SECTION 254 The Laws Governing Foods Prepared on Friday so that Their [Cooking] Will Be Completed on Shabbos (1-15)

סימן רנד דִּינֵי תַּבְשִׁילִים הַמּוּכָנִים מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לְהִגָּמֵר בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ט"ו סְעִיפִים׃

1 It was already explained in sec. 253[:8] that it is permitted to leave raw meat [to cook] directly before nightfall [on Friday] even in an oven whose [coals]1 were neither removed nor covered.

When does the above apply? When [the meat] is cooked in a pot. [Then,] it will not cook quickly and therefore one will divert his attention from it until the following day.2 Throughout the night, it can cook [thoroughly] without the person [having to] stir the coals.3 The same law also applies to a pot roast.4 When, however, meat is roasted next to coals5 or on them,6 it is forbidden to leave it there [to cook] even if, [directly before Shabbos,] it is [entirely] raw. This applies even if he was roasting it in an oven and he covered the opening of the oven. [The rationale is that] when a pot does not separate between the meat roasting and the coals, [the meat] roasts faster, and it is possible for it to become completely [roasted] and fit for the evening meal. [Therefore,] there is reason for concern, lest one forget that it is Shabbos, remove the cover of the oven, and stir the coals so that its roasting will be completed [earlier].

An exception is made when one sealed the cover with mud. In that instance, we are not concerned that a person will trouble himself to the extent of removing the seal without remembering that it is Shabbos7 [while doing so].Therefore, it is permitted to leave meat, whether roasting on coals or cooking in a pot – whether entirely raw, or partially roasted or cooked, but not having reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i8– in [such an oven].

א כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"גא שֶׁבָּשָׂר חַי מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָּרוּף וְקָטוּם.1 בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּמְבֻשָּׁל בִּקְדֵרָה,ב שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְמַהֶרֶת לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל, וּמַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנָּה עַד לְמָחָר,ג,2 וּבְכָל הַלַּיְלָה יְכוֹלָה לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּלֹא חִתּוּי בַּגֶּחָלִים,ד,3 וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּצָלִי4 שֶׁנִּצְלָה בִּקְדֵרָה.ה

אֲבָל בְּצָלִיו שֶׁאֵצֶל הַגֶּחָלִים5 אוֹ שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִיםז,6 – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ שָׁם, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא חַי, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בַּתַּנּוּר וְכִסָּה פִּי הַתַּנּוּר,ח לְפִי שֶׁהַצָּלִי שֶׁאֵין קְדֵרָה מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּינוֹ לַגֶּחָלִים מְמַהֵר הוּא לִצָּלוֹת, וְיוּכַל לְהִגָּמֵר שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לִסְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה,ט וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּתי וְיָסִיר כִּסּוּי הַתַּנּוּריא וְיַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים לִגְמּוֹר צְלִיָּתוֹ.יב

אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן טָח בְּטִיט סְבִיב הַכִּסּוּי,יג,2 שֶׁאָז אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִטְרַח כָּל כָּךְ לִסְתּוֹר הַטִּחוּי וְלֹא יִזְכּוֹר עַל הַשַּׁבָּת,יד,7 לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹ בֵּין צָלִי שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים, בֵּין מְבֻשָּׁל בִּקְדֵרָה,טו בֵּין חַי לְגַמְרֵי, בֵּין שֶׁהִתְחִיל לִצָּלוֹת אוֹ לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁלטז וְלֹא נִצְלָה וְנִתְבַּשֵּׁל עֲדַיִן כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי:יז,8

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2 All the above applies to the meat of oxen, goats, large rams, or other animals whose meat is tough and will not be spoiled by currents of air.9 In contrast, it is permitted to roast the meat of goat kids, fowl, or other species whose meat is soft and will be adversely affected by currents10 of air on or next to coals in a closed oven,11 even though it is not sealed with mud. [This leniency applies] whether the meat is entirely raw, or partially roasted or cooked, but has not yet reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i, because the person will certainly not open the oven to stir the coals, since the currents of air will adversely affect the meat.

When does the above apply? When the goat kid or the fowl are cut into pieces.12 If, however, they are whole, currents of air will not adversely affect them and the laws that apply to the meat of oxen and goats apply equally to them. As long as their body cavities are intact – even though their heads and legs have been removed – they are considered as whole in this context. For the ribs will protect them from the inside and prevent the currents of air from adversely affecting them.

Nevertheless, if [the meat] was roasted on both sides13 while it was still day [on Friday] so that it reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i,14 it is permitted to leave it [on the coals on Shabbos]15 even if [the animal] is whole.16 [Moreover, this leniency applies] even to [the meat of] oxen and goats, even if it is [not] being roasted in an oven, [but rather] outside on coals17 or next to them.

[Even the authorities who] forbid leaving a pot of food on a range [whose coals] were not removed or covered when it will benefit from further cooking (metzamek viyafeh lo)18 agree that it is permitted to leave roasted meat that is placed directly on the coals [to roast on Shabbos] if it was roasted to the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was still day [on Friday.19 The rationale:] Since it already reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i, if one will stir the coals, the meat will char. However, according to the authorities who forbid leaving a pot of food on a range [at the onset of Shabbos] when it will benefit from further cooking, if the roasted meat is not directly on the coals, it is forbidden to leave it [near the coals] unless it had already roasted to the extent that [further roasting] would be detrimental to it while it is still day [on Friday].20

It has already been explained in that source, that the [prevailing] custom is to follow the view of the authorities who permit leaving a pot [on a range] provided it has been cooked while it was day [on Friday] to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i. According to this ruling, it is permitted to leave meat that was roasted to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was day [on Friday, roasting] next to – and how much more so, actually on – coals, even though it is [not] being roasted in an oven, [but rather in the open]. One must, however, be careful to wait and remove the meat from the coals on Shabbos only after the coals have burnt out. [In that way,] he will not extinguish any [coals] when he removes the meat from them. For [removing the meat] is not analogous to [the case of] a pot, which may be removed from coals on Shabbos, as stated in sec. 253[:11. The rationale for the distinction is that] a pot will not extinguish [the coals] at all, but the meat (– [more specifically,] the juices dripping from it –) will partially extinguish them when it is removed from them.21

ב וְכָל זֶהיח בִּבְשַׂר שׁוֹריט וְעֵז כ אוֹ אַיִל גָּדוֹלכא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִמִּינִים שֶׁבְּשָׂרָם קָשֶׁהכב וְאֵין הָרוּחַ מַזִּיקכג לוֹ,9 אֲבָל בְּשַׂר גְּדִיכד וְעוֹףכה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִמִּינִים שֶׁבְּשָׂרָם רַךְ וְהָרוּחַ מַזִּיק לוֹכו,10 – מֻתָּר לִצְלוֹתוֹ עַל הַגֶּחָלִים אוֹ אֵצֶל הַגֶּחָלִיםכז,6 בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר מְכֻסֶּהכח,11 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ טוּחַ בְּטִיט,כט,9 בֵּין שֶׁהוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי בֵּין שֶׁהִתְחִיל לִצָּלוֹת וְלֹא נִצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי, ל לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יְגַלֶּה פִּי הַתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי לַחְתּוֹת בַּגֶּחָלִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָרוּחַ מַזִּיק לַבָּשָׂר.לא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַגְּדִי וְהָעוֹף הֵם מְנֻתָּחִים לַחֲתִיכוֹת,לב,12 אֲבָל אִם הֵם שְׁלֵמִים אֵין הָרוּחַ מַזִּיק לָהֶם,לג וַהֲרֵי דִינָם כִּבְשַׂר שׁוֹר וְעֵז. וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁחֲלַל הַגּוּף שָׁלֵם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו רֹאשׁוֹ וּכְרָעָיו – נִקְרָא שָׁלֵם לְעִנְיָן זֶה,לד שֶׁהַצְּלָעוֹת מְגִנּוֹת עָלָיו מִבִּפְנִים שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיק לוֹ הָרוּחַ.לה

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נִצְלָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מִשְּׁנֵי צְדָדָיו לו,13 כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי 14 – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹלז,15 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא שָׁלֵם,16 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׂר שׁוֹר וְעֵז, וַאֲפִלּוּ חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר עַל הַגֶּחָלִיםלח,17 אוֹ אֵצֶל הַגֶּחָלִים.לט

וְאַף לְהָאוֹסְרִים מ לְהַשְׁהוֹת קְדֵרָה בְּכִירָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמִּצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹ,18 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּצָלִי שֶׁמֻּנָּח עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁ (א) – מוֹדִים הֵם שֶׁמֻּתָּר כְּשֶׁנִּצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,מא,19 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי, אִם יַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים יַחֲרוֹךְ הַבָּשָׂר.מב

אֲבָל בְּצָלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁ – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ שָׁם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִצְלָה כָּל כָּךְ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עַד שֶׁהוּא מִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ,20 לְהָאוֹסְרִים שָׁם לְהַשְׁהוֹת קְדֵרָה עַל גַּבֵּי כִּירָה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמִּצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹ.מג

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר שָׁםמד,18 שֶׁהַמִּנְהָג כְּהַמַּתִּירִין לְהַשְׁהוֹת קְדֵרָה כֹּל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְׁלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וּלְפִי זֶה, מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַצָּלִי שֶׁנִּצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אַף שֶׁהוּא חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר סָמוּךְ לַגֶּחָלִים, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁ.

רַק שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיַּמְתִּין לְהָסִיר הַבָּשָׂר מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים בְּשַׁבָּת עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁכָּבוּ הַגֶּחָלִים,מה שֶׁלֹּא יְכַבֶּה כְּלוּם בְּסִלּוּקוֹ הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶם,מו שֶׁאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִקְדֵרָה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְסַלְּקָהּ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים בְּשַּׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג,מז לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַקְּדֵרָה מְכַבָּה אוֹתָם כְּלָל, אֲבָל הַבָּשָׂר מְכַבֶּה אוֹתָם קְצָת (בַּמֹּהַל הַנּוֹטֵף מִמֶּנּוּ) בְּסִלּוּקוֹ מֵהֶם:מח,21

3 If a person transgressed – whether willfully or unknowingly – and left meat that was not yet roasted to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i in a place where it is forbidden for it to be left, it is forbidden to be eaten – whether by himself or by others – until Saturday night, after waiting the time it would take to roast it.22

Nevertheless, if he left it in a covered oven – even if it was not sealed with mud23 – it is permitted after the fact. [This leniency applies] even to the meat of oxen or goats. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who permit [doing so] even as an initial preference. They are not concerned that one will uncover the opening of the oven to stir [the coals]. After the fact, one may rely on their words.

Similarly, if one left slices of the meat of goat kids or the like next to coals, but not actually on the coals, even inside an open oven or [on coals that are] not in an oven, but in the open, it may be permitted after the fact.24 [The rationale is that] there are authorities who permit this even as an initial preference. They are not concerned that one may stir the coals because, since the meat is tender, stirring the coals will cause it to char, because it needs only the warmth of the fire.

If, however, meat – even the meat of a goat kid25 – was left on the coals themselves, all authorities agree that it is forbidden, even after the fact, if it was not roasted to the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was still day [on Friday. The rationale is] that since [the meat] was placed directly on the coals, [it is obvious that] the person’s sole concern is that the meat should roast speedily, even if [by doing so] it will char. [Thus there is] the possibility that he will stir [the coals]. When, however, [the meat] has been roasted to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i, since it is [already] somewhat fit to eat in its present state, [we do not suspect that he will] stir [the coals to hasten the roasting process]. Why would he [do so and thereby risk] ruining [the meat]?26 Therefore, it is permitted [to leave such meat] on the coals even according to those authorities who even forbid leaving a pot [on a range] as an initial preference.

ג אִם עָבַר וְהִשְׁהָה צָלִי שֶׁלֹּא נִצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת, בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד – אָסוּר,מט בֵּין לוֹ בֵּין לַאֲחֵרִים, עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ. נ,22

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הִשְׁהָה בְּתַנּוּר מְכֻסֶּה, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ טוּחַ בְּטִיט23 – מֻתָּר בְּדִיעֲבַד, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּשַׂר שׁוֹר וְעֵז,נא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִיםנב אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁיְּגַלֶּה פִּי הַתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי לַחְתּוֹת. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּדִיעֲבַד.נג

וְכֵן אִם הִשְׁהָה בְּשַׂר (ב) גְּדִי מְנֻתָּח וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ אֵצֶל הַגֶּחָלִים וְלֹא עַל הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁ, בֵּין בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר אֲפִלּוּ מְגֻלֶּה, בֵּין חוּץ לַתַּנּוּרנד – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר בְּדִיעֲבַד,24 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִיםנה אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁיַּחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר הוּא רַךְ, אִם יַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים יִתְחָרֵךְ הַבָּשָׂר, שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא חֲמִימוּת הָאֵשׁ בִּלְבָד.

אֲבָל עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׂר גְּדִי25 – אָסוּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,נו אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד, אִם לֹא נִצְלַה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁ אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּצָּלֶה מְהֵרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיִּתְחָרֵךְ, וְשֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁנִּצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי, מֵאַחַר שֶׁרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה קְצָת – לָמָּה יַחְתֶּה לְהַפְסִידוֹ?נז,26 וּלְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהָאוֹסְרִים לְכַתְּחִלָּה אַף בִּקְדֵרָה:נח

4 It is permitted to roast fruits that are [usually] eaten raw, e.g., apples and the like,27 close to nightfall [on Friday], even though there is not sufficient time for them to roast [completely] while it is still day.28 According to our custom explained [above],29 it is permitted to leave them [to roast] even when they are not [resting] on the coals themselves. [The rationale is that] as long as [food] is already roasted to the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i, it is permitted to leave it [to continue to roasting]. And fruits that are eaten raw are no worse than [meat that was] roasted to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i.30

Nevertheless, on Shabbos itself, it is forbidden to put [such fruits] in a place where they can become so hot that a hand would recoil from them.31 It is even forbidden to place them next to an oven before the oven was kindled,32 unless they were roasted to a full extent while it was still day on Friday, as stated in sec. 253[:18, 23]. Even if one insulated them while it was still day [together with] a warm pot by covering [them both] with cloths or other entities that do not increase [the pot’s] heat, and those coverings fell off on Shabbos, it is forbidden to return the coverings and insulate [them both again] if [the fruits] were not roasted to a full extent [by then] and a hand would recoil from that place.33 Similarly, it is forbidden to wrap another cloth [as insulation for the pot] on Shabbos, because one will be hastening [the fruit’s] cooking on Shabbos.

ד פֵּרוֹת הַנֶּאֱכָלִים חַיִּין, כְּגוֹן תַּפּוּחִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם27 – מֻתָּר לִצְלוֹתָם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁהוּת שֶׁיִּצָּלוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם.נט,28 וּמֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁ, לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ29 שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר ס שֶׁכֹּל שֶׁנִּצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ, וּפֵרוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱכָלִים חַיִּין אֵינָן גְּרוּעִים מִצָּלִי שֶׁנִּצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי.סא,30

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָם בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לְהִתְחַמֵּם עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,סב,31 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְסָמְכָם אֵצֶל הַתַּנּוּר קֹדֶם שֶׁיֻּסַּק הַתַּנּוּר אָסוּר,סג,32 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִצְלוּ כָּל צָרְכָּן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג.סד

אֲפִלּוּ אִם הִטְמִינָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵצֶל קְדֵרָה חַמָּה הַמְכֻסָּה בִּבְגָדִים אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל, וּבְשַׁבָּת נָפַל הַכִּסּוּי – אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ כָּל צָרְכָּןסה וְהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם.סו,33 וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהוֹסִיף עוֹד בֶּגֶד אַחֵר בְּשַׁבָּת,סז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּמַהֵר לִגְמוֹר בִּשּׁוּלָם בְּשַׁבָּת:סח

5 In contrast, close to nightfall [on Friday], it is forbidden to roast produce that is not eaten raw – even onions that are occasionally eaten raw,34 but which are not as good when eaten raw as apples and the like – unless there is enough time during the day for it to roast to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i.35 The same laws apply to any food that is not [as] desirable to eat raw.36 If, however, it was not roasted to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was still day [on Friday], it is forbidden to leave it [to roast] in any place where it is forbidden to leave the meat of an ox or a goat that was not roasted to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i.

ה אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵין נֶאֱכָלִים כְּשֶׁהֵם חַיִּים, וַאֲפִלּוּ בָּצָלסט שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים אוֹכְלִים אוֹתוֹ חַי,34 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין טוֹב לְאָכְלוֹ חַי כְּמוֹ תַּפּוּחִים ע וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, וְהוּא הַדִּין כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין טוֹב לְאָכְלוֹ חַיעא,36 – אָסוּר לִצְלוֹתוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיִּצָּלֶה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי.עב,35 אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת בְּשַׂר שׁוֹר וְעֵז שֶׁלֹּא נִצְלָה כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי:

6 Before nightfall [on Friday], it is forbidden to place bread in an oven [similar to one] of the Talmudicera even though [its coals] have been removed or covered (see fig. 5 on the opposite page),37 or in an oven of the present era whose [coals] have not been removed or covered, nor to place a loaf to be baked on [or over] coals,38 unless there is enough time during the day for a crust to form [both] on the side of the loaf that sticks to the oven39 and on the side that faces the cavity of the oven. Similar [laws apply] to a loaf [to be baked over coals. Only] when [the loaf has baked to that extent] are we not concerned that one will stir the coals, [for then he will refrain from doing so] lest he spoil the loaf.40

When dough is filled with meat, fish, (or cheese), both its bottom and upper surface must crust and the filling must cook to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i [for it to be permitted to be left in an oven at the onset of Shabbos]. Whenever a loaf of bread has baked to the extent that if a [piece] is broken off, strands [of dough] will not be drawn after [the piece], one can be certain that its surfaces have crusted to the necessary extent. See sec. 461[:8-9].41

There are authorities who maintain that it is sufficient for the crust to first form on just one of the sides of the loaf [for a loaf to be permitted to be left to bake]. One may rely on their words after the fact, i.e., if one transgressed and put a loaf in an oven close to nightfall [on Friday] and only the side stuck to the oven crusted – for it can be assumed that this side will crust first – it is permitted to eat it on Shabbos. The same [ruling applies when] a crust forms on the side of the loaf that is being a baked facing the coals.

If, however, the surface [of the bread] had not formed a crust at all [before the commencement of Shabbos], it is forbidden [to be eaten] both by [the one who baked it] and by others until Saturday night, after waiting the time it would take to bake.42 [This stringency] applies even if one placed it in the oven directly before nightfall [on Friday] in a manner that, were it to be meat [cooking] in a pot, it would be permitted, even as an initial preference, because it was entirely raw directly before nightfall.43 Nevertheless, this measure is not effective for a loaf of bread or any similar baked goods, e.g., a cake or other dough products that are baked in a pot, because they do not require as much time to bake as meat does to cook. They can bake completely [in time to] be fit [to serve] for the evening meal. [Hence,] there is concern that one may stir the coals to complete baking [these products] for the evening meal.

ו אָסוּר לִתֵּן סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה פַּת לַתַּנּוּרעג שֶׁהָיָה בִּימֵיהֶם35 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא גָרוּף וְקָטוּם,עד,37 אוֹ לְתַנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם,עה וְלֹא חֲרָרָה עַל גַּבֵּי גֶחָלִים,38 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקְרְמוּ פְּנֵי הַפַּתעו,35 הַמְדֻבָּקִים בַּתַּנּוּר39 וּפָנֶיהָ שֶׁל צַד חֲלַל הַתַּנּוּר,עז וְכֵן בַּחֲרָרָה, שֶׁאָז אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה, שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד הַפַּת.עח,40 וְעִסָּה הַמְמֻלָּאָה בְּבָשָׂר אוֹ בְּדָגִים (אוֹ בִּגְבִינָה) – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּקְרְמוּ פָּנֶיהָ מִלְמַעְלָה וּמִלְּמַטָּה וְיִתְבַּשֵּׁל הַמִּלּוּי שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי.עט וְכָל פַּת שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁאִם פּוֹרְסָהּ אֵין חוּטִים נִמְשָׁכִים מִמֶּנָּה, בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁקָּרְמוּ פָּנֶיהָ כָּרָאוּי, פ עַיֵּן סִמָּן תס"א.פא,41

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפב שֶׁאֵיזֶה צַד הַפַּת שֶׁקָּרַם תְּחִלָּה דַּי בְּכָךְ. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁאִם עָבַר וְנָתַן פַּת לַתַּנּוּר סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְלֹא קָרְמוּ אֶלָּא פָּנֶיהָ הַמְדֻבָּקִים בַּתַּנּוּר, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם אוֹתוֹ הַצַּד קָרַם תְּחִלָּה,פג וְכֵן פְּנֵי הַחֲרָרָה שֶׁלְּצַד הַגֶּחָלִיםפד – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְאָכְלָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת.פה

אֲבָל אִם לֹא קָרְמוּ פָנֶיהָ כְּלָל – אֲסוּרָה בֵּין לוֹ בֵּין לַאֲחֵרִים עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ,פו,42 אֲפִלּוּ נְתָנָהּ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁפז בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה גַּבֵּי בָּשָׂר שֶׁבִּקְדֵרָה הָיָה מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה,פח,43 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּפַת וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה כְּגוֹן עוּגָה וּמִינֵי בָצֵק שֶׁאוֹפִין בִּקְדֵרָהפט – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן אֵינָן צְרִיכִים שָׁהוּת גָּדוֹל לַאֲפִיָּת[ן] צ כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבִשּׁוּל בָּשָׂר, וִיכוֹלִין הֵן לְהִגָּמֵר שֶׁיְּהוּ רְאוּיִין לִסְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה, וְיֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים לִגְמוֹר אֲפִיָּתָן לְצֹרֶךְ סְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה:

Fig. 5: An Oven of the Talmudic Era Whose Coals have been Covered
Fig. 5: An Oven of the Talmudic Era Whose Coals have been Covered

7 When does the above apply? When the person willfully placed [the bread in the oven in violation of the prohibition against doing so directly before Shabbos]. If, however, he did so unknowingly, he may remove44 enough bread from the oven for the three Shabbos meals45 if he has no other bread for Shabbos. He may also tell others who do not have bread for Shabbos:“Come and remove bread for three meals for yourselves.”

[However,] when removing the bread, he should not remove it with a baker’s peel,46 but rather with a knife47 or the like, so that he will not be following his ordinary weekday practice. If he cannot remove the bread in an unusual manner, he may remove it with a baker’s peel, as is his ordinary practice.

ז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? שֶׁנְּתָנָהּ בְּמֵזִיד,צא אֲבָל אִם הָיָה שׁוֹגֵג – מֻתָּר לוֹ לִרְדוֹת44 מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי מָזוֹן שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת שֶׁל שַׁבָּתצב,45 אִם אֵין לוֹ פַּת אַחֶרֶת לְשַׁבָּת.צג וְיָכוֹל לוֹמַר לַאֲחֵרִיםצד שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם פַּת לְשַׁבָּת:צה "בֹּאוּ וּרְדו ּ44 לָכֶם מָזוֹן שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת".

וּכְשֶׁהוּא רוֹדֶה – לֹא יִרְדֶּה בְּמִרְדֶּה,46 אֶלָּא בְּסַכִּיןצו,47 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל.צז וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִרְדּוֹת בְּשִׁנּוּי – יָכוֹל לִרְדּוֹת בְּמִרְדֶּה כְּדַרְכּוֹ:צח

8 Why did [our Sages] not penalize one who unknowingly [baked bread in violation of our Sages’ prohibition] in the same manner that they penalized one who unknowingly left food cooking [on a range48 in violation of our Sages’ prohibition? In the latter instance, the law is much more stringent.] Even if one has no other cooked food, [the food he left on the range is still forbidden. In resolution, it can be explained that] the obligation to eat cooked food on Shabbos is not that great an imperative.49 Without bread, by contrast, it is impossible to fulfill the mitzvah of [eating] three meals on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 274[:5].50

Nevertheless, if one has nothing else to eat except the cooked food that he unknowingly left [on the range in violation of our Sages’ prohibition], he is permitted to partake of it [in order to] honor the Shabbos, because it is forbidden to fast on [Shabbos], as will be explained in sec. 288[:1, 7].

If a person has a large piece of bread that is sufficient for three meals, he is forbidden on Shabbos to partake of bread that was baked in violation [of our Sages’ prohibition] so that he will be able to recite the blessing [Ha­Motzi] on two whole loaves.51 [This is nevertheless forbidden,] since it is possible to fulfill the fundamental mitzvah of [eating] three meals on Shabbos without this bread.52

ח וְלָמָּה לֹא קָנְסוּ עַל הַשּׁוֹגֵג כְּמוֹ שֶׁקָּנְסוּ עַל הַמַּשְׁהֶה תַּבְשִׁיל בְּשׁוֹגֵגצט,48 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל אַחֵר? לְפִי שֶׁאֵין חִיּוּב כָּל כָּךְ לֶאֱכוֹל תַּבְשִׁיל בְּשַׁבָּת, ק,49 אֲבָל בְּלֹא פַת אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת,קא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ד.קב,50

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין לוֹ מַה לֶּאֱכוֹל כְּלָל בְּשַׁבָּת כִּי אִם אוֹתוֹ הַתַּבְשִׁיל בִּלְבָד שֶׁהִשְׁהָה בְּשׁוֹגֵג – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁאָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בּוֹ,קג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רפ"ח.קד

וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ חֲתִיכַת פַּת גְּדוֹלָה מַסְפֶּקֶת לְשָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת – אָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת מִפַּת זוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית בְּאִסּוּר כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ עַל לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה שְׁלֵמִים,51 כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר מִצְוַת שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם בְּלֹא פַּת זוֹ:קה,52

Fig. 6: A Baker’s Peel
Fig. 6: A Baker’s Peel
Fig. 7: An Oven Prevalent in Eastern Europe
Fig. 7: An Oven Prevalent in Eastern Europe

9 The necessity of removing [bread] in an unusual manner applies only when [the bread] was baked in violation of a prohibition. If, however, it was baked in a permitted manner, e.g., its surface crusted while it was still day [on Friday], or it was baked in an oven of the present era, whose [coals] were removed or covered, or the opening of the oven was closed and sealed with mud, in which instances there is no concern that one will stir the coals as stated above,53 it is permitted to remove the loaves with a baker’s peel in the ordinary manner. [The rationale for the leniency is that the loaves] are a Shabbos necessity, because the person does not have other bread.54 If he does have other bread, he is forbidden to remove the bread with a baker’s peel, even in an unusual manner, for removing bread is forbidden according to Rabbinic decree55 and license was granted only [when the bread was] a Shabbos necessity.

When does the above apply? To the ovens of the Talmudicera that were like large pots. The people of that era would attach loaves of bread to the walls of the ovens, so [it was necessary to] peel the loaves off. By contrast, with regard to our ovens, in which the loaves of bread rest on the floor of the oven, it is not [necessary to] peel them off. [Therefore,] it is permitted to remove any loaf of bread that was baked in a permitted manner even when one has other bread.56 Nevertheless, one should not remove [a loaf] with a baker’s shovel, so that he not follow his ordinary weekday practice. Instead, he should stick a knife or the like into the loaf [and remove it] or remove it with a staff.

ט לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ לִרְדּוֹת בְּשִׁנּוּי אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית בְּאִסּוּר, אֲבָל אִם נֶאֱפֵית בְּהֶתֵּר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁקָּרְמוּ פָנֶיהָ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קו אוֹ בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ הַגָּרוּף וְקָטוּם, אוֹ שֶׁפִּי הַתַּנּוּר מְכֻסֶּה וְטוּחַ בְּטִיט,קז שֶׁאָז אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְחִתּוּי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקח,53 – מֻתָּר לִרְדּוֹת בְּמִרְדֶּה כְּדַרְכּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת,קט שֶׁאֵין לוֹ פַּת אַחֶרֶת.קי,54 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ פַּת אַחֶרֶת – אָסוּר לִרְדּוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּשִּׁינוּי,קיא שֶׁרְדִיַּת הַפַּת הִיא אֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קיב,55 וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהָ אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת.קיג

בַּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּתַנּוּרִים שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם, שֶׁהָיָה כְּעֵין קְדֵרָה וְהָיוּ מַדְבִּיקִים פַּת לְדָפְנֵי הַתַּנוּרקיד וְשַׁיָּךְ בָּהֶם רְדִיָּה.קטו אֲבָל בַּתַּנּוּרִים שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁהַפַּת מֻנַּחַת עַל שׁוּלֵי הַתַּנּוּר – לֹא שַׁיָּךְ בָּהֶם כְּלָל רְדִיָּה, וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵהַתַּנּוּרקטז כָּל הַפַּת שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית בְּהֶתֵּר,קיז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פַּת אַחֶרֶת.קיח,56 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יוֹצִיא בְּרַחַת, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחֹל, אֶלָּא יִתְחוֹב בָּהּ סַכִּין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ,קיט אוֹ יוֹצִיאָהּ בְּמַקֵּל:קכ

10 When is [the above leniency to remove bread from an oven on Shabbos] granted? When one intends to eat it on Shabbos, even though he does not need it because he has other bread available. If, by contrast, he does not intend to eat it [on Shabbos], it is forbidden to remove it, even if he does so in an unusual manner. For it is forbidden to prepare on Shabbos for the weekdays,57 even [by performing an activity] that is not at all associated with forbidden labor, but merely involves carrying [an article within one’s home], e.g., bringing wine from the cellar to the house on Shabbos for the sake of Havdalah on Saturday nightand the like,58 as will be explained in sec. 503[:3], with regard to festivals. Consult that source.59

י בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת מֵהַפַּת שֶׁמּוֹצִיא, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לָהּ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אַחֶרֶת. אֲבָל אִם אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל מִמֶּנָּה – אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאָהּקכא אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי, שֶׁאָסוּר לְהָכִין מִשַּׁבָּת לְחֹל57 אֲפִלּוּ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם סֶרֶךְ מְלָאכָה אֶלָּא טִלְטוּל בְּעָלְמָא, כְּגוֹן לְהָבִיא יַיִן מֵהַמַּרְתֵּף לַבַּיִת בְּשַׁבָּת לְצֹרֶךְ הַבְדָּלָה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,קכב וְכָל כַּיוֹצֵא בָזֶה,58 וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"גקכג לְעִנְיַן יוֹם טוֹב, עַיֵּן שָׁם:59

11 Even if a person does not have the intent to partake of the bread on Shabbos, it is forbidden for him to put it into an oven of the present era, from which [the coals] have not been removed or covered, so close to nightfall [on Friday] that there is not enough time for a crust to form while it is still day, even though he is baking it for the sake of Saturday night and it can bake [completely] during the duration of Shabbos without [him] stirring the coals. Nevertheless, there is concern that perhaps he will change his mind [and decide] to partake of it on Shabbos, for he is permitted to remove it from the ovens of the present era, because the concept of peeling a loaf [from the side of an oven] is not germane [at present]. Since he may have the intent of partaking of [the loaf], he might forget and stir the coals to cause its baking process to complete [faster]. For this [same] reason, it is forbidden to leave a dish [to cook] for the morning meal in any place that it is forbidden to leave it [to cook] for the evening meal,60 because of a Rabbinic decree, lest he stir the coals, as explained in sec. 253[:1ff.], even though by the morning meal, it can be [fully] cooked without one stirring the coals.

יא אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהַפַּת בְּשַׁבָּת – אָסוּר לִתְּנָהּ לְתַנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאֵין שָׁהוּת שֶׁיִּקְרְמוּ פָנֶיהָ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אוֹפֶה אוֹתָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, וּבְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהֵאָפוֹת בְּלֹא חִתּוּי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִמָּלֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ לְאָכְלָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִתַּנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ רְדִיָּה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה דַעְתּוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְאָכְלָהּ, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים לִגְמוֹר אֲפִיָּתָהּ,קכד שֶׁמִּטַּעַם זֶה אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת תַּבְשִׁיל לְצֹרֶךְ סְעֻדַּת שַׁחֲרִיתקכה בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ סְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה,60 מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג,קכו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַד סְעֻדַּת שַׁחֲרִית יוּכַל לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּלֹא חִתּוּי:

12 When a person placed a loaf of bread into a [burning] oven on Shabbos itself, whether he did so in unknowing or willful violation of the prohibition, and changed his mind and decided to remove it from the oven before it bakes,61 he is permitted to remove it,62 even though he has no use for it on Shabbos because it is not fit to eat.63[Moreover, the leniency applies] even with regard to the ovens of the [Talmudic] era, in which instance, the loaves were removed with a baker’s peel. [Although the removal of bread in this manner is forbidden,]64 our Sages permitted a person to violate a Rabbinic prohibition so that he would not become liable for a prohibition punishable by execution by stoning or requiring atonement through a sin-offering.65 Nevertheless, if it is possible for him to remove it [from the oven] by deviating from his ordinary practice, he should make such a deviation.66

License was not, however, granted for another person to remove the loaf67 – even if he deviates from his ordinary practice – in order to prevent the first person from becoming liable for a sin-offering or for execution by stoning. For [in such an instance] a person is not told: “Sin so that your friend will merit,” since his friend transgressed by putting the loaf into the oven.68 See sec. 306[:29].69

יב מִי שֶׁנָּתַן פַּת לַתַּנּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ,קכז בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵגקכח בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד,קכט וְנִמְלַךְ לִרְדּוֹתָהּקל מֵהַתַּנּוּר קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּאָפֶה61 – מֻתָּר לוֹ לִרְדּוֹתָהּ,62 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ צֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה,קלא,63 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּתַנּוּרִים שֶׁלָּהֶם שֶׁשַּׁיָּךְ בָּהֶם רְדִיָּה,64 שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים אִסּוּר שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי אִסּוּר סְקִילָהקלב אוֹ לִידֵי אִסּוּר חַטָּאת.קלג,65 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִרְדּוֹת עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי – יְשַׁנֶּה.קלד,66

אֲבָל לְאָדָם אַחֵר לֹא הִתִּירוּ לִרְדּוֹתקלה,67 אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא חֲבֵרוֹ לִידֵי חִיּוּב חַטָּאת אוֹ סְקִילָה, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים לְאָדָם: "חֲטֵא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה חֲבֵרְךָ",קלו כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ פָּשַׁע בְּמַה שֶּׁנָּתַן הַפַּת לַתַּנּוּר,קלז,68 עַיֵּין סוֹף סִמָּן ש"[ו]:קלח,69

13 A person may not fill a pot with beans, vetch,70 or other kitniyos,71 and place it on a range72 or in an oven of the present era that is not sealed with mud if [their] coals were not removed or covered, unless there is enough time during the day [on Friday] for them to cook to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i, according to the [prevailing] custom.73 If, however, there is not enough time in the day [for them to cook to that degree], it is forbidden to leave them there, even directly before darkness, in a situation where, were it meat [that was placed on the range], it would be permitted to leave it there since it was entirely raw directly before nightfall and it could not completely [cook in time] for the evening meal.74 All types of kitniyos, by contrast, cook rapidly and could be ready for the evening meal. The same laws apply to all types of vegetables.75

If a person transgressed and left [beans or vegetables on such a cooking surface], whether unknowingly or willfully, and they did not cook to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was still day [on Friday], they are forbidden to be eaten until Saturday night, after waiting the time it would take for them to cook.76

יג לֹא יְמַלֵּא אָדָם קְדֵרָה עֲסָסִיּוֹת וְתוּרְמָסִיןקלט,70 אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹתקמ,71 וְיַנִּיחַ עַל גַּבֵּי כִּירָה72 אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ טוּחַ בְּטִיטקמא אִם אֵינָ[ן] גְרוּפִים וּקְטוּמִים,קמב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ.קמג,73 אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם כָּל כָּךְ – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָהּ שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ, בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה בְּבָשָׂר מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ שָׁם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְלֹא יוּכַל לְהִגָּמֵר עוֹד לִסְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה,קמד,74 אֲבָל כָּל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת הֵם מְמַהֲרִים לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל, וִיכוֹלִין לְהִגָּמֵר לִסְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה.קמה וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכָל מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת.קמו,75

וְאִם עָבַר וְהִנִּיחָהּ שָׁם, בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵגקמז בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד, וְלֹא נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסַָאִיקמח מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אֲסוּרִים עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ:קמט,76

14 The same laws apply when one places water in a pot to warm in an oven of the present era, from which [the coals] were not removed or covered, ([doing so] for drinking purposes or even) for the sake of washing dishes on Shabbos.77As an initial preference,78 the pot must be placed there early enough in the day [on Friday] so that, according our custom, there will be enough time during the day that it will be able to warm to half79[the extent it was intended to] warm,80 or so that it will warm to the full extent according to the authorities who forbid leaving a dish that was cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i or even it was cooked entirely, unless further cooking would cause it to deteriorate (metzamek vira lo). Hot water is also considered a substance that further cooking causes to deteriorate.81

One should not place it on [the cooking surface] directly before nightfall, because water also warms quickly.82 True, water is also fit to drink when cold. Nevertheless, like fruits that [are not as desirable] when eaten raw, [water] is not as desirable [when cold], as explained above.83

If a person transgressed and left [water on such a cooking surface], whether unknowingly or willfully, and it did not warm to one-third84 of the desired heat while it was still day [on Friday], it is forbidden [to be used] until Saturday night after waiting the time it would take to warm.85

יד וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּנוֹתֵן מַיִם בִּקְדֵרָה לְחַמְּמָם קנ לְתַנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּםקנא (ג) (לְצֹרֶךְ שְׁתִיָּהקנב אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ) לְצֹרֶךְ הֲדָחַת כֵּלִיםקנג בְּשַׁבָּת,קנד,77 שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ שָׁם הַקְּדֵרָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לְהִתְחַמֵּם חֲצִי79 הַחִמּוּםקנה,80 לְכַתְּחִלָּהקנו,78 לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ,קנז אוֹ שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ כָּל צָרְכָּם לְהָאוֹסְרִיםקנח לְהַשְׁהוֹת שָׁם תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כָּל צָרְכּוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ, וְהַמַּיִם חַמִּין גַּם כֵּן מִצְטַמְּקִין וְרַע לָהֶן.קנט,81

אֲבָל לֹא יַנִּיחֶנָּה שָׁם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ,קס שֶׁהַמַּיִם גַּם כֵּן הֵם מְמַהֲרִים לְהִתְחַמֵּם.קסא,82 וְאַף שֶׁהַמַּיִם רְאוּיִים לִשְׁתִיָּה גַּם כְּשֶׁהֵם צוֹנְנִים,קסב מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינָם טוֹבִים כָּל כָּךּ כְּפֵרוֹת הַנֶּאֱכָלִים חַיִּיםקסג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קסד,83 וְאִם עָבַר וְהִנִּיחַ שָׁם, בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵגקסה בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד, וְלֹא נִתְחַמְּמוּ שְׁלִישׁ84 חִמּוּמָםקסו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אֲסוּרִים עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ:קסז,85

15 Before nightfall [on Friday], it is forbidden to place water in the pot that is permanently affixed in the winter oven86 unless there is enough time for it to reach half the desired temperature while it is still day.87 True, the [primary] intent [of the person placing the water there] is so the pot will not crack. Nevertheless, since he also desires to use this water to wash dishes – for it is common to wash dishes with such water – there is concern that he will stir the coals.

(Even though it is permitted to place [food or water] next to an oven whose [coals] were not removed or covered, as explained in sec. 253[:20], since this pot is suspended over the coals of the fire, it is considered as if one is in fact placing [the water] above the coals.)88

If one transgressed and placed water there [on Friday], even unknowingly, and it did not warm to one-third of the desired heat while it was still day, it is forbidden even to use it to wash dishes until Saturday night, after waiting the time it would take to warm. (Nevertheless, if the water was placed there before the oven was kindled, there is room for leniency if one acted unknowingly.)89

טו אָסוּר לִתֵּן מַיִם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה לְתוֹךְ קְדֵרָה הַקְּבוּעָה בְּתוֹךְ תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף,קסח,86 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁהוּת שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לְהִתְחַמֵּם חֲצִי חִמּוּמָם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,קסט,87 שֶׁאַף שֶׁכַּוָּנָתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תִבָּקַע הַקְּדֵרָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָפֵץ גַּם כֵּן בַּמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ שֶׁיִּתְחַמְּמוּ כְּדֵי לְהָדִיחַ בָּהֶם כֵּלִים בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הוּא לְהָדִיחַ בָּהֶם – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים.קע

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ אֵצֶל תַּנּוּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ג,קעא מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁקְּדֵרָה זוֹ בּוֹלֶטֶת עַל הַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁבַּתַּנּוּר – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַשְׁהֶה עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים מַמָּשׁקעב).88

וְאִם עָבַר וְנָתַן, אֲפִלּוּ בְּשׁוֹגֵג, וְלֹא נִתְחַמְּמוּ שְׁלִישׁ חִמּוּמָםקעג מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהָדִיחַ בָּהֶם כֵּלִים עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ.קעד

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נְתָנָם שָׁם קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר – אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהָקֵל אִם הָיָה שׁוֹגֵגקעה):89