SECTION 244 Which Labors May Be Performed by a Non-Jew for the Sake of a Jew (1-22)

סימן רמד אֵיזוֹ מְלָאכוֹת יָכוֹל הַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּבוֹ כ"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 It is forbidden [for a Jew] to allow a non-Jew to perform a forbidden labor for him on Shabbos. [This applies] even if [the non-Jew] is working [primarily] for [his own] wages, but he is hired as a day-worker, e.g., the Jew hired him before Shabbos and told him: “For every day that you will work for me, I will give you this-and-this sum.” Although [the Jewish employer] did not explicitly tell him to work on Shabbos as well, but rather, he performed the labor [on Shabbos] on his own initiative, [the Jewish employer] must admonish him, as explained in sec. 243[:4].1

If, however, the non-Jew acts as a contractor (kablan), i.e., he agrees to perform a specific task for a specific fee, it is permitted to allow him to perform his entire task on Shabbos.2[License is granted] whether [the non-Jew] works with his own [materials] or with materials provided to him by the Jewish [employer] to perform the task,3 e.g., he gave him a garment to sew and set a fee [for sewing the garment], or provided him with strands of fabric to weave a garment. [In the latter instance, license is granted for the non-Jew] to perform the entire task on Shabbos whether he agreed to weave the entire garment [and he set a fee for performing that task] or whether he never agreed to weave the entire garment and [the employer] set a fee for every cubit he will weave.

It is permissible, even as an initial preference, to give [the non-Jew] the work on Friday, even shortly before nightfall, in the manner to be described in sec. 252[:4. This is true] even if [the Jewish employer] knows that the non-Jew will perform the task on Shabbos (and [moreover, the Jewish employer] desires that he do so).4 Nevertheless, the non-Jew is not acting for the benefit of the Jewish [employer], but for his own sake, hurrying to complete his work so that he will receive his fee.5

[These terms of employment] differ from the [hiring] of a day-worker, [which is prohibited] because the work a day-worker performs does not belong to him.6 It is not his concern; when working, he does not have the intent to complete the task, for the completion of the task is not his responsibility, and he derives no benefit from its completion. Instead, his intent is to work for the Jewish employer throughout the entire day so that he will be paid his [day’s] wage. Therefore, he is considered to be acting as the Jew’s agent. With regard to a contractor, by contrast, the work is his.7 His intent when working is to complete the task so that he will receive his fee. [Thus,] he is not considered as the Jew’s agent.

Nevertheless, one should be careful that [the non-Jewish contractor] not perform the task on any premises belonging to the Jewish [employer].8 Also, [the Jewish employer] should not instruct him to perform the task on Shabbos.9 He must also establish a price with [the non-Jewish contractor] before Shabbos.10Also, [the Jewish employer] may not give him [the task to perform] unless the non-Jew could complete the entire task during the week, should he so desire, whether before the commencement of the Shabbos or [during the weekdays] afterward,11 as will be explained in sec. 252[:4ff.]. Consult that source for all the relevant laws.

א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּשָׂכָר אִם הוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּתוֹרַת שְׂכִיר יוֹם כְּגוֹן שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת וְאָמַר לוֹ בְּעַד כָּל יוֹם וְיוֹם שֶׁתַּעֲבוֹד לִי אֶתֵּן לְךָ כָּךְ וְכָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲבוֹד גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מֵעַצְמוֹ הוּא עוֹבֵד צָרִיךְ הוּא לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ג א,1 אֲבָל אִם הוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּתוֹרַת קַבְּלָנוּת שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּךְ וְכָךְ בְּעַד שָׂכָר כָּךְ וְכָךְ ב בֵּין שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מִשֶּׁלּוֹ בֵּין שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מִשֶּׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ מִמָּה לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמְּלָאכָה ג,3 כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ בֶּגֶד לִתְפּוֹר וְקָצַץ לוֹ שָׂכָר ד אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ חוּטִין לֶאֱרוֹג לוֹ בֶּגֶד בֵּין שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו לֶאֱרוֹג כָּל הַבֶּגֶד בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל עָלָיו כְּלָל לֶאֱרוֹג כָּל הַבֶּגֶד אֶלָּא שֶׁקָּצַץ לוֹ בְּעַד כָּל אַמָּה וְאַמָּה שֶׁיֶּאֱרוֹג ה מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה כָּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה ו עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב ז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת (א) (וּבְכָךְ הוּא חָפֵץ ח)4 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל טוֹבַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ ט לְמַהֵר לְהַשְׁלִים מְלַאכְתּוֹי כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שְׂכָרוֹ.יא,5

וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִשְׂכִיר יוֹם יב שֶׁהַשְּׂכִיר יוֹם אֵין הַמְּלָאכָה שֶׁלּוֹ6 כְּלָל וְאֵין לוֹ עֵסֶק בָּהּ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ בַּעֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁלִים הַמְּלָאכָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עָלָיו הַמְּלָאכָה לִגְמוֹר וְאֵין לוֹ תּוֹעֶלֶת כְּלָל בְּהִגָּמְרָהּ אֶלָּא כַּוָּנָתוֹ לַעֲבוֹד אֶת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כָּל הַיּוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ לְפִיכָךְ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל הַקַּבְּלָן הַמְּלָאכָה הִיא שֶׁלּוֹ יג,7 שֶׁכַּוָּנָתוֹ בַּעֲבוֹדָתוֹ הִיא לְהַשְׁלִים הַמְּלָאכָה כְּדֵי לִטּוֹל שְׂכָרוֹ וְאֵינוֹ כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יד,8 וְשֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת טו,9 וְגַם שֶׁיִּקְצוֹץ לוֹ דָּמִים טז קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת10 וְגַם שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן לוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל הַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הַמְּלָאכָה בְּחֹל אִם יִרְצֶה קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת אוֹ לְאַחֲרָיו11 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב יז עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִינִים אֵלּוּ:

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2When is license given to allow a non-Jewish contractor to perform a task on Shabbos? When he performs the task with an entity that is not attached to the ground,12 so that the non-Jew could perform it in his home or in another place that was not the domain of the Jew.13 [Thus,] it would not be evident that the task belonged to the Jew and there is no question of the impression that would be created. [Different laws apply,] however, when [the non-Jew] is working with something that is connected to the ground, e.g., he was contracted to build a house for a Jew or harvest a field for a Jew.14 [In these instances,] since it is apparent and commonly known that the property belongs to the Jewish [employer], it is evident to any observer that the task is also being performed for his sake. Therefore, if [the property] is in the middle of a town or within the town’s Shabbos limits,15 [the Jewish employer] is forbidden to allow [the non-Jew] to perform the task on Shabbos, because of the impression that it would create. For an observer would say that [the non-Jew] is a day-worker hired by the Jewish [employer].

Even if it is not common knowledge that the property belongs to the Jewish [employer], nevertheless, the impression the neighbors might get is of concern. They16 know that the property belongs to the Jewish [employer], but do not know that the non-Jew who performs the work is a contractor. Instead, they may say that he is a day-worker. [Allowing the non-Jew to perform the work is prohibited] even if [the Jewish employer] lives in a village among non-Jews with no Jewish neighbors. Nevertheless, if [the non-Jew] carries out the task within the Shabbos limits of the village, there is a basis for concern, for it is possible that guests will spend the Shabbos with [the Jewish employer], see the non-Jew performing tasks on Shabbos on land belonging to their host, and suspect that the non-Jew was hired as a day-worker. Furthermore, there is reason for concern about [the impression that] the members of [the Jewish employer’s] household may get, for they know that the task is being performed for his sake and [may] suspect that the non-Jew was hired as a day-worker. [Allowing the non-Jew to perform such tasks is therefore prohibited.]

When, by contrast, the non-Jew is working with an entity that is not attached to the ground, even when some Jews know that the work is being performed for his sake, the Sages did not issue any decrees [concerning it], because in the majority of cases, it is not at all known to people at large [that the work is for the Jew’s sake], for [generally,] work performed on something detached does not become public knowledge.17

This, by contrast, is not the case when [the non-Jew] works on something attached to the ground in a visible and well-known place. In the majority of such cases, it is apparent and well known [that the work is being performed for the Jew’s sake], because work performed on something attached is a matter of public knowledge. Therefore, even in instances where the concern is only about the impression a minimal number of Jews might get, our Sages [still] issued a decree.

ב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ לְקַבְּלָן נָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּדָבָר הַתָּלוּשׁ מִן הַקַּרְקַע יח,12 שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בְּבֵיתוֹ יט אוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר כ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,13 וְאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁהִיא מְלֶאכֶת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין כַּאן חֲשַׁשׁ מַרְאִית הָעַיִן כא אֲבָל כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע כְּגוֹן שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו לִבְנוֹת בַּיִת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כב אוֹ לִקְצוֹר שָׂדֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כג,14 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַקַּרְקַע גְּלוּיָה וּמְפֻרְסֶמֶת לַכֹּל שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל נִכָּר הַדָּבָר לְכָל רוֹאֶה שֶׁגַּם הַמְּלָאכָה הִיא שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כד לְפִיכָךְ אִם הוּא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ תְּחוּמָהּ15 אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן כה שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה יֹאמַר שֶׁהוּא שְׂכִיר יוֹם אֵצֶל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל. כו

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין הַדָּבָר מְפֻרְסָם לַכֹּל שֶׁקַּרְקַע זוֹ הִיא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁל שְׁכֵנָיו שֶׁהֵם16 יוֹדְעִים שֶׁקַּרְקַע זוֹ הִיא שֶׁלּוֹ וְאֵינָן יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהַנָּכְרִִי הָעוֹסֵק בִּמְלָאכָה הוּא קַבְּלָן אֶלָּא יֹאמְרוּ שֶׁהוּא שְׂכִיר יוֹם כז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא דָר בִּכְפָר בֵּין הַנָּכְרִים שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שָׁם שְׁכֵנִים יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם עוֹשֶׂה בְּתוֹךְ תְּחוּם הַכְּפָר יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִזְדַּמְּנוּ לוֹ שָׁם אוֹרְחִים שֶׁיִּשְׁבְּתוּ אֶצְלוֹ כח וְיִרְאוּ אֶת הַנָּכְרִי עוֹסֵק בְּשַׁבָּת בְּקַרְקַע הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְיַחְשְׁדוּהוּ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי שְׂכִיר יוֹם אֶצְלוֹ וְגַם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ לִבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ שֶׁהֵם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה הִיא שֶׁלּוֹ וְיַחְשְׁדוּ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הוּא שְׂכִיר יוֹם אֶצְלוֹ. כט

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּדָבָר תָּלוּשׁ (ב) אַף שֶׁמִּקְצָת יִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה הִיא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא גָזְרוּ חֲכָמִים ל כֵּיוָן שֶׁרֹב הַפְּעָמִים אֵין הַדָּבָר נוֹדָע לַאֲחֵרִים כְּלָל שֶׁמְּלֶאכֶת תָּלוּשׁ אֵין לָהּ קוֹל כְּלָל לא,17 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּמְחֻבָּר שֶׁהוּא בְּמָקוֹם גָּלוּי וּמְפֻרְסָם17 וְרֹב הַפְּעָמִים הַמְּלָאכָה גְּלוּיָה וּמְפֻרְסֶמֶת לָרַבִּים שֶׁמְּלֶאכֶת מְחֻבָּר יֵשׁ לָהּ קוֹל לְפִיכָךְ אִם לִפְעָמִים אֵין חֲשַׁשׁ מַרְאִית הָעַיִן אֶלָּא מִמִּקְצָת יִשְׂרָאֵל גָּזְרוּ חֲכָמִים:

3 The above applies only when the task is performed in the middle of a town or within its Shabbos limits, and thus the inhabitants of the town may walk there on Shabbos. When, however, [the non-Jew] performs the task outside the town’s Shabbos limits, and there is no other town with Jewish inhabitants within the Shabbos limits of the place where the task is being performed, it is permitted to allow [the non-Jew] to perform the task on Shabbos.18

ג וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַמְּלָאכָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ תְּחוּם הָעִיר שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת אֲבָל כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַמְּלָאכָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְגַם אֵין עִיר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל דָּרִים בָּהּ תּוֹךְ תְּחוּמָיו שֶׁל מְקוֹם הַמְּלָאכָה מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת: לב,18

4 Even when work is performed on something that is not attached to the ground, if it is well known and a matter of public knowledge that [the object or concern where the work is being performed] belongs to a Jew, and the labor is being performed in an open place that is in public view, it is forbidden to allow [a non-Jew] to carry out the task on Shabbos because of the impression that might be created. An example of this is building a ship, a task which is generally carried out on a riverbank, which is a public place.19

ד אֲפִלּוּ מְלֶאכֶת תָּלוּשׁ אִם הִיא מְפֻרְסֶמֶת וִידוּעָה לָרַבִּים שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִיא נַעֲשֵׂית בְּמָקוֹם גָּלוּי וּמְפֻרְסָם לג כְּגוֹן בִּנְיַן הַסְּפִינָה שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִבְנוֹתָהּ עַל שְׂפַת הַנָּהָר שֶׁהוּא מְקוֹם פַּרְהֶסְיָא אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן: לד,19

5 In which situations does the above apply? With regard to a ship or the like, which is identified with the Jewish [employer], i.e., people will say that this project belongs to so-and-so.20 [Different laws apply,] in contrast, with regard to a matter that is not identified as belonging to the Jew, although [the task] is performed publicly and it becomes known to people at large that this task was performed on Shabbos for the sake of the Jewish [employer], e.g., a Jew hired a non-Jew as a contractor to make new articles for him, and [the non-Jew] fashioned them on Shabbos in a public place. Although it became a subject of discussion and public knowledge that [the non-Jew] performed [the task] for the Jew, nevertheless, the articles never became identified with the Jew. They were never called “so-and-so’s articles” because they never entered his domain. Therefore, even though [the non-Jew] performs the task in an open and public place, [still,] according to the letter of the law, the Jewish [employer] need not admonish him. Nevertheless, it is desirable [for the Jewish employer] to be stringent and admonish him [not to perform the labor on Shabbos], for he should be alert to the possibility of fleeting gossip about him,21 [i.e., people] saying that the non-Jew performed forbidden labor on Shabbos as his agent.

ה בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים (ג) בִּסְפִינָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהּ מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁשֵּׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִקְרָא עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁאוֹמְרִים דָּבָר זֶה הוּא שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי20 אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִקְרָא עָלָיו רַק שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא וְנִתְפַּרְסֵם לָרַבִּים שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה נַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת לְצֹרֶךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּגוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁשָּׂכַר לוֹ נָכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים וְעָשָׂה אוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא שֶׁאַף שֶׁיָּצָא הַקּוֹל וְנִתְפַּרְסֵם לָרַבִּים שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִכָּל מָקוֹם עֲדַיִן לֹא נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם לִהְיוֹת נִקְרָאִים כֵּלִים שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי כֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא בָאוּ לִרְשׁוּתוֹ מֵעוֹלָם לְפִיכָךְ אַף שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּמָקוֹם גָּלוּי וּמְפֻרְסָם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין לה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וְלִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ לָחוּשׁ לְרִנּוּן שָׁעָה שֶׁלֹּא יָרֹנּוּ אַחֲרָיו21 לוֹמַר שֶׁנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁלִיחוּתוֹ: לו

6 Even when [a non-Jewish contractor] is performing a task with a detached article, if the task is for the sake of [a project that is] attached to the ground, e.g., he is hewing stones or planing beams in order to make them part of a building, [the Jewish employer] must admonish [the non-Jewish contractor] if [the task is being carried out] within [the town’s] Shabbos limits.22 Even if [the non-Jewish worker] carries out the task far away from the building and even if he performs it in his own home, in which case it is not apparent that he is carrying out the task for the building owned by the Jewish [employer], nevertheless, since ultimately [these articles] will be made part of the building, they are governed by the same laws as the building itself.23

ו אֲפִלּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּתָלוּשׁ אִם הוּא לְצֹרֶךְ מְחֻבָּר כְּגוֹן (ד) לִפְסוֹל הָאֲבָנִים וּלְתַקֵּן הַקּוֹרוֹת כְּדֵי לְשַׁקְּעָם בְּבִנְיָןלז צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ לח אִם הוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם לט,22 אֲפִלּוּ עוֹשֶׂה רָחוֹק מֵהַבִּנְיָן וַאֲפִלּוּ עוֹשֶׂה בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל בִּנְיָן זֶה שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁסּוֹפָן לְשַׁקְּעָם בְּהַבִּנְיָן הֲרֵי דִינָם כְּהַבִּנְיָן עַצְמוֹ: מ,23

7 [In the latter instance,] if the Jewish [employer] did not admonish [the non-Jewish worker] and [the non-Jewish worker] was employed as a contractor, it is permitted to place [the stones or the beams] in the building. Similarly, the Jewish [employer] is permitted to enter and dwell in a house that was built [for him] on Shabbos by [a non-Jewish] contractor, because there is an authority who permits [hiring] a non-Jewish contractor [who performs work on Shabbos] even concerning an entity that is [itself] attached to the ground. His opinion is worthy of being relied on after the fact.24

If, by contrast, a non-Jewish day-worker25 performed the labor of building on Shabbos, it is proper to be stringent and for no Jew26 to ever enter [the building he constructed]. Even if the Jewish [employer] hired the non-Jew as a day-worker with the stipulation that he not work on Shabbos, and the non-Jew worked on Shabbos on his own initiative, it is proper that no Jew ever enter the building if the non-Jew worked for the benefit of the Jewish [employer].27 If, however, [the non-Jew’s] intent was for his own benefit,28 it is permitted even for the employer to dwell in [the building], since he stipulated with [the worker] not to build it on Shabbos.

ז וְאִם לֹא מִחָה בְּיָדוֹ וְעָשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת בְּקַבְּלָנוּת יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לְשַׁקְּעָם בַּבִּנְיָן מא וְכֵן הַבַּיִת שֶׁנִּבְנָה בְּשַׁבָּת בְּקַבְּלָנוּת מֻתָּר לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִכָּנֵס לָדוּר בּוֹ מב לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁמַּתִּיר קַבְּלָנוּת נָכְרִי וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּמְחֻבָּר מג וּכְדַאי הוּא לִסְמוֹךְ עָלָיו בְּדִיעֲבַד מד,24 אֲבָל נָכְרִי שְׂכִיר יוֹם25 שֶׁבָּנָה בְּשַׁבָּת נָכוֹן לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס בּוֹ שׁוּם יִשְׂרָאֵל26 לְעוֹלָם מה וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּשֶׁשָּׂכַר אֶת הַנָּכְרִי לְיָמִים הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וְהַנָּכְרִי עָשָׂה מֵעַצְמוֹ (וְ)אִם עָשָׂה לְטוֹבַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל27 נָכוֹן שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס בּוֹ שׁוּם יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעוֹלָם מו אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ28 מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת לָדוּר בּוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת: מז

8 In some places, communities are accustomed to follow a lenient approach and hire non-Jews on a contractual basis to remove garbage from the streets. The non-Jews work for their own benefit.29 [Although the non-Jews work] even on Shabbos, [these communities] are not concerned about the impression that may be created. There are authorities who offer some justification for such conduct,30 [explaining as follows:] It has already become a matter of public knowledge that it is common to hire a non-Jew as a contractor to remove garbage and not for him to work as a day-worker.31 Accordingly, there is no need to be concerned about the impression that may be created, as stated in sec. 243[:10] with regard to [workers hired as contractors for] bathhouses, ovens, and mills. Consult that source.

Based on this rationale, it would be permitted to allow non-Jews to build a synagogue on Shabbos if the locale is one in which it is public knowledge that buildings are constructed by professionals working as contractors. [In such a locale, houses are] not [built] by day-workers, as in most places, where only the architect is a contractor. By contrast, the craftsmen who perform the work under his direction are day-workers and in such an instance, a prohibition exists because of the impression that may be created.32

Nevertheless, [even in a locale where builders are only employed as contractors,] leniency may be granted only in a pressing situation, e.g., there is concern that over the course of time, work on building the synagogue might be forced to cease entirely because of the wickedness of [some of] the non-Jewish [authorities].33

When, however, the situation is not pressing, [such labor] should not be permitted because of the desecration of the honor of G‑d’s name among the non-Jews. [They will look down upon the Jews,] since they do not allow any person to perform work in public on their sacred days, yet we do allow work to be performed for us on Shabbos in public.34 It is, however, customary to permit sweeping the streets, even when the situation is not pressing, [because] the task is not identified with [the Jews] to the same degree [as building a synagogue or other similar tasks]; as such, the desecration of G‑d’s name is not involved. Nevertheless, in a place where there is no established custom, one should not be lenient, even with regard to sweeping the streets.

ח בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר שֶׁהַקָּהָל שׂוֹכְרִים נָכְרִים בְּקַבְּלָנוּת לְפַנּוֹת הַזֶּבֶל מִן הָרְחוֹב וְהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לְעַצְמוֹ29 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן מח (ה) וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת מט,30 לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְפַּרְסֵם הַדָּבָר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִשְׂכּוֹר נָכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת לְפַנּוֹת הַזֶּבֶל וְלֹא שְׂכִיר יוֹם נ,31 וְאִם כֵּן אֵין כַּאן חֲשַׁשׁ מַרְאִית הָעַיִן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ג נא לְעִנְיַן מֶרְחָץ תַּנּוּר וְרֵחַיִם עַיֵּן שָׁם.

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לְהַנִּיחַ לְנָכְרִים לִבְנוֹת בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשַׁבָּת אִם הוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּפֻרְסָם בּוֹ דֶּרֶךְ בִּנְיַן הַבָּתִּים עַל יְדֵי אֻמָּנִים קַבְּלָנִים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי שְׂכִירֵי יוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא בְּרֹב הַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהָאַדְרִיכָל לְבַדּוֹ הוּא קַבְּלָן וְהָאֻמָּנִים עוֹשֵׂי מְלָאכָה שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו הֵם שְׂכִירֵי יוֹם שֶׁשָּׁם יֵשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ מַרְאִית הָעַיִן נב,32 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין לְהַתִּיר אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחַק כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִתְבַּטֵּל בְּהֶמְשֵׁךְ הַזְּמַן בִּנְיַן בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְגַמְרֵי מֵחֲמַת רִשְׁעַת הַנָּכְרִים נג,33 אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחַק אֵין לְהַתִּיר מִפְּנֵי חִלּוּל הַשֵּׁם בְּעֵינֵי הַנָּכְרִים שֶׁהֵם אֵינָם מַנִּיחִים לְשׁוּם אָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא בְּיוֹם אֵידָם וְאָנוּ מַנִּיחִים לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִילֵנוּ בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא נד,34 אֲבָל כִּבּוּד הָרְחוֹב אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא עַל שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כָּל כָּךְ וְאֵין בּוֹ חִלּוּל הַשֵּׁם לָכֵן נוֹהֲגִין לְהַתִּירוֹ אַף שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחַק וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג אֵין לְהָקֵל אַף בְּכִבּוּד הָרְחוֹב: נה

9 [The following laws apply when a person] hired a non-Jew for a year or two to serve as a scribe or a weaver at any time [his services are] needed during his period of employment, as is the practice of the nobility. They [hire] special scribes who write for them whenever they are in need [of their services], and when they are not needed, [the scribes] are idle.35 It is permissible [for a Jew who hired such a scribe] to allow [the scribe to write] material on Shabbos, concerning which the Jew had instructed him before Shabbos,36 provided [the non-Jew] does not perform the work in the domain of the Jewish [employer].37 (Moreover, he must be careful not to tell the non-Jew to perform this work on Shabbos.)38 [The rationale:] The Jewish [employer] does not profit at all from [the scribe] working on Shabbos, because if he did not do this work on Shabbos, he would do it after Shabbos.

Even if the Jewish [employer] needs the [completed] work immediately on Saturday night, [and thus, it is to his advantage that the work was performed on Shabbos], nevertheless, this is not considered as profit, merely as a benefit. An example of profit would be if [the Jew’s benefit from] the work would be nullified entirely if [the work was] not performed on Shabbos. In such an instance, [the Jew] is profiting from the fact that the work was performed on Shabbos, as will be stated in sec. 252[:5].39 Similarly, [it is forbidden] if [the Jewish employer] profits in another way, e.g., if his wealth is amplified and increased because of the work performed on Shabbos, as stated in sec. 243[:3].40

ט מִי שֶׁשָּׂכַר לוֹ נָכְרִי (ו) לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לִשְׁתַּיִם שֶׁיִּכְתּוֹב לוֹ אוֹ שֶׁיֶּאֱרוֹג לוֹ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ בְּתוֹךְ זְמַן מֶשֶׁךְ שְׂכִירוּתוֹ נו כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶרֶךְ הַשָּׂרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם סוֹפֵר מְיֻחָד שֶׁכּוֹתֵב לוֹ כָּל עֵת שֶׁצָּרִיךְ וּכְשֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ הוּא יוֹשֵׁב בָּטֵל נז,35 מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מַה שֶּׁצִּוָּה לוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת36 (רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת נח)38 אִם אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נט,38 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל רֶוַח בְּמַה שֶּׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת יַעֲשֶׂה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת וְאַף אִם הַמְּלָאכָה צְרִיכָה לוֹ בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא רֶוַח אֶלָּא הֲנָאָה בְּעָלְמָא ס וְרֶוַח הוּא כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה הָיְתָה מִתְבַּטֶּלֶת לְגַמְרֵי אִם לֹא הָיְתָה נַעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאָז הוּא מַרְוִיחַ הַמְּלָאכָה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת סא וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רנ"ב סב,39 וְכֵן אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ רֶוַח אַחֵר שֶׁרְכוּשׁוֹ מִתְרַוֵּחַ וּמִתְרַבֶּה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית הַמְּלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ג: סג,40

10 When is the [license] granted? When the Jewish [employer] does not at all object if [the scribe] remains idle after he commands him to perform a task, but leaves him the option to perform it whenever he desires. In such an instance, when he is working on Shabbos, he is working on his own initiative, and not because of his Jewish [employer]. If, however, [the Jewish employer] objects to his remaining idle, [then, when the scribe] works on Shabbos, [he is working] because of the Jewish [employer].41 Therefore, [the Jewish employer] must instruct [the non-Jewish worker] not to perform the task on Shabbos.42If, however, [the non-Jewish worker] does so regardless, [the Jewish employer] need not admonish him, because the non-Jew is acting on his own initiative.

י בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַקְפִּיד עִמּוֹ כְּלָל אִם הוּא יוֹשֵׁב וּבָטֵל לְאַחַר שֶׁצִּוָּה לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמְּלָאכָה אֶלָּא בְּיָדוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת לְדַעַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה וְלֹא מֵחֲמַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל אִם הוּא מַקְפִּיד עִמּוֹ עַל בִּטּוּלוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מֵחֲמַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל סד,41 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ הוּא לוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת42 וְאִם אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הוּא עוֹשֶׂה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁלְּדַעַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה: סה

11 The above applies when the non-Jewish [worker] is hired only for a specific task, e.g., to serve as a scribe or as a weaver whenever necessary, and after he completes that specific task, he may remain idle. If, however, [the Jewish employer] hired [the non-Jewish worker] to perform any and all tasks necessary during the time of his hire, it is forbidden to allow [the non-Jewish worker] to perform any task on Shabbos. [The rationale is that]the Jewish [employer] profits from the fact that this task is performed on Shabbos, since [in this way, the non-Jewish worker] will be free after Shabbos, and thus required to perform other tasks.

License should not be granted on the basis of the argument that the non-Jewish [worker] is acting for his own benefit, in order to receive his entire wage. For even if he will not perform [this task] on Shabbos, [the Jewish employer] will not deduct anything from his wages, as stated in sec. 243[:3].43

There are authorities who grant license even in such a situation, because the non-Jewish [worker] would never imagine that the Jewish [employer] would not compel him to work on Shabbos and would not deduct anything from his wages if he did not work on Shabbos. Thus he is working faithfully, on his own initiative, to complete the work he contracted to perform when first hired, i.e., to perform all the tasks that the Jewish [employer] will need [performed] throughout the duration of his hire, so that he will pay him his entire wage and not have any complaints against him.

One should not rely on this rationale44 (for the reason explained there),45 except in the cases of: a) [extinguishing] a fire, because of the loss involved, as stated in sec. 334[:26],46 and b) sending a letter, as stated in sec. 247[:10]. Consult that source for the rationale.47

יא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ אֶלָּא לִמְלָאכוֹת מְיֻחָדוֹת כְּגוֹן לִכְתּוֹב אוֹ לֶאֱרוֹג סו בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ וְאַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר הַמְּלָאכָה הוּא יוֹשֵׁב וּבָטֵל סז אֲבָל אִם שְׂכָרוֹ לְכָל הַמְּלָאכוֹת שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ בְּתוֹךְ מֶשֶׁךְ זְמַן שְׂכִירָתוֹ אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת לְפִי שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַרְוִיחַ מְלָאכָה זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁיִּהְיֶה פָּנוּי אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת סח וְאֵין לְהַתִּיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לְטוֹבַת עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל כָּל שְׂכָרוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף אִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת לֹא יְנַכֶּה לוֹ כְּלוּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ג סט,43 וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִים ע גַּם בָּזֶה לְפִי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ מַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ מַכְרִיחוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת וְשֶׁלֹּא יְנַכֶּה לוֹ כְּלוּם מִשְּׂכָרוֹ אַף אִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּלוּם בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא הוּא עוֹשֶׂה מֵאֵלָיו לְפִי תֻמּוֹ לְהַשְׁלִים קַבְּלָנוּתוֹ שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו בִּתְחִלַּת שְׂכִירוּתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת שֶׁיִּצְטָרְכוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל מֶשֶׁךְ זְמַן שְׂכִירוּתוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ כָּל שְׂכָרוֹ מִשָּׁלֵם וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ עָלָיו שׁוּם תַּרְעֹמֶת עא וְאֵין לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא זוֹ עב,44 (מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם)45 כִּי אִם לְעִנְיַן דְּלֵקָה עג מִשּׁוּם הֶפְסֵד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן של"ד עד,45 וּלְעִנְיַן שְׁלִיחוּת אִגֶּרֶת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ז עה עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם: עו,47

12When a Jew purchases [the right to collect] customs duty,48 he is forbidden to receive that duty on Shabbos. Even if, [as payment of the customs duty,] he is brought food that is not muktzeh and is fit to be eaten, e.g., it was brought from within the town’s Shabbos limits,49 and there is no concern that it was picked on this day from a source connected to the ground,50 or [that it comes from a living being that] was trapped on that day, he is forbidden to receive [that food] himself, based on the charge:51 “[You shall honor it (the Shabbos) by (refraining) from…] pursuing your concerns,” i.e., “your concerns” are forbidden [on it], as will be stated in sec. 306[:1].52 Instead, he should hire a non-Jew [for Shabbos] on a contractual basis, i.e., telling him, “When you collect 100 dinarim, I will give you this-and-this amount.” He should not, however, hire the non-Jew as a worker for the Shabbos day, for when the non-Jew is a day-worker, he is the agent of the Jewish [employer]. When, by contrast, he is hired as a contractor, he is not the agent of the Jewish [employer], but is rather working for himself, to increase the fee paid him.

Although the Jewish [employer] designated tasks for him to perform on Shabbos,53this is not included in the prohibition against giving instructions to a non-Jew [to work] on Shabbos, because even for a Jew, accepting the customs duty is forbidden only as a shvus.54Thus, [instructing a non-Jew to collect this duty is] a shvus of a shvus,55and license is granted by some authorities to overstep this restriction when a loss is involved, as will be stated in sec. 307[:12]. True, as will be stated there, there are [other] authorities who forbid [overstepping such a prohibition] even when a loss is involved, unless doing so is necessary to fulfill a mitzvah. Nevertheless, this situation is also considered as involving a mitzvah. For if he will not collect the customs duty from the non-Jews56 on Shabbos, he will not be able to collect it after Shabbos, and the money will remain forever in the possession of the non-Jew. [Thus, by collecting the money, the Jew] is performing a mitzvah through salvaging the money from their hands, as will be stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 149 and sec. 372.57

יב יִשְׂרָאֵל הַקּוֹנֶה מֶכֶס48 אָסוּר לוֹ לְקַבֵּל מֶכֶס בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ הֱבִיאוֹ דְּבַר מַאֲכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקְצֶה וְרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּבָא מִתּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם49 וְהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִלְקַט הַיּוֹם מֵהַמְחֻבָּר50 אוֹ שֶׁמָּא נִצַּד הַיּוֹם אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לוֹ לְקַבֵּל בְּעַצְמוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עז,51 מִמְּצֹא חֶפְצְךָ חֲפָצֶיךָ אֲסוּרִים עח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ו עט,52 אֶלָּא שׂוֹכֵר לוֹ נָכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאוֹמֵר לוֹ לִכְשֶׁתִּגְבֶּה מֵאָה דִינָרִים אֶתֵּן לְךָ כָּךְ וְכָךְ אֲבָל לֹא יִשְׂכּוֹר לוֹ נָכְרִי לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת פ שֶׁכְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הוּא שְׂכִיר יוֹם הֲרֵי הוּא כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּקַבְּלָנוּת שֶׁאֵינוֹ כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא לְעַצְמוֹ הוּא טוֹרֵחַ כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת שְׂכָרוֹ. פא

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קוֹבֵעַ לוֹ מְלַאכְתּוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת פב,53 אֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי שְׁבוּת פג לְפִי שֶׁקַּבָּלַת הַמֶּכֶס אֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת פד,54 וַהֲרֵי זֶה שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת55 שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין אוֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ז פה וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹסְרִין אַף בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד אִם לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן חָשׁוּב דְּבַר מִצְוָה שֶׁאִם לֹא יִטּוֹל הַמֶּכֶס מֵהַנָּכְרִי56 בְּשַׁבָּת לֹא יוּכַל לִגְבּוֹתוֹ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת וְיִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ הַמָּמוֹן בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי פו וַהֲרֵי הוּא עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה בְּמַה שֶּׁמַּצִּיל הַמָּמוֹן מִיָּדָם פז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן קמ"ט פח וְשע"ב: פט,57

13 Even if collecting the customs duty requires the performance of a [Scripturally] forbidden labor, e.g., he must write, [the Jewish proprietor] is permitted to instruct a non-Jew to perform [this task] on Shabbos as a contractor. [The rationale:] A person panics over [the possibly loss of] his money, and if he is not granted license to instruct a non-Jew [to perform this task], he may personally involve himself in the task and might forget and be motivated to write [on Shabbos].58For this reason, he is released from the prohibition against instructing a non-Jew, which is [only] of Rabbinic origin, lest he violate [the more serious prohibition against] writing, which is of Scriptural origin.

יג אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא מֶכֶס שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִכְתּוֹב אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיִּתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּקַבְּלָנוּת לְפִי שֶׁאָדָם בָּהוּל עַל מָמוֹנוֹ וְאִם לֹא נַתִּיר לוֹ אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי יָבֹא לְהִתְעַסֵּק בְּעַצְמוֹ וְשֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִכְתּוֹב58 לְפִיכָךְ מַתִּירִים לוֹ אִסּוּר אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי כְתִיבָה הָאֲסוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה: צ

14 Similarly, it is permitted to sublease [the right to collect] the customs duty to a non-Jew, i.e., the [non-Jew] will take whatever he collects on Shabbos for himself be it a large amount or a small amount — and he will give the Jewish [proprietor] a fixed amount. In this way, he is laboring on his own behalf and not acting as the agent of the Jewish [proprietor].

When [the Jewish proprietor] subleases the right to collect the customs duty to the non-Jew or when he hires the non-Jew as a contractor, we are not concerned with the impression that might be created (maris ayin), i.e., that an onlooker might say that [the non-Jew] is hired as a day-worker.59 [The rationale: Our Sages] did not issue decrees concerning the impression that might be created when a significant loss is involved.60 Although at times the above situation involves only a minor loss, nevertheless, since not receiving customs duty on Shabbos generallyinvolves a significant loss, our Sages did not make any distinctions. They completely did away with [all] decrees involving the impression that might be created with regard to customs duty and other analogous situations, which in most cases involve significant [financial] loss.

יד וְכֵן מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַשְׂכִּיר לְנָכְרִי אֶת הַמֶּכֶס שֶׁיִּטּוֹל לְעַצְמוֹ מַה שֶּׁיִּגְבֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת הֵן רַב הֵן מְעַט וְהוּא יִתֵּן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל דָּבָר קָצוּב שֶׁנִּמְצָא שֶׁהוּא טוֹרֵחַ לְעַצְמוֹ וְאֵינוֹ כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל צא וּכְשֶׁמַּשְׂכִּיר הַמֶּכֶס לְנָכְרִי וְכֵן כְּשֶׁשּׂוֹכֵר לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה יֹאמַר שְׂכִיר יוֹם הוּא אֶצְלוֹ59 לְפִי (ז) שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל מַרְאִית הָעַיִן צב,60 וְאַף אִם לִפְעָמִים הוּא הֶפְסֵד מוּעָט מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַל הָרֹב דֶּרֶךְ לִהְיוֹת הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל בִּמְנִיעַת קַבָּלַת הַמֶּכֶס בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת לֹא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּ לְגַמְרֵי גְּזֵרָה זוֹ שֶׁל מַרְאִית הָעַיִן בְּמֶכֶס וּבְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִהְיוֹת שָׁם הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל עַל הָרֹב: צג

15 When [the Jewish proprietor] subleases the right to collect customs duty to a non-Jew, he may sublease the right to Shabbos alone, without combining it together with other days.61 This situation does not resemble a bathhouse, which is forbidden to be hired out for Shabbos alone,62 so that [the Jewish owner] will not be receiving payment for Shabbos without being combined with [payment for] the other days. [The reason for the distinction:] The physical property of the bathhouse belongs to [the Jewish owner] on Shabbos as well. When the non-Jew gives [the Jewish owner] payment for his bathhouse that was hired out to him on Shabbos, the Jewish [owner] is deriving profit from his own bathhouse on Shabbos. This profit is referred to as “payment for Shabbos” (s’char Shabbos), and is forbidden to be accepted unless it is combined [with payment for other days].

When, by contrast, the right to customs duty and the like is leased for Shabbos, [the non-Jew] has been sold [the rights to] that day in their entirety. It is not considered as payment for Shabbos at all, for the non-Jew is not paying [the Jewish proprietor] rent. Instead, he has purchased [the rights to the customs duty] for [the Shabbos] dayfrom [the Jewish proprietor] in their entirety.63 This resembles an instance where [a Jew] knows that merchandise will be brought to him on Shabbos, and he sells it to a non-Jew on Friday with the understanding that the [non-Jew] will take it on Shabbos for himself. In such a situation, the Jew is not receiving “payment for Shabbos.64

טו וּכְשֶׁמַּשְׂכִּיר הַמֶּכֶס לְנָכְרִי יָכוֹל לְהַשְׂכִּיר לוֹ לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת בִּלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא בְהַבְלָעָה עִם שְׁאָר הַיָּמִים צד,61 וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְמֶרְחָץ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׂכִּירוֹ לְשַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד62 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטּוֹל שָׂכָר בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁלֹּא בְהַבְלָעָה צה לְפִי שֶׁהַמֶּרְחָץ גּוּפוֹ קָנוּי לוֹ אַף בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וּכְשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי נוֹתֵן לוֹ שָׂכָר בְּעַד מֶרְחָץ שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת הֲרֵי מִשְׂתַּכֵּר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּמֶרְחָץ שֶׁלּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וַהֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת וְאָסוּר לִטְּלוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְהַבְלָעָה מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּמֶכֶס וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִשְׂכִּירוֹ לְנָכְרִי לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת הֲרֵי מְכָרוֹ לוֹ לְגַמְרֵי לְיוֹם זֶה וְאֵין כַּאן שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת כְּלָל שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי נוֹתֵן לוֹ שָׂכָר כְּלָל אֶלָּא קָנָה מִמֶּנּוּ לְגַמְרֵי לְיוֹם זֶה63 וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְמִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ לוֹ סְחוֹרָה בְּשַׁבָּת וּמוֹכְרָהּ לְנָכְרִי מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁיְּקַבְּלֶנָּה לְמָחָר לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת: צו,64

16 Similarly, when a Jew leases the right to mint coins from a king,65 he may sublease that right to a non-Jew for Shabbos. This is not considered as payment for Shabbos, because the non-Jew is not paying him a fee for something that [the Jew] owns on Shabbos, for indeed, all [the coins] belong to the king. The Jewish [contractor] merely acquires the right [to mint the coins] from the king and he sells [that right] in its entirety to the non-Jew for [the Shabbos] day. Similarly, [the Jewish contractor] can hire a non-Jew to work for him as a contractor, as explained [above] with regard to customs duty.

Although minting the coins creates noise on Shabbos,66 this is not of consequence, because the right to mint them has already been leased to a non-Jew or he was hired as a contractor.

טז וְכֵן יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁשָּׂכַר הַמַּטְבֵּעַ מֵהַמֶּלֶךְ65 יָכוֹל לְהַשְׂכִּירוֹ לְנָכְרִי לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת צז שֶׁאֵין בְּזֶה מִשּׁוּם שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי נוֹתֵן לוֹ שָׂכָר כְּלָל בְּעַד דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי הַכֹּל הוּא שֶׁל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶלָּא שֶׁהָרְשׁוּת בִּלְבָד שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵהַמֶּלֶךְ הוּא שֶׁהִשְׂכִּיר לוֹ וַהֲרֵי מְכָרוֹ לוֹ לְגַמְרֵי לְיוֹם זֶה צח וְכֵן יָכוֹל לִשְׂכּוֹר לוֹ נָכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּמֶכֶס וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּשְׁמִיעִים קוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת66 בְּהַכָּאַת הַמַּטְבֵּעַ צט אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם ק כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הִשְׂכִּירוֹ לַנָּכְרִי אוֹ שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ לוֹ בְּקַבְּלָנוּת: קא

17 It is forbidden for the Jewish [proprietor] or his agent to sit near the non-Jew at the time he collects the customs duty or [operates] the mint.67 Although the Jewish [proprietor] has already leased out the concern and has no involvement with it, nevertheless, when he sits near [the non-Jewish operator], it appears as if the non-Jew is working for him and for his purposes. This is forbidden because of the impression it may give.

If he hired the non-Jew as a contractor, and is afraid that he will steal a great deal from him, since there is a suspicion that a substantial loss [may be incurred], he can have another Jew sit near [the non-Jew] or he may do so himself, to watch so that he does not steal. For when there is a possibility of a substantial loss,68 we are not concerned with the impression that may be created.69

יז וְאָסוּר לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ שְׁלוּחוֹ קב לֵישֵׁב אֵצֶל הַנָּכְרִי בִּשְׁעַת קַבָּלַת הַמֶּכֶס אוֹ הַמַּטְבֵּעַ קג,67 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הִשְׂכִּירוֹ לוֹ וְאֵין לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שׁוּם עֵסֶק בּוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב אֶצְלוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא נִרְאֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ וּלְצָרְכּוֹ וְאָסוּר מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן קד וְאִם שָׂכַר לוֹ אֶת הַנָּכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת וּמִתְיָרֵא שֶׁמָּא יִגְנוֹב הַרְבֵּה כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ (ח) חֲשַׁשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה יָכוֹל לְהוֹשִׁיב אֶצְלוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ לֵישֵׁב בְּעַצְמוֹ לְשָׁמְרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִגְנוֹב קה שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה68 אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן: קו,69

18 When does the above [leniency] apply? When the Jew who sits [near the non-Jew] does not watch over and scrutinize the non-Jew’s dealings closely, but merely [watches and scrutinizes that the non-Jew] places all [the money] received in the chest holding the customs duty or the proceeds from the coins, [assuring] that he does not steal anything for himself. It is, however, forbidden for [the Jew] to scrutinize and obtain full knowledge of what the non-Jew is occupied with, so as to be able to make an [accurate] reckoning with him [after the conclusion of Shabbos]. Since he is forbidden to make a reckoning with [the non-Jew] on Shabbos,70it is also forbidden to watch over him closely for the sake of a reckoning that he will make the following day. For whenever an activity is forbidden on Shabbos, it is also forbidden to make preparations that enable that activity to be performed after Shabbos, as stated in sec. 306[:1].71

יח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל הַיּוֹשֵׁב אֵינוֹ מַשְׁגִּיחַ וּמְעַיֵּן עַל הַנָּכְרִי רַק שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ הַכֹּל לְתֵבַת הַמֶּכֶס אוֹ הַמַּטְבֵּעַ וְלֹא יִגְנוֹב לְעַצְמוֹ כְּלוּם אֲבָל אָסוּר לוֹ לְעַיֵּן וְלֵידַע מַה הוּא הַהִתְעַסְּקוּת שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה הַנָּכְרִי כְּדֵי לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ חֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל זֶה דְּכֵיוָן קז שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ אָסוּר לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ חֶשְׁבּוֹן קח,70 אָסוּר לוֹ גַּם כֵּן לְעַיֵּן עָלָיו בִּשְׁבִיל הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן שֶׁלְּמָחָר שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְהָכִין וּלְהַזְמִין אֶת עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ו: קט,71

19 One may give silver72 to a non-Jew to make into coins for him on a contractual basis. The non-Jew can then work for his own sake, even on Shabbos.73 Although this makes noise in public [on Shabbos], that is of no consequence. Since it is not a matter of public knowledge74 that [the non-Jew] is acting on behalf of the Jew, there is no concern about the impression that may be created.

יט מֻתָּר לִתֵּן כֶּסֶף72 לְנָכְרִי בְּקַבְּלָנוּת לְתַקֵּן לוֹ מָעוֹת וְהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לְעַצְמוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת73 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ לָרַבִּים74 שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין כַּאן חֲשַׁשׁ מַרְאִית הָעַיִן: קי

20 [The following rules apply when] a Jew purchases [the right to produce] salt from the local ruler for a year, i.e., however much salt that he can produce that year belongs to him [and he can sell it as he desires. To facilitate this endeavor,] he hires non-Jewish workers for a year or a month, and determines their wages according to the extent of their work, i.e., for this-and-this amount of salt that they [produce by] boiling off [the water], he pays them this-and-this amount.75 Although they boil [the water to produce the salt] in utensils belonging to the Jewish [proprietor], it is permitted to allow them to work on Shabbos, because a person is not commanded to have his utensils rest on Shabbos, as stated in sec. 246[:1]. And the non-Jews are contractors, working for their own benefit, in order to increase their wages. For their wages are not paid according to the days or months [that they work], but instead are paid according to the amount [of salt] they produce. Hence, by working on Shabbos, they have their own benefit in mind.76

(True, if they do not perform their work, the Jewish [proprietor] suffers a loss. For the Jewish [proprietor] purchases [the right to produce all] the salt that will be produced within a given year, and he receives no compensation for the days when [work is not performed and] no salt is produced, since the local ruler will not deduct anything from the fee he is required to pay, nor will he allow him to produce salt on an equivalent number of days the following year. For this reason, when the Jewish [proprietor] hires workers for a month or a year, he is very insistent that they not cease work even for a day. They also work on Shabbos, due to his insistence. Nevertheless, this is not sufficient reason to require him to admonish them and tell them that they cannot work on Shabbos. Instead, it is sufficient for him to tell them that they are not required to work on Shabbos on his behalf, and if they so desire, they need not work on Shabbos.77Thus, if on their own initiative, they nevertheless work [on Shabbos] to increase their income, the [Jewish proprietor] need not say anything to them. Although he receives great benefit from [their work], it is of no consequence, since the non-Jews have their own benefit in mind.)

[Their work] is not forbidden because of the impression it might create, because an observer will not [necessarily] know that [the enterprise where the water] is boiled belongs to a Jew, because neither the utensils used to boil the water78 nor the wood used as fuel is identified with the Jewish [proprietor], i.e., it is not public knowledge that he is the owner.

[This leniency is granted] provided [the non-Jewish workers] do not bring wood from the domain of the Jewish [proprietor] on Shabbos.79[The rationale:] Work that is contracted out [to non-Jewish workers] is permitted to be performed [on Shabbos] only when, on Friday, [the proprietor] provides them with everything he desires to give them that they need for their work. Even when [the Jewish proprietor] gives the non-Jewish workers the wood on Friday, but they do not remove it from his domain before nightfall, it is forbidden for him to allow them to remove it on Shabbos, because of the impression that may be created. [People may] say that he gave them the wood on Shabbos, as will be explained in sec. 246[:4-5]. Consult that source.

כ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁשָּׂכַר הַמֶּלַח מֵהַשָּׂר לְשָׁנָה שֶׁכַּמָּה מֶלַח שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׁנָה הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ וְהוּא שׂוֹכֵר לוֹ פּוֹעֲלִים נָכְרִים לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לְחֹדֶשׁ וְקָצַץ לָהֶם שְׂכָרָם לְפִי רִבּוּי מְלַאכְתָּם דְּהַיְנוּ מִכָּל כָּךְ וְכָךְ מֶלַח שֶׁיְּבַשְּׁלוּ נוֹתֵן לָהֶם כָּךְ וְכָךְ75 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִים בְּכֵלִים שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחָם שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בְּשַׁבָּת קיא שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתַת כֵּלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ו קיב וְהַנָּכְרִים הֵם כְּקַבְּלָנִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂים לְטוֹבַת עַצְמָן כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּשְׂכָרָן שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שְׂכָרָם מִשְׁתַּלֵּם לְפִי הַיָּמִים אוֹ חֳדָשִׁים אֶלָּא לְפִי סְכוּם הַמְּלָאכָה שֶׁגּוֹמְרִין וְכָךְ מְשַׁלֵּם לָהֶם נִמְצָא שֶׁהֵם מִתְכַּוְּנִים בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָם בְּשַׁבָּת לְטוֹבַת עַצְמָן.76

(וְאַף שֶׁאִם לֹא הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה מַגִּיעַ הֶפְסֵד לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֲרֵי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שָׂכַר הַמֶּלַח שֶׁיְּבַשֵּׁל בְּתוֹךְ שְׁנָתוֹ וְהַיָּמִים שֶׁהֶחְסִיר וְלֹא בִשֵּׁל מֵהֶם אֵין לָהֶם תַּשְׁלוּמִים שֶׁלֹּא יְנַכֶּה לוֹ הַשָּׂר כְּלוּם מִשְּׂכָרוֹ וְגַם לֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ לְבַשֵּׁל כְּנֶגְדָּם בְּשָׁנָה הָאַחֶרֶת וּבִשְׁבִיל כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שׂוֹכֵר פּוֹעֲלִים לְחֹדֶשׁ אוֹ לְשָׁנָה הוּא (ט) מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶם מְאֹד שֶׁלֹּא יְבַטְּלוּ אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם אֶחָד וְהֵם מֻכְרָחִים לַעֲשׂוֹת גַּם בְּשַׁבָּת מֵחֲמַת קְפֵדָתוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשׂוּ בְּשַׁבָּת קיג אֶלָּא דַּי שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָהֶם שֶׁאֵינָם מֻכְרָחִים לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ קיד וְאִם יִרְצוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדָם77 וְאִם אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הֵם עוֹשִׂים מֵאֲלֵיהֶם כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת בִּשְׂכָרָם אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לָהֶם כְּלוּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הֲנָאָה גְדוֹלָה מִזֶּה אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִים מִתְכַּוְּנִים לְטוֹבַת עַצְמָן[)].

וְאֵין לֶאֱסוֹר מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן לְפִי שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁבִּשּׁוּל זֶה הוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהַכֵּלִים שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִים בָּהֶם78 וְכֵן הָעֵצִים שֶׁמַּבְעִירִים בָּהֶם אֵין שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִקְרָא עֲלֵיהֶם דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְפֻרְסָם לָרַבִּים שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. קטו

וּבִלְבָד(י) שֶׁלֹּא יָבִיאוּ עֵצִים מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת קטז,79 שֶׁכָּל קַבְּלָנוּת אֵינָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מָסַר לוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כָּל מַה שֶּׁרוֹצֶה לִמְסוֹר לוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמְּלָאכָה וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מָסַר לָהֶם הָעֵצִים מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיאוּם מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ עַד שֶׁחָשְׁכָה אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָם שֶׁיּוֹצִיאוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁבְּשַׁבָּת מָסַר לָהֶם וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ו קיז עַיֵּן שָׁם:

21 If there is concern that an impression may be created [that the work is being performed for the sake of the Jewish proprietor],80 license [for the work to be performed] may not be granted because of the significant loss that the Jewish [proprietor] will suffer [from remaining idle on] all the Shabbasos of the year. [The only exception is] when [having the concern remain idle on Shabbos] will cause him to actually lose money because of what he has to pay to the ruling authority, to his workers, and for his other expenses. If, however, he will not suffer an actual loss, but will merely forfeit [anticipated] profit — i.e., he could have earned a large profit by making salt on Shabbos as well — the prohibition [against having the concern operate on Shabbos] because of the impression that may be created is not lifted for him for this reason.

This situation does not resemble the instances of customs duty and minting coins [mentioned above].81 In those instances, even if he does not suffer an actual loss, merely the loss of the profits he could have gained from the Shabbasos, the prohibition stemming from the impression that may be created is lifted for him. [The rationale for the distinction:] The non-Jewish merchants crossing [the border] on Shabbos already incurred the obligation to pay [the customs duty] to the king. [Similarly,] the Jewish [proprietor] already purchased the right [to collect] this duty from the king. Thus, if the Jewish [proprietor] does not collect [the money] from the merchants, he is forfeiting profit that is already rightfully his.82 Similarly, the coins that the king’s workers mint against the Jewish [proprietor’s] will83 have already been acquired by him. If he does not take them, he will be forfeiting profit that is already rightfully his.84

כאא וְאִם הוּא בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲשַׁשׁ מַרְאִית הָעַיִן80 אֵין לְהַתִּיר מֵחֲמַת הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה שֶׁיַּפְסִיד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל שַׁבְּתוֹת הַשָּׁנָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁמַּפְסִיד הַרְבֵּה מִכִּיסוֹ מִמַּה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לְשַׁלֵּם לְהַשָּׂר וְלַפּוֹעֲלִים וְיֶתֶר הוֹצָאוֹתָיו אֲבָל אִם הוּא בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד כְּלוּם מִכִּיסוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּפְסִיד הָרֶוַח שֶׁהָיָה יָכוֹל לְהַרְוִיחַ הַרְבֵּה בַּעֲשִׂיַּת הַמֶּלַח גַּם בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת אֵין מַתִּירִין לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ אִסּוּר שֶׁל מַרְאִית הָעַיִן וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְמֶכֶס וּלְמַטְבֵּעַ81 שֶׁאַף אִם הוּא בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד כְּלוּם מִכִּיסוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד הָרֶוַח שֶׁל הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת הִתִּירוֹ לוֹ אִסּוּר מַרְאִית הָעַיִן קיח לְפִי שֶׁהַמֶּכֶס כְּבָר נִתְחַיְּבוּ בּוֹ הַנָּכְרִים הַסּוֹחֲרִים הָעוֹבְרִים בְּשַׁבָּת לִתְּנוֹ לְהַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּבָר קָנָה חִיּוּב זֶה מֵהַמֶּלֶךְ קיט נִמְצָא שֶׁאִם לֹא יִטְּלֶנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מֵהַסּוֹחֲרִים הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַפְסִיד הָרֶוַח שֶׁבָּא כְּבָר לְכִיסוֹ82 וְכֵן הַמַּטְבֵּעוֹת שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ עוֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל83 כְּבָר הֵם קְנוּיִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם לֹא יִטְּלֵם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַפְסִיד הָרֶוַח שֶׁבָּא כְּבָר לְכִיסוֹ: קכ,84

22 [Similar laws apply] when Jews lease the rights from the ruling authorities to dig in the local mountains and find iron sand from which iron can be produced. That sand is smelted and refined, day and night without respite until the end of the rental period. [The proprietors] hire workers for a year or for a month, determining a wage for them for this-and-this amount of iron [that they will produce]. The laws governing this situation are exactly the same as those governing the leasing of the right to produce salt, provided there is no concern regarding the impressions that may be created, as explained in sec. 243[:15].85 Consult that source.86 Similarly, the same laws apply to those who lease the right to produce glass from the local authorities and the leasing of all other similar [rights].

כב וְיִשְׂרְאֵלִים שֶׁשּׂוֹכְרִים מֵהַשָּׂר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רְשׁוּת בְּיָדָם לַחְפּוֹר בֶּהָרִים לִמְצוֹא הֶעָפָר שֶׁעוֹשִׂים מִמֶּנּוּ בַּרְזֶל וְשׂוֹרְפִים וְצוֹרְפִים הֶעָפָר יוֹם וְלַיְלָה לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ עַד כְּלוֹת מֶשֶׁךְ זְמַן שְׂכִירוּתָם וְשׂוֹכְרִים לָהֶם פּוֹעֲלִים לְכָךְ לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לְחֹדֶשׁ וְקוֹצְצִים לָהֶם שָׂכָר כָּךְ וְכָךְ בְּעַד כָּךְ וְכָךְ בַּרְזֶל הֲרֵי דִינָם כְּדִין שׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַמֶּלַח לְכָל דָּבָר קכא אִם הוּא בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחוּשׁ לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רמ"ג קכב,8 עַיֵּן שָׁם86 וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּשׂוֹכְרֵי הִתּוּךְ הַזְּכוּכִית מֵהַשָּׂרִים קכג וְכֵן בְּכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה: