SECTION 242 To Be Meticulous in Honoring the Shabbos (1-13)

סימן רמב לְהִזָּהֵר בִּכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת. וּבוֹ י"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 There are two requirements concerning Shabbos expressed by the Prophets:1 honor and pleasure,2 as it is written:3 “[If…] you call Shabbos ‘A delight;’ [a day] sanctified by G‑d, and you honor it.” These requirements are rooted in Scriptural Law,4 for Shabbos is included among the “days to be declared sacred,”5 as it is written:6 “On the seventh day, a day of absolute rest, a day to be declared sacred.” Our Sages7 interpret the term “a day to be declared sacred” as [requiring that one] sanctify [the day]: honoring it by [wearing] clean clothing8 and delighting in it through pleasurable eating and drinking.

Other authorities interpret the term “a day to be declared sacred” as [requiring that the day be sanctified] through the prohibition of forbidden labor. [According to that view,] the honor due Shabbos and festivals and the pleasure to be experienced on Shabbos are Rabbinic commandments.9 (However, it is a Scriptural commandment to enjoy the festivals and to rejoice on them10 through food and drink,11 as will be explained in sec. 529[:6-7].) Nevertheless, [even according to this view,] one must be very meticulous in [the observance of the directives mentioned here], for the words of the Sages are weightier than the words of the Torah.12

The reward granted all those who take pleasure in Shabbos is explicitly stated in the prophetic tradition:13 “Then, you will delight in G‑d.” And in the words of our Sages, [it is stated] that all of such a person’s sins are forgiven14 and that he will be saved from the judgment of Gehinnom.15

א שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים נִתְפָרְשׁוּ בְּשַׁבָּת עַל יְדֵי הַנְּבִיאִים1 וְהֵם כָּבוֹד וְעֹנֶג א,2 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ב,3 וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ ה' מְכֻבָּד וְעִקָּרָן מִן הַתּוֹרָה ג,4 שֶׁהַשַּׁבָּת הוּא (א) בִּכְלַל מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ ד,5 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ה,6 וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ וְגוֹ' וּמִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ פֵּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים7 לְקַדְּשׁוֹ וּלְכַבְּדוֹ בִּכְסוּת נְקִיָּה8 וּלְעַנְּגוֹ בְּעֹנֶג אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה ו וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים ז שֶׁמִּקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ הוּא לְקַדְּשׁוֹ בְּאִסּוּר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה אֲבָל הַכָּבוֹד בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב וְהָעֹנֶג בְּשַׁבָּת הֵן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים ח,9 (אֲבָל (ב) הָעֹנֶג וְהַשִּׂמְחָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב10 בְּמַאֲכָל וּמִשְׁתֶּה11 הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן תקכ"ט ט) וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ לְהִזָּהֵר בָּהֶם מְאֹד י שֶׁחֲמוּרִים דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים יוֹתֵר מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה יא,12 וְכָל הַמְעַנֵּג אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת יב שְׂכָרוֹ מְפֹרָשׁ בְּקַבָּלָה יג,13 אָז תִּתְעַנַּג עַל ה' וְגוֹ' וּבְדִבְרֵי רַזַ"ל יד שֶׁמּוֹחֲלִין לוֹ עַל כָּל עֲוֹנוֹתָיו14 וְנִצּוֹל מִדִּינָהּ שֶׁל גֵּיהִנֹּם: טו,15

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Kehot Publication Society)

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2 How should one make the Shabbos pleasurable? In the days of the Sages of the Gemara, they would derive pleasure by [partaking of] large fish and a dish of cooked spinach, for these foods were considered pleasurable in that era. In every place, people should take pleasure on Shabbos according to the local practice, partaking of those foods and beverages that they consider pleasurable.

There is no specific obligation to eat meat or drink wine on Shabbos.16[The common practice is to partake of them] only because most people presumably derive pleasure from eating meat more than eating other foods and from drinking wine more than drinking other beverages. For this reason, people should be generous in their consumption of meat and wine17 according to their capacity and financial resources.

ב בַּמֶּה מְעַנְּגוֹ בִּימֵי חַכְמֵי הַגְּמָרָא הָיוּ מְעַנְּגִין בְּדָגִים גְּדוֹלִים וּבְתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁל תְּרָדִין טז שֶׁמַּאֲכָלִים אֵלּוּ הָיוּ חֲשׁוּבִים עֹנֶג בִּימֵיהֶם יז וְכָל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם לְפִי מִנְהָגוֹ יְעַנְּגוּהוּ בְּמַאֲכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִים הַחֲשׁוּבִים לָהֶם עֹנֶג. יח

וְאֵין חִיּוּב לֶאֱכוֹל בָּשָׂר וְלִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בְּשַׁבָּת יט,16 אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם יֵשׁ לְרֹב בְּנֵי אָדָם עֹנֶג בַּאֲכִילַת בָּשָׂר יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁאָר מַאֲכָלִים וּבִשְׁתִיַּת יַיִן יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים כ לְכָךְ יֵשׁ לָהֶם לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּבָשָׂר וְיַיִן17 כְּפִי יְכָלְתָּם וְהַשָּׂגַת יָדָם: כא

3 The more munificent one is in undertaking expenses for the sake of Shabbos and preparing many desirable foods [for it], the more praiseworthy he is, provided that he has the financial capacity.

Even if he does not have money on hand, only movable property, he should pledge it as security and take a loan against it. The Holy One, blessed be He, will provide for him with a means to repay [the debt]. In this vein, our Sages18 state: “The Holy One, blessed be He, says, ‘Take a loan on My account; I will repay.’ ” The implication is that one’s Shabbos and festival expenses are not included in the allotment allocated to a person on Rosh HaShanah [when judgment is rendered] regarding his sustenance and other needs. Thus our Sages state:19 A man’s entire sustenance and expenses are determined on Rosh HaShanah, wherein it is decided how much he will earn for the sake of his sustenance and his other needs throughout the year, except for his expenses for Shabbosos and the festivals, for no allotment is made regarding them at all. Instead, if he increases his Shabbos and festival expenses, his [income] is increased.

If, however, a person does not have property to use as collateral, so that payment could be taken from them, he should not borrow [in the expectation that] the Holy One, blessed be He, will repay. [The rationale:] Since he has no resources of his own, he has no obligation to increase his Shabbos expenses beyond his financial capacity.20

ג וְכָל הַמַּרְבֶּה בְּהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת וּבְתִקּוּן מַאֲכָלִים רַבִּים וְטוֹבִים הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח כב וְהוּא שֶׁיָּדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת. כג

וְאַף אִם אֵין לוֹ עַכְשָׁו מָעוֹת מְזֻמָּנִים אֶלָּא חֲפָצִים יְמַשְׁכְּנֵם וְיִלְוֶה עֲלֵיהֶם כד וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יַמְצִיא לוֹ לִפְרוֹעַ וְעַל זֶה אָמְרוּ רַזַ"ל כה,18 אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְווּ עָלַי וַאֲנִי פוֹרֵעַ כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין הוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב עוֹלֶה בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן הַקִּצְבָה שֶׁנִּקְצַב לוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לִמְזוֹנוֹת כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וּשְׁאָר צְרָכָיו שֶׁכָּךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים כו,19 כָּל מְזוֹנוֹתָיו וְהוֹצָאוֹתָיו שֶׁל אָדָם קְצוּבִין לוֹ מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁקּוֹצְבִין לוֹ כַּמָּה יִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּשָׁנָה זוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ מְזוֹנוֹתָיו כז וּשְׁאָר צְרָכָיו שֶׁל כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה חוּץ מֵהוֹצָאוֹת שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁאֵין קוֹצְבִין עָלֶיהָ כְּלוּם כח אֶלָּא אִם מוֹסִיף בְּהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב מוֹסִיפִין לוֹ.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ חֲפָצִים לְמַשְׁכְּנָם וְלִפְרוֹעַ בָּהֶם לֹא יִלְוֶה וְשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִפְרַע כט כִּי מֵאַחַר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אֵין עָלָיו חִיּוּב כְּלָל לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת יוֹתֵר מֵהַשָּׂגַת יָדוֹ:20

4 [The following guideline applies] if a person cannot afford any [additional Shabbos expenses] at all and seeks to receive money from the charity fund that makes allocations every Friday. He should not take such an allocation if he does not need to take [an allocation] for his sustenance for the weekdays of the coming week and [moreover,] would not [even] have to take for [this] Shabbos were he to eat [on Shabbos] exactly as he would on an actual ordinary weekday, i.e., eating only two meals of bread and legumes, as he does for his weekday meals. For example, he would have [enough for] fourteen meals for seven days until the following Friday, one meal during the day and one meal at night. Nevertheless, he desires to take [from the charity fund] so that he would be able to partake of three Shabbos meals.21 How much more so does the [above restriction] apply if he desires to take [from the charity fund] so that he can take pleasure [in his Shabbos meals] to a slightly greater extent than he does during the weekdays! He is forbidden to take [from the charity fund] that week. [In this vein,] our Sages said:22 “Make your Shabbos like a weekday, but do not turn to others for your needs.”

ד וְאַף אִם אֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת כְּלוּם וְרוֹצֶה לִטּוֹל מִן הַקֻּפָּה שֶׁל צְדָקָה הַמִּתְחַלֶּקֶת בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לֹא יִטּוֹל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִטּוֹל לְצֹרֶךְ מְזוֹנוֹתָיו שֶׁל יְמוֹת הַחֹל שֶׁל שָׁבוּעַ הַבָּא וּבִשְׁבִיל מְזוֹנוֹת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת גַּם כֵּן לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִטּוֹל אִם הָיָה נוֹהֵג כִּבְחֹל מַמָּשׁ לֶאֱכוֹל בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת בִּלְבָד פַּת וְקִטְנִיּוֹת כִּסְעֻדּוֹתָיו בְּחֹל כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מְזוֹן י"ד סְעֻדּוֹת לְשִׁבְעָה יָמִים שֶׁעַד עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת הַבָּא סְעֻדָּה אַחַת לְכָל יוֹם וּסְעֻדָּה אַחַת לְכָל לַיְלָה אֶלָּא שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִטּוֹל כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל שְׁלֹשָׁה סְעֻדּוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת ל,21 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן אִם רוֹצֶה לִטּוֹל כְּדֵי לְהִתְעַנֵּג קְצָת יוֹתֵר מִימוֹת הַחֹל שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לִטּוֹל מִן הַקֻּפָּה בְּשָׁבוּעַ זוֹ שֶׁכָּךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים לא,22 עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת:

5 On the following Friday,23 however, [such a person] should be given food for fifteen meals for that week, so that he will have enough for three meals for that Shabbos.24 He is also given fish and vegetables for that Shabbos. Since he already requires [the assistance of] others, he is provided with all his needs, as indicated by the verse:25 “[Open your hand to him and provide him with] what he is lacking.”

Similarly, one who is given money weekly from a different charity is permitted to receive a generous sum, provided he meets the criteria of need mentioned in Yoreh Deah, sec. 253.26 He may increase his Shabbos expenditures according to the means that are granted him, (as long as he does not spend so much on the Shabbasos that he is lacking sustenance for the weekdays, and it would be necessary to supplement the charity given him because of his Shabbos expenses. For he would thereby be placing the burden of his Shabbos expenses on people at large, and it has already been said: “Make your Shabbos like a weekday, but do not turn to others for your needs.”)

ה אֲבָל (ג) בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת הַבָּא23 נוֹתְנִין לוֹ מְזוֹן ט"ו סְעֻדּוֹת לְאוֹתָהּ שָׁבוּעַ לב כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה סְעֻדּוֹת לְאוֹתוֹ שַׁבָּת24 וְגַם נוֹתְנִים לוֹ דָּגִים וְיָרָק לְאוֹתוֹ שַׁבָּת לג שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִצְרָךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת נוֹתְנִים לוֹ כָּל צָרְכּוֹלד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לה,25 דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים לוֹ מִדֵּי שָׁבוּעַ בְּשָׁבוּעַ מִצְּדָקָה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנָּה הַרְבֵּה כָּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שִׁעוּר הַמְפֹרָשׁ בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רנ"ג לו,26 הֲרֵי זֶה יָכוֹל לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת כְּפִי עֶרֶךְ מַה שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִים לוֹ (וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא כָּל כָּךְ לְשַׁבָּתוֹת עַד שֶׁתֶּחְסַר פַּרְנָסָתוֹ בְּחֹל וְיִצְטָרְכוּ לְהוֹסִיף לוֹ מִן הַצְּדָקָה מֵחֲמַת הוֹצָאוֹתָיו לְשַׁבָּתות לז שֶׁנִּמְצָא מַטִּיל כְּבוֹד שַׁבְּתוֹתָיו עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת לח וּכְבָר אָמְרוּ22 עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת):

6 When the [weekly] allotment [a poor person] receives [from tzedakah] is not sufficient to enable him to increase his expenditures for Shabbos and still have enough left over for his sustenance during the week, and [doing so] would necessitate an increase in what he is given,27 [he is still obligated to endeavor to honor the Shabbos]. If he has some resources of his own, he should exert himself to use whatever resources he has, so as to make expenditures in honor of the Shabbos.

If, however, he has absolutely no resources of his own, it is not necessary for him to request that others provide him with resources so that he can honor the Shabbos, for it has already been said: “Make your Shabbos like a weekday….” Nevertheless, [even such a person] must do at least something in his home to fulfill the mitzvah of [Shabbos] pleasure.

If the allotment he receives is too limited to enable him to do even something small, he should constrain himself somewhat during the other days [of the week] in a manner that will enable him to do [at least] something small [in order] to take pleasure in the Shabbos.

How much more so does [the above] apply to someone who does not take anything from tzedakah funds, but rather makes do with the small amount he has of his own! He need not ask that others give him [donations] so that he can honor the Shabbos. Instead, he should reduce a little [from his needs] during the other days [of the week] so that he will be able to do a small thing for the sake of Shabbos pleasure. This is preferable to turning to others.

ו וְאִם מַה שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִים לוֹ אֵינוֹ מַסְפִּיק לוֹ לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת וְשֶׁיּוֹתִיר מִזֶּה לְפַרְנָסָתוֹ לְחֹל בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁיִּצְטָרְכוּ לְהוֹסִיף לוֹ לט,27 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מְעַט מִשֶּׁלּוֹ יְזָרֵז אֶת עַצְמוֹ לְהוֹצִיא מָמוֹן בִּכְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר. מ

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ כְּלוּם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ מֵאֲחֵרִים שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ לוֹ כְּדֵי לְכַבֵּד מא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁכְּבָר אָמְרוּ22 עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ כוּ' וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר מוּעָט בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ מב לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת עֹנֶג.

וְאִם מַה שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִים לוֹ אֵינוֹ מַסְפִּיק לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְדָבָר מוּעָט צָרִיךְ הוּא לְצַמְצֵם מְעַט בִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר מוּעָט לְעֹנֶג שַׁבָּת. מג

וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל כְּלוּם מֵהַצְּדָקָה אֶלָּא מִסְתַּפֵּק בַּמּוּעָט שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ מֵאֲחֵרִים שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ לוֹ כְּדֵי לְכַבֵּד אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת מד אֶלָּא יְצַמְצֵם מְעַט בִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים בָּעִנְיָן שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה דָּבָר מוּעָט לְעֹנֶג שַׁבָּת מה וְזֶה טוֹב יוֹתֵר מִשֶּׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת:

7 It is desirable that even a person whose financial resources do not suffice for him to indulge in many Shabbos foods be meticulous in not having fewer than two types of cooked food [for his Shabbos meals].28 It is desirable to be meticulous and partake of fish during every meal,29 unless [a person’s physical constitution is such that eating] fish is harmful to him or he dislikes them, i.e., it brings him discomfort, not pleasure — for Shabbos was given for the sake of pleasure, as will be explained in sec. 288[:2].30

If the gentiles raise the price of fish and, as a result, there are some people who are unable to purchase fish for Shabbos, it is proper for [the community] to ordain that no Jew31 buy fish from them for several weeks,32 so that, afterwards, they will reduce the price and thus everyone will be able to fulfill the mitzvah of Shabbos pleasure.

ז אַף מִי שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּמַאֲכָלֵי שַׁבָּת טוֹב לוֹ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִפְחוֹת מִשְּׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין מו,29 וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר לֶאֱכוֹל דָּגִים בְּכָל סְעֻדָּה מז,29 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַדָּגִים מַזִּיקִים לוֹ לְפִי טִבְעוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשּׂוֹנְאָם שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מֵהֶם עֹנֶג אֶלָּא צַעַר מח וְהַשַּׁבָּת לְעֹנֶג נִתַּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רפ"ח. מט,30

וְאִם הַנָּכְרִים מְיַקְּרִים הַשַּׁעַר שֶׁל הַדָּגִים וּמֵחֲמַת זֶה יֵשׁ כַּמָּה בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁאֵין יְכוֹלִים לִקַּח דָּגִים לְשַׁבָּת (ד) נָכוֹן לְתַקֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יִקְנֶה שׁוּם יִשְׂרָאֵל31 מֵהֶם דָּגִים אֵיזֶה שַׁבָּתוֹת32 כְּדֵי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ יוֹזִילוּ הַשַּׁעַר וְיוּכְלוּ הַכֹּל לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת: נ

8 If a person was sent food for him to eat on Shabbos, he should not eat it during the week. (This is an expression of pious conduct. According to the letter of the law, however, there is no prohibition against doing so. See sec. 694.)33

ח אִם שָׁלְחוּ לְאָדָם אֵיזֶה דְבַר מַאֲכָל שֶׁיֹּאכְלֶנּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת אַל יֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּחֹל נא (מִמִּדַּת חֲסִידוּת אֲבָל מִן הַדִּין אֵין אִסּוּר בַּדָּבָר נב עַיֵּן סִמָּן תרצ"ד נג):33

9 It is permitted to borrow money on terms which our Rabbis forbade as “interest”34 for the sake of the Shabbos and festivals, or for the sake of other feasts associated with a mitzvah, if it is impossible to borrow [the money] without any interest.

ט מֻתָּר לִלְווֹת (ה) בְּרִבִּית נד,34 שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם נה לְצֹרֶךְ סְעֻדַּת שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ שְׁאָר סְעֻדַּת מִצְוָה אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִלְווֹת בְּלֹא רִבִּית: נו

10 [It is written:]35 “Remember the Shabbos day to sanctify it.” The School of Shammai interpreted36 this verse to mean: Remember it from the first day of the week. If you encounter a good portion of food, prepare it for Shabbos. It was said37 of Shammai the elder that he would eat in honor of Shabbos all of his days. How did he [conduct himself]? If he found an attractive-looking animal, he would purchase it and say: “This is for Shabbos.” If he found a more attractive one, he would purchase it, set it aside for Shabbos and [slaughter] the first and partake [of its meat] during the week. Thus he would eat the first so that the more desirable one would be eaten on Shabbos. Hillel the elder, by contrast, was characterized by a different quality. He would cite [the verse]:38 “Blessed is G‑d Who loads us [with goodness] day by day,” in provision of our needs. [Nevertheless,] even Hillel would acknowledge that it is more appropriate to conduct oneself according to the directives of the School of Shammai.39 It is just that he, [personally,] would trust in G‑d that He would certainly bring about a situation that would enable him to have a better portion on Shabbos than on all the other days.40

י זָכוֹר35 אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ נז וְגוֹ' דָּרְשׁוּ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי נח,36 שֶׁתְּהֵא זוֹכְרוֹ מֵאֶחָד בַּשַּׁבָּת שֶׁאִם נִזְדַּמֵּן לְךָ חֵלֶק יָפֶה תְּהֵא מְתַקְּנוֹ לְשַׁבָּת וְאָמְרוּ37 עָלָיו נט עַל שַׁמַּאי הַזָּקֵן שֶׁכָּל יָמָיו הָיָה אוֹכֵל לִכְבוֹד שַׁבָּת כֵּיצַד מָצָא בְּהֵמָה נָאָה לוֹקְחָהּ וְאוֹמֵר זוֹ לְשַׁבָּת מָצָא אַחֶרֶת נָאָה הֵימֶנָּה לוֹקְחָהּ וּמַנִּיחָהּ לְשַׁבָּת וְאוֹכֵל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בְּחֹל נִמְצָא אוֹכְלָהּ לְזוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁהַיָּפָה תֵּאָכֵל בְּשַׁבָּת אֲבָל הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן מִדָּה אַחֶרֶת הָיְתָה בּוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר38 בָּרוּךְ ה' יוֹם יוֹם יַעֲמָס לָנוּ ס צְרָכֵינוּ וְאַף הִלֵּל מוֹדֶה שֶׁכְּדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי יוֹתֵר נָכוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת סא,39 אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹטֵחַ בַּה' שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יַזְמִין לוֹ לְשַׁבָּת מָנָה יָפָה מִכָּל הַיָּמִים: סב,40

11 Ezra ordained that clothes should be laundered on Thursday in honor of the Shabbos,41 so that [clean] garments would be worn on Shabbos. [He ordained that this be done on Thursday, because] Friday is an inopportune time to do laundry, because one must [then] busy himself with his [immediate] Shabbos needs.42

יא עֶזְרָא תִּקֵּן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְכַבְּסִים בְּגָדִים בַּחֲמִישִׁי בַּשַּׁבָּת41 מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת סג כְּדֵי לִלְבּוֹשׁ לְבָנִים בְּשַׁבָּת סד אֲבָל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֵין פְּנַאי לְכַבֵּס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהִתְעַסֵּק בְּצָרְכֵי שַׁבָּת: סה,42

12 It is customary that everyone prepare a dough with the measure that requires challah to be taken43 to bake loaves at home for the Shabbos [meals] rather than buy [bread] in the marketplace as on other days. This practice is an expression of honor for the Shabbos and the festivals.44 This custom should not be changed.

יב נוֹהֲגִין לָלוּשׁ כְּדֵי שִׁעוּר חַלָּה כָּל אֶחָד בְּבֵיתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶם לְחָמִים לִבְצוֹעַ עֲלֵיהֶם43 בְּשַׁבָּת סו וְלֹא לִקַּח לֶחֶם מִן הַשּׁוּק כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר יָמִים סז וְדָבָר זֶה מִכְּבוֹד שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב סח,44 וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַמִּנְהָג: סט

13 (In places where people eat bread baked by non-Jews45 throughout the week, it is desirable that they not eat anything other than “kosher46 bread that was kneaded at home on Shabbos and festivals, for this honors these special days.)

יג (וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאוֹכְלִים פַּת שֶׁל נָכְרִים ע,45 כָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹל טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב כִּי אִם מִלְּחָמִים הַכְּשֵׁרִים46 שֶׁנִּלּוֹשׁוּ בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁזֶּהוּ כְּבוֹד שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב עא):