SECTION 249 Laws That Apply on Friday (1-13)

סימן רמט דִּינִים הַשַּׁיָּכִים לְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּבוֹ י"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 On Friday, from the beginning of the day [onward],1 it is forbidden for a person [who is traveling] to walk2 more than three parsaos.3In this way, he will reach the destination where he plans to spend the Shabbos while it is still early in the day so that he will [have ample time to] prepare his Shabbos needs there.4 [This stringency applies] even in a situation where — if he would proceed further — he would reach his home, and the members of his household may have thought it possible that he would arrive home on that day, and so they prepared [the Shabbos needs] for him. Nevertheless, it is forbidden [to proceed farther than three parsaos], for perhaps they did not consider this eventuality at all and did not prepare anything for him.5

If, however, they knew with certainty that he would arrive that day, e.g., he sent a messenger to inform them or told them [of his plans to arrive on Friday] before he departed from home, it is permitted for him to journey the entire day.6

א אָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיְּהַלֵּךְ2 בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת יוֹתֵר מִג' פַּרְסָאוֹתא,3 מִתְּחִלַּת הַיּוֹםב,1 כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל וְיוּכַל לְהָכִין שָׁם צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּתג,4 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם יֵלֵךְ יוֹתֵר יַגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁשָּׂמוּ אֶל לִבָּם שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא הַיּוֹם וְהֵכִינוּ גַּם בִּשְׁבִילוֹד אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר שֶׁמָּא לֹא שָׂמוּ אֶל לִבָּם כְּלָל מִבִּיאָתוֹ וְלֹא הֵכִינוּ לוֹ כְּלוּםה,5 אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ לָהֶם בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁיָּבֹא הַיּוֹםו כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁלַח לָהֶם שָׁלִיחַ לְהוֹדִיעָםז אוֹ שֶׁהוֹדִיעָם קֹדֶם נְסִיעָתוֹ מִבֵּיתוֹח מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ כָּל הַיּוֹם:ט,6

2 All the above applies concerning a place where a person can prepare his Shabbos needs or others will prepare them for him.7 If, however, he is located in a place where it is impossible for him to prepare his Shabbos needs and there are no others to prepare them for him, it is preferable that he travel even many parsaos [farther]; perhaps he will reach a place where he will be able to prepare his Shabbos needs or others will prepare them for him. [Doing so is preferable] to remaining in his present place, where he will certainly not be able to prepare [for Shabbos].

Even if he possesses provisions that will satisfy his Shabbos needs, nevertheless, if he is not in a safe community, he is permitted to continue traveling, even many parsaos,until he reaches a safe community. For if he is not situated in a safe community, he will [certainly] not experience any Shabbos pleasure at all.8

ב וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהָכִין שָׁם צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁאֲחֵרִים יָכִינוּ לוֹ7 אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהָכִין צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת וְגַם אֲחֵרִים לֹא יָכִינוּ לוֹ מוּטָב שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה פַרְסָאוֹתי אוּלַי יַגִּיעַ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהָכִין שָׁם צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת אוֹ שֶׁאֲחֵרִים יָכִינוּ לוֹ מִשֶּׁיִּשָּׁאֵר שָׁם שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יוּכַל לְהָכִיןיא וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ עִמּוֹ צֵידָה כְּדֵי צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הוּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ יִשּׁוּב בָּטוּחַ מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵילֵךְ מִשָּׁם אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה פַרְסָאוֹת עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹם יִשּׁוּב בָּטוּחַיב שֶׁכְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּמְקוֹם יִשּׁוּב בָּטוּחַ אֵין לוֹ עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת כְּלָל:יג,8

3 All the above applies when one is journeying on foot. If, however, he is riding on a horse or traveling in a wagon,9 he may travel many parsaos and still be able to reach the place where he will spend the Shabbos while it is still early in the day. (Nevertheless, he should not travel more than the amount of time it takes for an ordinary person to walk three parsaos, i.e., 4.8 median hours that are one twenty-fourth of the day.10 See sec. 459[:10].)11

ג וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהוֹלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו אֲבָל אִם רוֹכֵב עַל סוּס אוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בְּקָרוֹן9 יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ כַּמָּה פַרְסָאוֹת וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יוּכַל לְהַגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹליד (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יְהַלֵּךְ יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי שִׁעוּר שֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ ג' פַּרְסָאוֹת שֶׁל אָדָם בֵּינוֹנִי הַמְהַלֵּךְ בְּרַגְלָיוטו דְּהַיְנוּ ד' שָׁעוֹת וְד' חֳמָשִׁיםטז מִשָּׁעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִית שֶׁהֵן כ"ד לְמֵעֵת לְעֵת11 עַיֵּן סִמָּן תנ"טיז):10

4 In these countries,12 most people prepare their Shabbos needs generously.13 Hence, in all cases we are not meticulous about not journeying more than three parsaos when one is traveling home or [intends] to be a guest at others’ homes.14

ד וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ12 רֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם מְכִינִים צָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת בְּרֶוַח13 לָכֵן אֵין נִזְהָרִים כְּלָל מִלֵּילֵךְ יוֹתֵר מִג' פַּרְסָאוֹתיח בְּכָל עִנְיָן כְּשֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לְבֵיתוֹ אוֹ לְהִתְאָרֵחַ בְּבֵית אֲחֵרִים:יט,14

5 On Friday, it is forbidden to partake of a large15 celebratory feast16 that one would not ordinarily partake of on a weekday. [This restriction is] an expression of honor for the Shabbos, for if on Friday, even in the morning, one liberally indulges in food and drink more than he usually does on a weekday, he will not be able to partake of the Friday night Shabbos meal in an appropriate manner.

ה אָסוּר לִקְבּוֹעַ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סְעֻדָּהכ גְדוֹלָה15 שֶׁל מִשְׁתֶּהכא,16 שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל בָּהּ בִּימֵי הַחֹלכב מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּתכג שֶׁעַל יְדֵי שֶׁמַּרְבֶּה בַּאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בַּבֹּקֶר יוֹתֵר מִדַּרְכּוֹ בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַחֹל לֹא יוּכַל לְקַיֵּם סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה כָּרָאוּי:כד

6 When does the above apply? With regard to a feast held for personal reasons, or even to a feast associated with a mitzvah that is not intrinsically associated with Friday and can be postponed to a later date, with the feast being held on that [later] date.17 If, however, the proper time for the feast is on that day, [it is permitted to be held on Friday. Among18 the feasts permitted:] feasts connected with a circumcision, the consecration of a woman, and a marriage.19

[The reasons why these feasts are permitted are:] The consecration of a woman should not be postponed lest another person consecrate her first.20 Similarly, marriage should not be postponed, so that the person does not neglect the mitzvah to be fruitful and multiply. Similarly, a circumcision may not be postponed to another day, even if it is not being carried out on the eighth day after the infant’s birth [anyway], since it is forbidden to leave an infant uncircumcised for even one day [past the proscribed time, unless absolutely necessary].21 Therefore, it is also permitted to hold the feast on that day. Accordingly, if afterwards one will not be able to partake of the Friday night Shabbos meal, it is of no consequence, for [the feast which he partakes of on Friday] is also a feast associated with a mitzvah. On the morrow, during the Shabbos day, he should eat three Shabbos meals, as will be stated in sec. 274[:8].

ו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּסְעֻדַּת הָרְשׁוּת אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ סְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין זְמַנָּהּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִדְחוֹתָהּ לְיוֹם אַחֵר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת הַסְּעֻדָּה בְּאוֹתוֹ יוֹםכה,17 אֲבָל אִם זְמַנָּהּ הַיּוֹםכו כְּגוֹן18 סְעֻדַּת מִילָה וּסְעֻדַּת אֵרוּסִין וְנִשּׂוּאִיןכז,19 שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לִדְחוֹת הָאֵרוּסִין שֶׁמָּא יְקַדְּמֶנּוּ אַחֵר,20 לְאָרְסָהּ וְכֵן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין אֵין לוֹ לִדְחוֹתכח שֶׁלֹּא לְהִבָּטֵל מִפְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה וְכֵן הַמִּילָה אַף אִם אֵינָהּ בַּשְּׁמִינִי לְלֵדָתוֹ אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִדְחוֹתָהּ לְיוֹם אַחֵר שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ עָרֵל אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם אֶחָדכט,21 לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת הַסְּעֻדָּה גַם כֵּן בּוֹ בַיּוֹם וְאִם אַחַר כָּךְ לֹא יוּכַל לְקַיֵּם סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּםל כֵּיוָן שֶׁזּוֹהִי גַם כֵּן סְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה וְיֹאכַל לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"ד:לא

7 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is a mitzvah to begin the feast [on Friday] before the tenth hour of the day.22 For from the tenth hour of the day onward, it is a mitzvah to refrain from partaking of a meal that is not a mitzvah, even a small meal that one is accustomed to eating on a weekday, as will be explained.23 As such, with regard to a feast associated with a mitzvah as well, since it is possible to begin before the tenth hour, one should do so as an initial preference.

It is desirable that only an exact quorum of ten partake of the feast in addition to those who share a [direct] connection to the feast, e.g., the close relatives24 and the groom’s close friends at a marriage celebration, and the close relatives and the honored parties at a circumcision, i.e., the mohel and the sandek.25

ז וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מִצְוָה לְהַתְחִיל הַסְּעֻדָּה לְכַתְּחִלָּה קֹדֶם שָׁעָה עֲשִׂירִיתלב,22 שֶׁהֲרֵי מִשָּׁעָה עֲשִׂירִית וְאֵילַךְ מִצְוָה לְהִמָּנַע מִלִּקְבּוֹעַ אֲפִלּוּ סְעֻדָּה קְטַנָּה שֶׁרָגִיל בָּהּ בְּחֹל אִם הִיא סְעֻדַּת הָרְשׁוּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרלג,23 אִם כֵּן גַּם בִּסְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַקְדִּימָהּ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה עֲשִׂירִית יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַקְדִּימָהּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה.

וְטוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל בִּסְעֻדָּה זוֹ אֶלָּא מִנְיָן מְצֻמְצָם לְבָד (א) מִן הַשַּׁיָּכִים לַסְּעֻדָּהלד כְּגוֹן הַקְּרוֹבִים24 וְהַשּׁוֹשְׁבִינִים בִּסְעֻדַּת נִשּׂוּאִין וְהַקְּרוֹבִים וּבַעֲלֵי הַבְּרִית דְּהַיְנוּ הַמּוֹהֵל וְהַסַּנְדָּק25 בִּסְעֻדַּת מִילָה:לה

8 When a feast associated with the redemption of a firstborn son is held at the appropriate time, i.e., the thirty-first day after [the infant’s] birth, it is governed by the same laws applying to a feast associated with a circumcision26 [and it may be held on Friday]. If, however, due to factors beyond his control, one did not redeem [his son] on the thirty-first day [after his birth], he should not redeem him on a Friday and hold a celebratory feast [on that day].27 Since the mitzvah was postponed [and not performed at] its appropriate time, it28 should be postponed [and not held] on Friday as well, out of respect for Shabbos. ([Accordingly, the father] should redeem his son without a celebratory feast.)29

Similarly, if one consecrated a woman — eirusin — before Friday, but due to forces beyond his control, he was unable to hold a feast on the day of the consecration, he should not hold the feast on Friday. Since the feast was already postponed from its appropriate time, i.e., the day of the [actual] consecration, it should be postponed [and not held on Friday], as a token of respect for the Shabbos. (With regard to a marriage celebration, however, the mitzvah of holding a celebratory feast extends seven days after the chupah,30as will be explained in sec. 640.)31

ח סְעֻדַּת פִּדְיוֹן הַבֵּןלו בִּזְמַנּוֹ דְּהַיְנוּ בְּיוֹם ל"א לְלֵדָתוֹלז דִּינָהּ כִּסְעֻדַּת מִילָה26 אֲבָל אִם אֵרַע אֵיזֶה אֹנֶס שֶׁלֹּא פְדָאוֹ בְּיוֹם ל"א אֵין לִפְדּוֹתוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְלַעֲשׂוֹת אָז סְעֻדָּה שֶׁל מִשְׁתֶּהלח,27 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִדְחֵית הַמִּצְוָה מִזְּמַנָּה28 יִדְחֶנָּהלט גַם כֵּן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת (אֶלָּא יִפְדֶּנּוּ בְּלֹא סְעֻדָּה שֶׁל מִשְׁתֶּהמ)29 וְכֵן מִי שֶׁאֵרַס קֹדֶם עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְאֵרְעוֹ אֹנֶס שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַסְּעֻדָּה בְּיוֹם הָאֵרוּסִין לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנָּה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתמא דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִדְחֵית מִזְּמַנָּהּ דְּהַיְנוּ יוֹם הָאֵרוּסִין יִדְחֶנָּה גַם כֵּן מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת (אֲבָל בְּנִשּׂוּאִין נִמְשֶׁכֶת מִצְוַת הַסְּעֻדָּה (ג') [ז'] יָמִים אַחַר הַחֻפָּה30 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תר"ממב):31

9 According to the letter of the law, throughout the day, even close to nightfall, it is permitted to partake of a meal which one would ordinarily eat on a weekday, i.e., a small meal that is not a celebratory feast.32 Nevertheless, it is a mitzvah to refrain from eating a meal from the beginning of the tenth hour33 onward, so that one will enter Shabbos desiring to eat and partake of the Shabbos meal with an appetite.

However, as long as one does not partake of a meal,34 he need not refrain from eating or drinking on Friday and on the days preceding festivals until nightfall, i.e., until [the beginning of] bein hashamashos, as will be explained in sec. 271[:9],35 except on the day preceding Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 471[:1].36

ט סְעֻדָּה שֶׁרָגִיל בָּהּ בִּימוֹת הַחֹלמג דְּהַיְנוּ סְעֻדָּה קְטַנָּהמד שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל מִשְׁתֶּהמה,32 מִן הַדִּין מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּכָל הַיּוֹםמו אֲפִלּוּ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָהמז אֲבָל מִצְוָה לְהִמָּנַעמח מִלְּקָבְעָהּ מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה עֲשִׂירִית33 וְאֵילַךְמט כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לְשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהוּא תָּאֵב לֶאֱכוֹלנ וְיֹאכַל סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת לְתֵאָבוֹן.נא

אֲבָל לֶאֱכוֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת (ב) בְּלִי קְבִיעוּת סְעֻדָּה34 אֵינוֹ נִמְנָע בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּבְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב עַד שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָהנב דְּהַיְנוּ עַד בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"[אנג]35 חוּץ מֵעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תע"א:נד,36

10 After nightfall, by contrast, or after one accepted Shabbos even when it is still day37 (if he intends to begin the Shabbos meal before nightfall(, it is a mitzvah to refrain from eating anything — even when he does not partake of a meal and even after he already recited Kiddush38over a cup [of wine]39 — before one partakes of the fundamental element of the Shabbos meal, i.e., the bread over which the blessing HaMotzi is recited. [The bread] is considered the fundamental element of the Shabbos meal, since one does not fulfill the obligation of eating three meals [on Shabbos] unless he partakes of it, as will be explained in sec. 274[:5].40

[Accordingly, one should refrain from partaking of other foods] before partaking of bread, for were he to partake of another food beforehand, he would not eat bread with appetite [afterwards]. (Nevertheless, one should not admonish those who are lenient [and partake of other foods before eating bread], because, according to the letter of the law, there is no absolute obligation to eat the Shabbos meal with appetite, as explained previously).41

י אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָהנה אוֹ (ג) לְאַחַר שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםנו,37 (אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לְהַתְחִיל סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת קֹדֶם שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה[)] מִצְוָה לְהִמָּנַע מִלֶּאֱכוֹל שׁוּם דָּבָר אֲפִלּוּ בְּלֹא קְבִיעוּת סְעֻדָּה אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ38 עַל הַכּוֹס39 קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת עִקַּר סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת דְּהַיְנוּ מִלֶּחֶם שֶׁמְּבָרְכִים עָלָיו הַמּוֹצִיא שֶׁהוּא עִקַּר סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת שֶׁמִּבִּלְעָדוֹ אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת ג' סְעֻדּוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רע"דנז,40 לְפִי שֶׁאִם יֹאכַל מִמַּאֲכָל אַחֵר קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת הַלֶּחֶם לֹא יֹאכַל הַלֶּחֶם לְתֵאָבוֹןנח (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם (ז) אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיַד הַמְּקִלִּיןנט כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין אֵין חִיּוּב גָּמוּר לֶאֱכוֹל סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת לְתֵאָבוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרס):41

11 When does the above apply? When the person eats that food before the meal because he craves and desires to partake of it before the meal and not as part of the meal.42 [A different rule applies, however,] if he partakes of it before the meal because he desires to reach the sum of 100 blessings by also reciting the blessing after partaking of it, since when he partakes of it before the meal, it is not covered by the Grace after Meals.43 Doing so violates (an absolute prohibition, since it is forbidden to bring about an obligation to recite a blessing when it is possible to cover that food with the blessing recited upon another food, as explained in sec. 215[:4].44 Furthermore,) reciting the blessing over that food before the blessing for the bread violates a prohibition, for the blessing for bread should precede all blessings [over other foods], as explained in sec. 211.45 When, by contrast, one eats food before the meal because he does not want or desire at all to partake of [this food] during the meal, but before it, he has no obligation whatsoever to recite the blessing for bread earlier. See sec. 211.46

יא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל אוֹתוֹ מַאֲכָל קֹדֶם הַסְּעֻדָּה מֵחֲמַת שֶׁחָפֵץ וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְאָכְלוֹ קֹדֶם הַסְּעֻדָּה וְלֹא בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעֻדָּהסא,42 אֲבָל אִם מַה שֶּׁאוֹכְלוֹ קֹדֶם הַסְּעֻדָּה הוּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַשְׁלִים מֵאָה בְרָכוֹת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עָלָיו גַּם בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ קֹדֶם הַסְּעֻדָּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן43 שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַסְּעֻדָּה יֵשׁ בְּזֶה (אִסּוּר גָּמוּר מִן הַדִּין שֶׁאָסוּר לִגְרוֹם חִיּוּב בְּרָכָה כְּשֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְפָטְרָהּ בִּבְרָכָה אַחֶרֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן [ר]ט"וסב,44 וְעוֹד יֵשׁ) אִסּוּר בְּמַה שֶּׁמַּקְדִּים בִּרְכַּת אוֹתוֹ מַאֲכָל לְבִרְכַּת הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁבִּרְכַּת הַלֶּחֶם קוֹדֶמֶת לְכָל הַבְּרָכוֹתסג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רי"אסד,45 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ קֹדֶם הַסְּעֻדָּה מֵחֲמַת שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָפֵץ וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְאָכְלוֹ כְּלָל בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעֻדָּה אֶלָּא קֹדֶם הַסְּעֻדָּה אֲזַי אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כְּלָל לְהַקְדִּים לְפָנָיו בִּרְכַּת הַלֶּחֶם עַיֵּן סִמָּן רי"א:סה,46

12 As an initial preference, Friday should not be designated as a fast day, unless one will partake of something before accepting Shabbos,47so that he will not enter Shabbos while he is distressed. An exceedingly delicate person [is exempt from the above requirement, for] were he to eat even a little during the day, he would not eat with appetite at night.48

To what does the above apply? To a fast designated by a private individual that does not have a fixed time and [therefore] that fast could be observed on another day. If, however, the fixed time for a fast falls on Friday, e.g., one fasts in commemoration of the death of a righteous man, as will be explained in sec. 580,49 or similarly, one fasts on the day before Rosh Chodesh, he does not have to postpone that fast to another day if that date happens to fall on Friday. (Similarly, one who fasts on all the days of the week, [eating only at night,] may also fast on [a Friday].) Although all of these fasts that are held on Fridays are not obligatory at all, there is no need to postpone them as an expression of respect for Shabbos. [The rationale is that] the prohibition not to enter Shabbos while distressed is mild, and is taken into consideration only insofar as not to designate [Friday] as a fast as an initial preference when it is possible to designate the fast on another day. When, by contrast, one does not have the option of designating the fast on another day, this is not sufficient grounds for him to cancel his fast entirely.50

[One who fasts] on Friday is permitted to complete his fast [and continue it] until the appearance of the stars.51 If one accepted the fast [on Thursday] in the Afternoon Service,52 he is obligated to complete it just like one who accepts a fast on any other day of the week, in which instance, he is obligated to complete it, [fasting from Friday morning] until the appearance of the stars [Friday night].

Other authorities [differ and] maintain that when one completes the Evening Service of Shabbos while it was still day,53 [if he is fasting at that time,] he must eat immediately. He is not permitted to fast until the appearance of the stars. Since he accepted Shabbos in his prayers, it is forbidden for him to fast any longer, for it is forbidden to fast on Shabbos even one hour when one has the intent of fasting, as will be explained in sec. 288[:1]. True, he accepted the fast in the Afternoon Service, and, thus, he is obligated to complete it. Nevertheless, he should eat immediately after (the congregation) completes the [Evening] Service. [The rationale:] Since he fasted until after the acceptance of the Shabbos, he is also considered to have completed [his fast], for the weekday has already concluded and the Shabbos has begun.

With regard to actual practice, one should follow the latter approach with regard to a fast undertaken by an individual, for the obligation to complete the fast stems only from his acceptance of it. Since he fasted until the acceptance of the Shabbos, he fulfills his obligation. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, at the time he accepts the fast, he should specify that he is accepting the fast only until he leaves the synagogue [on Friday evening, following the conclusion of the Evening Service].

There is, by contrast, an obligation to complete54 a communal fast.55 Hence, such a fast must also be completed on Friday [by fasting until nightfall], as dictated by the first opinion. Therefore, even if he stipulated on the preceding day that he will fast only until the congregation leaves the synagogue, his stipulation is of no consequence, since the fast is not at all dependent on his stipulation, for it is a communal fast.

If the fast was undertaken because of a disturbing dream,56 all agree that one should complete the fast until the appearance of the stars [on Friday night], for one may fast because of a disturbing dream even on Shabbos itself.

יב אֵין קוֹבְעִים תַּעֲנִית לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּעֶרֶבסו שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁיִּטְעוֹם מְעַט קֹדֶם קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּתסז,47 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לְשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהוּא מְעֻנֶּהסח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא אִיסְטְנִיס שֶׁכְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל בַּיּוֹם אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט לֹא יֹאכַל בַּלַּיְלָה לְתֵאָבוֹן.סט,48

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּתַעֲנִית יָחִיד שֶׁאֵין קָבוּעַ לוֹ זְמַן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת אוֹתוֹ תַעֲנִית בְּיוֹם אַחֵר אֲבָל אִם זְמַנּוֹ הוּא בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתע כְּגוֹן הַמִּתְעַנֶּה תַּעֲנִיּוֹת שֶׁל יְמֵי מִיתַת הַצַּדִּיקִיםעא שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תק"פעב,49 וְכֵן הַמִּתְעַנֶּה בְּעֶרֶב רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִדְחוֹת הַתַּעֲנִית לְיוֹם אַחֵר אִם אֵרַע בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתעג (וְכֵן הַמִּתְעַנֶּה בְּכָל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁבוּעַ שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ יוֹם מִתְעַנֶּה הוּא גַם כֵּןעד) וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַתַּעֲנִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֵינָם חוֹבָה כְּלָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לִדְחוֹתוֹ מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת לְפִי שֶׁאִסּוּר זֶה שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לְשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהוּא מְעֻנֶּה אִסּוּר קַל הוּא (ה) וְלֹא חָשְׁשׁוּ לוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לִקְבּוֹעַ בּוֹ הַתַּעֲנִית לְכַתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְקָבְעוֹ בְּיוֹם אַחֵר אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקָבְעוֹ בְּיוֹם אַחֵר אֵין לוֹ לִדְחוֹת הַתַּעֲנִית לְגַמְרֵי בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ.50

וְרַשַּׁאי לְהַשְׁלִים הַתַּעֲנִית בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתעה עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים51 וְאִם קִבֵּל עָלָיו הַתַּעֲנִית בְּמִנְחָהעו,52 חַיָּב הוּא לְהַשְׁלִימוֹעז כְּמוֹ הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו תַּעֲנִית בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁבוּעַ שֶׁחַיָּב הוּא לְהַשְׁלִימוֹ עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִיםעח וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעט שֶׁאִם הִשְׁלִים תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם53 צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד וְאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת בִּתְפִלָּה אָסוּר לוֹ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עוֹדפא שֶׁאֵין מִתְעַנִּין בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ שָׁעָה אַחַת כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם תַּעֲנִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רפ"ח וְאַף אִם קִבֵּל הַתַּעֲנִית בְּמִנְחָה שֶׁחַיָּב הוּא לְהַשְׁלִימוֹ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֹאכַל מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַשְׁלָמַת (הַצִּבּוּר אֶת) הַתְּפִלָּה לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מִתְעַנֶּה עַד אַחַר קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת זֶהוּ גַם כֵּן הַשְׁלָמָהפב שֶׁכְּבָר נִשְׁלַם יוֹם הַחֹל וְחָל עָלָיו הַשַּׁבָּת.

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה יֵשׁ לִנְהוֹג כִּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה בְּתַעֲנִית יָחִידפג שֶׁאֵין חִיּוּב הַהַשְׁלָמָה בּוֹ אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת קַבָּלָתוֹ אוֹתוֹ וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמִּתְעַנֶּה עַד אַחַר קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה יְפָרֵשׁ בִּשְׁעַת קַבָּלַת הַתַּעֲנִית שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקַבְּלוֹ אֶלָּא עַד לְאַחַר יְצִיאָה מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶתפד אֲבָל בְּתַעֲנִית צִבּוּרפה,55 שֶׁהַהַשְׁלָמָה54 בּוֹ הוּא חוֹבָה צָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִים גַּם בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הִתְנָה מֵאֶתְמוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַנֶּה אֶלָּא עַד לְאַחַר יְצִיאָה מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵין תְּנָאוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם שֶׁאֵין הַתַּעֲנִית תָּלוּי כְּלָל בִּתְנָאוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא תַּעֲנִית צִבּוּר.פו

וְאִם הוּא תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם56 לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל יַשְׁלִים עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִיםפז שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ מִתְעַנִּין תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם:פח

13 [The following laws apply to a person] who fasts every month on the day before Rosh Chodesh,57 on all [of the weekdays] during the Ten Days of Repentance,58 on the twentieth of Sivan,59 on the yahrzeit of a righteous man,60 or on the day his father or mother died.61 If the first time such a fast fell on Friday, and the person completed the fast [and refrained from eating] until after the appearance of the stars, he must always follow this practice whenever the fast falls on Friday, for [carrying out this practice] is equivalent to taking a vow.62 [If he does not want to be bound by this obligation, he must have] three people release him [from his commitment. The above applies] provided that the first time he completed the fast [in this manner] he had in mind to carry out this practice forever, or he completed [the fast in this manner] three [consecutive] times without stipulating that he was doing this without committing himself by vow. The fact that he completed [the fast in this manner] many times when the date fell on a weekday is not considered equivalent to a vow with regard to binding him to complete [the fast in this manner] when the date falls on Friday.

There are authorities who differ concerning this matter with regard to a fast [commemorating] the passing of one’s father and mother. They maintain that if it fell on a weekday in the first year [of their passing] and the person completed the fast [and refrained from eating until the stars appeared, it can be assumed that] he certainly had the intent of doing so forever. For it would not occur to him to consider how he would have to conduct himself in the future in the event [the date marking their passing] would fall on Friday. It therefore is considered as if he took a vow [to fast until the stars appear], and he must always complete the fast [in this manner], even if it falls on Friday.

Similar principles apply with regard to fasts commemorating the passing of righteous men or one held on the day preceding Rosh Chodesh. If one fasted the first time on a weekday and completed [the fast and refrained from eating until the appearance of the stars, it can be assumed that certainly] he had the intent of doing so forever. Similarly, if one fasted and completed [the fast and refrained from eating until the appearance of the stars] three [consecutive] times on weekdays without stipulating that he was doing this without committing himself by vow, it is equivalent to [his having taken] a vow. [Hence,] he must complete [the fast in this manner] even when it falls on Friday. This is the practice of people at large. (Nevertheless, a person who adopts the leniency recommended by the first opinion in a time of need is not remiss.)

יג הַמִּתְעַנֶּה בְּכָל עֶרֶב חֹדֶשׁ57 אוֹ בְּכָל עֲשֶׂרֶת יְמֵי תְשׁוּבָה58 אוֹ בְּכ' סִיוָןפט,59 אוֹ בְּמִיתַת הַצַּדִּיקִים60 אוֹ בְּיוֹם שֶׁמֵּת בּוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ61 אִם בַּפַּעַם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁאֵרַע הַתַּעֲנִית בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת הִשְׁלִימוֹ עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים צָרִיךְ לִנְהוֹג כֵּן לְעוֹלָםצ בְּכָל פַּעַם שֶׁיֶּאֱרַע בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ נֶדֶרצא,62 וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּתִּירוּ לוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְהוּא שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִשְׁלִים בַּפַּעַם הָרִאשׁוֹן הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִנְהוֹג כֵּן לְעוֹלָםצב אוֹ שֶׁהִשְׁלִים ג' פְּעָמִים בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְלֹא הִתְנָה שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּלִי נֶדֶרצג אֲבָל מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהִשְׁלִים כַּמָּה פְעָמִים כְּשֶׁאֵרַע בְּחֹל אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּנֶדֶר לְעִנְיָן שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְהַשְׁלִים כְּשֶׁאֵרַע בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין בְּזֶהצד וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁבְּתַעֲנִית יוֹם שֶׁמֵּת בּוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ כְּשֶׁחָל בְּחֹל בְּשָׁנָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְהִשְׁלִים אָז הַתַּעֲנִית בְּוַדַּאי הָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ לִנְהוֹג כֵּן לְעוֹלָם לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא עָלָה עַל דַּעְתּוֹ לַחְשׁוֹב הֵיאַךְ יִתְנַהֵג לְהַבָּא כְּשֶׁיֶּאֱרַע בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְפִיכָךְ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנֶדֶר וְצָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִים לְעוֹלָם אַף כְּשֶׁיֶּאֱרַע בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּתצה וְכֵן בְּתַעֲנִית יְמֵי מִיתַת הַצַּדִּיקִים וְעֶרֶב רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אִם כְּשֶׁהִתְעַנָּה פַּעַם הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּחֹל וְהִשְׁלִימוֹ הָיָה בְדַעְתּוֹ לִנְהוֹג כֵּן לְעוֹלָם אוֹ שֶׁהִתְעַנָּה וְהִשְׁלִים ג' פְּעָמִים בְּחֹל וְלֹא הִתְנָה שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּלִי נֶדֶר הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנֶדֶר וְצָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִים אַף כְּשֶׁיֶּאֱרַע בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ הָעוֹלָם (וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַמֵּקֵל לְעֵת הַצֹּרֶךְ כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא הִפְסִידצו):