SECTION 256 The Six Shofar Blasts that Would Be Sounded on Friday (1)

סימן רנו שֵׁשׁ תְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ תּוֹקְעִין בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ סְעִיף אֶחָד׃

1 When the Jewish people were settled in their land, our Sages ordained that six shofar blasts be sounded [on Friday afternoon] from a high place [to alert] the people to conclude [their] work.1 At present, the custom in holy communities2 is that a half hour or an hour before Shabbos, an emissary of the community announces [that everyone] should prepare himself for Shabbos, for it is necessary to add from the mundane to the holy, as will be explained in sec. 261[:4]. It is appropriate to institute this custom in all places3 (where the Evening Service is recited at a later time).4

At the very least, a person should be sent to [alert] craftsmen to cease work from minchah [ketanah],5 i.e., two and a half hours6 before nightfall,7 as explained in sec. 251.8

[True,] commercial activity is permitted after minchah as stated there.9 Nevertheless, it is appropriate to send out a person [to see to it] that stores close approximately an hour before nightfall,10 because quite often, [leaving them open] leads to a great stumbling block. At times, a [non-Jewish] personage will come [to make a purchase] and the negotiations [over the price] will continue into the night itself.11 The responsibility for [such conduct] lies with the communal leaders, as our Sages interpret the verse:12 “I will place them at your head.”13

One must also caution the general populace14 [who presume] that license is granted them to do anything that they must do for the sake of Shabbos15 as long as [the congregation] has not recited Barchu,16 even though it is already actually [after] nightfall. It is therefore proper to recite Barchu early. [The community] should not delay [its recitation in consideration] of a person of stature who has not yet come to the synagogue.17 It is a merit for him [that Barchu be recited earlier,] so that Shabbos not be desecrated because of him. “A wise man’s eyes [see] from the outset.”18

א כְּשֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיִשּׁוּבָןא תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים לִתְקוֹעַ שֵׁשׁ תְּקִיעוֹתב בְּמָקוֹם גָּבוֹהַּ,ג לְהַבְדִּיל הָעָם מִן הַמְּלָאכָה.ד,1 וְעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ בִּקְהִלּוֹת הַקְּדוֹשׁוֹת2 שֶׁכֹּל שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לְשַׁבָּת כַּחֲצִי שָׁעָהה אוֹ שָׁעָה, שֶׁמַּכְרִיז שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לְהָכִין עַצְמָן לְשַׁבָּת,ו שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ,ז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבַּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"א.ח וְכֵן רָאוּי לִנְהוֹג בְּכָל מָקוֹםט,3 (שֶׁמְּאַחֲרִים תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית).4

וְעַל כָּל פָּנִים צָרִיךְ לִשְׁלוֹחַ אִישׁ לְבַטֵּל הַבַּעֲלֵי מְלָאכוֹת מִמְּלַאכְתָּם מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה,5 דְּהַיְנוּ שְׁתֵּי שָׁעוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה6 קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה,י,7 עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבַּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"א.יא,8

וְגַם פְּרַקְמַטְיָא, אַף שֶׁהִיא מֻתֶּרֶת אַחַר הַמִּנְחָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבַּאֵר שָׁם,יב,9 מִכָּל מָקוֹם רָאוּי לִשְׁלוֹחַ אִישׁ לִסְגּוֹר הַחֲנֻיּוֹת כְּמוֹ שָׁעָה קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה,יג,10 כִּי פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת יוֹצֵא מֵהֶן מַכְשֵׁלָה גְדוֹלָה, שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים בָּא שַׂר אֶחָד וְנִמְשָׁךְ הַמַּשָּׂא וּמַתָּן עַד הַלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁ,יד,11 וְהַקּוֹלָר תָּלוּי בְּצַוַּאר רָאשֵׁי הָעָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁדָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִיםטו מִמַּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרטז,12 "וַאֲשִׂימֵם בְּרָאשֵׁיכֶם".יז,13

וְגַם צָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר רֹב הָעָםיח,14 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם הֶתֵּר שֶׁכָּל עוֹד שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ "בָּרְכוּ"16 עוֹשִׂין כָּל הַצָּרִיךְ לָהֶם לְשַׁבָּת15 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לַיְלָה מַמָּשׁ. וְלָכֵן יֵשׁ לְהַקְדִּים אֲמִירַת "בָּרְכוּ", וְאֵין לְהַמְתִּין עַל אָדָם גָּדוֹל שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא בָּא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,17 כִּי זְכוּת הוּא לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת עַל יָדוֹ, וְהֶחָכָם עֵינָיו בְּרֹאשׁוֹ:יט,18