not be effective in preserving the heat [of the food] until the [next] day since it is left exposed. When, by contrast, food is insulated, even a small amount of stirring will be effective [in preserving its heat until the following day]. Therefore, when it is buried in a mixture of ash and coals, there is concern that one might stir the coals. [Accordingly,] our Sages decreed against insulating [foods]14 in any material that will increase heat, [as a safeguard against] people burying pots in a mixture of ash and coals.

This [stringency] applies even when one is insulating food for the night meal, for our Sages did not make distinctions in their decrees. For this same reason, it is forbidden to insulate even entirely raw meat directly before nightfall, although one may leave it [to cook] on a range.15 [The rationale for the leniency in the case of shi’ah is that the person] will divert his attention from it entirely until the next day,16 and throughout the entire night it will be able to cook, even without [the coals] being stirred. If it will become cool afterwards, [there is still no concern that one will stir the coals,] because even if one stirs the coals some, his actions will not be effective, since [the pot] is exposed. When, by contrast, [the pot] is insulated, there is reason for concern that one will stir [the coals] after its cooking is completed to preserve its heat and prevent it from cooling. Stirring [the coals] slightly will be effective for this [purpose].17

There are authorities who differ with this [ruling] and maintain that while it is still day [on Friday], it is permitted to insulate [foods] – even in a material that increases their temperature – if they were [already] cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i, or were entirely raw directly before nightfall, just as it is permitted to leave such foods on a range [whose coals] were not removed or covered, as stated in sec. 253[:1, 8].18 In places where it has become customary to rule leniently according to this reasoning, people should not be admonished, but this custom should not be adopted in other places.

There are others who grant even greater leniency, [maintaining] that even if [meat] is not [entirely] raw directly before nightfall on Friday, should a person divert his attention from it until the next day, it is governed by the laws that would apply were it to be entirely raw, and it is permitted to insulate it [together with a source of heat to prepare it] for the following day, even though it had not reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i. One may rely on this position only after the fact, [but not initially,] and only with the proviso that it will not become his regular practice.

א הַבָּא לְסַלֵּק קְדֵרָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּי כִּירָה וּלְהַטְמִינָהּא,1 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִצְטַנֵּן – אָסוּר לוֹ לְהַטְמִינָהּ בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶלב,2 אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,ג,3 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָא יַטְמִין4 בְּרֶמֶץ,ד דְּהַיְנוּ אֵפֶר שֶׁמְּעֹרָב בּוֹ גֶּחָלִים,ה,5 וְאַחַר כָּךְ בְּשַׁבָּת יִשְׁכַּח וְיַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים.ו,6

וְאִם עָבַר וְהִטְמִיןז אֲפִלּוּ בְּשׁוֹגֵגח – הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר,7 בֵּין לוֹ בֵּין לַאֲחֵרִים,ט עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,י,8 אִם הוּא מִצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה צוֹנֵן וְנִתְחַמֵּם עַל יְדֵי הַטְמָנָה זוֹ.9 אֲבָל אִם הוּא עוֹמֵד בַּחֲמִימוּתוֹ כְּשָׁעָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁמִּצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ – מֻתָּר,יא שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלָל מִן הָאִסּוּר.יב,10

אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ.יג וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְהַשְּׁהִיָּה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי כִּירָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה11 כֹּל שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי12 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,יד לְפִי שֶׁסְּתָם הַטְמָנָה הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ מָחָר, שֶׁמַּטְמִינָהּ וּמְכַסָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא תִתְקָרֵר עַד לְמָחָר, וּלְפִיכָךְ צְרִיכָה יוֹתֵר לְחִתּוּי כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקָרֵר הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּכָל הַלַּיְלָה, אֲבָל סְתָם שְׁהִיָּה הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַנִּיחָהּ מְגֻלָּה,13 וּלְכָךְ אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה כָּל כָּךְ לְחִתּוּי כֹּל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,טו וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָהּ עַד לְמָחָר אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְחִתּוּי, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מְעַט חִתּוּי מוֹעִיל לָהּטז לִשְׁמוֹר חֻמָּהּ עַד לְמָחָר כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא מְגֻלָּה, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִיא טְמוּנָה מוֹעִיל לָהּ מְעַט חִתּוּי, לָכֵן חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה אִם הִיא טְמוּנָה בְּרֶמֶץ, וְגָזְרוּ עַל כָּל דָּבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל14 מִשּׁוּם רֶמֶץ,יז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מַטְמִין לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה,יח שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ חֲכָמִים בִּגְזֵרָתָם.

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה אָסוּר לְהַטְמִין אֲפִלּוּ בָּשָׂר שֶׁהוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה,יט שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ15 לְפִי שֶׁמַּסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד לְמָחָר,16 וּבְכָל הַלַּיְלָה יוּכַל לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּלֹא חִתּוּי, כ וְאִם יוּכַל לְהִתְקָרֵר אַחַר כָּךְ אַף אִם יַחְתֶּה מְעַט לֹא יוֹעִיל כְּלוּם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְגֻלֶּה, אֲבָל בְּהַטְמָנָה יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה אַחַר גְּמַר בִּשּׁוּלוֹ לְהַחֲזִיק חֻמּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקָרֵר, שֶׁמְּעַט חִתּוּי יוֹעִיל לְזֶה.17

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהכא וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף לְהַטְמִין בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מֻתָּר כֹּל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי כִּירָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג.כב,18

וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל עַל פִּי סְבָרָא זוֹ – אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם. אֲבָל אֵין לִנְהוֹג כֵּן בִּשְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת.כג

וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּין עוֹדכד שֶׁאַף אִם אֵינוֹ חַי סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם מַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד לְמָחָר – דִּינוֹ כְּחַי לְגַמְרֵי, וּמֻתָּר לְהַטְמִינוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מָחָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ עֲדַיִן לְמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי.כה וְאֵין לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא זוֹ אֶלָּא בְּדִיעֲבַד, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא רָגִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן:כו

2 It is forbidden to insulate food on Shabbos itself, even in a material that does not increase its temperature (davar she’eino mosif hevel),19 even though it does not resemble a mixture of coal and ash at all. Why was this forbidden? This is a decree, instituted in the event that when one removes a pot of food from the range in order to insulate it in a material that does not increase its heat, he finds that the pot is cool. [He may then] forget that it is Shabbos and boil it on a fire and become liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] cooking. [The above concern does not apply] according to those authorities who maintain that [the prohibition against] cooking does not apply to food that has already been fully cooked, even if it later cooled down, as will be explained in sec. 318[:9. Nevertheless,] there is concern that he may stir the coals to cause [the pot] to boil, and become liable for [performing the forbidden labor of] causing a fire.

During bein hashamashos,20 by contrast, even though there is a doubt whether this time is considered as after nightfall,21 it is permitted to insulate food in a material that does not increase its temperature.22 [This leniency is granted,] because it can be assumed that during bein hashamashos, pots are still boiling, because the pots are removed from the fire shortly before that time. Hence, there is no reason for concern that [the pot] has cooled off and one will cause it to boil again.

ב בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ אָסוּר לְהַטְמִין הַחַמִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל,כז,19 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְרֶמֶץ כְּלָל. וְלָמָה אָסְרוּ? גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְצָא קְדֵרָה צוֹנֶנֶת כְּשֶׁיָּבֹא לְסַלְּקָהּ מֵהַכִּירָה וּלְהַטְמִינָהּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, וְיִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְיַרְתִּיחֶנָּה עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר, וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל.כח

וּלְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין בִּשּׁוּל בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מְבֻשָּׁל כְּבָר אַף שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן אַחַר כָּךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"ח,כט חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים לְהַרְתִּיחָהּ, ל וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מַבְעִיר.לא

אֲבָל בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,20 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק חֲשֵׁכָה21 – מֻתָּר לְהַטְמִין בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל,לב,22 לְפִי שֶׁסְּתַָם קְדֵרוֹת עֲדַיִן רוֹתְחוֹת הֵן בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,לג שֶׁסָּמוּךְ לְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מַעֲבִירָן מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר, וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִצְטַנְּנָה וְיַ רְתִּיחֶנָּה:לד

3 From nightfall onward, it is forbidden to insulate even food that was cooked fully, even when further cooking will be detrimental to it, and even in material that will not increase its temperature.

ג אֲפִלּוּ תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ וּמִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ – אָסוּר לְהַטְמִין מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה, אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל:לה

4 It is forbidden to cover a boiling pot with an overturned container to preserve its heat (if the entire pot is enveloped by it)23 unless [the overturned] container is wide and thus its walls do not touch the sides of the pot. In this instance, [since there is empty space between the container and the pot,] this is not considered as hatmanah (insulating) at all.

It is, however, permitted to cover food with a container to protect it from rats or so that it will not be soiled because of dust, because this is not considered as hatmanah to [preserve] heat, but rather as protection, and [is like] placing a cover on the pot.

ד אָסוּר לִכְפּוֹת כְּלִי עַל קְדֵרָה רוֹתַחַת לִשְׁמוֹר חֻמָּהּ (אִם כֻּלָּהּ טְמוּנָה תַּחְתָּיולו),23 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַכְּלִי הוּא רָחָב, שֶׁאֵין דָפְנוֹתָיו נוֹגְעִים בְּצִדֵּי הַקְּדֵרָה, שֶׁאָז אֵין כַּאן הַטְמָנָה כְּלָל.לז אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִכְפּוֹת כְּלִי עַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל כְּדֵי לְשָׁמְרוֹ מִן הָעַכְבָּרִים, אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְטַנֵּף בְּעַפְרוּרִית, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין זֶה כְּמַטְמִין לְהָחֵם, אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵר וְנוֹתֵן כִּסּוּי עַל הַקְּדֵרָה:לח

5 These are the materials that increase the temperature [of foods]:24 the wastes of olives25 or sesame seeds after [they have been crushed to] remove their oil, fertilizer, salt,26 lime, sand – whether the above are moist27 or dry – straw, the wastes of grapes after [they have been crushed to] remove their wine, muchin (any soft material is included in the category of muchin, e.g., cotton,28 the soft wool of an animal, or the shredded remnants of worn-out clothes), and grasses, provided these last four are moist, even when their moisture results from cold water having fallen upon them.

In contrast, all types of clothing29 and produce, feathers from all species of fowl, thin scraps of flax, sawdust, animal hides – whether processed or not, and shearings of wool do not increase the temperature [of food] in any situation.30

ה אֵלּוּ הֵם דְּבָרִים הַמּוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל,לט,24 פְּסֹלֶת שֶׁל זֵיתִים25 וְשֶׁל שֻׁמְשְׁמִין מ לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ שַׁמְנָן,מא וְזֶבֶל, וּמֶלַח,26 וְסִיד, וְחוֹל,מב בֵּין שֶׁהֵם לַחִים27 בֵּין שֶׁהֵם יְבֵשִׁים, וְתֶבֶן, וְזָגִיןמג דְּהַיְנוּ פְּסֹלֶת שֶׁל עֲנָבִים לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ יֵינָם,מד וּמוֹכִין (פֵּרוּשׁ כָּל דָּבָר רַךְ קָרוּי מוֹכִין, כְּגוֹן צֶמֶר גֶּפֶן28 וּתְלִישֵי צֶמֶר רַךְ שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה, וּגְרִידַת בְּגָדִים בְּלוּיִיםמה), וַעֲשָׂבִים,מו בִּזְמַן שֶׁאַרְבַּעְתָּן לַחִים,מז אֲפִלּוּ הֵם לַחִים מֵחֲמַת מַיִם צוֹנְנִים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם.מח

אֲבָל כָּל מִינֵי כְּסוּת,29 וּפֵרוֹת,מט וְנוֹצוֹת כָּל הָעוֹפוֹת, נ וּנְעֹרֶת שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּןנא דַּקָּה,נב וּנְסֹרֶת שֶׁל חָרָשִׁים,נג וְעוֹרוֹת,נד בֵּין עֲבוּדִין בֵּין שֶׁאֵינָן עֲבוּדִין,נה וְגִזֵּי צֶמֶרנו – אֵינָן מוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל בְּכָל עִנְיָן:נז,30

6 When ash does not contain coals mixed together with it, even if it is warm, it is not considered as a material that increases heat. If a pot was insulated in ash while it was still day [on Friday], and on Shabbos a few burning embers were discovered around it or under it, the food should not be prohibited after the fact,31 because primarily the food was insulated in a permitted material.

ו אֵפֶר שֶׁאֵין גֶּחָלִים מְעֹרָבִים בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא חַם – אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל.נח וְאִם הִטְמִין בּוֹ קְדֵרָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וּבְשַׁבָּת מָצָא בוֹ מְעַט גֶּחָלִים בּוֹעֲרוֹת סָבִיב לָהּ אוֹ תַּחְתֶּיהָ – אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּדִיעֲבַד,31 מֵאַחַר31 שֶׁעִקַּר הַהַטְמָנָה הָיְתָה בְּדָבָר הַמֻּתָּר:נט

7 It is permitted to insulate [a pot] with stones32 while it is still day [on Friday] even though they increase heat, because it is extremely uncommon to insulate [a pot] with stones, since they will [either] break the pot or have a detrimental effect on the food, and our Sages did not institute decrees with regard to situations that are extremely uncommon. When, however, materials are occasionally used for insulation, even if they are not commonly used for that purpose, our Sages decreed that they should not be used for insulation if they increase [the food’s] temperature.33

ז מֻתָּר לְהַטְמִין בִּסְלָעִים32 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל, ס לְפִי שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי כְּלָל שֶׁיַּטְמִין בִּסְלָעִים,סא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהֵם מְשַׁבְּרִים הַקְּדֵרָה,סב אוֹ שֶׁמְּקַלְקְלִים הַמַּאֲכָל,סג וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי כְּלָל – לֹא גָזְרוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים.סד

אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים טוֹמְנִים בּוֹ אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי כָּל כָּךְ – גָּזְרוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים שֶׁלֹּא לְהַטְמִין בּוֹ אִם הוּא מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל:סה,33

8 If a person insulated [food] while it was still day [on Friday] with a material that does not increase its temperature and it was uncovered while it was still day34 – either as a matter of course or through one’s activity – [although] the person intended to cover it again while it was still day or after nightfall, it is forbidden to cover it after nightfall. [The rationale:] Since at the onset of Shabbos it was not covered, covering it [after nightfall] is considered as insulating it initially on Shabbos.

If, however, food was insulated at the onset (of Shabbos)of the night35 and became uncovered [on Shabbos] – either as a matter of course or through one’s actions – it is permitted to cover it again36 even if he did not have that intent [initially.37 Indeed,] one may uncover it and then recover it as an initial preference.38 Similarly, if one wished to add other [insulating] materials that do not increase [the food’s] temperature [as further insulation], one may add them. Moreover, even if one sought to remove all the insulating materials and replace them with others, [one may do so] – regardless of whether the first provides better insulation than the second or the second provides better insulation than the first. Even if initially, [the food] was covered only with a sheet, one can remove the sheet and cover it with a thick woolen garment.39

The above [leniencies] apply, provided the food was fully cooked. If, however, the food was not fully cooked and it is insulated above a range (that has coals) in the manner that will be explained,40 it is forbidden even to add anything to the [existing] insulation,41 because this increase will cause the coals to cook [the food] faster.42

ח טָמַן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, וְנִתְגַּלָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,34 בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְגַּלָּה מֵאֵלָיו בֵּין שֶׁגִּלָּהוּ בְּיָדַיִם, וְהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְכַסּוֹתוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אוֹ מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ – אָסוּר לְכַסּוֹתוֹ מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַטְמִין לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת,סו כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת הָיָה מְגֻלֶּה.

אֲבָל אִם הָיָה טָמוּן בִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת (הַשַּׁבָּתסז) הַלַּיְלָה35 וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּלָּה – מֻתָּר לַחֲזוֹר וּלְכַסּוֹתוֹ,סח,36 בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְגַּלָּה מֵאֵלָיו בֵּין שֶׁגִּלָּהוּ בְּיָדַיִם,סט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ37 לַחֲזוֹר וּלְכַסּוֹתוֹ. ע וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְחִלָּה יָכוֹל לְגַלּוֹתוֹ וְלַחֲזוֹר וּלְכַסּוֹתוֹ.עא,38

וְכֵן אִם רָצָה לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת עוֹד דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם מוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל – הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹסִיף.עב,36 וְכֵן אִם רָצָה לִטְּלוֹ כֻלּוֹ וְלָתֵת אַחֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, בֵּין שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹן חַם יוֹתֵר מֵהַשֵּׁנִי, בֵּין שֶׁהַשֵּׁנִי חַם יוֹתֵר מֵהָרִאשׁוֹן, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה מְכֻסֶּה אֶלָּא בְּסָדִין – יָכוֹל לִטּוֹל הַסָּדִין וּלְכַסּוֹתוֹ בִּגְלוּפְקְרִין.עג,39

וְהוּא שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה הַקְּדֵרָה כָּל צָרְכָּהּ,עד אֲבָל אִם אֵינָהּ מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת כָּל צָרְכָּהּ וְהִיא טְמוּנָה עַל גַּבֵּי הַכִּירָה (שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ גֶּחָלִים)עה עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרעו,40 – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהוֹסִיף עַל הַכִּסּוּי,41 שֶׁתּוֹסֶפֶת זֶה גּוֹרֵם לְמַהֵר הַבִּשּׁוּל מֵהַגֶּחָלִים:עז,42

9 The prohibition against insulating [food] on Shabbos in a material that does not increase its temperature applies only when one insulates the food in the same pot in which it was cooked,43 for then it is logical to issue a decree [forbidding it,] lest one reboil the food. If, however, one transferred the food44 to another pot, it is permitted to insulate it.45 [Moreover,] even if one then returned it to the original pot, it is permitted to insulate it (because it has already cooled somewhat due to the walls of the second pot. Our Sages issued their prohibition only when [the food] remained warm in the primary vessel [k’li rishon] in which it was cooked. [Indeed,] if [the food] cooled somewhat to the extent that a hand would not recoil from touching it, it is permitted to insulate it even if it is still in the primary vessel.)46 How much more so is it permitted to insulate food that is thoroughly cold so that it will not become even colder or to remove some of its chill.

All the above applies [when one insulates] with materials that do not increase [the food’s] temperature. It is, however, forbidden to insulate even [food] that is thoroughly cold with materials that increase [the food’s] temperature, even if one does so while it is still day [on Friday].

ט לֹא אָסְרוּ לְהַטְמִין בְּשַׁבָּת בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמַּטְמִין בְּאוֹתָהּ קְדֵרָה עַצְמָהּ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בָּהּ הַתַּבְשִׁיל,עח,43 שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יַרְתִּיחֶנָּה,עט אֲבָל אִם פִּנָּהוּ44 לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת – מֻתָּר לְהַטְמִינוֹ. פ,45 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם (א) חָזַר וְהֶחֱזִירוֹ לִקְדֵרָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה – מֻתָּר לְהַטְמִינוֹפא (שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְקָרֵר קְצָת בְּדָפְנֵי קְדֵרָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה,פב וַחֲכָמִים לֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא חַם בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ.פג וְאִם נִתְקָרֵר קְצָת עַד שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹפד – אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדוֹ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן מֻתָּר לְהַטְמִינוֹפה).46 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַטְמִין צוֹנֵן גָּמוּר, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטַנֵּן בְּיוֹתֵר, אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁתָּפִיג צִנָּתוֹ.פו

וְכָל זֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל,פז אֲבָל בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל אָסוּר לְהַטְמִין אֲפִלּוּ צוֹנֵן גָּמוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:פח

10 [When a person placed] a pot in a container and insulated it with muchin47or another material that does not increase its heat, it is forbidden to position it above the wastes of olives [even] while it is still day on Friday,48 because they will increase the temperature of the muchin above themand the muchin will increase the temperature of the pot of food that is insulated in them.49 Thus it is as if [the food] is insulated in a material that increases its temperature. It is, however, permitted to position it above the wastes of sesame seeds, because they will not increase the temperature of [the muchin]above them.50

Similarly, it is permitted to position [a pot] in the inner space of the range in which it was cooked and insulate it there in a material that does not increase its heat. Although the bottom of the range where the pot is positioned is very hot,51 nevertheless, the range is not hot because of its own internal heat, but because of the fire [that was previously there]. With each passing moment, it becomes cooler and cooler.52 Hence, it is not called a material that increases temperature. It does not resemble the waste products of olives and the like that themselves increase a material’s temperature.

Nevertheless, the coals must have been removed from the range. If there are coals there, even if they are covered with ash, it is forbidden to insulate a pot there, even [if one merely uses] clothes or other materials that do not increase its temperature. [This stringency applies] even if [the pot] is not touching the coals at all, e.g., it is resting on an iron support or balanced on stones. [The rationale is that] even though the clothes do not increase the pot’s temperature on their own accord, nevertheless, the coals that are below [the clothes] increase the temperature above them. [Therefore, as a result,] the clothes increase the temperature of the pot and it is considered as insulated in a material that increases the temperature.

If the pot [was covered] in a manner in which the clothes do not touch it, e.g., he placed a wide container that does not touch the pot’s sides over [the pot]53 and then placed the clothes on that container, this is not considered as hatmanah at all, not even [hatmanah] in a material that does not increase temperature.54 [Hence,] it is permitted. Even though the coals raise the temperature above them, it is of no consequence, since the pot itself is not insulated in any material.

[The above leniency is granted,] provided the pot is not touching the coals. If, however, the pot is resting on the coals, even if it is entirely uncovered, there are authorities who forbid this, because it is considered as insulating in a material that increases temperature, because the pot is touching the coals and they increase its temperature. There are other authorities who maintain that as long as the pot is uncovered55 from above, it is not considered as insulated. Even if it is in an oven and the opening of the oven is covered, it is of no consequence. [The rationale for their lenient view is that our Sages] forbade insulating [food] in a material that increases heat only as a decree [and a safeguard], lest one insulate [food] in a mixture of coal and ash. Therefore, this prohibition should be applied only in a similar circumstance: a material that can be moved and which is attached to the sides of the pot. The sides and the opening of the oven, by contrast, are not attached to the pot. [Hence, there are no grounds for stringency.] (Even if the oven is small and narrow, it is impossible that there will not be some open space intervening between them.)56 The prevailing custom is [to follow this lenient view].57

י קֻפָּה שֶׁטָּמַן בְּתוֹכָהּ הַקְּדֵרָה בְּמוֹכִין47 אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל – אָסוּר לְהַעֲמִידָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם48 עַל גַּבֵּי פְּסֹלֶת שֶׁל זֵיתִים,פט לְפִי שֶׁהֵם מַעֲלִים הֶבֶל (ב) לְמַעְלָה צ בְּהַמּוֹכִין, וְהַמּוֹכִין מוֹסִיפִין הֶבֶל בַּקְּדֵרָה הַטְּמוּנָה בָּהֶם,49 וַהֲרֵי הִיא כִּטְמוּנָה בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל.צא אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִידָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי פְּסֹלֶת שֶׁל שֻׁמְשְׁמִין, שֶׁהֵם אֵינָם מַעֲלִים הַהֶבֶל לְמַעְלָה.צב,50

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִידָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַכִּירָה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה שָׁם לְהַטְמִינָהּ שָׁם בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשּׁוּלֵי הַכִּירָה שֶׁהַקְּדֵרָה עוֹמֶדֶת שָׁם הֵם חַמִּין מְאֹד,צג,51 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין חֹם הַכִּירָה מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָהּ אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת הָאֵשׁ וְכָל שָׁעָה הִיא מִתְקָרֶרֶת וְהוֹלֶכֶת52 – אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת דָּבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִפְסֹלֶת שֶׁל זֵיתִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם שֶׁהֵם מוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל מֵעַצְמָם.צד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַכִּירָה גְּרוּפָה מֵהַגֶּחָלִים, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ גֶּחָלִים אֲפִלּוּ הֵן קְטוּמוֹת – אָסוּר לְהַטְמִין בָּהּ הַקְּדֵרָה בִּבְגָדִים אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינָהּ נוֹגַעַת בַּגֶּחָלִים כְּלָל,צה כְּגוֹן שֶׁיּוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל גַּבֵּי כִּסֵּא שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל, אוֹ שֶׁתְּלוּיָה עַל גַּבֵּי אֲבָנִים,צו לְפִי שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַבְּגָדִים אֵינָן מוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵחֲמַת הַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁתַּחְתֵּיהֶם שֶׁמַּעֲלִים הֶבֶל לְמַעְלָה – מוֹסִיפִים הַבְּגָדִים הֶבֶל בַּקְּדֵרָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא טְמוּנָה בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל.צז

וְאִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הַבְּגָדִים נוֹגְעִים בַּקְּדֵרָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּתַן עַל הַקְּדֵרָה כְּלִי רָחָב שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בְּצִדֵּי הַקְּדֵרָה53 וְנָתַן הַבְּגָדִים עַל הַכְּלִי, שֶׁנִּמְצָא שֶׁאֵין כַּאן הַטְמָנָה כְּלָלצח אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶלצט,54 – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַגֶּחָלִים מַעֲלִין הֶבֶל לְמַעְלָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הַקְּדֵרָה טְמוּנָה בְּשׁוּם דָּבָר.

וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא תְּהֵא הַקְּדֵרָה נוֹגַעַת בַּגֶּחָלִים, ק אֲבָל אִם הִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל גַּבֵּי גֶחָלִים, אַף אִם הִיא מְגֻלָּה לְגַמְרֵי – יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִים,קא לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּמַטְמִין בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף הַקְּדֵרָה נוֹגַעַת בַּגֶּחָלִים וְהֵם מַעֲלִים וּמוֹסִיפִים בָּהּ הֶבֶל.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקב שֶׁכֹּל שֶׁהַקְּדֵרָה מְגֻלָּה55 לְמַעְלָה – אֵין זוֹ הַטְמָנָה. וְאַף אִם הִיא בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר וּפִי הַתַּנּוּר מְכֻסֶּה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ הַטְמָנָה בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַטְמִין בְּרֶמֶץ,קג לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר אֶלָּא כְּעֵין רֶמֶץ, שֶׁהוּא (ג) דָּבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל וּמֻדְבָּק לְדָפְנֵי הַקְּדֵרָה, אֲבָל דָּפְנֵי הַתַּנּוּר וּפִיהָ אֵינָן מֻדְבָּקִים לְהַקְּדֵרָהקד (וְאַף אִם הַתַּנּוּר הוּא קָטָן וְצַר – אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה אֲוִיר קְצָת מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶםקה).56 וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג:קו,57

11 All of the above applies when the coals are covered with ash, or [the food] was cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was still day [on Friday], or one placed raw meat in the pot directly before nightfall. If [one of these conditions] was not met, all authorities agree that it is forbidden [to place food in a range or oven] even when it is not insulated at all, as explained in sec. 253[:1, 8].

[The leniency mentioned above with regard to raw meat does not apply] with regard to uncooked types of dough products or kitniyos that cook rapidly.58Since (they cook rapidly), [placing them into a pot with food that was not cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i] directly before nightfall is not at all effective [in mitigating the prohibition against leaving that pot on the range], as explained in 254[:6, 13].59

יא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהַגֶּחָלִים הֵן קְטוּמוֹת, אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן חֲתִיכַת בָּשָׂר חַיָּה בִּקְדֵרָה סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן – לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר אַף בְּלֹא שׁוּם הַטְמָנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג.קז

בְּמִינֵיקח בָצֵק וּבְמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת58 שֶׁמְּמַהֲרִים לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל – אֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם מַה שֶׁהֵן חַיִּין סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה (שֶׁמְּמַהֲרִין לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁלקט), כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ד:קי,59

12 If one sealed the oven closed with mud around its cover, one is permitted to leave [food in it] under all circumstances, even when it is actually insulated (within its coals), for then there is no concern that one will stir the coals as stated in that source.60 Accordingly, it is customary to seal the opening of an oven with mud. In places where this custom is not followed, there should be no insulation in [an oven] and kitniyos and dough products must be cooked while it is still day [on Friday] to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i, or the coals must be covered with ash.

יב וְאִם הַתַּנּוּר טוּחַ בְּטִיט סְבִיב כִּסּוּיוֹ – מֻתָּרקיא בְּכָל עִנְיָן אַף בְּהַטְמָנָה מַמָּשׁ (בְּתוֹךְ הַגֶּחָלִים),קיב שֶׁאָז אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְחִתּוּי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.קיג,60 וְלָכֵן נוֹהֲגִים לָטוּחַ פִּי הַתַּנּוּר בְּטִיט.

וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִים כֵּן – צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה שָׁם הַטְמָנָה. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת וּמִינֵי בָצֵק מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי, אוֹ שֶׁהַגֶּחָלִים יִהְיוּ קְטוּמוֹת:קיד

13 It is a mitzvah to insulate [food] for the Shabbos so that one will eat hot food on Shabbos, because this is a way to honor the Shabbos and delight in it. If, however, hot food harms a person, he is permitted to eat cold food. If, however, someone does not believe in the words of the Sages61 and forbids eating warm food on Shabbos, we suspect that perhaps he is a heretic.62

יג מִצְוָה לְהַטְמִין לְשַׁבָּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאכַל חַמִּין בְּשַׁבָּת, כִּי זֶהוּ מִכְּבוֹד וְעֹנֶג שַׁבָּת.קטו אֲבָל מִי שֶׁהַחַמִּין מַזִּיקִין לוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל צוֹנֵן.קטז

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִין בְּדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים61 וְאוֹסֵר אֲכִילַת חַמִּין בְּשַׁבָּת – חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא אֶפִּיקוֹרוֹס הוּא:קיז,62