SECTION 253 The Laws Governing the Placement of Pots on a Cooking Range and on Top of an Oven on Friday (1-29)

סימן רנג דִּין כִּירָה וְתַנּוּר לִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ הַקְּדֵרוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ''ט סְעִיפִים:

1 [The term] kirah (“cooking range”)1 refers to an object made2 [in the shape of] a large pot into which, on its floor, kindling [fuel] is placed.3 Pots are placed on its opening above. It is long and narrow [in width],4 with space for two pots above.

If [the range] is being heated with olive wastes5 or with wood, it is forbidden to place an [insufficiently cooked dish] – i.e., a dish that by nightfall Friday6 has not cooked sufficiently to reach the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i – upon [the range] while it is still day [on Friday], with the intent that it remain on the range7 for the sake of the [meal on Friday] night or until the [meal of the] next day.8 ([The term maachal ben Derusai’i means “the food of ben Derusai’i,” i.e., ben Derusai’iwas] the name of a [known] robber who would eat his food even though it was not thoroughly cooked.)9 [The rationale for this prohibition is that the Sages were concerned that a person] might stir10 (and turn over) the [glowing] coals11 with a fire-tool on Shabbos12[to hasten] the completion of the cooking of his food.

[Leniency is granted]13 when the range is gerufah, i.e., one swept out all of the [glowing] coals14 or [alternately,] ketumah, he covered the [glowing] coals with ashes to reduce their heat.15 [In the latter instance,] they need not be covered to the extent that no evidence at all remains that there was a fire there. Instead, even a very minimal covering is sufficient. Even if the coals flare up afterwards on their own accord, it is of no consequence. Since he already revealed his intention while it was still day [on Friday] that he had no [further] need for the coals, there is no longer concern that he will stir them on Shabbos.

Coals that have [begun to burn out and have] dimmed are considered as if they have been covered with ashes.16

א כִּירָה א,1 שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה2 כְּעֵין קְדֵרָה ב גְדוֹלָה וּמַסִּיקִין אוֹתָהּ בְּתוֹכָהּ עַל שׁוּלֶיהָ3 וְשׁוֹפְתִין עַל פִּיהָ קְדֵרָה לְמַעְלָה ג וְהִיא אֲרֻכָּה וּקְצָרָה ד,4 וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ לְמַעְלָה מְקוֹם שְׁפִיתַת ב' קְדֵרוֹת ה אִם הֻסְּקָה בְּגֶפֶת ו,5 שֶׁהוּא פְּסֹלֶת שֶׁל זֵיתִיםז אוֹ בְּעֵצִים אָסוּר לִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ תַּבְשִׁיל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עָלֶיהָ ח,7 לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה ט אוֹ עַד לְמָחָר י,8 אִם כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַלַּיְלָה יא,6 אֵין הַתַּבְשִׁיל מְבֻשָּׁל עֲדַיִן כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי יב (פֵּרוּשׁ שֵׁם אָדָם לִסְטִים יג שֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל תַּבְשִׁילוֹ אַף שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ יד)9 שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה טו (פֵּרוּשׁ יְנַעֵר טז)10 וִיהַפֵּךְ הַגֶּחָלִים11 בְּמַחְתָּה יז בְּשַׁבָּת יח,12 לִגְמוֹר בִּשּׁוּלו ֹיט אֶלָּא13 אִם כֵּן הַכִּירָה הִיא גְרוּפָה כ דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁגָּרַף מִמֶּנָּה כָּל הַגֶּחָלִים לַחוּץ כא,14 אוֹ שֶׁהִיא קְטוּמָה כב דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכִּסָּה הַגֶּחָלִים בָּאֵפֶר לְמַעֵט חֻמָּם כג,15 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִקְטוֹם עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה נִכָּר שָׁם אֵשׁ כְּלָל אֶלָּא דַּי בִּקְטִימָה כָּל שֶׁהוּאכד וַאֲפִלּוּ הֻבְעֲרוּ הַגֶּחָלִים אַחַר כָּךְ מֵאֲלֵיהֶם אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּםכה דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁגִּלָּה דַעְתּוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַגֶּחָלִים שׁוּב אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בְּשַׁבָּתכו וְהַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁעָמְמוּ הֲרֵי הֵן כִּקְטוּמָה:כז,16

Fig. 3: A Range
Fig. 3: A Range

2 If [the range] was heated with straw or stubble, it is permitted to leave a [cooked dish] on it even though the [glowing] coals have neither been removed nor covered. [The rationale is that] coals from straw and stubble have no substance at all and there is no concern that the person will stir them.17

ב וְאִם הֻסְּקָה בְּקַשׁ וּבִגְבָבָא מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עָלֶיהָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וְלֹא קְטוּמָהכח,13 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בְּגַחֲלֵי הַקַּשׁ וְהַגְּבָבָא מַמָּשׁוּת כְּלָל וְאֵין לָחוּשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה:כט,17

3 Even if olive wastes or wood were used as kindling [for a range],18 it is permitted to place a pot near it – but outside of it – while it is still day [on Friday]19 and leave it there for the sake of that night’s [meal] or until the next day,20 even if the dish will not have been cooked to the extent of maachal ben Derusai’i by nightfall. There is no concern that perhaps the person will stir the coals that are in the range to speed the cooking process of the pot that is outside of it, [because his act will be largely futile]; stirring the coals will not be that effective for [this pot].

[The following laws apply when] two matching ranges are positioned next to each other and there is an earthenware wall between them.21 If the coals have been removed from one of them or covered, but neither of these activities were performed for the second, it is permitted to leave food on the range from which the coals were removed or covered, even though its warmth is increased by the [adjacent] range from which the coals were not removed or covered. This situation is considered as analogous to leaving a pot next to – but outside of – [a range] from which the coals were neither removed nor covered.

ג וַאֲפִלּוּ הֻסְּקָה בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִים18 מֻתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ לָהּ קְדֵרָה ל בְּסָמוּךְ חוּצָה לָהּלא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםלב,19 לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ שָׁם לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה אוֹ עַד לְמָחָר20 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַלַּיְלָה לֹא נִתְבַּשְּׁלָה עֲדַיִן כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִילג וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בְּגֶחָלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכִּירָה כְּדֵי לְמַהֵר בִּשּׁוּל הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁחוּצָה לָהּ שֶׁאֵין חִתּוּי זֶה מוֹעִיל לָהּ כָּל כָּךְ.

וּשְׁתֵּי כִירוֹת הַמַּתְאִימוֹת זוֹ אֵצֶל זוֹ וְדֹפֶן שֶׁל חֶרֶס מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם21 הָאֶחָד גְּרוּפָה אוֹ קְטוּמָה וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה אֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וְלֹא קְטוּמָה מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי הַגְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל מִשֶּׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָהלד,20 לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּסוֹמֵךְ חוּצָה לָהּ לְשֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה:לה

Fig. 4: An Oven of the Talmudic Era
Fig. 4: An Oven of the Talmudic Era

4 [The following law applies when] an oven is made like a large pot that is wide at the bottom and narrow at the top,22 so that, as a result, the heat inside of it is more concentrated than that of a range: It is forbidden to even place a pot next to it if the area is so hot that a hand would recoil from touching it [yad soledes bo].23 [This restriction applies] even if the [glowing] coals were removed or covered, and/or24 straw or stubble were used as kindling fuel. Needless to say, [it is forbidden] to leave food on it or in it [for the Shabbos meals]. Since the air within it is very hot, the person will not divert his attention from it25 and there is concern that he will stir this small fire even though it is from straw or stubble and covered with ash.

ד וְתַנּוּרלו שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי כְּעֵין קְדֵרָה גְדוֹלָהלז רָחָב לְמַטָּה וְצָר לְמַעְלָה22 וּמִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ נִקְלָט חֻמּוֹ לְתוֹכוֹ יוֹתֵר מִבַּכִּירָהלח אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לִסְמוֹךְ לוֹלט אִם הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת23 שָׁם מ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא גָרוּף וְקָטוּםמא וַאֲפִלּוּ24 הֻסַּק בְּקַשׁ אוֹ בִּגְבָבָאמב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְהַשְׁהוֹת עַל גַּבָּיו אוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹמג דְּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהַבְלוֹ חַם בְּיוֹתֵר אֵינוֹ מַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ25 וְחוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בְּזוֹ הָאֵשׁ הַמְּעֻטָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא אֵשׁ קַשׁ וּגְבָבָא וּמְכֻסָּה בָּאֵפֶר:מד

5 Why did [the Sages] forbid [leaving food on] an oven from which [the glowing coals] were removed?26 Because one can only remove the majority and the more intense [sources of] fire. It is, however, impossible to remove all [the sources of] fire so that not even one spark remains. Since the air [within the oven] is extremely hot,27 there is reason for concern that a person will stir [the glowing coals] to cause the remaining sparks to flare.

If the [oven’s] temperature has cooled to the extent that a hand would no longer recoil from touching it, it is permitted to leave food within it [before Shabbos to preserve its heat].28 Certainly, it is permitted to leave food on top of it or outside of it, next to it, if a hand would not recoil from touching the place where it is placed. [Indeed,] even on Shabbos itself, it is permitted to place food there.

(On Shabbos, it is forbiddento place even food that was entirely cooked within the oven itself or within a kirah [cooking range] itself, by contrast, even if [the glowing coals of the kirah] were removed or covered and a hand would not recoil from the heat,) as will be explained.29

ה וְלָמָה אָסְרוּ בְּתַנּוּר הַגָּרוּף26 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַגּוֹרֵף אֵינוֹ גוֹרֵף אֶלָּא רֹב הָאֵשׁ וִעַצְמָהּמה וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִגְרוֹף כָּל הָאֵשׁ עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִשָּׁאֵר נִיצוֹץ אֶחָד וּמִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַבְלוֹ חַם בְּיוֹתֵר27 יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה לְהַבְעִיר הַנִּיצוֹצוֹת הַנִּשְׁאָרוֹת בַּתַּנּוּר.מו

וְאִם נִתְקָרֵר (א) הַבְלוֹ עַד שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת שָׁם בְּתוֹכוֹמז,28 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת עַל גַּבָּיו אוֹ לִסְמוֹךְ חוּצָה לוֹ אִם אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמַּשְׁהֶה וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת שָׁםמח (אֲבָל בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּרמט מַמָּשׁ אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַכִּירָה אָסוּר לִתֵּן שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן גְּרוּפִים וּקְטוּמִים וְגַם אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בָּהֶם כְּלָל) כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: נ,29

6 A kufach is [a cooking implement] made in a manner similar to a kirah,30except that its top only has space for one pot. As a result, its heat is greater than that of a kirah, but less than that of an oven. If it was kindled with straw or stubble, it is governed by the laws applying to a kirah heated with straw or stubble.31 If it was kindled with olive wastes or wood, all of the laws applying to an oven apply to it.

ו וְכֻפָּחנא שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי כְּכִירָהנב,30 אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ לְמַעְלָה רַק מְקוֹם שְׁפִיתַת קְדֵרָה אַחַתנג וּמִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ חֻמּוֹ גָדוֹל מֵחֹם הַכִּירָה אֲבָל פָּחוֹת הוּא מִן חֹם הַתַּנּוּרנד אִם הֻסַּק בְּקַשׁ אוֹ בִּגְבָבָא דִּינוֹ כְּכִירָהנה שֶׁהֻסְּקָה בְּקַשׁ וּגְבָבָאנו,31 וְאִם הֻסְּקָה בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִים דִּינוֹ כְּתַנּוּרנז לְכָל דָּבָר:נח

7 The air inside our ovens32 that open on the side is not as hot as the air that was inside the ovens of the [Talmudic] era, nor are they as hot as a kufach, since they are wider than [the space necessary to place upon them] one pot. Therefore they are governed by the laws applying to a kirah with regard to all matters.

ז וְהַתַּנּוּרִים שֶׁלָּנוּנט,32 שֶׁפִּתְחָם מִן הַצַּד ס אֵין הַבְלָם (מְרֻבֶּה) חַם כָּל כָּךְ כְּהֶבֶל הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶםסא וְלֹא כְּהֶבֶל הַכֻּפָּח הוֹאִיל וְהֵן רְחָבִים יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁפִיתַת קְדֵרָה אַחַתסב וּלְפִיכָךְ הֲרֵי דִּינָם שָׁוֶה לְכִירָה לְכָל דָּבָר:

8 All of the above applies when [the food]33 already begins cooking while it is still day, but has not yet reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i.34If, however, [the food] is entirely raw, one is permitted to place it even in an oven35 which was heated with olive wastes or wood from which [the glowing coals] have neither been removed nor covered. There is no suspicion that he will stir the coals on Shabbos, since it is raw at the time [when Shabbos begins]. Hence, he removes his attention from it until the next day. For at night, it will not be fit [for consumption] even if one stirs the coals. And [if it remains there] throughout the night until the following day, it will be [thoroughly] cooked [on its own accord], without the [necessity of the] coals being stirred at all.36

Nevertheless, one must place [the food in the oven] very close to nightfall.37 For if he places [the food] in the oven while it is still day, it would have already been somewhat cooked before the onset of Shabbos and it must be removed38 before nightfall, unless it has already reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i before the onset of Shabbos. [Only] then is there no concern about stirring [the coals], because [the food] is able to fully cook for the night meal, even without stirring [the coals], since it was already half-cooked39 while it was still day. Moreover, it is already fit to be eaten with difficulty due to the extent that it was cooked while it was still day.40

Even if one places only a single raw piece [of meat] in a pot that already began to cook, it is permitted [to leave the pot in an oven on Friday] as if its entire [contents] were raw, since he diverts his attention from the entire pot until the following day because of that [raw] piece of meat.

All the above applies [exclusively] to raw meat, since it cannot possibly be cooked enough [in this limited amount of time and be] ready for the night [meal]. In contrast, it is forbidden to leave [a pot in an oven or on a range, even if one puts in] a raw vegetable and the like, unless [its contents] have already reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i while it was still day.41 For even though it is now raw, it can cook sufficiently [in this short amount of time to be edible] at night. [As such, the person] will not divert his attention from it until the following day.42

ח וְכָל זֶה33 כְּשֶׁכְּבָר הִתְחִיל לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֶלָּא שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי34 אֲבָל אִם הוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי מֻתָּר לִתְּנוֹסג אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר35 שֶׁהֻסַּק בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִים וְאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּםסד וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הוּא חַי הוּא מַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד לְמָחָר שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה לֹא יִהְיֶה רָאוּי עֲדַיִן אַף אִם יַחְתֶּה בְּגֶחָלִים וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה עַד לְמָחָר יוּכַל לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל אַף בְּלֹא חִתּוּי כְּלָל.סה,36

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּתְּנֶנּוּ שָׁם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁסו,37 שֶׁאִם נְתָנוֹ שָׁם מִבְעוֹד יוֹם כְּבָר נִתְבַּשֵּׁל קְצָת קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת שַׁבָּת וְצָרִיךְ לְסַלְּקוֹ38 מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָהסז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּבָר כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּתסח שֶׁאָז אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְחִתּוּי שֶׁאַף בְּלֹא חִתּוּי יְכוֹלָה לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכָּהּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָהסט כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה כְּבָר חֲצִי בִשּׁוּלָהּ ע,39 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְגַם הִיא רְאוּיָה כְּבָר לְהֵאָכֵל עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחַקעא בְּבִשּׁוּל זֶה שֶׁמִּבְּעוֹד יוֹם.עב,40

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא נָתַן אֶלָּא חֲתִיכָה אַחַת חַיָּה בַּקְּדֵרָה שֶׁהִתְחִילָה כְּבָר לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל מֻתָּרעג כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה כֻלָּהּ חַיָּהעד לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי אוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה מַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִכָּל הַקְּדֵרָה עַד לְמָחָר.עה

וְכָל זֶה בְּבָשָׂר חַיעו שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל עוֹד לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה אֲבָל יָרָק חַי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹעז אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹעח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם41 לְפִי שֶׁאַף שֶׁהוּא חַי עַכְשָׁו יָכוֹל הוּא לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל לְצֹרֶךְ הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵינוֹ מַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד לְמָחָר:עט,42

9 There are other authorities who maintain that even if a cooked dish reached the state of maachal ben Derusai’i, and moreover, even if it was entirely cooked, but will benefit from further cooking (metztamek viyafeh lo),43 i.e., a person will consider it desirable and be happy that the dish cooked further, we are concerned that he might stir [the coals] on Shabbos to hasten its cooking or so that it will cook further. Therefore, it is governed by the same laws that apply to a cooked dish that has begun to cook, but has not reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i, as explained above.44

It has already become widespread custom to rule leniently and follow the first opinion.45

ט וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים פ שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹ43 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיָּפֶה לוֹ לְאָדָם וְשָׂמֵחַ בְּמַה שֶּׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל מִצְטַמֵּקפא חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת לְמַהֵר בִּשּׁוּלוֹפב אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא מִצְטַמֵּק וּלְפִיכָךְ דִּינוֹ שָׁוֶה לְכָל דָּבָר לְאִלּוּ הִתְחִיל לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל וְלֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל עֲדַיִן כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִיפג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.פד,44

וּכְבָר נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:פה,45

10 All the above46 applies when the pot does not touch the coals, e.g., it is resting on an iron tripod or on stones within the range or the oven.47 If, however, the pot is resting on the [glowing] coals themselves, even if they are partially extinguished or covered, it is forbidden [to leave the pot there] in all instances, even if the person feels that further cooking will be detrimental to the food and he is saddened that the food will cook further, or [even if] the food is entirely raw. [The rationale is that placing a pot on the [glowing] coals] is deemed as hatmanah, “hiding,”48 i.e., hiding [a portion of] the pot on top of coals. The coals increase the heat of the pot and it is forbidden to “hide” a pot on a substance that increases its heat, even if further cooking will be detrimental to the food or [even if the food still] is entirely raw, as will be explained in sec. 257[:1, 10]. Note the rationale explained there.

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that it is only forbidden to “hide” [a pot] on a substance that increases its heat when one covers it with a substance that can be moved and that envelops the entire pot, to the extent that the pot is entirely covered by that substance.49 Even if the substance [that was covering the pot] does not increase [the pot’s] heat, but the pot was resting on a substance that increases [the pot’s] heat, doing so is forbidden as if the article was entirely covered by a substance that increases its heat. In the instance at hand, however, even though the walls of the range or the oven surround the walls of the pot, and moreover, even if the openings to the top of [the range or the oven] are closed, nevertheless, since there are no movable substances touching the sides of the pot, it is not considered hatmanah, for the reason to be explained in sec. 257[:10].50 There is no prohibition [involved] in the pot standing on a substance that increases its temperature. This is the [prevailing] custom.

Even if there are burning coals surrounding and touching the walls of the pot, this is not considered hatmanah, because the pot is open from above.

In such an instance, however, a Jew is forbidden to remove the pot [from such a setting] on Shabbos, since by removing the pot, he will [inevitably also] move the upper coals. They will fall on the lower coals and extinguish them. [Moreover,] as a matter of course, the upper coals will burn [more powerfully] when stirred in this manner. Even though the person does not intend to stir them, it is an absolutely inevitable consequence51 of his actions,52 for it is impossible to remove the pot without stirring [at least some of] the coals.

Nevertheless, one may tell a non-Jew to remove the pot. True, it is forbidden to tell a non-Jew to perform any activity [on his behalf] that is forbidden [for a Jew himself] to perform on Shabbos.53In this instance, however, the forbidden activity is performed as a matter of course, without any intent. The Jew does not tell [the non-Jew] to perform a [forbidden act], but rather instructs him to perform a permitted act.54 Hence, even though the forbidden act is performed as a matter of course, [the non-Jew] did not perform it as an agent of the Jew, for the Jew did not instruct him [to stir the coals]. Nor is the non-Jew commanded to observe the Shabbos;55 it is only that we are forbidden to use him as an agent to perform a forbidden act.56

י וְכָל זֶה46 כְּשֶׁאֵין הַקְּדֵרָה נוֹגַעַת בַּגֶּחָלִיםפו כְּגוֹן שֶׁיּוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל גַּבֵּי כִּסֵּא שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי אֲבָנִיםפז בְּתוֹךְ הַכִּירָה אוֹ הַתַּנּוּר47 אֲבָל אִם הִיא עוֹמֶדֶת עַל גַּבֵּי גֶחָלִים אַף שֶׁהֵן עוֹמְמוֹת וּקְטוּמוֹתפח אָסוּרפט בְּכָל עִנְיָן אַף אִם הוּא מִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁרַע לוֹ לְאָדָם וְעָצֵב הוּא בְּזֶה שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל מִצְטַמֵּק צ אוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי לְפִי שֶׁזֶּה נִקְרָא הַטְמָנָה48 שֶׁמַּטְמִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים וְהַגֶּחָלִים הֵם מוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל בַּקְּדֵרָה וְאָסוּר לְהַטְמִין עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶלצא אֲפִלּוּ מִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ אוֹ חַי לְגַמְרֵיצב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"זצג עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהצד וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ לְהַטְמִין עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמַּדְבִּיק דָּבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל סְבִיב הַקְּדֵרָהצה שֶׁהַקְּדֵרָה כֻלָּהּ טְמוּנָה בְּאוֹתָהּ דָּבָרצו,49 וְאַף שֶׁאוֹתוֹ דָבָר אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל אֶלָּא שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד הַקְּדֵרָה עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶלצז הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה כֻלָּהּ טְמוּנָה בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל אֲבָל כַּאן אַף שֶׁדָּפְנֵי הַכִּירָה אוֹ הַתַּנּוּר מַקִּיפִים סְבִיב דָּפְנֵי הַקְּדֵרָה וְאַף אִם פִּיהֶם סָתוּם לְמַעְלָה מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם דָּבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל דָּבוּק סְבִיב דָּפְנֵי הַקְּדֵרָה אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא הַטְמָנָהצח מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"זצט,50 וְאֵין שׁוּם אִסּוּר בְּמַה שֶּׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת עַל גַּבֵּי דָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג. ק

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם גֶּחָלִים בּוֹעֲרוֹתקא מַקִּיפוֹת וּדְבוּקוֹת סְבִיב דָּפְנֵי הַקְּדֵרָהקב אֵין זֶה הַטְמָנָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְגֻלֶּה לְמַעְלָה.קג

אֶלָּא שֶׁאָז אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִטּוֹל הַקְּדֵרָה מִשָּׁם בְּשַׁבָּתקד לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי נְטִילַת הַקְּדֵרָה הוּא מְחַתֶּה אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת וְנוֹפְלוֹת עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת וּמְכַבּוֹת אוֹתָן וְהָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת הֵן נִבְעָרוֹת מֵאֲלֵיהֶן עַל יְדֵי חִתּוּי זֶהקה וְאַף שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לַחְתּוֹת מִכָּל מָקוֹם פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ51 וְלֹא יָמוּת52 הוּאקו שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִטּוֹל הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁלֹּא יַחְתֶּה הַגֶּחָלִים וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לִטְּלָהּקז וְאַף שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹקח,53 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן שֶׁהָאִסּוּר נַעֲשֶׂה מֵאֵלָיו בְּלֹא מִתְכַּוֵּן וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ כְּלָל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא שׁוֹלְחוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּרקט,54 אִם כֵּן אַף שֶׁמֵּאֵלָיו נַעֲשֶׂה הָאִסּוּר הֲרֵי לֹא נַעֲשֶׂה בִּשְׁלִיחוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֹא צִוָּהוּ עַל כָּכָה וְהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ מֻזְהָר כְּלָל עַל הַשַּׁבָּת55 אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר לָנוּ לְשַׁלְּחוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת אִסּוּר:קי,56

11 If the [glowing] coals are not [touching] the sides of the pot, but [are merely found] under it, according to the letter of the law, even a Jew is permitted to remove the pot. Even if the coals will be moved slightly as a result of the pot’s removal, they will not flare up, nor will they be extinguished because of his action. True, the coals are muktzeh (“forbidden to be moved”) and even shaking them slightly [is forbidden].57 Nevertheless, since [the person] is not moving them with his hands, but via the pot, this is deemed tiltul min hatzad (“indirect movement”) and is not forbidden at all.58

Even so, as an initial preference, a Jew should not remove the pot himself, but should [instruct] a non-Jew to do so.59 If a non-Jew is not present, [a Jew] may remove it himself, but should take care to remove it gently so that he will neither stir nor move the [glowing] coals at all (if possible). [Such care is desirable,] because there are authorities who maintain that even a slight movement will cause [the coals] to flare slightly. In this instance, since he removes [the pot] gently, in such a manner that they may not move at all, it is not an absolutely inevitable consequence60 [that the coals will flare]. Thus, even if they are nonetheless moved [when the pot is removed], this is of no consequence, since it is not an intentional act.61

יא וְאִם הַגֶּחָלִים אֵינָן סְבִיב הַקְּדֵרָה אֶלָּא תַּחְתֶּיהָ מִן הַדִּין מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִטְּלָהּקיא שֶׁאַף אִם יְנַעֲנֵעַ קְצָת הַגֶּחָלִים עַל יְדֵי נְטִילַת הַקְּדֵרָה לֹא יֻבְעֲרוּ עַל יְדֵי כָךְ וְלֹא יִכְבּוּ וְאַף שֶׁהֵן מֻקְצוֹת וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל הַמֻּקְצֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּנִעֲנוּעַ כָּל שֶׁהוּאקיב,57 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְנַעְנְעָן בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי הַקְּדֵרָה הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא טִלְטוּל מִן הַצַּד וְאֵין בּוֹ אִסּוּר כְּלָל.קיג,58

אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יִטְּלֶנָּה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי 59 וְאִם אֵין שָׁם נָכְרִי יִטְּלֶנָּה בְּעַצְמוֹ קיד וְיִזָּהֵר לִטְּלָהּ בְּנַחַת שֶׁלֹּא יַחְתֶּה הַגֶּחָלִים וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא יְנַעְנְעֵן כְּלָלקטו (אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ) לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקטז שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נִעֲנוּעַ בִּלְבָד הֵן מִתְבַּעֲרוֹת קְצָת וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא נוֹטְלָהּ בְּנַחַת בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לִהְיוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְנַעְנְעֵן כְּלָל אֵין כַּאן פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּת60 אַף אִם אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הֵן מִתְנַעַנְעוֹת אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם שֶׁדָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא:קיז,61

12 In all situations where it was stated that it is forbidden to leave a cooked dish that has not reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i [on a cooking surface], if one transgressed and left it [there], even if he [did so] unwittingly, i.e., he forgot [the cooked dish] there or he thought it was permitted [to leave it there], both he and others are forbidden62 [to partake of the dish] until he waits the amount of time needed to cook it after the departure of the Shabbos.63

יב כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִיקיח אִם עָבַר וְשִׁהָהקיט אֲפִלּוּ בְּשׁוֹגֵג שֶׁשְּׁכָחָהּ שָׁםקכ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּרקכא אָסוּרקכב בֵּין לוֹ בֵּין לַאֲחֵרִיםקכג,62 עַד שֶׁיַּמְתִּינוּ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ:קכד,63

13 [There is a difference of opinion among the Rabbis regarding the stage cooked food must reach for it to be considered as] maachal ben Derusai’i. Some authorities maintain that it must be cooked to approximately one-third of what it needs for it to be considered fully cooked by [most] people. Others maintain that it must be cooked to half of what it requires.64

With regard to actual practice, even though [generally] the more lenient opinion should be followed in questions of Rabbinic65 Law,66 nevertheless, because of the severity of [the observance of] Shabbos, as an initial preference, one should be careful that the food [left on the range already] be half-cooked while it is still day [on Friday], if there is no other leniency available.67 After the fact, however, it is permitted [to partake of] the cooked dish under any circumstance if, while it is still day, it was cooked to one-third of the extent it would ordinarily be cooked.68

יג שִׁעוּר מַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכה שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ שְׁלִישׁ בִּשּׁוּל הָרָאוּי לְכָל אָדָם וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכו שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ חֲצִי בִשּׁוּלוֹ64 וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּדִבְרֵי66 סוֹפְרִים65 הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵלקכז מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִשּׁוּם חֹמֶר שַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁיִּתְבַּשֵּׁל חֲצִי בִשּׁוּלוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםקכח אִם אֵין שָׁם אֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַהֶתֵּרקכט,67 (ב) אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּכָל עִנְיָן אִם נִתְבַּשֵּׁל שְׁלִישׁ בִּשּׁוּלוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:קל,68

14 [The following laws apply when] a range was heated with straw or stubble – or even if it was heated with olive wastes or with wood, but its coals were either removed or covered with ash69 – and one removed a pot from it – either while it was day [on Friday] or after nightfall – and he wants to return it [to the range] on Shabbos:70If [the pot] is still in his hand, i.e., he did not let go of it from the time71 he removed it from the range until the time he desires to return it, nor did he transfer its food into another pot, but rather wants to return it [to the range] while it is in the same pot that was [originally] on the range,72 he is permitted to return it [to the range]73 (on Shabbos).74 [This leniency applies] provided that initially, when he removed the pot from the range, he intended to return it afterwards.75 Thus, the initial placement [of the pot] on the range during the day [on Friday] was not nullified, since he did not intend to take [the pot] off the range permanently when he removed it. Instead, he intended to return it afterwards.

If, however, when he removed [the pot from the range] at the outset,76 he did not intend to return it there, and similarly, if he released it from his hand [even] once77 or transferred the food to another pot, the initial placement [of the pot on the range] has already been nullified and – when he wants to return it – it is as if he is placing it on the range for the first time on Shabbos. Our Sages only permitted returning [a cooked dish] to a range, but not initially placing one there on Shabbos.78 [This restriction applies] even if no prohibition against cooking is involved, i.e., the food was already fully cooked,79 [in which instance, we apply the principle:80 “Food that has been] cooked cannot be cooked again.” One may place [such food] next to a fire, even in a place where [the temperature is so high that it would cause the food to reach the degree of heat that causes] a hand to recoil.81 Nevertheless, when he places it on a range which is a surface upon which one usually cooks, it appears as if he is initially cooking on Shabbos.82

Nonetheless, when he had the intent to return it [to the range] and it is still in his hand, he is permitted to do so. [Indeed, he may] even [place it on] another range, even if its temperature is higher than the first.83

If, however, [one sought to preserve its heat through hatmanah,] insulation, in the manner that will be explained in sec. 257[:1, 9] and he sought to remove it on Shabbos from its place of insulation and place it on a range, he is forbidden to do so. That would be considered as if he initially placed it [on the range on Shabbos]. Similarly, if [a pot] was on a range andone sought to remove it on Shabbos from the range and insulate it, even if [he uses only] pillows, covers, or other garments that do not increase its heat, but merely preserve it, he is forbidden to do so. [The rationale is that] it is considered as if he initially insulated it on Shabbos, which is forbidden even when [one uses] substances that do not increase its temperature [but only maintain it], unless one does so [in the manner] to be explained in sec. 257[:9]. However, if the pillows and covers surround only the walls of the pot, but its opening from above is uncovered, [one is] permitted to do so, because this is not the manner [in which pots] are insulated [to preserve their heat].84

יד כִּירָה שֶׁהִסִּיקוּהָ בְּקַשׁ וּגְבָבָא אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִים אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא גְרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָהקלא,69 וְנָטַל הַקְּדֵרָה מֵעָלֶיהָ בֵּין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בֵּין מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָהקלב וּבָא לְהַחֲזִירָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּתקלג,70 אִם עוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹקלד שֶׁלֹּא הֱסִירָהּ מִיָּדוֹקלה,71 כְּשֶׁנְּטָלָהּ מֵעַל הַכִּירָה עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִירָהּקלו וְלֹא פִנָּה מִמֶּנָּה הַתַּבְשִׁיל לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶתקלז אֶלָּא רוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִירוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּאוֹתָהּ קְדֵרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה עַל הַכִּירָהקלח,72 מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ73 (בְּשַׁבָּת)74 אִם בַּתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁנָּטַל הַקְּדֵרָה מֵעַל הַכִּירָה הָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנָּה אַחַר כָּךְקלט,75 שֶׁנִּמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא בָטְלָה עֲדַיִן שְׁהִיָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהִשְׁהָה אוֹתָה שָׁם עַל הַכִּירָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת סִלּוּקָהּ מֵהַכִּירָה אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְעָקְרָהּ מִמֶּנָּה לְגַמְרֵי אֶלָּא לְהַחֲזִירֶנָּה לָהּ אַחַר כָּךְ.

אֲבָל אִם בַּתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁנְּטָלָהּ76 לֹא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לָהּקמ וְכֵן אִם הֱסִירָה מִיָּדוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת77 אוֹ שֶׁפִּנָּה הַתַּבְשִׁיל לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת כְּבָר בָּטְלָה לָהּ שְׁהִיָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וּכְשֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִירָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹשִׁיבָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת בַּתְּחִלָּהקמא וַחֲכָמִים לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֶלָּא חֲזָרָהקמב אֲבָל לֹא לְהוֹשִׁיב קְדֵרָה בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת עַל הַכִּירָה78 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּלקמג כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִיא מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת כְּבָר כָּל צָרְכָּהּקמד,79 שֶׁאֵין80 בִּשּׁוּל אַחַר בִּשּׁוּלקמה וּמֻתָּר לְסָמְכָהּ אֵצֶל הַמְּדוּרָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹקמו,81 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁמַּעֲמִידָהּ עַל הַכִּירָה שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְבַשֵּׁל שָׁם הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת.קמז,82

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁהָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ וְעוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אֲפִלּוּ לְכִירָה אַחֶרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבְלָהּ מְרֻבֶּה מֵהָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קמח,83

אֲבָל אִם בַּתְּחִלָּה הָיְתָה טְמוּנָה בְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"זקמט וּבְשַׁבָּת בָּא לְעָקְרָהּ מֵהַטְמָנָה זוֹ וּלְהוֹשִׁיבָהּ לַכִּירָה אָסוּרקנ שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹשִׁיב בַּתְּחִלָּה וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה בַּכִּירָה וּבְשַׁבָּת בָּא לִטְּלָהּ מֵהַכִּירָה וּלְהַטְמִינָהּקנא אֲפִלּוּ בְּכָרִים וּכְסָתוֹתקנב אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר בְּגָדִים שֶׁאֵין מוֹסִיפִים הֶבֶל אֶלָּא מַעֲמִידִין הַהֶבֶל אָסוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַטְמִין בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּתקנג שֶׁאָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶלקנד אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"זקנה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אֵין הַכָּרִים וְהַכְּסָתוֹת כְּרוּכִים אֶלָּא סְבִיב דָּפְנֵי הַקְּדֵרָה אֲבָל פִּיהָ מְגֻלֶּה לְמַעְלָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר שֶׁאֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ הַטְמָנָה:קנו,84

15 When an oven was kindled – even with straw and stubble, and even when its coals were removed or covered – and food was left to heat on it according to one of the permitted ways described above,85 it is forbidden to return a pot to it on Shabbos.86 [This restriction applies even when] the pot was held in his hand and he had the intent to return it, and even if [further cooking] will be detrimental to it (metzamek vira lo).87 This law also applies to a kufach88 that was heated with olive wastes or with wood.

The rationale is that the laws pertaining to these [cooking appliances] are the same as those that apply to a range that was heated with olive wastes or with wood whose coals were not removed or covered, in which instance, it is forbidden to return [a pot] to it on Shabbos in all instances; [this is] a decree lest one come to stir the [glowing] coals. True, [the Sages] were not concerned with the possibility that one would stir coals when [further cooking] is detrimental to the cooked food with regard to [the leniency of] leaving [food in an oven] on Friday afternoon. Nevertheless, they were more stringent with regard to returning [food to an oven] on Shabbos itself.89

טו תַּנּוּרקנז שֶׁהִסִּיקוּהוּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּקַשׁ וּבִגְבָבָאקנח וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא גָרוּף וְקָטוּםקנט שֶׁהִשְׁהָה עָלָיו עַל פִּי אֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַהֶתֵּר שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ לְמַעְלָהקס,85 אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִיר לוֹ הַקְּדֵרָה בְּשַׁבָּתקסא,86 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וְהָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא מִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹקסב,87 וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכֻפָּח88 שֶׁהִסִּיקוּהוּ בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִיםקסג לְפִי שֶׁדִּינָם כְּכִירָה שֶׁהֻסְּקָה בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִים וְאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָהקסד שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַחֲזִיר לָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכָל עִנְיָןקסה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִיםקסו וְאַף שֶׁלְּהַשְׁהוֹת מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לֹא חָשְׁשׁוּ לְחִתּוּי בְּמִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹקסז מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן חֲזָרָה בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ הֶחֱמִירוּ יוֹתֵר:89

16 All [the leniencies mentioned above] apply when one returns the pot to the opening of the range from above, and the walls of the pot project slightly above the walls of the range.90 It is, however, forbidden to return it to the inner space of a range91 or to the inner space of our ovens92 under all circumstances,93 i.e., even if [the oven or the range] was heated with straw or stubble or the coals were removed or covered, the pot was still in the person’s hand, and he had [initially] intended to return it.94

טז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמַּחֲזִיר הַקְּדֵרָה עַל גַּבֵּי פִּי הַכִּירָה מִלְמַעְלָהקסח שֶׁדָּפְנֵי הַקְּדֵרָה בּוֹלְטִין קְצָת לְמַעְלָה מִדָּפְנֵי הַכִּירָהקסט,90 אֲבָל לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לְתוֹךְ הַכִּירָה מַמָּשׁקע,91 וְהוּא הַדִּין לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּרִים שֶׁלָּנוּקעא,92 אָסוּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן93 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֻסְּקוּ בְּקַשׁ וּבִגְבָבָא וְנִגְרְפוּ וְנִקְטְמוּקעב וְאוֹתָהּ הַקְּדֵרָה עוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וְהָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ:קעג,94

17 It is permitted to return food to ranges that do not have inner space, but instead, are flat and their inner space and outer surface are [on] the same [level].95

יז וְאוֹתָן כִּירוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן תּוֹךְ וְחָלָל אֶלָּא הֵן פְּשׁוּטוֹת וְתוֹכָן וְגַבָּן אֶחָד מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר לָהֶן:קעד,95

18 License [to return cooked food] to the surface of a range is granted only when the food has been fully cooked, even though further cooking will prove to be beneficial. If, however, it has not been fully cooked, even if it has already been cooked more than maachal ben Derusai’i, it is forbidden to return it [to the range] on Shabbos according to Scriptural Law, because by doing so, one is actually cooking [the food].96

Moreover, even if [the food] has been fully cooked, but it completely cooled off, it is forbidden to return it to the range under any circumstances. [This stringency applies] even in a situation where no prohibition against cooking is involved, e.g., a dry cooked dish that contains no liquid at all.97 When [such food] is fully cooked, there is no prohibition against cooking according to all authorities, even if it cooled off entirely, as will be explained in sec. 318[:9, 11]. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to return it [to the surface of the range. The rationale:] Once it cools off entirely, the original placement [of the food on the range] has been nullified and it is considered as if one is placing it on the range on Shabbos for the first time.98

יח וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי הַכִּירָה אֵין הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּשֵּׁל הַמַּאֲכָל כָּל צָרְכּוֹקעה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹ אֲבָל אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּשֵּׁל יוֹתֵר מִכְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִי אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת מִן הַתּוֹרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְבַשֵּׁל מַמָּשׁקעו,96 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁכְּבָר נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹקעז בְּכָל עִנְיָן אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּל כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא תַּבְשִׁיל יָבֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מָרָק כְּלָל,97 שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא מְבֻשָּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּל לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אַף שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שי"חקעח מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל גַּבֵּי הַכִּירָה אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי בָּטְלָה לָהּ שְׁהִיָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹשִׁיב בְּשַׁבָּת לְכַתְּחִלָּה:קעט,98

19 If, however, [the food] was [still] slightly warm, even if [it sufficiently cooled so that] it would not cause a hand to recoil, it is permitted to return it [to a range] if no prohibition against cooking is involved, for example:

a) it is dry and contains no liquid, in which case all authorities agree that the prohibition against cooking does not apply, even if it is entirely cold, or

b) even if it contains liquid, in which case [the prohibition against] cooking would apply if it had completely cooled off; nevertheless, when it has not cooled off entirely, the custom is to show leniency and [allow such food to be] placed in front of a fire, as will be explained there.99 If so, leniency should similarly be granted to return [such food] to the surface of a range whose [coals] have been removed or covered, or which was heated with straw or stubble, when the pot remained in the person’s hand and he had the intent to return it.

[Moreover,] although [generally] the inner space of our ovens is governed by the same laws that applied to [the inner space of a] range [in the Talmudic era], it is customary to allow even greater leniency and permit returning food even to the inner space of our ovens. Moreover, the food may be returned even if one removed the pot from one’s hand and placed it on the ground and it remained there for an extensive time,100 even when one did not have the initial intent to return it, and even when one transferred the food into another pot.

[People who conduct themselves in this manner] should not be admonished, because there are authorities who maintain101 that the Sages did not require that one have the intent to return the pot and that it remain in his hand the entire time, except when he removed it from the range while it was still day [on Friday] and sought to return it [to the range] on Shabbos. In that case, if he did not have the intent of returning it or he released it from his hand, it would be as if he placed it on the range for the first time on Shabbos, since at the onset of Shabbos, it was not on the range at all. When, by contrast, he removed it from the range after nightfall, since this food was on the range at the onset of Shabbos, [should he return it to the range on Shabbos,] it does not appear as if he is initially placing it on the range on Shabbos. [This applies] even if he did not have the intent of returning it, he released it from his hand, and/or he transferred it to another pot. Therefore, it is permitted to return [such food to a range] if it was heated with straw or stubble, or [its coals] were removed or covered, [provided] the food was fully cooked and had not cooled entirely.102

On this basis, people at large follow an even greater leniency and claim that our Sages’ statement that it is forbidden to return [food] to the inner space [of a range] applies only when one removed the food from there while it was still day and it remained in his hand until after nightfall.103 Nevertheless, every person should personally adopt the stringency of not returning food to the inner space of a range or an oven even if he removed it from there after nightfall, even though he had the intent of returning it and it is still in his hand. For, with regard to returning food to the inner space [of such cooking devices], there is not sufficient reason to distinguish between removing it before or after nightfall [on Friday].

Moreover, even with regard to returning food on top of a range, if one [removed it] without intending to return it, he released it from his hand, or he transferred it to another pot, it is desirable to act stringently, because there are many authorities who maintain that even in this case there is no difference between removing [the food] while it is still day [on Friday] or after nightfall.

There are some who are accustomed to taking even further leniencies: On [Shabbos] day, [they permit one] to return [food, for example, cholent,]104 to an oven that had been used for baking while it was still day [on Friday] even though [its coals] were not removed, provided that after being used for baking [on Friday], the oven was not reheated with the intent of keeping the cholent warm for the morning meal, but instead, [the cholent] was kept warm in another oven. [The rationale for the leniency is that] the coals that remained from being warmed for baking this food have [certainly] already burned out; it is as if they have already been removed, as stated above.105 (Nevertheless, if [the oven] is still hot enough that a hand would recoil from its touch, it is forbidden [to return food to it].)

Others extend these leniencies a step further [and maintain that] even if the cholent were left to warm [in the original oven], still, after the morning meal, it can be safely assumed that all the coals have surely burned out and it is permitted to return food there according to this custom (provided [the oven] is not so hot that a hand would recoil from touching it).

יט אֲבָל אִם הוּא חַם קְצָת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹקפ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר בִּשּׁוּל כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא יָבֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מָרָק שֶׁלְּדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל אַף אִם הָיָה צוֹנֵן לְגַמְרֵיקפא וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ מָרָק שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל אִם נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי נוֹהֲגִים לְהָקֵל לְעִנְיַן לְסָמְכוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםקפב,99 אִם כֵּן הוּא הַדִּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהַתִּיר לְפִי זֶה לְהַחֲזִירוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַכִּירָה הַגְּרוּפָה אוֹ קְטוּמָה אוֹ שֶׁהֻסְּקָה בְּקַשׁ אוֹ גְבָבָא וְהַקְּדֵרָה עוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וְהָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ.

אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל עוֹד אֲפִלּוּ לְהַחֲזִיר תּוֹךְ תַּנּוּרִים שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁדִּינָם כְּתוֹךְ הַכִּירָהקפג וּמַחֲזִירִים גַּם לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵסִיר הַקְּדֵרָה מִיָּדוֹ וְהִנִּיחָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַעקפד וְשָׁהֲתָה שָׁם הַרְבֵּהקפה,100 וְגַם לֹא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה לְהַחֲזִירָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּקפו פִּנָּה הַתַּבְשִׁיל לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקפז,101 שֶׁלֹּא הִצְרִיכוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיִּהְיֶה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ וְעוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁנְּטָלָהּ מֵהַכִּירָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וּבָא לְהַחֲזִירָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאָז אִם לֹא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אוֹ שֶׁכְּבָר הֱסִירָהּ מִיָּדוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹשִׁיבָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת לְכַתְּחִלָּהקפח כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת לֹא הָיְתָה שָׁם כְּלָל עַל הַכִּירָה אֲבָל כְּשֶׁנְּטָלָהּ מֵהַכִּירָה מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת שַׁבָּת הָיָה תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה עַל הַכִּירָה אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּמוֹשִׁיבוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בַּתְּחִלָּה אַף אִם לֹא הָיְתָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ וְגַם כְּבָר הֱסִירָהּ מִיָּדוֹ וּפִנָּהוּ לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אִם הֻסְּקָה בְּקַשׁ וּגְבָבָא אוֹ שֶׁהִיא גְרוּפָה אוֹ קְטוּמָהקפט וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ וְלֹא נִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי.קצ,102

וְעַל זֶה סוֹמְכִים הָעוֹלָם לְהָקֵל יוֹתֵר וְלוֹמַר שֶׁאַף מַה שֶּׁאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַחֲזִיר לְתוֹכָהּ לֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנְּטָלָהּ מִמֶּנָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהָיְתָה בְיָדוֹ עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁחָשֵׁכָהקצא,103 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לְהַחֲזִיר לְתוֹךְ הַכִּירָה וְהַתַּנּוּר אַף שֶׁנְּטָלָהּ מִשָּׁםקצב לְאַחַר שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ וְעוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין טַעַם מַסְפִּיק לְחַלֵּק בֵּין נְטָלָהּ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה וּבֵין נְטָלָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְעִנְיַן חֲזָרָה לְתוֹכָהּ.קצג

וַאֲפִלּוּ לְעִנְיַן לְהַחֲזִיר עַל גַּבֵּי הַכִּירָה אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אוֹ שֶׁכְּבָר הֱסִירָהּ מִיָּדוֹ אוֹ שֶׁפִּנָּה לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת טוֹב לְהַחֲמִירקצד לְפִי שֶׁרַבּוּ הָאוֹמְרִיםקצה שֶׁאַף לְעִנְיָן זֶה אֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין נְטָלָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לִנְטָלָהּ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה.קצו

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים לְהָקֵל עוֹדקצז לְהַחֲזִיר104 לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁאָפוּ בּוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא גְרָפוּהוּ אִם לֹא חִמְּמוּ עוֹד הַתַּנּוּר אַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה לְהַטְמִין בּוֹ הַחַמִּין שֶׁל סְעֻדַּת שַׁחֲרִית אֶלָּא הִטְמִינוּ בְּתַנּוּר אַחֵר לְפִי שֶׁהַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ מִן הַחִמּוּם שֶׁחִמְּמוּהוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הָאֲפִיָּה כְּבָר כָּהוּ וְעָמְמוּ וַהֲרֵי הֵן כִּגְרוּפוֹתקצח,105 (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם אָסוּרקצט) כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה. ר

וְיִשׁ מְקִלִּין עוֹדרא דַּאֲפִלּוּ הִטְמִינוּ בּוֹ הַחַמִּין מִכָּל מָקוֹם אַחַר סְעֻדַּת שַׁחֲרִית בְּוַדַּאי עָמְמוּ כָּל גֶּחָלָיו וּמֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר לְתוֹכוֹ לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג (אִם אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם):

20 All [the above] applies to returning [food] to the upper surface or the inner space [of a range or oven]. It is, however, permitted to place [food] next to, but outside of [a range] on Shabbos.106 Similarly, [one may place food] next to the ovens of our time, even if the cooked food itself is actually touching the [outer] wall of the oven at its side. [This applies] even if [the oven] was heated with olive wastes or wood and [its coals] were neither removed nor covered. For there is no concern about one stirring the coals when [the food] is positioned outside the oven, next to it, as explained above.107

Even if one already removed [the food] from the oven while it was still day [on Friday] and placed it on the ground without having the intent to return it to its inner space or even to place it next to it, [it is permitted to place it close to the oven. This leniency applies] even if this is a food [that was cooked a while ago] and has become entirely cold.108 As long as the prohibition against cooking does not apply to it, e.g., it is dry,109 it is permitted to place it close [to the oven], because, [by doing so,] one does not appear to be initially cooking on Shabbos, since placing food outside an oven or a range is not the way one ordinarily cooks. The laws are the same as placing food next to a fire,110 as will be explained in sec. 318[:24].

There are authorities who forbid placing [food] next to a range or an oven of our time if it was heated with olive wastes or wood and the coals were not removed or covered,111 even if the person’s intent [when he removed it] was to return it to [the range or oven] or place it next to it and he held it in his hand the entire time. This is a decree, lest he stir [the coals]. True, [the Sages] were not concerned with the possibility of one stirring coals with regard to placing [food] near [a range or an oven] while it is still day [on Friday]. Nevertheless, they were more stringent with regard to placing [food] near [these cooking utensils] on Shabbos itself.

The custom is to follow the first opinion. Nevertheless, in a situation where there is not a significant need, it is desirable to give weight to [the latter view].

כ וְכָל זֶה לְהַחֲזִיר עַל גַּבָּהּ אוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ אֶצְלָהּרב חוּצָה לָהּ בְּשַׁבָּתרג,106 וְכֵן אֵצֶל הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּרד אַף אִם גּוּף הַתַּבְשִׁיל נוֹגֵעַ בְּדֹפֶן הַתַּנּוּר מִן הַצַּדרה וַאֲפִלּוּ הֻסַּק בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִים וְאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּםרו שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְחִתּוּי בְּסוֹמֵךְ חוּצָה לוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהרז,107 וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּבָר סִלֵּק תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה מֵהַתַּנּוּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַערח וְלֹא הָיָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לְתוֹכוֹ וְלֹא אֲפִלּוּ לְסָמְכוֹ אֶצְלוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא (ג) תַּבְשִׁיל יָשָׁן וְנִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי108 אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא יָבֵשׁרט,109 הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל בְּשַׁבָּת לְכַתְּחִלָּהרי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְבַשֵּׁל חוּץ לְהַתַּנּוּר וְהַכִּירָה וַהֲרֵי דִינוֹ כְּסוֹמֵךְ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה110 שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן (שי''ז) [שי''ח].ריא

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיםריב לִסְמוֹךְ אֵצֶל כִּירָה אוֹ תַּנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵינָן גְּרוּפִים וּקְטוּמִיםריג,111 וְהֻסְּקוּ בְּגֶפֶת וְעֵצִים אַף שֶׁהָיְתָה דַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ אוֹ לְסָמְכָהּ וְעוֹדָהּ בְּיָדוֹ מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה שֶׁאַף שֶׁלְּעִנְיַן לִסְמוֹךְ שָׁם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לֹא חָשְׁשׁוּ לְחִתּוּיריד,107 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן לִסְמוֹךְ בְּשַׁבָּת הֶחֱמִירוֹ יוֹתֵר.

וְהַמִּנְהָג כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהרטו וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ טוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם:רטז

21 All of the above applies when one returns food on Shabbos to a place hot enough to cause a hand to recoil, (i.e., that if the food that the person was placing there was cold, it would heat up until [it reached a temperature that would cause] a hand to recoil from its touch).112 If, however, the temperature is not so hot that a hand would recoil from its touch, it is permitted to place food there, even [next to] an oven of [the Talmudic]era, even though [the coals] were not removed or covered.

[Moreover,] it is even permitted to return [food] to the top of a range from which [the coals] were removed or covered if the place was not so hot that a hand would recoil from its touch, even though he:

a) removed [the food] from [the range] while it was still day [on Friday] and placed it on the ground,

b) [he did so] without having the intent to return it [to the range] at all, [and] even if

c) he already transferred [the food] to another pot, and moreover,

d) it is a food [that was cooked a while ago] and has become entirely cold, and

e) even if it contains liquid.

[The rationale for the leniency is that] when the temperature is not so hot that a hand will recoil from its touch, it does not seem like one is initially cooking [the food] there.113

([It is forbidden,] however, to return food to the inner space of a range or an oven, not even one of the present age. There is no difference whether it is hot enough [there] to cause a hand to recoil from its touch or not.)114

כא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמַּחֲזִיר בְּשַׁבָּת לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם (ד) (דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאִם תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה שֶׁמַּחֲזִיר הָיָה צוֹנֵןריז הָיָה יָכוֹל לְהִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹריח)112 אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל מֻתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ שָׁםריט אֲפִלּוּ בַּתַּנּוּר שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶםרכ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם.רכא

וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי הַכִּירָה (ה) הַגְּרוּפָה אוֹ קְטוּמָה מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר אִם אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁםרכב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר סִלֵּק תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע וְלֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ כְּלָל וַאֲפִלּוּ פִּנָּהוּ לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא תַּבְשִׁיל יָשָׁן וְנִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ מָרָק לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁאֵין שָׁם חֹם כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל שָׁם לְכַתְּחִלָּה.113

(אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן לְהַחֲזִיר לְתוֹךְ הַכִּירָה אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלָּנוּ אֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ לְאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרכג):114

22 All the above applies to returning [food to a range] on Shabbos itself. If, however, one removed a pot from a range while it was still day [on Friday] and changed his mind and sought to return it [to the range] close to nightfall, before the acceptance of Shabbos,115he is permitted to do so,116 even though: a) he placed it on the ground, and b) it already cooled entirely, and c) he already transferred [the food] to another pot. [Moreover, one is permitted to return the food] even to the inner space of [a range] or even to an oven of the Talmudicera, although its [glowing coals] were neither removed nor covered.

There are authorities who maintain that even though [the pot] is now boiling, whenever it is so close to nightfall that if the pot were cold, it would not be possible for it to come to a boil while it is still day, it is forbidden to return it, neither to this range, nor to another range, unless the conditions for returning [it to the range] on Shabbos itself are met.117 This is a decree, lest one come to return [food to the range] on Shabbos itself. If, however, [there was ample time and the food] could come to a boil again during the day [on Friday, returning the food to the range is permitted. Even if] there is insufficient time for [the pot] to boil before the acceptance of Shabbos, it is not of consequence.118

The [prevailing] custom is to rule leniently, following the first opinion.119 Nevertheless, in a situation where there is not that great of a necessity [for leniency], it is desirable to be stringent. Therefore, it is desirable to be careful not to remove a pot from a range or an oven where it cooked and, close to nightfall, place it on the winter-oven [of a home] whose [glowing coals] were neither removed nor covered if it is hot enough that a hand would recoil from its touch, unless one places another object under the pot,120 as is necessary [when one desires to place food there] on Shabbos itself, as will be explained.121

כב וְכָל זֶה לְהַחֲזִיר בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ אֲבָל אִם עָקַר הַקְּדֵרָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַכִּירָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְנִמְלַךְ וְהֶחֱזִירָהּ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה קֹדֶם קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּתרכד,115 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הִנִּיחָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע וַאֲפִלּוּ נִצְטַנְנָה לְגַמְרֵי וַאֲפִלּוּ פִּנָּהוּ לִקְדֵרָה אַחֶרֶת יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִירָהּרכה,116 אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹכָהּ אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁבִּימֵיהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם.רכו

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרכז שֶׁכָּל שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה הַקְּדֵרָה צוֹנֶנֶת לֹא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְהַרְתִּיחָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לְכִירָה זוֹ וְלֹא לְכִירָה אַחֶרֶתרכח אַף שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הִיא רוֹתַחַת אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ117 מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹאוּ לְהַחֲזִיר אַף בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּרכט אֲבָל אִם הָיָה יָכוֹל לְהַרְתִּיחָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין שָׁהוּת לְהַרְתִּיחָהּ קֹדֶם קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.רל,118

וְהַמִּנְהָג לְהָקֵל לְגַמְרֵי כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהרלא,119 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר.רלב (ו) וְלָכֵן טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִטּוֹל הַקְּדֵרָה מֵהַכִּירָה אוֹ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה שָׁם וְלִתְּנָהּ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה עַל גַּבֵּי תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּםרלג אִם הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מַנִּיחַ שָׁם שׁוּם דָּבָר תַּחַת הַקְּדֵרָהרלד,120 כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:רלה,121

23 According to all opinions, however, [on Friday] close to nightfall, one may place122 [food] next to an oven whose [glowing coals] were neither removed nor covered, although [it is so hot] that a hand would recoil from its touch,123 even though there are opinions that forbid placing [food] there on Shabbos itself.124 How much more so [is it permitted to] place food close to and in front of a fireplace,125 [even] where [it is so hot] that a hand would recoil from its touch. Even on Shabbos itself it would be permitted to place it there in a situation where [the prohibition against] cooking does not apply, as stated in sec. 318[:24]. And [on Friday,] close to nightfall, this is permitted even when [the prohibition] against cooking would apply,126 e.g., the food contains liquid and has cooled off entirely, or it has not yet reached the stage of maachal ben Derusai’i.

If [the food]127 is entirely raw, according to all opinions, [on Friday] directly before nightfall, it is even permitted to return it to a range[whose coals] were neither removed nor covered.128 For, as explained above,129 there is absolutely no concern that one will stir the coals when [food] is entirely raw.130

כג אֲבָל לִסְמוֹךְ 122 אֵצֶל תַּנּוּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם123 מֻתָּר (ז) לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלרלו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹסְרִים בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּרלז,124 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן לִסְמוֹךְ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה,125 בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ מֻתָּר אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּסִמָּן שי"חרלח וְסָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מֻתָּר אַף אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל126 כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מָרָק וְנִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵירלט אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל כְּמַאֲכַל בֶּן דְּרוּסָאִירמ וְאִם127 הוּא חַי לְגַמְרֵי מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי כִירָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ (ח) לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלרמא,128 שֶׁבְּחַי אֵין לָחוּשׁ כְּלָל לְחִתּוּי 130 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:רמב,129

24 If one transgressed and returned food on Shabbos to a place where (all authorities agree) that it is forbidden for it to be returned,131 [the food] is forbidden until the time that it would take [to reheat it passes] Saturday night whether he acted unwittingly or intentionally.132

When does the above apply? When further heating [of the food] is beneficial to it (metzamek viyafeh lo).133 If, however, [further heating] is detrimental to it, the food is permitted, even on [Shabbos], for the person does not benefit from the prohibited act.134

[Moreover,] some authorities question whether [food] that benefits from further heating should be prohibited after the fact if the person [violated the prohibition] unknowingly, since it was already fully cooked.135 One may rely on their view to permit others for whose sake the food was not returned [to the range, to partake of the food on Shabbos]. Nevertheless, [the food] should not be permitted to the members of the person’s household, because it was returned [to the range] for their sake as well.

כד (ט) אִם עָבַר וְהֶחֱזִיררמג בְּשַׁבָּת לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַחֲזִיר131 (שָׁם לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלרמד) בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵגרמה בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד אָסוּר עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּרמו,132 בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמִצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹ133 אֲבָל אִם מִצְטַמֵּק וְרַע לוֹ מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נֶהֱנֶה מִן הָאִסּוּר.רמז,134

וְיֵשׁ מִסְתַּפְּקִיןרמח אֲפִלּוּ בְּמִצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹ אִם יֵשׁ לֶאֱסוֹר כְּלָל בְּדִיעֲבַד אִם הָיָה שׁוֹגֵג בַּדָּבָר מֵאַחַר שֶׁהָיָה מְבֻשָּׁל כְּבָר כָּל צָרְכּוֹ135 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל זֶה לְהַתִּיר לַאֲחֵרִים שֶׁלֹּא הֻחְזַר בִּשְׁבִילָםרמט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לִבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ אֵין לְהַתִּיר שֶׁגַּם בִּשְׁבִילָם הֻחְזַר:רנ

25 All of the above136 applies [only] when the Jew himself returns [the food to the heating device]. If, however, he has a non-Jew return it – even if he intentionally violates the prohibition [against giving him such instructions – the food] is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos,] even if further heating would benefit it, provided it was fully cooked [before it was returned. The rationale for the leniency is] that the person does not benefit that much from [reheating the food] since it was already fit to be eaten.

When does the above apply? When initially the food was somewhat warm and thus fit to eat.137 [A more stringent ruling applies when,] by contrast, [the food] was entirely cold and thus not fit to be eaten,138 and the non-Jew warmed it – even on his own initiative – on Shabbos for the sake of a Jew, [returning it] to a place where (all authorities agree)139 it is forbidden to return it on Shabbos. If the Jewish owner of the food sees [the non-Jew’s action] and remains silent,140 it is forbidden for any person to partake of it – even after it cools141 – until he waits the time it would take [to reheat it] on Saturday night. [The prohibition was instuted because the non-Jew’s action was beneficial to the food].

If, however, the Jewish owner of the food did not know that [the food] was entirely cold when the non-Jew returned it or he did not at all see him return it, [the food] is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos]. It can be assumed that the Jew does not desire that the non-Jew warm his food after it has cooled entirely,142 and [the non-Jew] does not have the power to cause the food belonging to the Jew to become forbidden against his will.

[Leniency is also granted] (even if the Jew instructed the non-Jew to return [the food]) and [the non-Jew] (or even the Jew himself)143 returned [the food] to a place where certain authorities permit it to be returned as an initial preference. For example, he placed fully cooked food that contained liquid, but had cooled entirely, next to an oven whose [glowing coals] were neither removed nor covered, or he placed it in front of a fire and it warms there to the extent that a hand would recoil from its heat. Although (a Jew) would be liable to bring a sin-offering [for performing this activity],144 nevertheless, since there are authorities who permit such actions as an initial preference, as stated in sec. 318[:9],145 their words may be relied upon after the fact. (Thus, a deed performed by a non-Jew, even when so instructed by a Jew, will not cause [the food] to be forbidden.)

כה וְכָל זֶה136 כְּשֶׁהֶחֱזִיר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ אֲבָל אִם הֶחֱזִיר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִירנא אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד מֻתָּררנב אֲפִלּוּ מִצְטַמֵּק וְיָפֶה לוֹרנג אִם הָיָה מְבֻשָּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל כָּךְרנד כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הָיָה רָאוּי לֶאֱכוֹל.רנה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיָה חַם קְצָת מִתְּחִלָּה שֶׁהָיָה רָאוּי לֶאֱכוֹלרנו,137 אֲבָל אִם הָיָה צוֹנֵן לְגַמְרֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה רָאוּי לֶאֱכוֹל,138 וְחִמְּמוֹ הַנָּכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַחֲזִיר שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת (לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל)139 וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל רָאָה וְשָׁתַק140 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוֹעִילוּ מַעֲשֵׂה הַנָּכְרִי אָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לְאָכְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּצְטַנֵּןרנז,141 עַד שֶׁיַּמְתִּינוּ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ.

אֲבָל אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל לֹא יָדַע כְּשֶׁהֶחֱזִירוֹ הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁהוּא צוֹנֵן לְגַמְרֵי אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָאָהוּ כְּלָל כְּשֶׁהֶחֱזִירוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם אֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹצֶה כְּלָל שֶׁיְּחַמֵּם הַנָּכְרִי אֶת תַּבְשִׁילוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי142 וְלֹא כָּל הֵימֶנּוּ שֶׁיֶּאֱסוֹר אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ.רנח

(וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם צִוָּה אֶת הַנָּכְרִי לְהַחֲזִיר) אִם הֶחֱזִיר (אֲפִלּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹרנט)143 לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִים אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה כְּגוֹן שֶׁסָּמַךְ אֵצֶל תַּנּוּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּםרס אוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָהרסא תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל כָּל צָרְכּוֹ וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מָרָק וְנִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי וְנִתְחַמֵּם שָׁם עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ חִיּוּב חַטָּאת (לְיִשְׂרָאֵל)144 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִים אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּסִמָּן שי"חרסב,145 יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּדִיעֲבַד (שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱסוֹר מַעֲשֵׂה הַנָּכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ צִוָּהוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל):רסג

26 [Our Rabbis gave the following advice] when a person – adhering to one of the permitted modes described above146 – left food in a pot on a rangewhose [glowing coals] had neither been removed nor covered, and he awakened [on Shabbos]morning and saw that the food had burned. Fearing that it will burn further, he [may do the following: He] may remove the pot from the range,147 place an empty pot that has been used previously148 over the opening to the range, and then place the pot containing the cooked food on top149 of the empty pot.150 [He should] {not} [place] a new [pot over the opening of the range] for the reason to be explained in sec. 502[:9].151 In this instance, there is no prohibition against returning [the pot] on Shabbos to a range whose [glowing coals] were neither removed nor covered. Since the empty pot [located] below the pot containing the food covers the opening to the range, it is as if [the coals of the range] were removed or covered.152

Similarly, it is permitted on Shabbos to place a cooked dish over the opening of a pot of cholent whose heat is being preserved on a fire (of a range) in the manner to be explained in sec. 257[:10], even though it is so hot that a hand will recoil from its heat. There is no concern that one might stir the coals, since there is [another] pot intervening between the food and the coals.153

[Moreover,] even if one removed this cooked dish from the range while it was still day [on Friday] a) without intending to return it [to the range], b) placed it on the ground, even c) if he transferred it from one pot to another,154 and even d) if the food had been cooked a while ago and had become entirely cold, [despite all these factors, as long as the prohibition] against cooking is not involved [in reheating it], e.g., it has no liquid,155 [it is permitted to place it on a pot on a range on Shabbos]. True, in all the above situations it is forbidden to return it even to a range whose [glowing coals] were removed or covered, because it appears as if one is initially cooking on Shabbos.156Nevertheless, when one places [a pot] on a [second] pot that is above the coals (of a range), it does not appear as if one is initially cooking, because this is not the manner in which one cooks.

According to the above, it is possible to say that on Shabbos any[food] that is permitted to be placed on a pot whose heat is being preserved by coals may be placed on top of the ovens of the present age which have a covering,157 or may [be placed] on top of a winter heating stove158 – even if [its coals] were not removed or covered, and even if there is fire burning within them, and even if a hand would recoil from there.159 Since the covering separates between the fire and the pot containing the food, [returning the food is permitted, because this is not the way in which one cooks].160

There are authorities who maintain that even though [the covering] is not so hot that a hand would recoil from its heat, something must be placed under the pot to separate between it and the [glowing] coals in the oven. This will serve as a distinction [and a reminder,] so that the person will not come to stir [the coals]. The covering itself, since it exists beforehand, is not considered a [sufficient] separation and distinction to prevent one from stirring [the coals]. Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view.161

Nevertheless, it has become customary for people to take leniencies and place [food] on top of [the oven] without [placing] an intervening substance162 [in addition to the covering] before the oven is lit, even though the food will become warm when the oven is heated and then there is concern that one might stir [the coals]. Despite this [concern], one should not admonish [such individuals], because they have an authority upon whom to rely.

כו הַמַּשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְרָאָה שֶׁהִקְדִּיחָה תַּבְשִׁילוֹ שֶׁבִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁעַל פִּי הַכִּירָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה שֶׁהִשְׁהָה עָלֶיהָ בְּאֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַהֶתֵּר שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ לְמַעְלָהרסד,146 וּמִתְיָרֵא פֶּן יַקְדִּיחַ יוֹתֵר יָכוֹל לְהָסִיר הַקְּדֵרָה מֵהַכִּירָהרסה,147 וּלְהַנִּיחַ קְדֵרָה יְשָׁנָה רֵיקָנִית148 עַל פִּי הַכִּירָהרסו [וְלֹא] חֲדָשָׁהרסז מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"ברסח,151 וְאָז יָשִׂים הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּתוֹכָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי149 הַקְּדֵרָה הָרֵיקָנִית.רסט,150 וְאֵין כַּאן אִסּוּר בְּמַה שֶּׁמַּחֲזִיר בְּשַׁבָּת לְכִירָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ גְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַקְּדֵרָה הָרֵיקָנִית סוֹתֶמֶת פִּי הַכִּירָה תַּחַת הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּתוֹכָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה כִּגְרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה.רע,152

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִתֵּן תַּבְשִׁיל בְּשַׁבָּת עַל פִּי קְדֵרַתרעא חַמִּיןרעב הַטְּמוּנָה עַל גַּבֵּי הָאֵשׁרעג (שֶׁבַּכִּירָה) עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"זרעד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁםרעה וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְחִתּוּי בַּגֶּחָלִיםרעו כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַקְּדֵרָה מַפְסֶקֶתרעז בֵּין תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה לְהַגֶּחָלִים.153

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵסִיר תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה מֵהַכִּירָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםרעח וְלֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִירוֹ וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע וַאֲפִלּוּ פִּנָּהוּ מִקְּדֵרָה לִקְדֵרָה154 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא תַּבְשִׁיל יָשָׁן וְנִצְטַנֵּן לְגַמְרֵי אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּשּׁוּל כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מָרָקרעט,155 שֶׁאַף שֶׁבְּכָל אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי כִּירָה הַגְּרוּפָה וּקְטוּמָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּתרפ,156 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁמַּנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים (שֶׁבַּכִּירָה) אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל לְכַתְּחִלָּה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בִּשּׁוּל בְּכָךְ.רפא

וּלְפִי זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹמַר בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו מַעֲזִיבָה157 שֶׁאַף אִם אֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם וְכֵן תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף158 שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם וַאֲפִלּוּ הָאֵשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ מֻתָּר לִתֵּן עַל גַּבָּיו בְּשַׁבָּתרפב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁםרפג,159 כָּל (י) מַה שֶּׁמֻּתָּר לִתֵּן עַל פִּי קְדֵרָה הַטְּמוּנָה עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמַּעֲזִיבָה מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּין הָאֵשׁ לְהַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּתוֹכָהּ.רפד,160

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרפה שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁםרפו צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ עַתָּה שׁוּם דָּבָר תַּחַת הַקְּדֵרָה לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינָהּ לְהַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁבַּתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ הֶכֵּר בְּזֶהרפז וְלֹא יָבֹא לַחְתּוֹת אֲבָל הַמַּעֲזִיבָה שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה מִכְּבָר אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֶפְסֵק וְהֶכֵּר לְמָנְעוֹ מִלַּחְתּוֹת וְכֵן עִקָּר.רפח,161

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל לִתֵּן עַל גַּבָּיו בְּלֹא הֶפְסֵקרפט,162 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיִּתְחַמֵּם אַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיֻּסַּק וְאָז יִהְיֶה חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה אַף עַל פִי כֵן אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם עַל מִי שֶׁיִּסְמֹכוּ:רצ

27 According to our custom, it is, however, permitted in all instances to place [food] near a winter oven whose [glowing coals] were not removed or covered, even if there is a fire burning inside, as explained above.163 It is only that the food must [still] be somewhat warm if: a) it contains liquid,164 and b) the place near the oven where it is put down is warm enough to cause a hand to recoil from its heat.165 If, however, the place near the oven is not warm enough to cause a hand to recoil from its heat, it is permitted to place food there in all situations, even if the food has become entirely cool, as explained above.166

Nevertheless, if one knows that afterwards a non-Jew will kindle the oven to warm the house – which is permitted on Shabbos in accordance with the conditions that will be explained in sec. 276[:15]167 – and when the oven will become very warm, the food that is placed next to it will also be warmed until one’s hand will recoil from it, it is forbidden168 to place it there. Instead, he should remove it from there before the non-Jew kindles [the oven]. This situation is comparable to one in which one person puts down a pot and another kindles a fire beneath it. [Although] the first person is exempt, he is, nonetheless, forbidden to [act in this manner] by Rabbinic decree.169

כז אֲבָל לִסְמוֹךְ אֵצֶל תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָרוּף וְקָטוּם וַאֲפִלּוּ הָאֵשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ מֻתָּררצא בְּכָל עִנְיָן לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהרצב,163 רַק שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַתַּבְשִׁיל חַם קְצָת אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ מָרָק164 וְהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת165 בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁסּוֹמֵךְ לַתַּנּוּר אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת שָׁם אֵצֶל הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן הַתַּבְשִׁיל לְגַמְרֵי מֻתָּר לִסְמוֹךְ בְּכָל עִנְיָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רצג,166

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יַסִּיק אַחַר כָּךְ אֶת הַתַּנּוּר לְחַמֵּם אֶת הַבַּיִת שֶׁזֶּהוּ מֻתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ורצד,167 וּכְשֶׁיִּתְחַמֵּם הַתַּנּוּר מְאֹד יִתְחַמֵּם גַּם כֵּן הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ אָסוּר168 לְהַנִּיחוֹ שָׁםרצה אֶלָּא יִטְּלֶנּוּ מִשָּׁם קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּסִּיק הַנָּכְרִי לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּאֶחָד מַנִּיחַ אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה וְאֶחָד נוֹתֵן אֶת הָאוּר שֶׁתַּחְתֶּיהָ שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹן פָּטוּררצו אֲבָל אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:רצז,169

28 It is, however, permitted to tell a non-Jew to place cooked food there and afterwards kindle the oven to heat the house. [Although] the cooked food is warmed as a matter of course, [this is permitted] because the non-Jew’s primary intent in kindling [the oven] is not [to warm] the cooked food, but rather to warm the house. This is a permitted act and the food is warmed as a matter of course. Even though [the warming of the food] is an inevitable consequence (p’sik raishah vilo yamus),170 the prohibition against instructing a non-Jew does not apply for the reason explained above.171

There is an authority who forbids this, since when kindling the oven, the non-Jew also intends [to heat] the food, because he placed it on the oven or next to it. Even though his primary intent is [to warm] the house, that is of no consequence whatsoever. The [prevailing] custom is [to follow] the first opinion. Nevertheless, a meticulous person 172 should be stringent with regard to himself in a situation where there is no [great] need [for leniency].173

כח אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִירחצ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ שָׁם אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַסִּיק הַתַּנּוּר לְחַמֵּם הַבַּיִת וְנִרְתָּח הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֵאֵלָיורצט לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר כַּוָּנַת הַנָּכְרִי בְּהַסִּיקוֹ אֵינָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל הַתַּבְשִׁיל אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל חִמּוּם הַבַּיִת שֶׁהוּא דָבָר הַמֻּתָּר,167 וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל נִרְתָּח מֵאֵלָיו ש וְאַף שֶׁהוּא פְּסִיק רֵישֵׁהּ וְלֹא יָמוּתשא,170 אֵין בְּזֶה אִסּוּר בַּאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִישב מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהשג,171 וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹסֵר בָּזֶהדש כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי מִתְכַּוֵּן בְּהַסִּיקוֹ גַּם בִּשְׁבִיל הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁהֲרֵי הִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּנּוּר אוֹ אֶצְלוֹ אַף שֶׁעִקַּר כַּוָּנָתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַבַּיִת אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם וְהַמִּנְהָג כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהשה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ172 יַחְמִיר לְעַצְמוֹשו בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ:שז,173

29 If, however, the non-Jew placed water in a pot that was permanently affixed within the oven174 so that the pot would not break when he kindled the oven, and the water boiled after he kindled the oven, a Jew is permitted to benefit from [the water] on Shabbos.175[Moreover,] even initially, all authorities176 agree it is permitted to tell [the non-Jew] to put water in the pot before he kindles the oven.177 For [the non-Jew] does not intend to heat the water at all, only to heat the home; the water was merely placed in the pot so that the pot will not break.178

(Nevertheless, if the Jew desires that the water will warm there so that he will be able to use it to wash dishes, it is forbidden for him to tell the non-Jew to place [water] in the pot. [The rationale:] If he desires [to use the warm water] to wash dishes, it would be forbidden for him to place [the water] there, not even directly before nightfall [on Friday],) because of a decree, lest he stir the coals after the oven was kindled, as will be explained in sec. 254[:15].179 [It is therefore] forbidden to tell the non-Jew to place the water there, for in all the cases that were explained in this section where an act is forbidden by Rabbinic decree lest one stir the coals or because it appears that one is cooking, it is also forbidden to instruct a non-Jew to perform it. Even if the Jew has no desire at all that the water be warmed, he personally is forbidden to place water [in the pot on Shabbos or directly beforehand] even before the oven is kindled.180

According to the [prevailing] custom that follows the first opinion ([mentioned] in subsection 28),181 even if [the Jew’s] intent in having the water placed [in the pot] is to warm it, it is permitted,182 since [the non-Jew’s] primary intent in kindling [the oven] is [heat] the home.

If [the non-Jew] put the water in the pot after the oven was kindled, even when the pot was still cold when the water was placed in it, all authorities agree that if it is known with certainty that [the non-Jew] put [the water] there in order to warm it, it is forbidden on Saturday night until enough time passes during which it could have warmed, as is the law when a non-Jew does actual work for the sake of a Jew.183 Nevertheless, [unless this is known with certainty,] it can be assumed that the non-Jew put the water there only so that the pot would not break.

כט אֲבָל אִם נָתַן נָכְרִי מַיִם לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה הַקְּבוּעָה בַּתַּנּוּר,174 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִבָּקַע כְּשֶׁיַּסִּיק הַתַּנּוּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִסִּיק הַתַּנּוּר וְנִרְתְּחוּ הַמַּיִם מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מֵהֶם בְּשַׁבָּתשח,175 (יא) וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁיִּתֵּן מַיִם בַּקְּדֵרָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּסִּיק הַתַּנּוּר177 לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלשט,176 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ כְּלָל לְחַמֵּם הַמַּיִם אֶלָּא לְחַמֵּם הַבַּיִת שֶׁאֵין נוֹתְנִים מַיִם בִּקְדֵרָה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִבָּקַע הַקְּדֵרָה.שי,178

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל חָפֵץ בְּאוֹתָן הַמַּיִם שֶׁיִּתְחַמְּמוּ לְהָדִיחַ בָּהֶם כֵּלִים אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיִּתְּנֵם לַקְּדֵרָה דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ אָסוּר לוֹ לִתְּנָם שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה אִם חָפֵץ בָּהֶם לַהֲדָחַת כֵּלִים) מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה בַּגֶּחָלִים לְאַחַר שֶׁיֻּסַּק הַתַּנּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"דשיא,179 אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לִתְּנָם שָׁם שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר מִדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּסִמָּן זֶה שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחְתֶּה אוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל בַּתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹשיב וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין לוֹ חֵפֶץ כְּלָל בַּמַּיִם שֶׁיִּתְחַמְּמוּ אָסוּר לוֹ לִתֵּן הַמַּיִם בְּעַצְמוֹ אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר:שיג,180

וּלְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה (דִּסְעִיף כ"ח)181 אַף אִם כַּוָּנָתוֹ בִּנְתִינַת הַמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְחַמְּמָם מֻתָּר182 כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר כַּוָּנָתוֹ בְּהַסִּיקוֹ הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַבַּיִתשיד וְאִם נָתַן הַמַּיִם בַּקְּדֵרָה לְאַחַר שֶׁהִסִּיק הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה הַקְּדֵרָה צוֹנֶנֶת עֲדַיִן כְּשֶׁנָּתַן בָּהּ הַמַּיִם אִם יָדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁנְּתָנָן כְּדֵי לְחַמְּמָם הֲרֵי הֵם אֲסוּרִים עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל כְּדִין נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵלשטו,183 אֲבָל מִן הַסְּתָם לֹא נְתָנָן אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִבָּקַע הַקְּדֵרָה:שטז