SECTION 250 Preparations for the Shabbos Meals (1:8)

סימן רנ הֲכָנַת הַסְּעֻדּוֹת לְשַׁבָּת וּבוֹ ח' סְעִיפִים:

1 A person should always rise early on Friday morning to work [to] prepare his Shabbos needs.1 An allusion to this practice is found in the verse:2 “And it will be on the sixth day, when they prepare that which they will bring….” The implication is that they should prepare [the manna] immediately after bringing it. And they would bring [the manna] in the morning, as it is written:3 “And they gathered it every morning.”

Even though a person [began] preparing [for Shabbos] when he awakened, it is a mitzvah to add [further preparation] bein hashamashos.4An allusion to this is found in another phrase [in the verse cited above]: “It was double….” (i.e., a second stage of preparation is required.)

א לְעוֹלָם יַשְׁכִּים אָדָםא לִטְרוֹחַ וּלְהָכִין צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּתב בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בַּבֹּקֶר1 וְרֶמֶז לַדָּבָר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרג,2 וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וְהֵכִינוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ מַשְׁמָע לְאַלְתָּר שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ יָכִינוּ וְהַהֲבָאָה הָיְתָה בַּבֹּקֶרד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרה,3 וַיִּלְקְטוּ אֹתוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵכִין בְּהַשְׁכָּמָה מִצְוָה שֶׁיּוֹסִיף גַּם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת4 וְרֶמֶז לַדָּבָר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרו,2 וְהָיָה מִשְׁנֶהז (כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁיָּכִינוּ שֵׁנִית):

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2 A person should decrease his Torah study somewhat on Friday — and, how much more so, his other [mundane] occupations — so that he will be free to prepare for his Shabbos needs, unless he already made preparations on Thursday, or has others who will prepare for him.5

ב וְיֵשׁ לְאָדָם לְמַעֵט קְצָת בְּלִמּוּדוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתח וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בִּשְׁאָר עֲסָקָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא פָּנוּי לְהָכִין צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵכִין כְּבָר בְּיוֹם ה'ט אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מִי שֶׁיָּכִין לוֹ:י,5

3 In certain places, it is customary for a yeshivah not to hold sessions on Friday.6 [The rationale is that] study in a yeshivah is open-ended, [without a clearly defined limit,] for [the students] are accustomed to entering into analytical discussions. It is possible that those discussions will become very protracted and they will not have time afterwards to prepare their Shabbos needs. Nevertheless, one who is studying a subject with a defined limit which he is accustomed to studying every day should not neglect that study on Friday. Moreover, even subject matter that one is not accustomed to studying on a daily basis should not be neglected if he studies7 with many people.8 [Furthermore,] even if one is studying individually, if he is accustomed to studying given subject matter [regularly] on Fridays, e.g., Rashi’s commentary to the weekly Torah reading, as stated in sec. 285[:2], he may study according to his routine.

If, as [a result of his studies], he is unable to purchase [his Shabbos needs], he should not set aside time for study in the morning, for that is the time when one is able to purchase [those needs]. If he is unable to purchase [those needs] after prayer, he should first make his purchases and then pray, provided he recites the Shema beforehand, lest the time [for its recitation] pass9 before he [completes] his purchases. The time for prayer, by contrast, extends for a longer period.10 True, there is room for concern that the time for prayer will also pass [while the person is occupied in his Shabbos preparations]. Nevertheless, the mitzvah of preparing for Shabbos [takes precedence, because the opportunity to fulfill it] will certainly pass, since he will not find [provisions] to purchase afterwards. Nonetheless, when the [entire] congregation prays [as a unit], one should not separate from them [and pray individually].11

ג וְנוֹהֲגִין בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁלֹּא לִקְבּוֹעַ יְשִׁיבָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת6 לְפִי שֶׁלִּמּוּד הַיְשִׁיבָה הוּא דָבָר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ קִצְבָה שֶׁרְגִילִין לְפַלְפֵּל וְשֶׁמָּא יִמָּשְׁכוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּפִלְפּוּלָם וְלֹא יְהֵא לָהֶם פְּנַאי אַחַר כָּךְ לְהָכִין צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּתיא אֲבָל מִי שֶׁלּוֹמֵד דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ קִצְבָה אִם (א) רָגִיל לְלָמְדוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם אֵין לוֹ לְבַטְּלוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְאַף דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל לְלָמְדוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם לוֹמֵד7 עִם רַבִּים8 אַל יְבַטְּלֶנּוּיב וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁלּוֹמֵד בְּיָחִיד אִם הוּא דָבָר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְלָמְדוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כְּגוֹן פֵּרוּשׁ רַשִׁ"י מִפָּרָשַׁת הַשָּׁבוּעַ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רפ"היג יָכוֹל לִלְמוֹד כְּדַרְכּוֹ.יד

וְאִם אַחַר כָּךְ לֹא יִמְצָא לִקְנוֹת אֲזַי לֹא יִקְבַּע לִמּוּדוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר שֶׁהוּא זְמַן שֶׁמּוֹצֵא לִקְנוֹת וְאִם לֹא יִמְצָא לִקְנוֹת אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה אֲזַי יִקְנֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע מִקֹּדֶם שֶׁמָּא יַעֲבוֹר זְמַנָּהּ9 עַד שֶׁיִּקְנֶה אֲבָל הַתְּפִלָּה נִמְשָׁךְ זְמַנָּהּ יוֹתֵר10 וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַעֲבוֹר גַּם זְמַן תְּפִלָּה מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִצְוָה זוֹ שֶׁל הֲכָנַת סְעֻדּוֹת שַׁבָּת הִיא עוֹבֶרֶת בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ לֹא יִמְצָא לִקְנוֹת וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְלִין אַל יִפְרוֹשׁ מֵהֶם:טו,11

4 Even a person who has numerous servants should endeavor to prepare his Shabbos needs himself, [in keeping with the principle applicable] with regard to all the mitzvos: “[It is preferable that one] perform a mitzvah himself than have it performed by his agent.”12

Even a very distinguished person, whose habit is not to purchase items in the marketplace or perform household chores, is obligated to make an effort and at least do something himself [to prepare] his Shabbos needs, for this is an expression of honor for the Shabbos. [Thus,] great Sages [of the Talmudicera] would personally perform tasks that were [otherwise] not befitting their honor to increase the honor of the Shabbos. One of them would cut vegetables into fine pieces.13 Others would chop wood, another would kindle a flame under the wood, and another would tidy the home, take out the weekday utensils, and bring in the utensils needed for Shabbos. This activity would require him to constantly leave and reenter his home on Friday, in order to remove the weekday utensils and bring in parcels of utensils, fine clothes,14 and delicacies. [He did this] to highlight the honor of Shabbos: that it was important for him and that he was scrupulous in honoring it, [preparing for it] as [one would prepare] to receive his teacher in his home — showing him that he is important to him and that he is scrupulous in honoring him, troubling himself and [preparing] amply for him. From the example [of these Sages], every person should learn to take the trouble [to prepare his Shabbos needs] himself and not say: “How can I tarnish my honor [by performing such menial tasks]?” [On the contrary, he should realize] that it is honorable for him to honor the Shabbos.

ד (ב) אֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ כַּמָּה עֲבָדִים יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל לְהָכִין בְּעַצְמוֹ צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּתטז שֶׁכֵּן הוּא בְּכָל הַמִּצְווֹת מִצְוָה בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁלוּחוֹ.יז,12

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁהוּא אָדָם חָשׁוּב בְּיוֹתֵר וְאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לִקַּח דְּבָרִים מִן הַשּׁוּק וְלֹא לְהִתְעַסֵּק בִּמְלָאכוֹת שֶׁבַּבַּיִת חַיָּב לְהִשְׁתַּדֵּל וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שׁוּם דָּבָר מִצָּרְכֵי הַשַּׁבָּת בְּעַצְמוֹיח שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת וּגְדוֹלֵי הַחֲכָמִים הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים בְּעַצְמָם מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן לְפִי כְבוֹדָם כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּכְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּתיט יֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁהָיָה מְחַתֵּךְ הַיָּרָק דַּק דַּק בְּעַצְמוֹכ,13 וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁהָיוּ מְבַקְּעִים עֵצִים בְּעַצְמָםכא וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁהָיָה מַצִּית הָאוּר תַּחַת הָעֵצִים בְּעַצְמוֹכב וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁהָיָה מְתַקֵּן הַבַּיִת וּמְפַנֶּה כְּלֵי הַחֹל וּמַכְנִיס כֵּלִים הַצְּרִיכִים לְשַׁבָּת כג וּבְעֵסֶק זֶה הָיָה יוֹצֵא וְנִכְנָס תָּמִיד בְּבֵיתוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְהוֹצִיא כְּלֵי הַחֹל וּלְהַכְנִיס מַשְׂאוֹת כְּלֵי תַשְׁמִישׁ וּבִגְדֵי חֹפֶשׁ14 וּמִינֵי מְגָדִים לְהַרְאוֹת כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב עָלָיו וְחָרֵד לִכְבוֹדוֹ כְּאָדָם שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל אֶת רַבּוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַרְאֶה לוֹ שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב עָלָיו וְחָרֵד לִכְבוֹדוֹ לִטְרוֹחַ וּלְהַרְבּוֹת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ כד וּמֵהֶם יִלְמוֹד כָּל אָדָם לִטְרוֹחַ בְּעַצְמוֹ וְאַל יֹאמַר אֵיךְ אֶפְגּוֹם כְּבוֹדִי כִּי זֶהוּ כְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁמְּכַבֵּד הַשַּׁבָּת: כה

5 One should be meticulous about sharpening his knife every Friday, for preparing oneself to eat [in this manner] is an expression of respect for the Shabbos. There is an allusion to this [practice in the phrase cited above]:15 “…When they prepare that which they will bring.” The word תא in that phrase can be understood as an allusion to knives, as reflected in the verse:16 “[They will beat their swords into] plowshares (לאתים) and…pruning hooks.”

It is also written:17 “You will know that your tent is at peace.” Our Sages18 interpreted that verse as referring to sharpening one’s knife, for if its iron [edge] is dull and it will not cut, there will not be peace in the person’s home.

ה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְהַשְׁחִיז הַסַּכִּין בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כו כִּי זֶהוּ מִכְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁמֵּכִין עַצְמוֹ לַאֲכִילָה וְרֶמֶז לַדָּבָר15 וְהֵכִינוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ וּבְתֵבַת אֵת נִרְמַז הַסַּכִּין כז מִלְּשׁוֹן16 לְאִתִּים וּלְמַזְמֵרוֹת כח וְאוֹמֵר כט,17 וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי שָׁלוֹם אָהֳלֶךָ וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים ל,18 זוֹ הַשְׁחָזַת סַכִּין כִּי אִם קֵהָה הַבַּרְזֶל וְלֹא יוּכַל לַחְתּוֹךְ אֵין זֶה שְׁלוֹם בַּיִת:

6 Whenever buying [any Shabbos supplies], it is desirable to say: “This is in honor of the Shabbos.19 Similarly, whenever one performs an activity [in preparation for Shabbos], it is desirable that he have in mind that he is performing it in honor of Shabbos.

ו טוֹב לוֹמַר עַל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁקּוֹנֶה זֶהוּ לִכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת לא,19 וְכֵן בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה טוֹב לַחְשׁוֹב שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה לִכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת:

7 It is preferable to purchase [one’s Shabbos needs] on Friday rather than on Thursday.

To what does the above apply? To beverages, sweet fruits, and the like, which do not require preparation in order to be fit for one to benefit from them. When, by contrast, foods require preparation, it is preferable for one to purchase them on Thursday so that he will have ample opportunity to occupy himself in their preparation and [still have enough time left to] involve himself with his other Shabbos needs.

ז טוֹב יוֹתֵר לִקְנוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִלִּקְנוֹת בְּיוֹם ה' לב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמַשְׁקִין וּמִינֵי מְגָדִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים הֲכָנָה לַהֲכִינָם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רְאוּיִים לַהֲנָאָתָם לג אֲבָל מַאֲכָלִים הַצְּרִיכִים עֲדַיִן הֲכָנָה טוֹב יוֹתֵר לִקְנוֹת בְּיוֹם ה' לד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ פְּנַאי הַרְבֵּה לִטְרוֹחַ בַּהֲכָנָתָם לה וּלְהִתְעַסֵּק בִּשְׁאָר צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת:

8 One should taste the food cooked [for Shabbos] on Friday.20 It is desirable to taste every cooked dish.

ח יֵשׁ לִטְעוֹם הַתַּבְשִׁילִים בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לו,20 וְטוֹב לִטְעוֹם מִכָּל תַּבְשִׁיל וְתַבְשִׁיל: לז