SECTION 252 Which Tasks That Will Be Completed [without the Need for Further Intervention] over Shabbos May Be Started on Friday and Which Are Forbidden (1-20)

סימן רנב מְלָאכוֹת הַמֻּתָּרִים וְהָאֲסוּרִים לְהַתְחִיל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִגְמָרִים בְּשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ כ' סְעִיפִים:

1 It is permitted to begin a task on Friday close to nightfall,1 even though the person will not be able to complete it during that day, but rather it will be completed without the need for further [human] intervention2 on Shabbos. For example, [it is permissible] to place [dried cakes of] ink3 and herbs to soak in water [on Friday close to nightfall].4 Similarly, one may place [kernels of] barley in a barrel of water close to nightfall, where they will soak throughout Shabbos. Similarly, [one may place] incense on coals below clothes close to nightfall to perfume them over the course of the Shabbos.5[This license is granted] even when the incense and the coals are placed in one’s censer. Although the task was performed on Shabbos in a utensil belonging to a Jew, that is of no consequence, since a person is not commanded to have his utensils rest — i.e., that forbidden labor not be performed with them on Shabbos — [provided that labor is completed] without further [human] intervention. [This license applies] even when the forbidden labor [that will be performed] on Shabbos will be performed by the utensil itself, [as it were,] without further intervention, e.g., setting snares for wild animals, fowl, and fish while it is still day [on Friday, so that] they can be trapped [by the snare] on Shabbos. [No prohibition is involved,] even though the snare will trap [the animal]6 on Shabbos, for the snare will snap closed and trap the fowl without intervention. Similar [laws apply to] a trap that is set to catch wild animals by their feet, i.e., when they step on it, it springs closed of its own accord and captures [the animal].7

א מֻתָּר לְהַתְחִיל בִּמְלָאכָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה1 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהִיא נִגְמֶרֶת מֵאֵלֶיהָ2 בְּשַׁבָּת א כְּגוֹן לִשְׁרוֹת דְּיוֹ3 וְסַמְמָנִים בַּמַּיִם ב,4 וְכֵן לִתֵּן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים בַּמַּיִם בְּגִיגִית סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְהֵם נִשְׁרִים שָׁם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ ג וְכֵן לִתֵּן מֻגְמָר תַּחַת הַבְּגָדִים עַל גַּבֵּי גֶחָלִים סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְהֵם מִתְגַּמְּרִים וְהוֹלְכִים כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ ד,5 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמֻּגְמָר וְהַגֶּחָלִים מֻנָּחִים בִּכְלִי שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת בִּכְלִי שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתַת כֵּלָיו ה שֶׁלֹּא תֵעָשֶׂה בָּהֶן מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת מֵאֵלֶיהָ2 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהַכְּלִי בְּעַצְמוֹ הוּא הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת מֵאֵלָיו ו כְּגוֹן לִפְרוֹס מְצוּדוֹת חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהֵם נִצּוֹדִים בְּשַׁבָּת ז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְּצוּדָה הִיא הָעוֹשָׂה מַעֲשֵׂה הַצִּידָה6 בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהַפַּח נִקְשָׁר וְתוֹפֵס הָעוֹף וְכֵן הַיָּקוּשׁ שֶׁפּוֹשְׁטִים לְחַיּוֹת לְלָכְדָן בְּרַגְלֵיהֶן כְּשֶׁהֵם נוֹגְעִים בּוֹ קוֹפֵץ וּמִתְחַבֵּר מֵאֵלָיו וְלוֹכֵד: ח,7

2 Similarly, it is permitted to place wool in a cauldron to be dyed while it is still day [on Friday],8 when the dying process will continue throughout the Shabbos day without further intervention, provided the cauldron was removed from the fire throughout the entire Shabbos.9Were it to remain on the fire, [with the wool remaining in the dye,] it would be forbidden as a [Rabbinical] decree, lest one forget and stir the coals on Shabbos to hasten the steeping of the herbs [or other ingredients] of the dye. Also, the cauldron must be sealed [by placing] mud around its cover, for if it is not sealed, [leaving the wool in the dye] would be forbidden, lest one forget [that it is Shabbos], remove the cover on Shabbos, and stir [the dye] with a spoon. For one who stirs a boiling pot, even after it was removed from the fire, is liable for cooking,10 since stirring hastens the cooking process. Even if the herbs for the dye were already steeped to the full extent necessary [to accomplish the dyeing process] while it was still day,11 nevertheless, were they to be stirred on Shabbos, one would be liable for dyeing, since stirring causes the dye to be [further] absorbed by the wool. When, however, [the cauldron] is sealed with mud, [it is permitted, because] one will not go to the additional trouble of removing the seal in order to stir [the cauldron].12

It is, however, permitted to place rolls of (spun) flax into a [burning] oven while it is still day [on Friday]13 so that they will whiten there throughout the entire Shabbos,even though the oven’s opening is not sealed by placing mud around its cover. Since the [cool] air [that would enter were the oven to be opened] would harm the flax, the person will not open the oven’s cover to stir the coals on the bottom [of the oven].14

ב וְכֵן מֻתָּר לָתֵת צֶמֶר לְתוֹךְ הַיּוֹרָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם ט,8 (וצובעו) [לְצָבְעוֹ] וְהוּא מִצְטַבֵּעַ מֵאֵלָיו כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ וְהוּא שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיּוֹרָה עֲקוּרָה מֵעַל הָאֵשׁ כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ י,9 שֶׁאִם עוֹמֶדֶת עַל הָאֵשׁ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיַחְתֶּה בְּגֶחָלִים בְּשַׁבָּת לְמַהֵר בִּשּׁוּל סַמְמָנֵי הַצֶּבַע יא וְגַם שֶׁתְּהֵא הַיּוֹרָה טוּחָה בְּטִיט סְבִיב כִּסּוּיָהּ שֶׁאִם אֵינָהּ טוּחָה אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וִיגַלֶּה כִּסּוּיָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת (ומגיס) [וְיָגִיס] בָּהּ בְּכַף וְהַמֵּגִיס בִּקְדֵרָה רוֹתַחַת אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ עַל הָאֵשׁ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְבַשֵּׁל יב,10 שֶׁהַהֲגָסָה גוֹרֶמֶת לְמַהֵר הַבִּשּׁוּל וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם סַמְמָנֵי הַצֶּבַע נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ כְּבָר כָּל צָרְכָּן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם יג,11 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁמֵּגִיס בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם צוֹבֵעַ יד שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַהֲגָסָה נִקְלָט הַצֶּבַע בַּצֶּמֶר אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִיא טוּחָה בְּטִיט לֹא יָבֹא לִטְרוֹחַ כָּל כָּךְ לִסְתּוֹר הַטִּחוּי כְּדֵי לְהָגִיס. טו,12

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לָתֵת אוּנִין (פֵּרוּשׁ מַטְוֶה טז) שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם יז,13 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְלַבְּנוּ שָׁם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין פִּי הַתַּנּוּר טוּחַ בְּטִיט סְבִיב כִסּוּיוֹ דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהָרוּחַ קָשֶׁה לְהָאוּנִין לֹא יָבֹא לְגַלּוֹת כִּסּוּי הַתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי לַחְתּוֹת בְּגֶחָלִים שֶׁבְּשׁוּלָיו: יח,14

3 It is permitted to sell [merchandise] to a non-Jew and load it on him [on Friday] close to nightfall, provided he leaves the entrance of [the Jew’s] house with the merchandise while it is still day.15 [This prerequisite] is required even in a town encompassed by an eruv, as stated in sec. 246[:5].16

Even if the Jew designates a room in his courtyard where the non-Jew may leave his merchandise on Friday, and afterwards, on Shabbos, the non-Jew comes to take it from there to bring to his home,17 the Jew should not allow the non-Jew to [take it]18 until after Shabbos.19[An exception, however, is made] when the non-Jew is a man of force who the Jew fears. Should that be the case, there is room for leniency20 even if [the Jew] did not designate a place for [the non-Jew] to leave his merchandise before Shabbos.21

ג מֻתָּר לִמְכּוֹר לְנָכְרִי וּלְהַטְעִינוֹ הַמִּקָּח סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה יט וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיֵּצֵא מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ עִם הַמִּקָּח מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כ,15 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא עִיר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת כא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ו. כב,16

וַאֲפִלּוּ (א) אִם יִחֵד לְהַנָּכְרִי חֶדֶר בַּחֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ שָׁם מִקָּחוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת וְאַחַר כָּךְ בְּשַׁבָּת בָּא הַנָּכְרִי לִטְּלוֹ מִשָּׁם לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ17 (ב) לֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ לְהוֹלִיכוֹ18 עַד לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת כג,19 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אָלִים וְהוּא מִתְיָרֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁאָז (ג) יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כד,20 אַף אִם לֹא יִחֵד לוֹ מָקוֹם לְמִקָּחוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת: כה,21

4 A person is also permitted to give his garments to a non-Jewish launderer and his hides to a non-Jewish leather worker [to work on] close to nightfall22 [on Friday] on a contractual basis,23 whereby the non-Jewish [contractor] performs these activities on his own initiative. [The non-Jew may perform these labors] even on Shabbos, provided the Jew does not instruct him to perform them on Shabbos. Similarly, [the Jew] may not tell [the non-Jewish contractor] to make sure that the work is completed by Sunday or Monday, when it is obvious that he could not complete it by then unless he also worked on Shabbos, since this is equivalent to explicitly telling him to [perform these tasks] on Shabbos.

When, however, [the Jew] does not tell [the non-Jew] anything and the non-Jew performs the tasks on Shabbos of his own initiative, [the non-Jew] need not be cautioned [not to perform this labor on Shabbos].24 For the non-Jew is not acting on Shabbos for the Jew’s sake, since even if he [were to postpone his] activity until after Shabbos, he would, [in any case, still] be carrying out the Jew’s instructions, since the Jew did not make it known to him25 to perform the activity [specifically] on Shabbos. [Thus, when the non-Jew] performs the activity on Shabbos, [he is doing so]for his own sake, to complete the work that he contracted to perform, [doing so at the time he desires]. If he does not perform the work one day, he will have to perform it on the next. Now that he performs it on this day, [it will be to his advantage, because] he will be free on the following day.

ד וּמֻתָּר לִתֵּן בְּגָדָיו לְכוֹבֵס נָכְרִי וְעוֹרוֹת לְעַבְּדָן נָכְרִי סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה כו,22 בְּקַבְּלָנוּת כז,23 וְהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת וּבִלְבָד שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת כח וְכֵן לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ רְאֵה שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר הַמְּלָאכָה בְּיוֹם א' אוֹ בְּיוֹם ב' וְיָדוּעַ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְגָמְרָהּ אָז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת כט שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ אוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת ל אֲבָל כְּשֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לוֹ כְּלוּם וְהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מֵעַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ לא,24 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּעֲשִׂיָּתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לב שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף אִם לֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה עַד לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת הָיָה מְקַיֵּם צִוּוּי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל (ד) לֹא גִלָּה לוֹ דַּעְתּוֹ25 לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא הוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת לְעַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁלִים קַבְּלָנוּתוֹ לג שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה הַיּוֹם יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לְמָחָר וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁעָשָׂה הַיּוֹם יִהְיֶה פָנוּי לְמָחָר:

5 When does the above apply? When the non-Jewish [contractor] performs the activity on Shabbos in his own home26 or in another domain that does not belong to a Jew.27 In such an instance, it is not apparent that the task is associated with a Jew. It is, however, forbidden to allow him to perform [forbidden labor] in a domain belonging to a Jew. For when he performs [the forbidden labor] in a domain belonging to a Jew, it is apparent that the task is associated with a Jew, and perhaps others will suspect that [the Jew] instructed the non-Jew on Shabbos to perform the task.28 Alternatively, they may suspect that the non-Jew is a day-worker and not a contractor, as explained in sec. 244.29

Even when the work is performed in the domain of the non-Jewish [contractor], there are some authorities who maintain that there is no license [to allow him to perform the work] unless the Jewish [employer] receives no [additional] gain from the fact that the work was performed on Shabbos,30i.e., that even were it to have been performed after Shabbos, the Jewish [employer] would have derived the same benefit as if it were performed on Shabbos.31 Although the [Jewish employer] prefers that the work be performed on Shabbos so that it will be completed earlier and he will be able to benefit from it earlier,32 this is not considered as [substantial] gain, because even if [the work] were to be performed after Shabbos, he would still benefit from it.

[A more stringent ruling applies,] by contrast, when, were the work to be performed after Shabbos, the Jewish [employer] would not be able to benefit from it, and he would have no desire for it at all if it were not performed on Shabbos. For example, he is setting out on a journey immediately on Saturday night or the like [and thus would only benefit if the work were performed on Shabbos]. In such a situation, [since] the Jewish [employer] profits from the fact that the non-Jewish [contractor] completes the task on Shabbos, it is forbidden to give the non-Jewish [contractor] the work [directly] before Shabbos. [License is granted only] if he is able to complete it on the weekdays, either before Shabbos or afterwards.

[Moreover, in the above situation,] even if [the Jew] gave [the task] to [the non-Jewish contractor] while it was possible for him to complete it before Shabbos,and he discovered that the non-Jewish [contractor] was working on it on Shabbos, he must admonish him [not to complete his work on Shabbos].33 [The rationale:] The Jewish [employer] derives benefit from the work that is being carried out [on Shabbos]. The non-Jewish [contractor] does not profit from this. From his standpoint, he could equally perform the work after Shabbos. He is merely routinely working on Shabbos to complete his task; in contrast to the Jew, he derives no benefit from its [early] completion. Therefore it appears that the work is being performed on Shabbos for the sake of the Jew.

There is an authority who permits the Jewish [employer] to give [the work] to [the non-Jewish contractor] on Friday close to nightfall, [knowing that the non-Jewish contractor] will perform the work on his own initiative in [the non-Jew’s] house on Shabbos, provided that [the Jew] does not reveal his intent — that he needs the work done on Shabbos — and [provided] that he does not inform [the non-Jew] in any manner that he is departing on a journey immediately on Saturday night.34

It is possible that these authorities do not actually differ. [Perhaps] the authority who is lenient granted this license only in an instance when — if [the non-Jewish contractor] does not do the work on Shabbos —the Jewish [employer] will no longer desire that he do the work at all after Shabbos and will not pay him for his work. Thus, by performing the work on Shabbos, [the non-Jewish contractor] is profiting, for [only then] will the Jewish [employer] pay him for his work. It is possible that in this instance, even the authority who is stringent would agree that it is permitted [to give the non-Jew the work to perform]. Since the non-Jewish [contractor] also benefits from performing the work on Shabbos, it does not appear that [the work] is being performed for the sake of the Jewish [employer] alone.

[Conversely,] it is possible that even the authority who is lenient would agree that [such an arrangement] is forbidden if the Jewish [employer] would have to pay[the non-Jewish contractor] even if he did not perform the work on Shabbos, but would do so only afterwards, because [the Jew] did not initially stipulate [that he is giving the non-Jew] the work on the condition that he complete it entirely by Saturday night. [In this instance,] the non-Jewish [contractor] does not derive any benefit at all from performing the work on Shabbos, only the Jewish [employer] does [and all would agree that this is forbidden].35

ה בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת בְּבֵיתוֹ לד,26 אוֹ בְּבַיִת אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לה,27 שֶׁאָז אֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁהִיא מְלֶאכֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לו אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּרְשׁוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁהִיא מְלֶאכֶת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל (ה) וְשֶׁמָּא יַחְשְׁדוּהוּ שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לז,28 אוֹ יַחְשְׁדוּהוּ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הוּא שְׂכִיר יוֹם אֶצְלוֹ לח וְלֹא קַבְּלָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ד.29

וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּבֵית נָכְרִי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים לט שֶׁאֵין הֶתֵּר (ו) אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין מַגִּיעַ רֶוַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּה שֶּׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת30 שֶׁאַף אִם יַעֲשֶׂנָּה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת יֵהָנֶה מִמֶּנָּה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ עַכְשָׁו שֶׁהִיא נַעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת31 וְאַף שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ יוֹתֵר שֶׁתֵעָשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מִקֹּדֶם וְיָכוֹל לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה מִקֹּדֶם מ,32 וְאֵין זֶה נִקְרָא רֶוַח כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף אִם תֵּעָשֶׂה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת יֵהָנֶה גַם כֵּן מִמֶּנָּה אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם תֵּעָשֶׂה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת לֹא יוּכַל לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה וְאֵין לוֹ בָּהּ חֵפֶץ כְּלָל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן תֵּעָשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לְדֶרֶךְ מִיָּד בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ רֶוַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּה שֶּׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לִתְּנָהּ לְהַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁיּוּכַל לְגָמְרָהּ בִּימֵי הַחֹל קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת אוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ וְאַף אִם נְתָנָהּ לוֹ בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת וְנוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ מא,33 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלְּהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ רֶוַח מִזֶּה שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית עַכְשָׁו בְּשַׁבָּת וּלְהַנָּכְרִי אֵין רֶוַח מִזֶּה שֶׁמִּצִּדּוֹ לֹא יִבָּצֵר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת לְפִי תֻמּוֹ לְהַשְׁלִים פְּעֻלָּתוֹ וְאֵין מַגִּיעַ לוֹ רֶוַח מִזֶּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְפִיכָךְ נִרְאֶה הַדָּבָר כְּאִלּוּ בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נַעֲשֵׂית הַמְּלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּיר לִתְּנָהּ לוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְהוּא יַעֲשֶׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּבֵיתוֹ רַק שֶׁלֹּא יְגַלֶּה לוֹ דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹ שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ כְּלָל שֶׁיּוֹצֵא לְדֶרֶךְ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד. מב,34

וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹלְקִים כְּלָל שֶׁהַמַּתִּיר אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּיר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת וְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת לֹא יִהְיֶה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּלָל חֵפֶץ בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲזַי לֹא יְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַד מְלַאכְתּוֹ וְנִמְצָא שֶׁבְּמַה שֶּׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה הַמְּלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת מַגִּיעַ לוֹ רֶוַח שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַד מְלַאכְתּוֹ וּבְזֶה אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁגַּם הָאוֹסֵר מוֹדֶה שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁגַּם לְהַנָּכְרִי מַגִּיעַ רֶוַח מִמְּלֶאכֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אֵינָהּ נִרְאֵית כְּאִלּוּ הִיא נַעֲשֵׂית בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת יַעֲשֶׂה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת וְיִצְטָרֵךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ בִּתְחִלָּה עַל מְנָת שֶׁתֻּגְמַר הַמְּלָאכָה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין מַגִּיעַ רֶוַח לְהַנָּכְרִי מִמַּה שֶּׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד מג אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁבְּזֶה אַף הַמַּתִּיר מוֹדֶה שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר:35

6 All the above36 applies when: a) [the Jewish employer] established a fixed fee [for the non-Jewish contractor] as payment for his work, [in which instance] he is working for his own sake, to receive his fee, and he does not appear as the Jew’s agent;37 or

b) [the non-Jew] performs the task as a favor, gratuitously, in return for favors that the Jew had performed for him previously,38 in the manner explained in sec. 247[:9]. In such an instance, it is considered as if he established a fee for him.

[A different ruling applies,] however, if the non-Jew does not desire to perform the task gratuitously, but rather expects payment and yet is not absolutely confident of receiving it, because the Jew [for whom he is performing the task] did not establish a fee for him. [Because of this doubt,] he is [considered as] working for the Jewish [employer] without being assured [of payment], and [therefore] appears to be acting as his agent. Accordingly, [the Jewish employer] should not give [the non-Jewish contractor] the task unless he can complete it before Shabbos. [Nevertheless,] it is permitted to give [a non-Jewish contractor a task] for which there is a known fee, e.g., garments given to a launderer in our time, even directly before nightfall without having established a set fee. For does one [need to] establish a fee with the non-Jew every time [he asks him to perform such an ordinary task]?39

There are authorities who permit [giving a non-Jewish contractor a task] even when the fee is unknown, [provided] he gives it to him on Thursday or beforehand. [This leniency applies] even if he cannot complete the task before Shabbos. Were [the Jew] to give [the non-Jew the task] on Friday, if he could not complete it during that day, it would appear that [the Jew] is giving it to him on the condition that he complete it on Shabbos. For he gave it to him close to Shabbos and he cannot possibly complete it by the end of the day. When, by contrast, [he gives] it to him on Thursday [or earlier], it does not appear that he is giving it to him on the condition that he perform the task on Shabbos since it is not in direct proximity to Shabbos. [Accordingly,] the non-Jew’s performance of [the task] on Shabbos on his own initiative is of no consequence for he is working merely to complete the task he contracted to perform. He appears as the agent of the Jewish [employer] only at the time he contracts for the task. At that time, even if the Jewish [employer] does not establish40 a fixed price for the task, [the non-Jew] appears as the Jew’s agent. Thus, when [the Jew] gives him the task to perform well before the Shabbos day, even if he then appears as the Jew’s agent, nevertheless, it does not appear that the Jewish [employer] appointed him to perform the task on Shabbos,unless he gives him the task close to Shabbos. Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view.

(We rule stringently and follow the first opinion41 with regard to sending a letter [with a non-Jew], as stated in sec. 247[:5],42 for the following reason: When one sends [a non-Jew] on a journey to deliver a letter to its destination, it appears as if he is telling him to travel every day, even on Shabbos, until he reaches that destination. Therefore, [the non-Jew] must be able to reach the destination before Shabbos, even though he sent him many days before Shabbos.)43

ו וְכָל זֶה מד,36 כְּשֶׁקּוֹצֵץ לוֹ דָּמִים בִּשְׂכַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ מה שֶׁאָז הוּא טוֹרֵחַ לְעַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שְׂכָרוֹ וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מו,37 אוֹ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּטוֹבַת הֲנָאָה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּחִנָּם בִּשְׁבִיל טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה שֶׁקִּבֵּל כְּבָר מֵהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל 38 וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ז מז שֶׁדִּינוֹ כְּאִלּוּ קָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַנָּכְרִי חָפֵץ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּחִנָּם מח אֶלָּא מְצַפֶּה הוּא לְתַשְׁלוּם שָׂכָר אֲבָל אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ סְמוּכָה עָלָיו בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁלֹּא קָצַץ לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שָׂכָר וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהוּא טוֹרֵחַ בְּסָפֵק בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְנִרְאֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִתֵּן לוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת מט וְדָבָר שֶׁקִּצְבָתוֹ יָדוּעַ כְּגוֹן כֵּלִים לְכוֹבֵס בִּזְמַנֵּינוּ זֶה מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה בִּסְתָם בְּלֹא קְצִיצָה דְּאָטוּ בְּכָל פַּעַם וָפַעַם יִקְצוֹץ עִמּוֹ. נ,39

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין נא אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין קִצְבָתוֹ יָדוּעַ לִתֵּן לוֹ בְּה' בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ קֹדֶם לְכֵן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לְגָמְרָהּ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁכְּשֶׁנּוֹתֵן לוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ נוֹתֵן לוֹ עַל מְנָת שֶׁיִּגְמוֹר בְּשַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁנּוֹתֵן לוֹ סָמוּךְ לְשַׁבָּת וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֲבָל בַּחֲמִישִׁי כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ סָמוּךְ לְשַׁבָּת אֵין נִרְאֶה כְּנוֹתֵן לוֹ עַל מְנָת לַעֲשׂוֹת גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת וְאִם הַנָּכְרִי יַעֲשֶׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם שֶׁלְּהַשְׁלִים קַבְּלָנוּתוֹ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל הַקִּבֹּלֶת שֶׁאָז אַף אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קוֹצֵץ40 לוֹ דָמִים הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנּוֹתֵן לוֹ רָחוֹק מִיּוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת אַף אִם הוּא נִרְאֶה אָז כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ שׁוֹלְחוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נוֹתֵן לוֹ סָמוּךְ לְשַׁבָּת וְכֵן עִקָּר. נב

(וּמַה שֶּׁאָנוּ מַחֲמִירִים גַּבֵּי שִׁלּוּחַ אִגֶּרֶת כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה41 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ז נג,42 הַטַּעַם הוּא לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁשּׁוֹלְחוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ עִם אִגֶּרֶת שֶׁיּוֹלִיכֶנָּה לִמְחוֹז חֶפְצוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ אוֹמֵר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ בְּכָל יוֹם אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְחוֹז חֶפְצוֹ וּלְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ לְשָׁם קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחוֹ הַרְבֵּה יָמִים קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת נד):43

7 Nevertheless, if [the Jewish employer] sees [the non-Jewish contractor] performing work on his [behalf] on Shabbos, [the Jewish employer] must tell him not to work.44 [This stringency applies] even if he gave him the work on Sunday [and] even if he could have completed it before Shabbos. (The rationale is that when the Jewish [employer] sees [the non-Jew] performing work on his [behalf] and remains silent, the non-Jew will understand that [his working] on Shabbos is desirable for the Jewish [employer] and will then intend to work for [the Jew’s] sake [on Shabbos]. When, by contrast, [the Jew] does not see him, [the non-Jew] works [exclusively for his own sake], to complete his contractual obligation.)

ז (ז) וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה נה,44 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ בְּא' בְּשַׁבָּת נו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ כְּבָר קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת (לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹאֵהוּ בְּשַׁבָּת עוֹסֵק בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ וְשׁוֹתֵק לוֹ אֲזַי מֵבִין הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת הוּא נוֹחַ לוֹ לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמִתְכַּוֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ נז מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹאֵהוּ הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַשְׁלִים קַבְּלָנוּתוֹ):

8 When does the above apply? When the Jewish [employer] did not establish a fixed fee [for the non-Jew’s work. Moreover,] even when [the non-Jew] performs work as a favor [for the Jew] — in which instance, he is considered as one whose fee was fixed with regard to giving him the work even on Friday45 — nevertheless, if the Jewish [employer] sees him working on Shabbos, he must admonish him. (Since [the non-Jew] is not sure that he will receive payment for his work, if he understands from the Jew’s attitude that [the Jew] desires this task to be performed for him, his intent [in performing it] is for the sake of the Jew.) If, however, [the Jewish employer] established a fixed fee, (the [non-Jew’s] intent in performing the work on Shabbos is to receive his fee and not for the sake of the Jew, even when the Jewish [employer] sees [the non-Jew working] and remains silent. Therefore,) he need not admonish him at all.46

Nevertheless, if the [non-Jew] performs the work in a public place and it is known to people at large that [he is working with objects] belonging to a Jew,47 [the Jew] must admonish [the non-Jew], because of the impression that could be created, as explained in sec. 244[:4]. Therefore, [since] in these countries, the outer garments worn [by Jews] are distinctly Jewish, when non-Jews launder these garments on the riverbanks, they must be admonished [and instructed to stop] because of the impression that might be created; people might say that [a Jew] gave them to [the non-Jews] on Shabbos to launder.48 Nevertheless, even as an initial preference, one may give [a non-Jew such garments to launder] even on Friday. One need not be concerned that perhaps he will wash them on Shabbos in a public place.

ח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁלֹּא קָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר וַאֲפִלּוּ עוֹשֶׂה בְּטוֹבַת הֲנָאָה נח שֶׁדִּינוֹ כְּקָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר לְעִנְיַן לִתֵּן לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת נט,45 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁרוֹאֵהוּ עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ (דְּכֵיוָן דְּאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ סְמוּכָה לְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר בְּעַד מְלַאכְתּוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּשֶׁהוּא מֵבִין מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעֵסֶק זֶה נוֹחַ לוֹ) אֲבָל אִם קָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר ס (הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן בַּעֲשִׂיָּתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שְׂכָרוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אַף שֶׁרוֹאֵהוּ וְשׁוֹתֵק לוֹ סא וּלְפִיכָךְ) אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ כְּלָל.46

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא וּמְפֻרְסָם לָרַבִּים שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל47 צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן סב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ד סג לְפִיכָךְ הַחֲלוּקִים שֶׁלָּנוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵם נִכָּרִים שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּשֶׁמְּכַבְּסָן הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת עַל גַּבֵּי הַנָּהָר צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת סד מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת נְתָנָם לוֹ לְכַבְּסָן סה,48 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לִתְּנָם לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יְכַבְּסֵן בְּשַׁבָּת בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא: סו

9 All the above applies when the work is being performed with articles belonging to a Jew, for example: garments belonging to a Jew that were given to a launderer, hides given to a leather-worker to process, [leather given] to a shoemaker to sew shoes from, or thread given to [a weaver to] weave a garment.49 [Greater leniency is granted,] however, if the Jew did not give the non-Jewish craftsman anything,50 but instead, [he commissioned the non-Jew and] the non-Jew sewed shoes from his own hides or wove a garment using his own thread, [doing all the above] in his own domain.51 [In such an instance,] the Jew need not say anything to the non-Jew, even if he sees him working on [the task] on Shabbos, even if he did not establish a fixed fee [for the non-Jew to perform the task], provided [the non-Jew] does not perform the task in public or it is not public knowledge that he is working for the Jew.52

[This leniency is granted because the articles the craftsman is fashioning] are not yet designated as the Jew’s. For if the non-Jew desires, he could sell these articles to another person and make other ones for [the Jew]. Even as an initial preference, [a Jew] may instruct the non-Jewish [craftsman] to make such articles, even on Friday close to nightfall, as long as he does not instruct him to make it on Shabbos.

ט וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בַּחֲפָצִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל סז כְּגוֹן כֵּלִים שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבְּיַד הַכּוֹבֵס סח וְעוֹרוֹת לְעַבְּדָן אוֹ לְרַצְּעָן לִתְפּוֹר מֵהֶם מִנְעָלִים וְחוּטִין לֶאֱרוֹג מֵהֶם בֶּגֶד49 אֲבָל אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֹא נָתַן לוֹ כְּלוּם50 אֶלָּא הַנָּכְרִי תּוֹפֵר מִנְעָלִים מֵעוֹרוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ וְאוֹרֵג בֶּגֶד מֵחוּטִין שֶׁלּוֹ בְּבַיִת שֶׁלּוֹ סט,51 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרוֹאֵהוּ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לוֹ כְּלוּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר אִם (ח) אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא אוֹ שֶׁאֵין מְפֻרְסָם לָרַבִּים שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל ע,52 לְפִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁאִם יִרְצֶה הַנָּכְרִי יִמְכּוֹר אוֹתָם לְאַחֵר וְיַעֲשֶׂה לוֹ אֲחֵרִים. וְאַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לְצַוּוֹת אֶת הַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתָם אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה רַק שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת: עא

10 Similarly, there is no need to admonish a non-Jew [who] performs a [forbidden] labor on Shabbos on his own initiative, without the Jew telling him, using his own property, even [when he does so] in the home of a Jew,53 for the sake of the Jew, e.g., to make a large fire54 using his own wood so that a Jew will be able to warm himself by it, or he lights his own lamp so that the Jew may use its light. Since he is acting on his own initiative, he is certainly acting for his own benefit. He knows that he will not lose [by doing this], for the Jew will surely reciprocate his kindness.

[More stringent rules apply if the non-Jew] kindles wood belonging to a Jew or lights a Jew’s lamp. Even though the fact that he acts on his own initiative indicates that he certainly relies on the Jew’s reciprocity,55 [there is] nevertheless [reason for stringency]. The non-Jew would need to receive permission from the Jew to kindle [the Jew’s firewood or light [the Jew’s] lamp on Shabbos. Thus, when [the non-Jew] does so on his own initiative and the Jew remains silent despite observing his actions, the non-Jew understands from the Jew’s attitude that he considers [the non-Jew’s] actions as desirous. [Hence, the non-Jew] is [considered as] intending to perform these actions for the sake of the Jew.56 Therefore, he should be admonished [and instructed to stop] even [when he performs them] in places other than the Jew’s home.

Moreover, even if [the non-Jew] kindles his own wood and lights his own lamp, in which instance [the Jew] is not required to admonish him, [the Jew] is nevertheless forbidden to benefit on Shabbos from the lamp or fire that was kindled for his sake.57 For if he will derive physical benefit on Shabbos from [the non-Jew’s activity], the fact will be that the [forbidden] labor was fundamentally performed for his sake on Shabbos.58Although the non-Jew [also] has his own benefit in mind,59 nevertheless, the primary reason he performed the [forbidden] labor was for the Jew to derive physical benefit from it on Shabbos. Were the Jew not to derive physical benefit on Shabbos from [the non-Jew’s activity, the non-Jew] would not have performed it at all on Shabbos. Hence, since the [forbidden] labor is being performed primarily for [the Jew’s] sake, it is appropriate that a decree be issued [forbidding him to benefit from it. The rationale:] If it would be permitted for him to benefit from [the forbidden labor] when it is performed on his behalf, it is possible that he would [specifically] ask [the non-Jew] to perform it on his behalf on Shabbos.60

י וְכֵן אִם הַנָּכְרִי מֵאֵלָיו בְּלֹא אֲמִירַת יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל עב,53 בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּגוֹן שֶׁמַּבְעִיר מְדוּרָה54 מֵעֵצִים שֶׁלּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּתְחַמֵּם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּנֶגְדָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁמַּדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁלּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאוֹרָהּ אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה מֵאֵלָיו בְּוַדַּאי הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד וּבְוַדַּאי יְקַבֵּל טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה מֵהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּנֶגֶד זֶה. עג

אֲבָל אִם מַבְעִיר עֵצִים שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמַדְלִיק נֵר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּכֵּיוָן שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מֵאֵלָיו בְּוַדַּאי דַּעְתּוֹ עַל טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל מֵהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל55 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִטּוֹל רְשׁוּת מִתְּחִלָּה מֵהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אִם יַבְעִיר עֵצָיו וְיַדְלִיק (ט) נֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְהוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹאֵהוּ וְשׁוֹתֵק לוֹ אִם כֵּן מֵבִין הַנָּכְרִי מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁזֶּה נוֹחַ לוֹ וּמִתְכַּוֵּן הוּא בַּעֲשִׂיָּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עה,56 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל. עו

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מַבְעִיר מֵעֵצִים שֶׁלּוֹ וּמַדְלִיק מִנֵּר שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת מֵהַנֵּר וְהַמְּדוּרָה שֶׁהִבְעִיר בִּשְׁבִילוֹ עז,57 לְפִי שֶׁאִם יֶהֱנֶה גוּפוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת נִמְצָא שֶׁעִקַּר הַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בִּשְׁבִילוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עח,58 שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי מִתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ59 מִכָּל מָקוֹם עִקַּר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלַאכְתּוֹ הִיא שֶׁיֶּהֱנֶה גּוּף הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאִם לֹא הֲנָאַת גּוּף הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִמֶּנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת לֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ כְּלָל בְּשַׁבָּת וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר עֲשִׂיַּת הַמְּלָאכָה הִיא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ יֵשׁ לִגְזוֹר גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בִּשְׁבִילוֹ: עט,60

11 When, however, a non-Jewish contractor fashions an article for a Jew on Shabbos that he was contracted for on Friday for an established fee, [the Jewish employer] is permitted to benefit from it on Shabbos itself.61 For the non-Jew worked for his own sake — to complete the task given him and to earn his fee; he did not intend for the Jewish [employer] to benefit from the task on Shabbos itself. Even if [the Jewish employer] would not benefit from it on Shabbos itself, the non-Jew would not refrain from performing his work on Shabbos. As such, [the Jewish employer] should not be prohibited from benefiting from [the work] the non-Jew performed for his own sake. For even if [the Jewish employer] is permitted to benefit from [this work], he would not instruct the non-Jew to perform the work [on Shabbos so that he could benefit from it on Shabbos], since he is granted permission [to benefit from the non-Jew’s work] only when the non-Jew has his own benefit in mind and not when he has the Jew’s [benefit] in mind.

There are authorities who forbid using a utensil that a non-Jew completed on Shabbos. [Moreover, they maintain that] even on Saturday night, it is [also] necessary to wait bichdei she­yaasu,62 i.e., for the passage of the amount of time that the non-Jew spent in fashioning the utensil on Shabbos [before using the utensil],so that one will not derive any benefit from the work [performed] on Shabbos. As an initial preference, one should follow this view, unless he needs [to use] the utensil on Shabbos, in which instance, he may follow the lenient view.63

If one is unsure whether the utensil was completed on Friday [or on Shabbos], one may be lenient in all instances, since there are authorities who permit [use of the utensil] in any event. (If [a utensil] was completed on the first day of a holiday, it is permitted on the night of the second day of the holiday bichdei sheyaasu; see sec. 515[:1].)64

If a non-Jew completed sewing shoes on Friday, and merely added the final touches and smoothed them out on Shabbos, it is permitted to put them on that [Shabbos] day, according to all opinions. For by wearing them, one is not benefiting from work performed on Shabbos, but from work performed during the week, because one would have been able to wear them even had these final touches not been added. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

יא אֲבָל נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת בְּקַבְּלָנוּת שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְקָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ61 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עֲשָׂאָה לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ לְהַשְׁלִים פְּעֻלָּתוֹ וּלְקַבֵּל שְׂכָרוֹ פ וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ פא שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא יֵהָנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ לֹא יִמָּנַע הַנָּכְרִי מֵעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְאִם כֵּן אֵין לֶאֱסוֹר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמַּה שֶּׁעָשָׂה הַנָּכְרִי לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה לֹא יָבֹא לוֹמַר לַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מַתִּירִים לוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן הַנָּכְרִי לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל. פב

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִים פג לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּכְלִי הַנִּגְמָר בְּשַׁבָּת בְּיַד נָכְרִי וְגַם בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ פד,62 דְּהַיְנוּ כְּשִׁעוּר שָׁהוּת שֶׁשָּׁהָה הַנָּכְרִי בְּעֵסֶק עֲשִׂיַּת הַכְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה מִמְּלֶאכֶת שַׁבָּת פה וְכֵן יֵשׁ לִנְהוֹג לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם לֹא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ אֵלָיו הַכְּלִי בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל. פו,63

וְאִם נִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא נִגְמַר הַכְּלִי בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בְּכָל עִנְיָן פזכֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין לְגַמְרֵי (וְאִם נִגְמַר בְּיוֹם טוֹב א' מֻתָּר בְּלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב ב' בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ פח עַיֵּן סִמָּן תקט"ו פט)64 וְאִם גָּמַר הַנָּכְרִי תְּפִירַת מִנְעָלִים מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת רַק שֶׁתִּקְּנָם וְהֶחֱלִיקָם בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּר לְלָבְשָׁם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה בִּלְבִישָׁתוֹ מִמְּלֶאכֶת הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִמְּלֶאכֶת הַחֹל שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיָה יָכוֹל לְלָבְשָׁם בְּלֹא תִּקּוּן זֶה צ וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה:

12 All the above applies with regard to articles that [a non-Jew specifically] made for a Jew. [Different rules apply,] however, when a non-Jewish [craftsman] makes utensils to sell to anyone who chooses [to purchase them] from him. In a town primarily populated by non-Jews,65 it is permitted to purchase a garment from him on Shabbos on credit, without specifying a price, in the manner to be explained in sec. 323[:1].66 It is permitted [for a Jew] to wear it on that Shabbos, even when he knows that it was made on Shabbos. [The rationale is that] since the majority of the inhabitants of the town are non-Jews, we can assume that [the craftsman] made them for the sake of the non-Jews. For whenever a craftsman makes articles, he makes them with the majority of the populace in mind.

Similar laws apply with regard to holidays. Although one should be stringent with regard to entities that come into being on a holiday (nolad),67 as will be explained in sec. 495[:13], nevertheless, in this instance, [the stringency of] nolad does not apply, because the entity is fashioned by human hands, as will be explained in sec. 325[:6].68

יב וְכָל זֶה בְּכֵלִים שֶׁעָשָׂה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל נָכְרִי הָעוֹשֶׂה עַל הַמִּקָּח לִמְכּוֹר לְכָל מִי שֶׁיִּזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ צא אִם הִיא עִיר שֶׁרֻבָּהּ נָכְרִים צב,65 מֻתָּר לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּהַקָּפָה בְּלֹא פִּסּוּק דָּמִים עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ג צג,66 וּמֻתָּר לְלָבְשָׁם בּוֹ בַיּוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן בְּשַׁבָּת דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁרֹב הָעִיר הֵם נָכְרִים מִן הַסְּתָם עֲשָׂאָן עַל דַּעַת נָכְרִים שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה עַל דַּעַת הָרֹב הוּא עוֹשֶׂה צד וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּיוֹם טוֹב צה וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּנוֹלָד67 בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תצ"ה צו מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם נוֹלָד הוֹאִיל וְהוּא דָבָר שֶׁגְּמָרוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם צז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ה: צח,68

13 When does the above apply? When the non-Jew had the articles sent or brought them himself to the Jew’s house. It is, however, forbidden [for the Jewish purchaser] to send someone — even [another] non-Jew — to take articles from [the craftsman’s] home (on Shabbos), even if the articles were completed on Friday. For it is forbidden to bring articles from a craftsman’s home [on Shabbos and holidays. Indeed, this prohibition applies] even on Chol HaMoed,69and even if [the articles] were completed before the festival, unless the articles are required for the sake of the festival.70 [The prohibition was instituted] because of the impression that might be created,71 i.e., others might say that the person gave them to [the non-Jewish craftsman] on the festival to fix. When, however, the articles were necessary for the [Chol HaMoed] festival, [our Sages] were not concerned with the impression that would be created, for [the prohibition regarding work on] Chol HaMoed is slight [in comparison with that applying to Shabbos and holidays], as will be explained in sec. 535.72

On Shabbos and holidays,73 [the laws are more stringent]. (Even if an article was completed on Friday [or on the day preceding a holiday]), it is forbidden to take it from a craftsman’s house to a Jew’s house [on those sacred days,] even if it is required for the sake of the Shabbos or holiday. [This restriction applies] even [to taking articles] from house to house in the same courtyard.

It does not, however, apply when the non-Jew is not a craftsman at all, but a merchant who purchases [articles] from craftsmen and sells them to others. In such a situation, it is permitted to take articles from him — even from his house or store74 — and bring them to a Jew’s home, even through a street, if the city is encompassed by an eruv.

יג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁשִּׁגְּרָן הַנָּכְרִי אוֹ הֱבִיאָן בְּעַצְמוֹ לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל אָסוּר לִשְׁלוֹחַ אֶצְלוֹ לִטּוֹל כֵּלִים מִבֵּיתוֹ צט (בְּשַׁבָּת) אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי ק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת קא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִים כֵּלִים מִבֵּית הָאֻמָּן כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד קב,69 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵן לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד קג,70 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרוּ קֹדֶם הַמּוֹעֵד (י) מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן71 שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁבַּמּוֹעֵד נָתַן לוֹ לְתַקְּנָם קד וּלְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד לֹא חָשְׁשׁוּ לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן בַּמּוֹעֵד שֶׁהוּא קַל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקל"ה קה,72 אֲבָל כַּאן בְּשַׁבָּת (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת) אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב73 אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת קו וְיוֹם טוֹב אָסוּר לִטּוֹל מִבֵּית הָאֻמָּן לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת בְּחָצֵר אַחַת קז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ אֻמָּן כְּלָל אֶלָּא הוּא חֶנְוָנִי הַלּוֹקֵחַ מֵהָאֻמָּנִים וּמוֹכֵר לַאֲחֵרִים קח שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לִקַּח אֶצְלוֹ קט אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵיתוֹ אוֹ בַּחֲנוּתוֹ74 וּלְהָבִיא לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ הָרְחוֹב אִם הִיא עִיר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת:

14 One who waters [plants] on Shabbos is liable [for performing a forbidden labor.75 Nevertheless, even] shortly before Shabbos, it is permitted to cause water to flow into a garden, i.e., to open an offshoot channel from the edge of a stream to a garden and have it flow into the garden throughout the entire Shabbos,watering the vegetation [growing there].76

Similarly, [on Friday afternoon,] it is permitted to place a thick salve on one’s eyes as a medication and a compress on a wound [so that] they will continue to promote healing throughout the entire Shabbos, even though it is forbidden to apply such substances on Shabbos itself,as will be explained in sec. 328[:27ff].

Similarly, although one who squeezes [olives and grapes] on Shabbos is liable [for the violation of the prohibition against forbidden labor],77 it is permitted to place the [pressing] beams of an olive press on olives, and the round, wooden plates of a winepress on grapes close to nightfall [on Friday so that the olives and the grapes] will be pressed throughout the entire Shabbos. Nevertheless, [on that Shabbos itself,] it is forbidden to use the oil and the wine that emerge from the press after nightfall,78 as is the law regarding liquids that ooze from [fruits] on Shabbos on their own accord, which are forbidden on Shabbos as a decree, lest one come and squeeze [the fruits] with one’s hands, as will be stated in sec. 320[:3].

When does [the prohibition against using these liquids] apply? When [the fruits] are placed in the press directly before nightfall. If, however, they are placed in the press while there is still much time left in the day [on Friday], in a manner where they will be crushed because of the press before nightfall, the oil and the wine that emerge throughout the entire Shabbos are permitted. In this instance, there is no reason to institute a decree [forbidding the liquids], lest one squeeze [the fruit] with one’s hands. For even if he squeezes the fruit, he is not violating a Scriptural commandment, merely a Rabbinic ordinance. [The rationale is that the produce] has already been crushed [by the time Shabbos begins] and the liquids will flow out from [the crushed fruit] on their own accord, even if [the produce] has not been placed beneath the beams or plates or squeezed by hand. It is just that the liquids emerge more rapidly when they are pressed or squeezed.

Similarly, the liquids that emerge on Shabbos from unripened grapes and kernels of grain that were crushed while it was still day [on Friday] are permitted.79

יד מֻתָּר לִפְתּוֹחַ מַיִם לְגִנָּה קי דְּהַיְנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת נֶגֶר קָטָן מִשְּׂפַת הַמַּעְיָן לַגִּנָּה קיא סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְהַמַּיִם נִמְשָׁכִים וְהוֹלְכִים לַגִּנָּה כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ וּמַשְׁקִים אֶת הַזְּרָעִים76 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב. קיב,75

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ קִילוֹר עָבֶה עַל הָעַיִן לִרְפוּאָה קיג וְאִסְפְּלָנִית עַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה וְהֵם מִתְרַפְּאִים וְהוֹלְכִים כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ קיד,76 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ח. קטו

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִטְעוֹן קוֹרוֹת בֵּית הַבָּד עַל גַּבֵּי הַזֵּיתִים וְעִגּוּלֵי הַגַּת עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֲנָבִים קטז סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה קיז וְהֵם נִסְחָטִים וְהוֹלְכִים כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַסּוֹחֵט בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב קיח,77 (יא) וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַיַּיִן הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶם מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה אָסוּר קיט,78 כְּדִין מַשְׁקִין שֶׁזָּבוּ מֵאֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֵם אֲסוּרִים בּוֹ בַיּוֹם מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לִסְחוֹט בְּיָדַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"כ. קכ

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהִטְעִין עֲלֵיהֶם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה מַמָּשׁ אֲבָל אִם הִטְעִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִבְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל קכא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנִּתְרַסְּקוּ מֵחֲמַת הַטְּעִינָה קֹדֶם שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה קכב מֻתָּרִין הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַיַּיִן הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּהּ קכג שֶׁכַּאן אֵין לִגְזוֹר שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְסָחֳטָם בְּיָדַיִם לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם יִסְחָטֵם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הֵם מְרֻסָּקִים וְהָיָה הַמַּשְׁקֶה זָב מֵהֶם מֵאֵלָיו בְּלֹא טְעִינַת הַקּוֹרָה וְהָעִגּוּלִים וּבְלֹא סְחִיטָה בְּיָדַיִם אֶלָּא שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַטְּעִינָה וְהַסְּחִיטָה הוּא מְמַהֵר לָצֵאת. קכד

וְכֵן (יב) הַבֹּסֶר וְהַמְּלִילוֹת שֶׁרִסְּקָן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מֻתָּרִין79 הַמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת: קכה

15 It is permitted to place kernels of wheat in a watermill close to nightfall [on Friday, so that] they will be ground [without the need for further intervention] throughout the entire Shabbos. [This leniency is granted] even when the mill belongs to a Jew. We are not concerned about the noise the mill makes on Shabbos [and the possibility] that people will say so-and-so’s mill is grinding [flour] on Shabbos. [The rationale:] Everyone knows that the mill grinds without human intervention and thus people will not come to suspect that [the miller] placed grain in the mill on Shabbos.

There are authorities who differ with this ruling and forbid [the use] on Shabbos of a mill and any other implement that makes noise while performing its task [without human intervention,] because this brings about the denigration of the Shabbos, for [people] will say that the task was begun on Shabbos.80 [License is granted] only when the work is performed in the domain of a non-Jew and the name of a Jew is not associated with [the concern] at all. For example, [one may] place wheat in a mill belonging to a non-Jew while it is still day [on Friday,] or give [the wheat] to a non-Jewish [miller] while it is still day [on Friday] and the non-Jew may place it in his mill, even on Shabbos, if he established a fixed fee for him, as explained above.81 Nevertheless, the Jew should not stand next to [the non-Jewish miller] on Shabbos to ensure that he does not steal [flour], because of the impression that may be created, i.e., [people] will say that [the miller] was the agent of the Jew who was standing over him. [License is granted only] when a substantial loss is involved, in which case [the Jew] does not have to be concerned with the possibility of creating such an impression, as was explained in sec. 244[:17]. How much more so [is leniency granted] in situations that require watching [the milling], e.g., before Pesach when a Jew must watch the mill to see that water does not enter [and mix with the flour]!

With regard to the halachah, in a place where there is no established custom, one should rule stringently as mandated by the latter approach, unless there is a loss involved,82 in which instance, one may rely on the first approach.

טו מֻתָּר לִתֵּן חִטִּים לְתוֹךְ רֵחַיִם שֶׁל מַיִם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה וְהֵם נִטְחָנוֹת כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת כֻּלָּה קכו וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרֵחַיִם הֵן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְהַשְׁמָעַת קוֹל הָרֵחַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת קכז שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ רֵחַיִם שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי טוֹחֲנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהָרֵחַיִם טוֹחֲנוֹת מֵעַצְמָן וְלֹא יָבֹאוּ לְחָשְׁדוֹ שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת נָתַן הַחִטִּים לָרֵחַיִם. קכח

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים עַל זֶה קכט וְאוֹסְרִין בְּרֵחַיִם וּבְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הַשְׁמָעַת קוֹל כְּשֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית מֵאֵלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא זִלְזוּל שַׁבָּת קל שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת הִתְחִיל הַמְּלָאכָה קלא,80 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה נַעֲשֵׂית בִּרְשׁוּת נָכְרִי וְאֵין שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִקְרָא עָלֶיהָ כְּלָל כְּגוֹן לִתֵּן חִטִּים לְתוֹךְ רֵחַיִם שֶׁל נָכְרִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אוֹ שֶׁנּוֹתֵן לְהַנָּכְרִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהַנָּכְרִי נוֹתְנָן לָרֵחַיִם שֶׁלּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת קלב אִם קָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה קלג,81 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲמוֹד יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶצְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לְשָׁמְרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִגְנוֹב מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁהוּא שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל הָעוֹמֵד עָלָיו קלד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ (יג) הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה שֶׁאָז אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים לְמַרְאִית עַיִן כָּזֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ד קלה וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם הַשָּׁעָה צְרִיכָה לְכָךְ כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לְפֶסַח וְצָרִיךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁמוֹר הָרֵחַיִם שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ שָׁם מַיִם. קלו

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כִּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד קלז,82 שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה: קלח

16 Nevertheless, it is permitted to set up83 a clock that chimes on the hour that is operated by weights, even though it produces tones on Shabbos.84[Although it produces sounds on Shabbos,]people will not say that one set it up on Shabbos and [thus] violated the decree of our Sages who forbade producing tones on Shabbos (using a utensil designated for that purpose), as will be explained in sec. 338[:4. The rationale is that] people know that [such a clock] is set up on the preceding day, for this is the ongoing practice: to set up such clocks each day for the following day.

טז וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִיד,83 מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת זוּג הַמְקַשְׁקֵשׁ לְשָׁעוֹת עָשׂוּי עַל יְדֵי מִשְׁקֹלֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת84 לֹא יָבֹאוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְעָבַר עַל גְּזֵרַת חֲכָמִים שֶׁאָסְרוּ לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת (בִּכְלִי הַמְיֻחָד לְכָךְ) כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ח קלט לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל יוֹדְעִים שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהַעֲמִידוֹ מֵאֶתְמוֹל שֶׁכֵּן הוּא דַרְכּוֹ לְעוֹלָם לְהַעֲמִידוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם עַל יוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו: קמ

17 A person should not go out into the public domain close to nightfall [on Friday] while carrying an object in his hand.85 [This is] a decree lest he forget until after nightfall to remove the object from his hand [to] store it away. [Afterwards,] he will remember that the object is in his hand, but forget that it is Shabbos and go out carrying the object from a private domain to a public domain, or he will carry it [more than] four cubits in the public domain, or bring it in from a public domain to a private domain.86

If, however, he would not recall [that he was continuing to hold] the object after nightfall, he would not violate a Scriptural prohibition. For the Torah forbade only intentional labor,87 i.e., that the person think about and intend to perform a [forbidden] labor. The unwitting violation [of this prohibition], which warrants that one bring a sin-offering [for atonement], is [the unintentional performance of a forbidden labor, i.e.,] when the person does not know that it is Shabbos or does not know that this labor is forbidden, [but has full intent to perform the act].88

יז לֹא יֵצֵא אָדָם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה קמא וְחֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ קמב,85 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח לְהָסִיר הַחֵפֶץ מִיָּדוֹ לְהַצְנִיעוֹ עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה וְאָז יִזְכּוֹר שֶׁהַחֵפֶץ בְּיָדוֹ וְיִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְיֵצֵא גַם כֵּן עִם הַחֵפֶץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ יַעֲבִירֶנּוּ ד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ יַכְנִיסֶנּוּ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד86 אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה נִזְכָּר מֵהַחֵפֶץ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה לֹא הָיָה עוֹבֵר עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה קמג שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרָה תוֹרָה אֶלָּא מְלֶאכֶת מַחֲשֶׁבֶת קמד,87 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא מְחַשֵּׁב וּמִתְכַּוֵּן לַעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה וְשִׁגְגָתוֹ שֶׁמֵּבִיא עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת הִיא שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַיּוֹם שַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁמְּלָאכָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה: קמה,88

18 It is, however, permitted to go out to the public domain close to nightfall [on Friday wearing] a pin inserted into one’s garments89 or the like, i.e., any object for which he would not be liable according to Scriptural Law, were he to go out [wearing] it on Shabbos, as will be stated in sec. 301[:4-5, 9].90 Although this is forbidden according to our Sages’ decree, nevertheless, they did not issue a decree regarding such a situation close to nightfall [on Friday], because a decree is not issued concerning a decree.91 Therefore, in the present era, when it has become the widespread custom to follow the opinion that maintains that in the present era there is no concept of a public domain in the full sense, merely a karmelis,92as will be explained in sec. 345[:11],93 there is absolutely no prohibition against going out close to nightfall, even while holding an article in one’s hands.94 [The rationale is that] the prohibition against transferring an article [from a private domain] to a karmelis is merely a Rabbinic decree, and a Rabbinic decree95 is not issued [as a safeguard] for a Rabbinic decree.96

יח אֲבָל מֻתָּר לָצֵאת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה בְּמַחַט הַתְּחוּבָה לוֹ בְּבִגְדּוֹ קמו,89 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם הָיָה יוֹצֵא בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה פָּטוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה קמז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"א קמח,90 וְאַף שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת מִגְּזֵרַת חֲכָמִים מִכָּל מָקוֹם סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל זֶה שֶׁאֵין גּוֹזְרִין גְּזֵרָה לִגְזֵרָה קמט,91 לְפִיכָךְ בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁפָּשַׁט הַמִּנְהָג כְּהָאוֹמְרִין שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה אֶלָּא כַּרְמְלִית92 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה קנ,93 אֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל לָצֵאת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה קנא אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֵפֶץ שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ94 שֶׁהֲרֵי אִסּוּר הַהוֹצָאָה בְּכַרְמְלִית אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא גְזֵרָה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם וְאֵין גּוֹזְרִין גְּזֵרָה95 לִגְזֵרָה:96

19 It is permitted to go out even to a [place deemed as] a public domain in the complete sense while wearing tefillin on one’s head (and arm) close to nightfall [on Friday].97 There is no concern that the person will forget to remove them until after nightfall, at which time, he might need to relieve himself and will remove98 the tefillin from his head (and arm) and carry them in his hands to deposit them. He might [then] forget that it is Shabbos and carry them four cubits in the public domain. [We are not concerned about the above] because it is forbidden to divert one’s attention from tefillin and act frivolously when wearing them, as explained in sec. 28[:1]. As a result, he will keep them in mind at all times and he will remove them before nightfall.

יט וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה בִּתְפִלִּין קנב שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁוֹ קנג (וְשֶׁבִּזְרוֹעוֹ קנד) סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה97 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח מִלַּהֲסִירָן עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ וְאָז שֶׁמָּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לִפָּנוֹת וְיָסִיר98 הַתְּפִלִּין מֵרֹאשׁוֹ (וּזְרוֹעוֹ) וְיוֹלִיכֵן בְּיָדוֹ לְהַצְנִיעָן וְיִשְׁכַּח שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת וְיַעֲבִירֵן ד' אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים קנה דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַסִּיחַ דַּעַת מִתְּפִלִּין קנו לִנְהוֹג קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ כְּשֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בָּהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן כ"ח קנז מִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ הוּא נִזְכָּר עֲלֵיהֶן תָּדִיר וִיסַלְּקֵן קֹדֶם שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ: קנח

20 It is a mitzvah for every person to feel [and check] his clothes on Friday close to nightfall,99 so that they will not have anything [in or] on them that is forbidden to take out [to the public domain while] carrying on Shabbos.100[This applies even] according to our custom, which follows the opinion that at present there is no concept of a public domain in the full sense.101 He should [also] unfasten his belt and remove anything hanging from it.102

כ (יד)מִצְוָה עַל כָּל אָדָם קנט שֶׁיְּמַשְׁמֵשׁ בִּבְגָדָיו עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה קס,99 שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בָּהֶם דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת100 אֲפִלּוּ לְמִנְהָגֵנוּ כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ עַכְשָׁו רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה קסא,101 וְיַתִּיר חֲגוֹרוֹ וְיִקַּח כָּל הַתָּלוּי בּוֹ: קסב,102